WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior change relevant

  1. Expanding the scope and relevance of health interventions: Moving beyond clinical trials and behavior change models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khary K. Rigg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An overemphasis on clinical trials and behavior change models has narrowed the knowledge base that can be used to design interventions. The overarching point is that the process of overanalyzing variables is impeding the process of gaining insight into the everyday experiences that shape how people define health and seek treatment. This claim is especially important to health decision-making and behavior change because subtle interpretations often influence the decisions that people make. This manuscript provides a critique of traditional approaches to developing health interventions, and theoretically justifies what and why changes are warranted. The limited scope of these models is also discussed, and an argument is made to adopt a strategy that includes the perceptions of people as necessary for understanding health and health-related decision-making. Three practical strategies are suggested to be used with the more standard approaches to assessing the effectiveness and relevance of health interventions.

  2. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  3. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stimuli. Since the first description of olfactory and taste receptors in Drosophila fifteen years ago, our knowledge on the identity, properties, and function of specific chemoreceptors has increased exponentially. In the last years, multidisciplinary approaches combining genetic tools with electrophysiological techniques, behavioral recording, evolutionary analysis, and chemical ecology studies are shedding light on our understanding on the ecological relevance of specific chemoreceptors for the survival of Drosophila in their natural environment. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chemoreceptors of both the olfactory and taste systems of the fruitfly. We focus on the relevance of particular receptors for the detection of ecologically relevant cues such as pheromones, food sources, and toxic compounds, and we comment on the behavioral changes that the detection of these chemicals induce in the fly. In particular, we give an updated outlook of the chemical communication displayed during one of the most important behaviors for fly survival, the courtship behavior. Finally, the ecological relevance of specific chemicals can vary depending on the niche occupied by the individual. In that regard, in this review we also highlight the contrast between adult and larval systems and we propose that these differences could reflect distinctive requirements depending on the change of ecological niche occupied by Drosophila along its life cycle.

  4. Prenatal immune challenge is an environmental risk factor for brain and behavior change relevant to schizophrenia: evidence from MRI in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk of severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, in the offspring. The most consistent brain structural abnormality in patients with schizophrenia is enlarged lateral ventricles. However, it is unknown whether the aetiology of ventriculomegaly in schizophrenia involves prenatal infectious processes. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between prenatal immune challenge and emergence of ventricular abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD: We used an established mouse model of maternal immune activation (MIA by the viral mimic PolyI:C administered in early (day 9 or late (day 17 gestation. Automated voxel-based morphometry mapped cerebrospinal fluid across the whole brain of adult offspring and the results were validated by manual region-of-interest tracing of the lateral ventricles. Parallel behavioral testing determined the existence of schizophrenia-related sensorimotor gating abnormalities. RESULTS: PolyI:C-induced immune activation, in early but not late gestation, caused marked enlargement of lateral ventricles in adulthood, without affecting total white and grey matter volumes. This early exposure disrupted sensorimotor gating, in the form of prepulse inhibition. Identical immune challenge in late gestation resulted in significant expansion of 4(th ventricle volume but did not disrupt sensorimotor gating. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first experimental evidence that prenatal immune activation is an environmental risk factor for adult ventricular enlargement relevant to schizophrenia. The data indicate immune-associated environmental insults targeting early foetal development may have more extensive neurodevelopmental impact than identical insults in late prenatal life.

  5. Student standpoints relevant for future reproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the various standpoints of students on their motivation for parenthood, planning and deciding on birth giving, influence between marriage and parenthood, parent role complexity and responsibility, on the knowledge of effect and consequences of the problem of insufficient birth giving, with an aim of getting to know the main characteristics of their possible reproductive behavior. The analyzed standpoints are part of a more comprehensive and inclusive research, carried out on a sample of 1494 surveyed persons (1000 secondary-school pupils and 494 students in four biggest regional centers - Belgrade, Novi Sad, Kragujevac and Niš. The orientation only to student’s standpoints had an aim to more completely analyze the already abundant empirical material, which is acceptable due to the fact that students are closer to beginning of birth giving according to their age-situation characteristic. The willingness and desire of the students to become parents is significant, but this is only one of their varied life aspirations (importance of partnership, professional engagement…. The intention is to bring into accordance the realization of the most important roles, which actually indicates to a fairly uniform importance in satisfying the basic individual needs. Apart from that, the need for parenthood is dominantly emotional and altruistic, which can be satisfied by having only one child. Possible reproductive norms - which are directed to having two children, whereby they are higher than the current fertility rates, but also somewhat lower normatively determined expectations in relation to the desired number of children, as well as a significant orientation towards marriage and parenthood and the existence of the knowledge on the problem of the impossibility of simple reproduction and conscience of social need for population reproduction - represent a gap for realization of measures for motivating birth giving and parenthood

  6. Actinide behavior under final repository relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the solubility behavior and the redox chemistry of actinides and long-living fission products under different geochemical boundary conditions, here on the Np(V) solubility in alkaline CaCl2 systems, provide basic information on processes that can occur in a nuclear final repository in case of water ingress. The thermodynamic constants derived from these experiments allow the geochemical modeling of these processes and a rough estimation of radionuclide solubility limits for different scenarios. Scientific research projects on this issue will reduce the uncertainties of long-term safety analyses for final repositories for high-level radioactive wastes significantly.

  7. Behavioral, neurochemical and morphological changes induced by the overexpression of munc18-1a in brain of mice: relevance to schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, E; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Pazos, Ángel; Garzón, Javier; Meana, J J

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the mammalian homolog of the unc-18 gene (munc18-1) has been described in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia. Munc18-1 protein is involved in membrane fusion processes, exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. A transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses the protein isoform munc18-1a in the brain was characterized. This animal displays several schizophrenia-related behaviors, supersensitivity to hallucinogenic drugs and deficits in prepulse inhibition that reverse afte...

  8. Designing Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autistic-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of genetic factors in autism has prompted the development of mutant mouse models to advance our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying autistic behaviors. Mouse models of human neuropsychiatric diseases are designed to optimize (1) face validity, i.e., resemblance to the human symptoms; (2) construct validity, i.e.,…

  9. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real-world situations “stimuli” are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multidimensional. On the other hand, in every decision making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these re...

  10. Relativistic electron generation and its behaviors relevant to fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-intense laser (UIL) has been used to create relativistic hot electrons in order to study the behaviors relevant to fast ignition. The electrons generated on an oblique UIL incidence shows their transport along the target surface consistent with strong B field responsible with the phenomena. Gold foam was used to enhance the production of hot electrons via. UIL irradiation on a target. Heating appears of gold foam to be 3 times stronger than a plane gold target. (author)

  11. Preferential encoding of behaviorally relevant predictions revealed by EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Mark G.; Myers, Nicholas E.; Turnbull, Jonathan; Nobre, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical regularities in the environment guide perceptual processing; however, some predictions are bound to be more important than others. In this electroencephalogram (EEG) study, we test how task relevance influences the way predictions are learned from the statistics of visual input, and exploited for behavior. We developed a novel task in which participants are simply instructed to respond to a designated target stimulus embedded in a serial stream of non-target stimuli. Presentation ...

  12. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Braeutigam S

    2012-01-01

    Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in indus...

  13. The Information Architecture of Behavior Change Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Danaher, Brian G; McKay, H Garth; Seeley, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)—the structure of website information—is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ra...

  14. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  15. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  16. Human Behavior Classification Using Multi-Class Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogameena, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In computer vision and robotics, one of the typical tasks is to identify specific objects in an image and to determine each object’s position and orientation relative to coordinate system. This study presented a Multi-class Relevance Vector machine (RVM classification algorithm which classifies different human poses from a single stationary camera for video surveillance applications. Approach: First the foreground blobs and their edges are obtained. Then the relevance vector machine classification scheme classified the normal and abnormal behavior. Results: The performance proposed by our method was compared with Support Vector Machine (SVM and multi-class support vector machine. Experimental results showed the effectiveness of the method. Conclusion: It is evident that RVM has good accuracy and lesser computational than SVM.

  17. Nociceptive-Evoked Potentials Are Sensitive to Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus Displacements in Egocentric Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedi, M; Di Stefano, G; Stubbs, M T; Djeugam, B; Liang, M; Iannetti, G D

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection has been extensively studied in the context of goal-directed behavior, where it is heavily driven by top-down factors. A more primitive version of this function is the detection of bottom-up changes in stimulus features in the environment. Indeed, the nervous system is tuned to detect fast-rising, intense stimuli that are likely to reflect threats, such as nociceptive somatosensory stimuli. These stimuli elicit large brain potentials maximal at the scalp vertex. When elicited by nociceptive laser stimuli, these responses are labeled laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). Although it has been shown that changes in stimulus modality and increases in stimulus intensity evoke large LEPs, it has yet to be determined whether stimulus displacements affect the amplitude of the main LEP waves (N1, N2, and P2). Here, in three experiments, we identified a set of rules that the human nervous system obeys to identify changes in the spatial location of a nociceptive stimulus. We showed that the N2 wave is sensitive to: (1) large displacements between consecutive stimuli in egocentric, but not somatotopic coordinates; and (2) displacements that entail a behaviorally relevant change in the stimulus location. These findings indicate that nociceptive-evoked vertex potentials are sensitive to behaviorally relevant changes in the location of a nociceptive stimulus with respect to the body, and that the hand is a particularly behaviorally important site. PMID:27419217

  18. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and the positive control 17β-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17β-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish

  19. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: edclotfelter@amherst.edu; Rodriguez, Alison C. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, {beta}-sitosterol, and the positive control 17{beta}-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17{beta}-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish.

  20. Changing Classroom Behavior: A Manual for Precision Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.; Wiesen, Allen E.

    The discussion of Precision Teaching, attempting to integrate humanism and behaviorism (what we know as educators and as behavioral scientists), provides both specific guidelines for teachers concerning positive classroom behavior change, and general directions in which education must go to remain relevant. The concept of Precision Teaching is…

  1. National inventory of Global Change relevant research in Norway; Nasjonal kartlegging av global change-relevant forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The Norwegian Global Change Committee has made an inventory of global change research (GCR) projects funded by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) in 2001. In lack of a rigid definition, GCR was defined as research that can be considered relevant to the science agenda of the four major international global change programmes DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP. Relevance was judged based on the objectives stated for each of the international programmes and their core projects. It was not attempted to check whether the projects had any kind of link to the programmes they were considered relevant for. The grants provided by the RCN in 2001 to GCR as defined above amounts to about 77 mill. NOK. Based on a recent survey on climate change research it is reasonable to estimate that the RCN finances between 30 and 40 % of all GCR in Norway. Accordingly, the total value of Norwegian research relevant to the four international global change programmes in 2001 can be estimated to 192 - 254 mill. NOK.

  2. Contextualizing the global relevance of local land change observations

    CERN Document Server

    Magliocca, N R; Oates, T; Schmill, M

    2013-01-01

    To understand global changes in the Earth system, scientists must generalize globally from observations made locally and regionally. In land change science (LCS), local field-based observations are costly and time consuming, and generally obtained by researchers working at disparate local and regional case-study sites chosen for different reasons. As a result, global synthesis efforts in LCS tend to be based on non-statistical inferences subject to geographic biases stemming from data limitations and fragmentation. Thus, a fundamental challenge is the production of generalized knowledge that links evidence of the causes and consequences of local land change to global patterns and vice versa. The GLOBE system was designed to meet this challenge. GLOBE aims to transform global change science by enabling new scientific workflows based on statistically robust, globally relevant integration of local and regional observations using an online social-computational and geovisualization system. Consistent with the goal...

  3. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  4. Contextualizing the global relevance of local land change observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand global changes in the Earth system, scientists must generalize globally from observations made locally and regionally. In land change science (LCS), local field-based observations are costly and time consuming, and generally obtained by researchers working at disparate local and regional case-study sites chosen for different reasons. As a result, global synthesis efforts in LCS tend to be based on non-statistical inferences subject to geographic biases stemming from data limitations and fragmentation. Thus, a fundamental challenge is the production of generalized knowledge that links evidence of the causes and consequences of local land change to global patterns and vice versa. The GLOBE system was designed to meet this challenge. GLOBE aims to transform global change science by enabling new scientific workflows based on statistically robust, globally relevant integration of local and regional observations using an online social-computational and geovisualization system. Consistent with the goals of Digital Earth, GLOBE has the capability to assess the global relevance of local case-study findings within the context of over 50 global biophysical, land-use, climate, and socio-economic datasets. We demonstrate the implementation of one such assessment – a representativeness analysis – with a recently published meta-study of changes in swidden agriculture in tropical forests. The analysis provides a standardized indicator to judge the global representativeness of the trends reported in the meta-study, and a geovisualization is presented that highlights areas for which sampling efforts can be reduced and those in need of further study. GLOBE will enable researchers and institutions to rapidly share, compare, and synthesize local and regional studies within the global context, as well as contributing to the larger goal of creating a Digital Earth

  5. How relevant is government championing behavior for technology development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, J.S.; Halman, J.I.M.; Song, M.; Dorée, A.G.; van der Bij, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic managem

  6. Relevancy and Measurement of Religiosity in Consumer Behavior Research

    OpenAIRE

    Safiek Mokhlis

    2009-01-01

    Although culture and subcultural norms have been subjected to increased scrutiny in recent years as explanatory constructs for various dimensions of consumer behavior, religion as an element of culture has received only slight attention in the marketing literature. This study seeks to examine the influence of religiosity on one aspect of consumer behavior - shopping orientation. The findings revealed that three shopping orientation factors, namely quality consciousness, impulsive shopping and...

  7. Trait Aspects of Vanity: Measurement and Relevance to Consumer Behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Netemeyer; Burton, Scot; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    1995-01-01

    In this article, trait aspects of vanity are defined and scales measuring these aspects are developed. Extensive validation procedures are employed, including assessing the relationships between the vanity scales and numerous consumer-related attitudes and behaviors. Five studies, encompassing seven samples, are reported. Studies related the vanity measures to various constructs and behaviors for samples that included individuals selected for "Who's Who in America," players from a nationally ...

  8. The Behavioral Relevance of Task Information in Human Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W; Ito, Takuya; Braver, Todd S

    2016-06-01

    Human lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is thought to play a critical role in enabling cognitive flexibility, particularly when performing novel tasks. However, it remains to be established whether LPFC representation of task-relevant information in such situations actually contributes to successful performance. We utilized pattern classification analyses of functional MRI activity to identify novelty-sensitive brain regions as participants rapidly switched between performance of 64 complex tasks, 60 of which were novel. In three of these novelty-sensitive regions-located within distinct areas of left anterior LPFC-trial-evoked activity patterns discriminated correct from error trials. Further, these regions also contained information regarding the task-relevant decision rule, but only for successfully performed trials. This suggests that left anterior LPFC may be particularly important for representing task information that contributes to the cognitive flexibility needed to perform successfully in novel task situations. PMID:25870233

  9. The Behavioral Relevance of Landmark Texture for Honeybee Homing

    OpenAIRE

    Laura eDittmar; Martin eEgelhaaf; Wolfgang eStürzl; Norbert eBoeddeker

    2011-01-01

    Honeybees visually pinpoint the location of a food source using landmarks. Studies on the role of visual memories have suggested that bees approach the goal by finding a close match between their current view and a memorized view of the goal location. The most relevant landmark features for this matching process seem to be their retinal positions, the size as defined by their edges, and their colour. Recently, we showed that honeybees can use landmarks that are statically camouflaged, suggest...

  10. Designing for Different Stages in Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Karapanos, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    The behavior change process is a dynamic journey with different informational and motivational needs across its different stages; yet current technologies for behavior change are static. In our recent deployment of Habito, an activity tracking mobile app, we found individuals "readiness" to behavior change (or the stage of behavior change they were in) to be a strong predictor of adoption. Individuals in the contemplation and preparation stages had an adoption rate of 56%, whereas individuals...

  11. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure...... implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  12. The Behavioral Relevance of Multisensory Neural Response Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sperdin, Holger F.; Cappe, Céline; Micah M Murray

    2010-01-01

    Sensory information can interact to impact perception and behavior. Foods are appreciated according to their appearance, smell, taste and texture. Athletes and dancers combine visual, auditory, and somatosensory information to coordinate their movements. Under laboratory settings, detection and discrimination are likewise facilitated by multisensory signals. Research over the past several decades has shown that the requisite anatomy exists to support interactions between sensory systems in re...

  13. The behavioral relevance of multisensory neural response interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sperdin, Holger F.; Micah M Murray

    2010-01-01

    Sensory information can interact to impact perception and behavior. Foods are appreciated according to their appearance, smell, taste, and texture. Athletes and dancers combine visual, auditory, and somatosensory information to coordinate their movements. Under laboratory settings, detection and discrimination are likewise facilitated by multisensory signals. Research over the past several decades has shown both that the requisite anatomy exists to support interactions between sensory systems...

  14. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  15. Behavior of nanoceria in biologically-relevant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Das, Soumen; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Self, William; Baer, Donald R.; Sayle, Dean C.; Seal, Sudipta

    2014-09-08

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have gained a considerable attention in biological research due to their anti-oxidant like behaviour and regenerative nature. The current literature on CNPs reports many successful attempts on harnessing the beneficial therapeutic properties in biology. However studies have also shown toxicity effect with some types of CNPs. This review discusses issues associated with the behaviours of CNPs in biological systems and identifies key knowledge gaps. We explore how salient physicochemical properties (size, surface chemistry, surface stabilizers) contribute to the potential positive and negative aspects of nanoceria in biological systems. Based on variations of results reported in the literature, important issues need to be addressed. Are we really studying the same particles with slight variations in size and physicochemical properties or do the particles being examined have fundamentally different behaviours? Are the variations observed in the result of differences in the initial properties of the particles or the results of downstream effects that emerge as the particles are prepared for specific studies and they interact with biological or other environmental moieties? How should particles be appropriately prepared for relevant environmental/toxicology/safety studies? It is useful to recognize that nanoparticles encompass some of the same complexities and variability associated with biological components

  16. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  17. Consumer behavior changing: methods of evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaile-Sarkane, Elīna; Andersone, Ieva

    2009-01-01

    The article is devoted to methods of analyses of consumer buying behavior as well as to evaluation of most important factors what influences consumer behavior. This research aims at investigations about the changes in consumer behavior caused by globalization and development of information technologies; it helps to understand the specific factors what should be taken into account in evaluation of consumer behavior. The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualita...

  18. Stream Processing Algorithms that model behavior changes

    OpenAIRE

    Capponi, Agostino; Chandy, Mani

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms that fuse information in multiple event streams to update models that represent system behavior. System behaviors vary over time; for example, an information network varies from heavily loaded to lightly loaded conditions; patterns of incidence of disease change at the onset of pandemics; file access patterns change from proper usage to improper use that may signify insider threat. The models that represent behavior must be updated frequently to adapt to chan...

  19. Does Changing Behavioral Intentions Engender Behavior Change? A Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal

    2006-01-01

    Numerous theories in social and health psychology assume that intentions cause behaviors. However, most tests of the intention- behavior relation involve correlational studies that preclude causal inferences. In order to determine whether changes in behavioral intention engender behavior change, participants should be assigned randomly to a…

  20. Changing Struggles for Relevance in Eight Fields of Natural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Laurens K.; van Lente, Harro; Grin, John; Smits, Ruud E. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of institutional changes on academic research practices in eight fields of natural science in the Netherlands. The authors analyse the similarities and differences among the dynamics of these different fields and reflect on possible explanations for the changes observed. The study shows that the increasing…

  1. Relevant Factors of Estrogen Changes of Myopia in Adolescent Females

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Fen Gong; Hong-Li Xie; Xin-Jie Mao; Xue-Bo Zhu; Zuo-Kai Xie; Hai-Hong Yang; Yang Gao; Xiao-Feng Jin; Yu Pan; Fen Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gender is one of the risk factors accounting for the high prevalence of adolescent myopia. Considerable research results have shown that myopia incidence of female is higher than that of male. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between ocular parameters and serum estrogen level and to investigate the vision changes along with estrogen change in menstrual cycle of adolescent females. Methods: A total of 120 young females aged between 15 and 16 years, diagnosed with myo...

  2. Climate change analysis relevant to Jabiluka. Supervising Scientist report 141

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work presented here is to quantify the effects of climate change on rainfall and temperature, and its implications for parameters used in the design of water storage facilities to be used for the next 30 years at the Jabiluka Project, Northern Territory. Changes to average rainfall and temperature, and rainfall variability on decadal to scales of less than one day are investigated. Climate change scenarios have been constructed where projections of climate change can be quantified. Some submissions to the Draft Jabiluka Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) raised concerns about the impact of climate change on the design of hydrologic structures for the Jabiluka project (eg Supplement to the Draft EIS, Kinhill and ERAES 1997, p5-27; Wasson et al 1998). Six General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations were analysed to determine possible temperature and rainfall changes over the region surrounding the Jabiluka mine site: two simulations of the CSIRO GCM, one from the CSIRO limited area model, DARLAM, and single GCM simulations from the Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), UK Meteorological Office (Hadley Centre) and Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis. Due to uncertainties resulting from differing emission scenarios and climate sensitivities these climate models will give different answers. However, under climate change, the hydrological cycle is expected to become more intense (IPCC 1996) through higher evaporation, an increase in the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere and heavier rainfall. GCM output is required to show how this may change on the regional scale, so CSIRO has investigated the models listed above to create scenarios for seasonal rainfall. This involves deriving patterns of local change calculated from the models. The methods used are described in section 2.2. In addition to the enhanced greenhouse effect, natural climatic variability can also have implications for the design of water retention structures. Decadal

  3. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen. PMID:26476556

  4. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles

    OpenAIRE

    Grippo, Angela J.; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C. Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks o...

  5. The Relevance of an Incremental Approach to Ideational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin Bæk

    2012-01-01

    This rejoinder takes issue with two criticisms of my Political Studies article on incremental ideational change presented in a recent reply by Liam Stanley. It argues that by presenting my critique of historical and discursive institutionalism as focused on the lack of ‘realism’ in their standard...... approaches from multiple social scientific traditions....

  6. User-relevant, threshold-specific observations of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainforth, Dave; Chapman, Sandra; Watkins, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Users of climate information look for details of changing climate at local scales (to inform specific activities) and on the geographical patterns of such changes (to prioritise adaptation investments). They often have user-specific thresholds of vulnerability so the changes of interest must refer to such thresholds or to the related quantile of the climatic distribution. A method for providing such information from timeseries of temperature data has recently been published [1] along with maps of changes at thresholds and quantiles [2] derived from the European Observational dataset E-Obs [3]. In this presentation we will do two things. First we will discuss the opportunities to tailor such methods to provide user-specific information through climate services, using illustrations from the existing methodology applied to daily maximum and minimum temperatures [1,2]. Second we will present new results on threshold specific observed changes in precipitation. The methodology for precipitation is related to that which has been applied to temperature but has been developed to handle the characteristics of precipitation distributions. The results identify some regions with systematic increases in precipitation on the seasonally wettest days and others which show drying across all days, on a seasonal basis. We will present the geographic locations and precipitation thresholds where strong signals of changes are seen across Europe. The coherency of such results and the methodology used to process the observational data will be discussed. We will also highlight the justifications for having confidence in the results in some regions and at some thresholds while having a lack of confidence in others. Such information should be an important element of any climate services. It is worth noting that here "wettest days" refers to events which are uncommon within a season (e.g. one in ~20 wet days). This is in contrast and complementary to, for instance, the one in a hundred year

  7. Changing Food Related Behavior Through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    The aim of the workshop is to explore how designers can work actively and deliberately with changing food related behavior through socially responsible design. There will be focus on the holistic aspect of behavioral food design with active involving of the users experience. The workshop is based...

  8. Verbal Cueing as a Behavior Change Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Alfonso G.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.

    A study involving four boys (9 to 14 years old) labeled as emotionally handicapped was conducted to examine the effect of a verbal cueing technique (involving an illogical statement which evokes psychological reactance) on behaviorally disordered children. Illogical statements made by the teacher produced positive change in target behaviors (such…

  9. Endogenous opiates mediate radiogenic behavioral change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to ionizing radiation caused stereotypical locomotor hyperactivity similar to that produced by morphine. Naloxone administration prevented this radiation-induced behavioral activation. These results support the hypothesis that endorphins are involved in some aspects of radiogenic behavioral change

  10. Relevant Factors of Estrogen Changes of Myopia in Adolescent Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Fen Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender is one of the risk factors accounting for the high prevalence of adolescent myopia. Considerable research results have shown that myopia incidence of female is higher than that of male. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between ocular parameters and serum estrogen level and to investigate the vision changes along with estrogen change in menstrual cycle of adolescent females. Methods: A total of 120 young females aged between 15 and 16 years, diagnosed with myopia were recruited. Spherical lens, cylindrical lens, axis, interpupillary distance (IPD, and vision in each tested eye of the same subject were measured by automatic optometry and comprehensive optometry, with repetition of all measurements in the menstrual cycle of the 2 nd or 3 rd days, 14 th days, and 28 th days, respectively. Serum estradiol (E 2 levels were assayed by chemiluminescence immunoassay at the same three times points of the menstrual cycle mentioned above. Results: In young females with myopia, the spherical lens showed a statistically significant difference among all different time in menstrual cycle (all P < 0.0001. The cylindrical lens, axis, and IPD were changed significantly during the menstrual cycle (P < 0.05. The vision of the three different time points in menstrual cycle had a significant difference (χ2 = 6.35, P = 0.042. The vision during the 14 th and 28 th day was higher compared to that on the 2 nd or 3 rd days (P = 0.021. Serum E 2 levels were significantly different at different time points in menstrual cycle (P < 0.05. E 2 levels reached its maximum value on the 14 th day and the minimum value on the 2 nd or 3 rd day. Conclusions: In adolescent females, the spherical lens and other related ocular parameters vary sensitively with different levels of E 2 in menstrual cycle. Vision in late menstrual stage is significantly higher than that in premenstrual stage.

  11. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  12. Ipv6 Change Threats Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Firas Najjar; Homam El-Taj

    2015-01-01

    IPv4 address pool is already exhausted; therefore, the change to use IPv6 is eventually necessary to give us a massive address pool. Although IPv6 was built with security in mind, extensive research must be done before deploying IPv6 to ensure the protection of security and privacy. This paper firstly presents the differences between the old and new IP versions (IPv4 and IPv6), and how these differences will affect the attacks, then the paper will show how the attacks on IPv4 and IPv6 will re...

  13. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  14. Modeling autism-relevant behavioral phenotypes in rats and mice: Do 'autistic' rodents exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadio, Michela; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are among the most severe developmental psychiatric disorders known today, characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction and stereotyped behaviors. However, no specific treatments for ASD are as yet available. By enabling selective genetic, neural, and pharmacological manipulations, animal studies are essential in ASD research. They make it possible to dissect the role of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of the disease, circumventing the many confounding variables present in human studies. Furthermore, they make it possible to unravel the relationships between altered brain function in ASD and behavior, and are essential to test new pharmacological options and their side-effects. Here, we first discuss the concepts of construct, face, and predictive validity in rodent models of ASD. Then, we discuss how ASD-relevant behavioral phenotypes can be mimicked in rodents. Finally, we provide examples of environmental and genetic rodent models widely used and validated in ASD research. We conclude that, although no animal model can capture, at once, all the molecular, cellular, and behavioral features of ASD, a useful approach is to focus on specific autism-relevant behavioral features to study their neural underpinnings. This approach has greatly contributed to our understanding of this disease, and is useful in identifying new therapeutic targets. PMID:26226143

  15. Predictors of methamphetamine psychosis: history of ADHD-relevant childhood behaviors and drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Fassbender, Catherine; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Ursu, Stefan; Leamon, Martin H; Carter, Cameron

    2013-12-15

    The goal of this study was to extend our previous research that reported a significant association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-relevant childhood behaviors and the frequency of methamphetamine (MA)-induced psychotic symptoms in an expanded sample. 190 participants who met DSM-IV criteria for MA dependence were administered the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire that assessed MA-induced psychosis. Data related to MA exposure, comorbid drug use, education, familial psychiatric history and assessments of ADHD-relevant childhood behaviors as measured by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were collected. Although WURS scores did not differ between 145 MAP+ and 45 MAP- subjects, MAP+ subjects with higher WURS scores were significantly more likely to report more frequent psychosis. Although mean daily MA dosage did not differ between the MAP+ and MAP- subjects, MAP+ subjects who consumed larger doses of MA were significantly more likely to experience frequent psychosis. These data suggest that ADHD-relevant childhood behaviors may interact with MA exposure to reflect a neurobiological vulnerability related to the emergence of frequent MA-induced psychotic symptoms. These results may elucidate factors that contribute to the psychiatric sequelae of MA abuse. PMID:23896355

  16. Changing Perceptions and Changing Behavior in Customer Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Peter; Franses, Philip Hans; Donkers, Bas

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe formulate a theoretical model in which we postulate that if a customers' behavior is perceived as not optimal, customers will adjust this behavior based on their current satisfaction and payment equity. Furthermore, customers will also include new experiences. In our empirical study we particularly investigate customer referrals and the amount of services purchased. Our results show positive effects of current satisfaction and payment equity on referrals, while also changes in ...

  17. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. PMID:27197978

  18. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Dreibelbis; Anne Kroeger; Kamal Hossain; Mohini Venkatesh; Ram, Pavani K.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing ...

  19. 交配行为对雄性棕色田鼠雌激素及雌激素β受体在相关脑区的影响%Changes of Estrogen in Serum and Estrogen Receptor β in the Relevant Brain Regions Following Mating Behavior of the Male Mandarin Vole Microtus mandarinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤琴; 张巨武; 石靖; 王波

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the estrogen and estrogen receptor β changes after mating behavior of male mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus), the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate changes of the serum estrogen (E) concentrations, estrogen immunoreactive neurons (E-IRs) and estrogen receptor β immunoreactive neurons (ERβ-IRs) in the relevant brain regions following mating behavior. Fifteen sexually matured male voles were randomly divided into three groups and treated differently: (1) control group: voles were exposed to clean hard-wood shavings (n=5), (2) exposure group: voles were exposed to the soiled bedding for more than 24h on which estrous females had been placed (n=5), and (3) mating group: voles were placed with an estrous female for more than 24h (n=5). The results showed circulating serum E concentrations were significantly higher in the mating group than in the exposure group and the control group, and there were no significant difference between the exposure group and the control group. E-IRs and ERβ-IRs were detected in the following brain regions related to mating behavior: the arcuate nucleus (ARC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), lateral septal nucleus (LS), medial amygdaioid nucleus (ME),medial preoptic area (MPO) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH). The results showed that there were significantly more E-IRs in the six brain regions in the mating group than in the control group and the exposure group, and there were no significant difference between the exposure group and the control group except for LS. There was no significant difference in ERβ-1Rs in the six brain regions among the three groups, and there were some lighter -stained ERβ-IRs in these brain regions. The results suggested that estrogen affect mating activity of male mandarin voles, hut ERβ might not play an important role in mating behavior of male mandarin voles. Instead, it might be through other receptors.%应

  20. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  1. Antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations affect predator avoidance behavior of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, M.M.; Buerkley, M.A.; Julius, M.L.; Vajda, A.M.; Norris, D.O.; Barber, L.B.; Furlong, E.T.; Schultz, M.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of embryonic and larval exposure to environmentally relevant (ng/L) concentrations of common antidepressants, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, and bupropion (singularly and in mixture) on C-start escape behavior were evaluated in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Embryos (postfertilization until hatching) were exposed for 5 d and, after hatching, were allowed to grow in control well water until 12 d old. Similarly, posthatch fathead minnows were exposed for 12 d to these compounds. High-speed (1,000 frames/s) video recordings of escape behavior were collected and transferred to National Institutes of Health Image for frame-by-frame analysis of latency periods, escape velocities, and total escape response (combination of latency period and escape velocity). When tested 12 d posthatch, fluoxetine and venlafaxine adversely affected C-start performance of larvae exposed as embryos. Conversely, larvae exposed for 12 d posthatch did not exhibit altered escape responses when exposed to fluoxetine but were affected by venlafaxine and bupropion exposure. Mixtures of these four antidepressant pharmaceuticals slowed predator avoidance behaviors in larval fathead minnows regardless of the exposure window. The direct impact of reduced C-start performance on survival and, ultimately, reproductive fitness provides an avenue to assess the ecological relevance of exposure in an assay of relatively short duration. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  2. Parenting practices and their relevance to child behaviors in Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors. PMID:20132462

  3. Relevance of Hydro-Climatic Change Projection and Monitoring for Assessment of Water Cycle Changes in the Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Bring, Arvid; Destouni, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes to the Arctic hydrological cycle challenge both our process understanding and our ability to find appropriate adaptation strategies. We have investigated the relevance and accuracy development of climate change projections for assessment of water cycle changes in major Arctic drainage basins. Results show relatively good agreement of climate model projections with observed temperature changes, but high model inaccuracy relative to available observation data for precipitation cha...

  4. Neural representation of calling songs and their behavioral relevance in the grasshopper auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula eMeckenhäuser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic communication plays a key role for mate attraction in grasshoppers. Males use songs to advertise themselves to females. Females evaluate the song pattern, a repetitive structure of sound syllables separated by short pauses, to recognize a conspecific male and as proxy to its fitness. In their natural habitat females often receive songs with degraded temporal structure. Perturbations may, for example, result from the overlap with other songs. We studied the response behavior of females to songs that show different signal degradations. A perturbation of an otherwise attractive song at later positions in the syllable diminished the behavioral response, whereas the same perturbation at the onset of a syllable did not affect song attractiveness. We applied naïve Bayes classifiers to the spike trains of identified neurons in the auditory pathway to explore how sensory evidence about the acoustic stimulus and its attractiveness is represented in the neuronal responses. We find that populations of three or more neurons were sufficient to reliably decode the acoustic stimulus and to predict its behavioral relevance from the single-trial integrated firing rate. A simple model of decision making simulates the female response behavior. It computes for each syllable the likelihood for the presence of an attractive song pattern as evidenced by the population firing rate. Integration across syllables allows the likelihood to reach a decision threshold and to elicit the behavioral response. The close match between model performance and animal behavior shows that a spike rate code is sufficient to enable song pattern recognition.

  5. Relevance of scope management and organizational change management in IT deployment projects

    OpenAIRE

    Antikainen, Jani

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the relevance of project scope management and organizational change management in the context of IT deployment projects in which new IT artifacts are introduced in organizations. Scope management refers to the management of project content, whereas organizational change management refers to communicating, justifying and leading the change delivered by the project to the organization receiving the new IT artifacts. Deployment refers to the process of “taking the arti...

  6. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks of social isolation versus paired housing. In Experiment 1, oxytocin-immunoreactive cell density was higher in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated females, but not in males. In Experiment 2, sucrose intake, used as an operational definition of hedonia, was reduced in both sexes following 4 weeks of isolation. Animals then received a resident-intruder test, and were sacrificed either 10 min later for the analysis of circulating hormones and peptides, or 2h later to examine neural activation, indexed by c-Fos expression in PVN cells immunoreactive for oxytocin or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Compared to paired animals, plasma oxytocin, ACTH and corticosterone were elevated in isolated females and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated males, following the resident-intruder test. The proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin or c-Fos and CRF was elevated in isolated females, and the proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin was elevated in isolated males following this test. These findings suggest that social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine responses relevant to depression in male and female prairie voles, although neuroendocrine responses in females may be especially sensitive to isolation. PMID:17825994

  7. Collapsibility and Volume Change Behavior of Unsaturated Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azalan A. Aziz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. In these places, the soil forming processes are still very active and the weathering development is much faster than the erosive factor. Most residual soil exhibit high suctions for most of the year. The absence of positive pore water pressure except immediately after rain, makes conventional soil mechanics for saturated soil not so relevant. Ignorance or lack of understanding of the geotechnical behavior of soil in the partially or unsaturated state has caused a lot of damages to infrastructures, buildings and other structures. For instance, the collapsibility and volume change of partially saturated soils in connection with the drying or wetting causes a lot of damage in foundation, roads and other structures. It is also observed that many shallow slope failures involve a slumping (collapse type of failure. As such, the development of extended soil mechanics, which embraces the soil in the unsaturated state or subjected to soil suction, is essential. This study examines the collapsibility and volume change behavior specifically of an unsaturated residual soil under various levels of applied matric suction (ua-uw and net mean stress (σ-ua in a predetermined stress path. The volume change of the soil is found to be sensitive to both the applied matric suction and net mean stress. The soil is found to exhibit a collapsibility behavior upon a reduction in applied matric suction at constant net mean stress.

  8. Recent Developments in the Psychology of Individuation and Deindividuation: Toward the Integration of Aggression, Altruism, and Morally Relevant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloutzian, Raymond F.

    After the development and distinctions of the concept of deindividuation are given, a single dimension of morally relevant behavior is outlined with aggression and altruism viewed as the two extremes. This dimension is divided accoring to degree of external reinforcement control. The result is a 2x2 scheme for classifying morally relevant behavior…

  9. Relevance of hydro-climatic change projection and monitoring for assessment of water cycle changes in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, Arvid; Destouni, Georgia

    2011-06-01

    Rapid changes to the Arctic hydrological cycle challenge both our process understanding and our ability to find appropriate adaptation strategies. We have investigated the relevance and accuracy development of climate change projections for assessment of water cycle changes in major Arctic drainage basins. Results show relatively good agreement of climate model projections with observed temperature changes, but high model inaccuracy relative to available observation data for precipitation changes. Direct observations further show systematically larger (smaller) runoff than precipitation increases (decreases). This result is partly attributable to uncertainties and systematic bias in precipitation observations, but still indicates that some of the observed increase in Arctic river runoff is due to water storage changes, for example melting permafrost and/or groundwater storage changes, within the drainage basins. Such causes of runoff change affect sea level, in addition to ocean salinity, and inland water resources, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Process-based hydrological modeling and observations, which can resolve changes in evapotranspiration, and groundwater and permafrost storage at and below river basin scales, are needed in order to accurately interpret and translate climate-driven precipitation changes to changes in freshwater cycling and runoff. In contrast to this need, our results show that the density of Arctic runoff monitoring has become increasingly biased and less relevant by decreasing most and being lowest in river basins with the largest expected climatic changes. PMID:21809779

  10. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Pu

    Full Text Available Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05. We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing

  11. Past temperature reconstructions from deep ice cores: relevance for future climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Dreyfus, G.; P. Braconnot; Johnsen, S.; J. Jouzel; Kageyama, M.; Landais, A; Loutre, M.-F.; J. Nouet; F. Parrenin; D. Raynaud; Stenni, B; E. Tuenter

    2006-01-01

    International audience Ice cores provide unique archives of past climate and environmental changes based only on physical processes. Quantitative temperature reconstructions are essential for the comparison between ice core records and climate models. We give an overview of the methods that have been developed to reconstruct past local temperatures from deep ice cores and highlight several points that are relevant for future climate change. We first analyse the long term fluctuations of t...

  12. The role of audience participation and task relevance on change detection during a card trick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Magicians utilize many techniques for misdirecting audience attention away from the secret sleight of a trick. One technique is to ask an audience member to participate in a trick either physically by asking them to choose a card or cognitively by having them keep track of a card. While such audience participation is an established part of most magic the cognitive mechanisms by which it operates are unknown. Failure to detect changes to objects while passively viewing magic tricks has been shown to be conditional on the changing feature being irrelevant to the current task. How change blindness operates during interactive tasks is unclear but preliminary evidence suggests that relevance of the changing feature may also play a role (Triesch, Ballard, Hayhoe & Sullivan, 2003. The present study created a simple on-line card trick inspired by Triesch and colleagues’ (2003 that allowed playing cards to be instantaneously replaced without distraction or occlusion as participants were either actively sorting the cards (active condition or watching another person perform the task (passive conditions. Participants were given one of three sets of instructions. The relevance of the card color to the task increased across the three instructions. During half of the trials a card changed color (but retained its number as it was moving to the stack. Participants were instructed to immediately report such changes. Analysis of the probability of reporting a change revealed that actively performing the sorting task led to more missed changes than passively watching the same task but only when the changing feature was irrelevant to the sorting task. If the feature was relevant during either the pick-up or put-down action change detection was as good as during the passive block. These results confirm the ability of audience participation to create subtle dynamics of attention and perception during a magic trick and hide otherwise striking changes at the center of

  13. Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Traits from Natural Stimuli: Benefits of Combinatorial Representations at the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Anat; Ben-Shaul, Yoram

    2016-03-01

    For many animals, chemosensation is essential for guiding social behavior. However, because multiple factors can modulate levels of individual chemical cues, deriving information about other individuals via natural chemical stimuli involves considerable challenges. How social information is extracted despite these sources of variability is poorly understood. The vomeronasal system provides an excellent opportunity to study this topic due to its role in detecting socially relevant traits. Here, we focus on two such traits: a female mouse's strain and reproductive state. In particular, we measure stimulus-induced neuronal activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in response to various dilutions of urine, vaginal secretions, and saliva, from estrus and non-estrus female mice from two different strains. We first show that all tested secretions provide information about a female's receptivity and genotype. Next, we investigate how these traits can be decoded from neuronal activity despite multiple sources of variability. We show that individual neurons are limited in their capacity to allow trait classification across multiple sources of variability. However, simple linear classifiers sampling neuronal activity from small neuronal ensembles can provide a substantial improvement over that attained with individual units. Furthermore, we show that some traits are more efficiently detected than others, and that particular secretions may be optimized for conveying information about specific traits. Across all tested stimulus sources, discrimination between strains is more accurate than discrimination of receptivity, and detection of receptivity is more accurate with vaginal secretions than with urine. Our findings highlight the challenges of chemosensory processing of natural stimuli, and suggest that downstream readout stages decode multiple behaviorally relevant traits by sampling information from distinct but overlapping populations of AOB neurons. PMID:26938460

  14. Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Traits from Natural Stimuli: Benefits of Combinatorial Representations at the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Kahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For many animals, chemosensation is essential for guiding social behavior. However, because multiple factors can modulate levels of individual chemical cues, deriving information about other individuals via natural chemical stimuli involves considerable challenges. How social information is extracted despite these sources of variability is poorly understood. The vomeronasal system provides an excellent opportunity to study this topic due to its role in detecting socially relevant traits. Here, we focus on two such traits: a female mouse's strain and reproductive state. In particular, we measure stimulus-induced neuronal activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB in response to various dilutions of urine, vaginal secretions, and saliva, from estrus and non-estrus female mice from two different strains. We first show that all tested secretions provide information about a female's receptivity and genotype. Next, we investigate how these traits can be decoded from neuronal activity despite multiple sources of variability. We show that individual neurons are limited in their capacity to allow trait classification across multiple sources of variability. However, simple linear classifiers sampling neuronal activity from small neuronal ensembles can provide a substantial improvement over that attained with individual units. Furthermore, we show that some traits are more efficiently detected than others, and that particular secretions may be optimized for conveying information about specific traits. Across all tested stimulus sources, discrimination between strains is more accurate than discrimination of receptivity, and detection of receptivity is more accurate with vaginal secretions than with urine. Our findings highlight the challenges of chemosensory processing of natural stimuli, and suggest that downstream readout stages decode multiple behaviorally relevant traits by sampling information from distinct but overlapping populations of AOB neurons.

  15. Low cycle fatigue behavior of ITER-like divertor target under DEMO-relevant operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LCF behavior of the cooling tube and the interlayer of an ITER-like divertor target is studied. • For the cooling tube, LCF failure will not be an issue under an HHF load of up to 18 MW/m2. • Plastic strain in the interlayer is concentrated at the free surface edge of the bond interface. • The predicted LCF lifetime of the interlayer may not meet the design requirement. - Abstract: In this work the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of the copper alloy cooling tube and the copper interlayer of an ITER-like divertor target is reported for nine different combinations of loading and cooling conditions relevant to DEMO divertor operation. The LCF lifetime is presented as a function of loading and cooling conditions considered here by means of cyclic plasticity simulation and using LCF data of materials relevant for ITER. The numerical predictions indicate, that fatigue failure will not be an issue for the copper alloy tube under a high heat flux (HHF) load of up to 18 MW/m2 as long as it preserves its initial strength. In contrast, the copper interlayer exhibits significant plastic dissipation at the free surface edge of the bond interface adjacent to the cooling tube, where the LCF lifetime is predicted to be below 3000 load cycles for HHF loads higher than 15 MW/m2. Most of the bulk region of the copper interlayer away from the free surface edge does not experience severe plastic fatigue and hence does not pose any critical concern as the LCF lifetime is predicted to be at least 7000 load cycles. LCF lifetime decreases as HHF load is increased or coolant temperature is decreased

  16. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  17. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty A; Johnson, Heather M; Vanness, David J; Young, Henry N; Kreling, David H

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (pbehavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing blood pressure feedback may have promise as part of a multi-method approach

  18. Behavior Changes May Be First Signs of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Behavior Changes May Be First Signs of Alzheimer's Researchers have developed a checklist to help spot ... Certain behavior changes may be a harbinger of Alzheimer's disease, and researchers say they've developed a ...

  19. The world is not flat: defining relevant thermal landscapes in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Michael W; Raskin, Evan; Angilletta, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Although climates are rapidly changing on a global scale, these changes cannot easily be extrapolated to the local scales experienced by organisms. In fact, such generalizations might be quite problematic. For instance, models used to predict shifts in the ranges of species during climate change rarely incorporate data resolved to local scale, depending on vegetation, geology, and topography. Furthermore, this variation in abiotic factors ignores thermoregulatory behaviors that many animals use to balance heat loads. Through a set of simulations, we demonstrate how variability in elevational topography can attenuate the effects of warming climates. These simulations suggest that changing climates do not always impact organisms negatively. Importantly, these simulations involve well-known relationships in biophysical ecology that show how no two organisms experience the same climate in the same way. We suggest that, when coupled with thermoregulatory behavior, variation in topographic features can mask the acute effect of climate change in many cases. PMID:21937668

  20. PROFOUND AND SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC EFFECTS OF CLINICALLY-RELEVANT LOW DOSE SCATTER IRRADIATION ON THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKovalchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated cells can signal damage and distress to both close and distant neighbors that have not been directly exposed to the radiation (naïve bystanders. While studies have shown that such bystander effects occur in the shielded brain of animals upon body irradiation, their mechanism remains unexplored. Observed effects may be caused by some blood-borne factors; however they may also be explained, at least in part, by very small direct doses received by the brain that result from scatter or leakage. In order to establish the roles of low doses of scatter irradiation in the brain response, we developed a new model for scatter irradiation analysis whereby one rat was irradiated directly at the liver and the second rat was placed adjacent to the first and received a scatter dose to its body and brain. This work focuses specifically on the response of the latter rat brain to the low scatter irradiation dose. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that very low, clinically relevant doses of scatter irradiation alter gene expression, induce changes in dendritic morphology, and lead to behavioral deficits in exposed animals. The results showed that exposure to radiation doses as low as 0.115 cGy caused changes in gene expression and reduced spine density, dendritic complexity, and dendritic length in the prefrontal cortex tissues of females, but not males. In the hippocampus, radiation altered neuroanatomical organization in males, but not in females. Moreover, low dose radiation caused behavioral deficits in the exposed animals. This is the first study to show that low dose scatter irradiation influences the brain and behavior in a sex-specific way.

  1. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. Keywords: food addiction, evolution, drugs, gambling

  2. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  3. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  4. Communication among scientists, decision makers and society: Developing policy-relevant global climate change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defining the research most relevant to policy is not simply a technical task that can be answered by scientists. Decision makers need and value information differently than curiosity-driven scientists. In order to link science more effectively to policy, the two communities must gain a greater mutual understanding. Decision makers must define their needs so that scientists can determine how, and by when, research can address these needs. This vital dialogue between communities typically has been more ad hoc than systematic. The complexity and urgency of the global climate change issue necessitate ongoing communication between scientists and decision makers on the information needed for policy development and what research can provide The results of relevant science policy dialogues are discussed herein. Effective communication between researchers and decision makers is a crucial ingredient for successfully addressing society's pressing environmental concerns. The increase in policy makers' demands for research that is relevant to solving societal issues highlights the communication gap between the technical and policy communities. The gap, largely caused by lack of mutual understanding, results in flawed and inadequate communication that hinders decision making and confuses the public. This paper examines the cause of this communication gap and describes the significance of recent efforts to develop more fruitful science-policy dialogues on the issue of global climate change. First, the post-Cold War shift in government priorities for research funding is described; then the underlying relationship between science and policy is explored to identify key sources of ongoing mis-communication. The paper then explains the importance of defining policy-relevant science questions that research can address. Finally, three projects are described involving the elicitation of decision makers' information needs in The United States, The Netherlands, and internationally

  5. Forecast of the Chemical Aging and Relevant Color Changes in Painting

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the potential application of thermodynamic simulation to forecast chemical aging and relevant color changes in painting. Qualitative and numerical results were obtained by applying the method to various mixtures of pigments without and with atmospheric components. The results were compared to the legendary recommendations on incompatible pigment mixtures with about an 80 percent match regarding potential color changes in the aged mixtures. Results for the cadmium yellow-lead white and cadmium lemon-emerald green mixtures are illustrated by pictures, gradually showing color changes caused by the aging. The method of thermodynamic simulation can be a powerful tool to investigate old masterpieces, in developing new materials, and to forecast some aspects of the aging of real masterpieces.

  6. Past temperature reconstructions from deep ice cores: relevance for future climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Masson-Delmotte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ice cores provide unique archives of past climate and environmental changes based only on physical processes. Quantitative temperature reconstructions are essential for the comparison between ice core records and climate models. We give an overview of the methods that have been developed to reconstruct past local temperatures from deep ice cores and highlight several points that are relevant for future climate change. We first analyse the long term fluctuations of temperature as depicted in the long Antarctic record from EPICA Dome C. The long term imprint of obliquity changes in the EPICA Dome C record is highlighted and compared to simulations conducted with the ECBILT-CLIO intermediate complexity climate model. We discuss the comparison between the current interglacial period and the long interglacial corresponding to marine isotopic stage 11, ~400 kyr BP. Previous studies had focused on the role of precession and the thresholds required to induce glacial inceptions. We suggest that, due to the low eccentricity configuration of MIS 11 and the Holocene, the effect of precession on the incoming solar radiation is damped and that changes in obliquity must be taken into account. The EPICA Dome C alignment of terminations I and VI published in 2004 corresponds to a phasing of the obliquity signals. A conjunction of low obliquity and minimum northern hemisphere summer insolation is not found in the next tens of thousand years, supporting the idea of an unusually long interglacial ahead. As a second point relevant for future climate change, we discuss the magnitude and rate of change of past temperatures reconstructed from Greenland (NorthGRIP and Antarctic (Dome C ice cores. Past episodes of temperatures above the present-day values by up to 5°C are recorded at both locations during the penultimate interglacial period. The rate of polar warming simulated by coupled climate models forced by a CO2 increase of 1% per year is compared to ice

  7. An investigation of illegal direction change behavior of road users using behavioral models

    OpenAIRE

    TRINH, Tu Anh; Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Illegal direction change is accounted the highest ratio for road accident causes in Hochiminh City, Vietnam. Illegal direction change is examined through separate behavioral models such theory of planned behavior, health belief model and integrated behavior model. Integrated behavior model including health belief model, theory of planned behavior variables and extended socio-cognitive variables is identified to be one of the best model (with the highest percentage of total variance) that ...

  8. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  9. Extracting the Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus: Unique Neural Representation of Farnesol, a Component of the Recruitment Pheromone of Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Strube-Bloss

    Full Text Available To trigger innate behavior, sensory neural networks are pre-tuned to extract biologically relevant stimuli. Many male-female or insect-plant interactions depend on this phenomenon. Especially communication among individuals within social groups depends on innate behaviors. One example is the efficient recruitment of nest mates by successful bumblebee foragers. Returning foragers release a recruitment pheromone in the nest while they perform a 'dance' behavior to activate unemployed nest mates. A major component of this pheromone is the sesquiterpenoid farnesol. How farnesol is processed and perceived by the olfactory system, has not yet been identified. It is much likely that processing farnesol involves an innate mechanism for the extraction of relevant information to trigger a fast and reliable behavioral response. To test this hypothesis, we used population response analyses of 100 antennal lobe (AL neurons recorded in alive bumblebee workers under repeated stimulation with four behaviorally different, but chemically related odorants (geraniol, citronellol, citronellal and farnesol. The analysis identified a unique neural representation of the recruitment pheromone component compared to the other odorants that are predominantly emitted by flowers. The farnesol induced population activity in the AL allowed a reliable separation of farnesol from all other chemically related odor stimuli we tested. We conclude that the farnesol induced population activity may reflect a predetermined representation within the AL-neural network allowing efficient and fast extraction of a behaviorally relevant stimulus. Furthermore, the results show that population response analyses of multiple single AL-units may provide a powerful tool to identify distinct representations of behaviorally relevant odors.

  10. Beyond Behavior: Eliciting Broader Change With Motivational Interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher C. Wagner; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    Descriptions of Motivational interviewing (MI) usually focus on helping clients change a single problematic behavior. In contrast, the current case study shows that MI can serve as a more comprehensive psychotherapy, focused not only on multiple problem behaviors but also on broader change consistent with its roots in client-centered therapy. In this case, the therapist interwove a focus on several discrete behaviors with a focus on broader lifestyle change as well as increased clarity of cli...

  11. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dreibelbis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%, increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  12. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed. PMID:26784210

  13. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed. PMID:26784210

  14. Parents as Behavioral Change Agents: New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    This paper presents a model for school psychologists to instruct parents in behavior modification procedures for use with their children. This model, designed for use by individuals who have a basic working knowledge of operant conditioning and applied behavior analysis procedures, consists of three training sessions which are outlined with…

  15. Changing Perceptions and Changing Behavior in Customer Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe formulate a theoretical model in which we postulate that if a customers' behavior is perceived as not optimal, customers will adjust this behavior based on their current satisfaction and payment equity. Furthermore, customers will also include new experiences. In our empirical study w

  16. Counseling and Behavior Change in Pediatric Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfley, Denise E.; Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.

    2011-01-01

    To effectively intervene with overweight and obese youth, it is imperative that primary care providers and behavioral interventionists work in concert to help families implement healthy behaviors across socioenvironmental domains (i.e., family/home, peer, community). As health care providers are often the first line of intervention for families, one critical component to implementing the socioenvironmental approach is to infuse intervention strategies into the primary care setting. In this pa...

  17. Theory as a Foundation for Behavior Change in Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will highlight the benefits of designing Games for Health (i.e., games created to change health behavior) using informed by behavioral and communication theories. The need to include choice, link adoption of new behavior to personal values, and build confidence in ability to succes...

  18. PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF 238PU RELEVANT TO DECONTAMINATION OF BUILDING 235-F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Kane, M.

    2009-11-24

    This report was prepared to document the physical, chemical and radiological properties of plutonium oxide materials that were processed in the Plutonium Fuel Form Facility (PuFF) in building 235-F at the Savannah River Plant (now known as the Savannah River Site) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. An understanding of these properties is needed to support current project planning for the safe and effective decontamination and deactivation (D&D) of PuFF. The PuFF mission was production of heat sources to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in space craft. The specification for the PuO{sub 2} used to fabricate the heat sources required that the isotopic content of the plutonium be 83 {+-} 1% Pu-238 due to its high decay heat of 0.57 W/g. The high specific activity of Pu-238 (17.1 Ci/g) due to alpha decay makes this material very difficult to manage. The production process produced micron-sized particles which proved difficult to contain during operations, creating personnel contamination concerns and resulting in the expenditure of significant resources to decontaminate spaces after loss of material containment. This report examines high {sup 238}Pu-content material properties relevant to the D&D of PuFF. These relevant properties are those that contribute to the mobility of the material. Physical properties which produce or maintain small particle size work to increase particle mobility. Early workers with {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} felt that, unlike most small particles, Pu-238 oxide particles would not naturally agglomerate to form larger, less mobile particles. It was thought that the heat generated by the particles would prevent water molecules from binding to the particle surface. Particles covered with bound water tend to agglomerate more easily. However, it is now understood that the self-heating effect is not sufficient to prevent adsorption of water on particle surfaces and thus would not prevent agglomeration of particles. Operational

  19. Is Singapore’s School Geography Relevant to Our Changing World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew-Hung CHANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available How school geography should be taught has been a longstanding issue for geography educators. In some countries, state or national level curriculum predicates how the subject should be taught in schools. This paper examines these questions in relation to existing frameworks of conceptualizing school geography, such as the International Charter on Geographical Education. School geography in Singapore has evolved from regional geography to thematic geography to systematic geography. A review of the curriculum in 2007 resulted in a distinct form of school geography unprecedented in Singapore’s education history. Today, school geography in Singapore is learnt conceptually with national level assessment designed to that end. To what extent is this evolution in curriculum design in step with changes in our world? In response to the changes in school geography, pre-service and in-service teacher training has also responded by focusing on conceptual learning and inquiry. This paper will explore the state of school geography curricula in Singapore today, and the curriculum of teacher training, with the intent to critically discuss the state of geography education in Singapore. Although geography has remained a disciplinary subject whose place has yet been disputed, the big question of why study geography in the first place needs to be answered to ensure its continued survival. In particular, school geography will be examined for its relevance to a fast changing world. This critique ends by offering a reason to how geography plays an important role in education for sustainable development, and its relevance to Singaporeans or even any citizen of the world.

  20. National Study of Behavioral and Life Changes since September 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Seo, Dong-Chul

    2004-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9-11), terrorism poses a continuous threat to those living in the United States. A substantial number of people may have experienced behavioral and life changes since the attacks, with possible implications for public health. This study investigated behavioral and life changes American people have…

  1. Educational Decentralization and Behavior Change Needs in Indonesia. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph

    This working paper examines behavior change as a key element in creating an enabling environment to sustain educational reform in Indonesia. It recommends elevating the importance of a formalized behavior change framework and methodology so that future plans for educational reform in Indonesia will include social marketing as a planned…

  2. Neurocognitive elements of antisocial behavior: Relevance of an orbitofrontal cortex account

    OpenAIRE

    Séguin, Jean R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions in antisocial behaviors and the adequacy of a strict OFC account of antisocial disorders where there is no evidence of lesion. Neurocognitive accounts of antisocial behaviors are extended beyond the OFC. Several methodological shortcomings specific to this neuroscience approach to antisocial behavior are identified. A developmental approach is advocated to chart the developmental sequences of impaired brain development and of t...

  3. Past temperature reconstructions from deep ice cores: relevance for future climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Masson-Delmotte

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ice cores provide unique archives of past climate and environmental changes based only on physical processes. Quantitative temperature reconstructions are essential for the comparison between ice core records and climate models. Several methods have been developed to reconstruct past local temperatures from deep ice cores.

    Here we first analyse the long term fluctuations of temperature as depicted in the long Antarctic record from EPICA Dome C. The long term imprint of obliquity changes in the EPICA Dome C record is highlighted and compared to simulations conducted with the ECBILT-CLIO intermediate complexity climate model. We discuss the comparison between the current interglacial period and the long interglacial corresponding to marine isotopic stage 11, ~400 kyr BP. Previous studies had focused on the role of precession and the thresholds required to induce glacial inceptions. We suggest that, due to the low eccentricity configuration of MIS 11 and the Holocene, the effect of precession on the incoming solar radiation is damped and that changes in obliquity must be taken into account. The EPICA Dome C alignment of terminations I and VI published in 2004 corresponds to a phasing of the obliquity signals. A conjunction of low obliquity and minimum northern hemisphere summer insolation is not found in the next tens of thousand years, supporting the idea of an unusually long interglacial ahead.

    As a second point relevant for future climate change, we discuss the magnitude and rate of change of past temperatures reconstructed from Greenland (NorthGRIP and Antarctic (Dome C ice cores. Past episodes of temperatures above the present-day values by up to 5°C are recorded at both locations during the penultimate interglacial period. The polar warming simulated by coupled climate models forced by a CO2 increase of 1% per year is compared to ice-core-based temperature reconstructions. In Antarctica, the CO2-induced warming

  4. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    OpenAIRE

    Singh S

    2011-01-01

    Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work follow...

  5. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were col...

  6. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.Keywords: social marketing, customer engagement, behavioral influence, change, youth

  7. CYCLES: A Culturally-Relevant Approach to Climate Change Education in Native Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roehrig, Gillian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This perspective article presents the CYCLES approach to climate change education for American Indian students. Our framework blends integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM approaches to teaching and learning, place-based education, andinquiry-based strategies to provide cultural relevance to science learning that will empower American Indian students. Our integrative approach to STEM is aligned with the holistic,Indigenous world view that takes into account the myriad of interconnections between living and natural entities. Our place-based approach respects the close and sacred connections between Native peoples and the Earth. Our inquiry-based approach is designed to allow students to understand and value both scientific and Native ways of knowing about the world.

  8. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: Background and Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In ...

  9. Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at Non-Hanford Sites and Relevance to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-02-01

    Seven sites where Pu release to the environment has raised significant environmental concerns have been reviewed. A summary of the most significant hydrologic and geochemical features, contaminant release events and transport processes relevant to Pu migration at the seven sites is presented.

  10. Modeling autism-relevant behavioral phenotypes in rats and mice : Do 'autistic' rodents exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servadio, Michela; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are among the most severe developmental psychiatric disorders known today, characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction and stereotyped behaviors. However, no specific treatments for ASD are as yet available. By enabling selective genetic, neur

  11. Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autism: Phenotypes of Ten Inbred Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Perez, Antonio; Holloway, L. Paige; Barbaro, Ryan P.; Barbaro, Justin R.; West, Lindsay M.; Threadgill, David W; Lauder, Jean M.; Magnuson, Terry R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2006-01-01

    Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from ten inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal of the spatial location of the reinforcer in T-maze and Morris water...

  12. Behavior Management and Behavioral Change: How Can We Tell Them Apart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the differences between behavior management and behavior change helps adults identify the differences between the two and teaches them what they can do to be effective in the use of both. This article introduces Positive Behavior Facilitation (PBF) Tool #3 which aims to support adults in understanding the differences between behavior…

  13. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

  14. The scaling law of climate change and its relevance to assessing (palaeo)biological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Wolfgang; Eichenseer, Kilian

    2014-05-01

    interglacials, are not monotonic, but punctuated by short-term cooling intervals. The fossil record tells us that biodiversity responded dramatically to ancient intervals of climate warming. We can now see that the apparently slower rates of change in some mass extinctions (Permian-Triassic, Triassic-Jurassic) were greater than today when the scaling law is considered. This reassures us that studying deep time patterns of organismic response to climate change is a worthwhile endeavor that is relevant for predicting the future. References Burrows, M. T., Schoeman, D. S., Buckley, L. B., Moore, P., Poloczanska, E. S., Brander, K. M., Brown, C., Bruno, J. F., Duarte, C. M., Halpern, B. S., Holding, J., Kappel, C. V., Kiessling, W., O'Connor, M. I., Pandolfi, J. M., Parmesan, C., Schwing, F. B., Sydeman, W. J., and Richardson, A. J.: The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, Science, 334, 652-655, 2011. Gingerich, P. D.: Quantification and comparison of evolutionary rates, American Journal of Science, 293A, 453-478, 1993. Sadler, P. M.: Sediment accumulation rates and the completeness of stratigraphic sections, Journal of Geology, 89, 569-584, 1981. Sun, Y., Joachimski, M. M., Wignall, P. B., Yan, C., Chen, Y., Jiang, H., Wang, L., and Lai, X.: Lethally hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse, Science, 338, 366-370, 2012.

  15. A metabolomic study of fipronil for the anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish larvae at environmentally relevant levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cui; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Quan; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Meirong

    2016-04-01

    Field residue of fipronil can interfere with the physiological characters of the domesticated fish; thus, lethal dose test and the general biomarker cannot delineate the low-level situation. Manipulating by video track, we observed an anxiety-like behavior including high speed and abnormal photoperiod accommodation after exposure to fipronil at environmental typical dose in zebrafish larvae. Examining the unbiased metabolomic profiles, we found perturbation in several metabolic pathways, including the increased contents of fatty acids and glycerol and the decreased levels of the glycine, serine, and branched amino acid. We presumed that observed enhanced fatty acid utility was in response to increase energy demands caused by anxiety like behavior. Additionally, the body burden of neurotransmitter such as glycine and l-glutamate may concurrently stimulate the swimming behavior. The insight of this study showed that integral perturbation such as metabolism helps us to further understand the risk to aquatic fish at the environmentally relevant levels. PMID:26774772

  16. Collective purchase behavior toward retail price changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-02-01

    By analyzing a huge amount of point-of-sale data collected from Japanese supermarkets, we find power law relationships between price and sales numbers. The estimated values of the exponents of these power laws depend on the category of products; however, they are independent of the stores, thereby implying the existence of universal human purchase behavior. The rate of sales numbers around these power laws are generally approximated by log-normal distributions implying that there are hidden random parameters, which might proportionally affect the purchase activity.

  17. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H; Arnold, David H; Baker, Courtney N

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers' (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children's behavior problems were collected twice during the school year. Parents' own social support predicted improvement for boys and parent depression was associated with worsening symptoms for girls. Single parenthood and parent involvement predicted changes in behavior problems for the sample as a whole. Several significant ethnic differences emerged, highlighting the importance of considering cultural context in studies of parenting and child externalizing behavior. PMID:24347757

  18. Psychology Departments Are Changing Their Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    The neuroscience revolution has brought a set of difficult, at times uncomfortable, changes in university-based research psychology. The technologies that allow scholars to probe the structures and functions of the human brain are also causing profound alterations in the structures and functions of psychology departments: curricula, hiring…

  19. Can Big Pharma Behavior Change to Benefit Patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Professors Rosenberg and Chu will discuss how the behavior of large pharmaceutical companies can sometimes compromise the needs of patients. The behavior includes strategies for lobbying Congress, exploiting patent law, targeting large consumer markets, creating demand from patients, and influencing physicians. In some cases, this behavior has created ethical and legal problems. The talk will conclude with a discussion of possible ways to encourage changes that will benefit patients.

  20. Resolving Issues Relevant to the Education of Secondary School Aged Youth with Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert G.

    The article provides a format for a workshop in which three issues which must be resolved by educators of secondary aged students with behavior disorders are discussed. The three issues to be addressed are: (1) determination of appropriate curriculum emphasis, (2) parent training/involvement in intervention strategies, and (3) criteria for…

  1. Behavioral Relevance of Species-Specific Vasotocin Anatomy in Gregarious Finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial species differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin (VT/VP circuitry of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm and lateral septum (LS; a primary projection target of BSTm VT/VP cells, functional consequences of this variation are poorly known. Previous experiments in the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata demonstrate that BSTm VT neurons promote gregariousness in a male-specific manner and reduce anxiety in both sexes. However, in contrast to the zebra finch, the less gregarious Angolan blue waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus angolensis exhibits fewer VT-immunoreactive cells in the BSTm as well as differences in receptor distribution across the LS subnuclei, suggesting that knockdown of VT production in the BSTm would produce behavioral effects in Angolan blue waxbills that are distinct from zebra finches. Thus, we here quantified social contact, gregariousness (i.e. preference for the larger of two groups, and anxiety-like behavior following bilateral antisense knockdown of VT production in the BSTm of male and female Angolan blue waxbills. We find that BSTm VT neurons promote social contact, but not gregariousness (as in male zebra finches, and that antisense effects on social contact are significantly stronger in male waxbills than in females. Knockdown of BSTm VT production has no effect on anxiety-like behavior. These data provide novel evidence that species differences in the VT/VP circuitry arising in the BSTm are accompanied by species-specific effects on affiliation behaviors.

  2. BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN CATLA CATLA DUE TO FLUORIDATED TOOTHPASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Verma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Asmall project was carried out on behavioral Aalteration in Catla catla due to toothpaste which contained fluoride as one of the content. The behavioral changes in feeding, swimming movement, body orientation, opercular activity, gulping activity, mucus secretion and body coloration were observed.

  3. Assessing Connections Between Behavior Change Theories Using Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gainforth, H. L.; West, R; Michie, S.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-disciplinary scoping review identified 83 of behavior change theories, with many similarities and overlapping constructs. Investigating the derivation of these theories may provide further understanding of their contribution and intended application.

  4. Training as related to behavioral change. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nertney, R.J.; Buys, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This guide provides a basis for upgrading safety training programs and is based on the MORT philosophy of systemic upgrade and repair. It attempts to change the old reactive approach to accidents and events: ``If we tell or train people one more time, it won`t happen again and everything will be all right.`` The ultimate objective of training programs is to change behavior of people. Many factors beyond our control influence human behavior on the job. Training elements must not be considered out of context. Behavioral changes may not occur due to emotional physiological sociological environmental, or managerial reasons. Once dominant factors have been identified it is possible to recognize problems and make effective changes. Training will ordinarily provide an effective solution to a behavioral problem only if the following conditions are met: Skill deficiencies are involved; performance is LTA now and has been in the past. It is possible to reach the desired optimum safety only if these conditions are met: Training is specifically targeted on priority safety problems; Safety problems are sensitive to training; Elements of training programs are coherent and mutually consistent; Training programs are consistent with communications to the trainees from other sources; Desired behavioral changes are logically related to existing individual and organizational attitudes. Efforts to alter human stereotype behavior will likely result in high error frequencies. The old behavior is likely to recur under stressful conditions.

  5. Behavior Change Techniques Used to Promote Walking and Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Emma L.; Baker, Graham; Mutrie, Nanette; Ogilvie, David; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Powell, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evidence on the effectiveness of walking and cycling interventions is mixed. This may be partly attributable to differences in intervention content, such as the cognitive and behavioral techniques (BCTs) used. Adopting a taxonomy of BCTs, this systematic review addressed two questions: (a) What are the behavior change techniques used in walking and cycling interventions targeted at adults? (b) What characterizes interventions that appear to be associated with changes in walking and...

  6. Health behavior change in hearing healthcare: a discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya K. C. Manchaiah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Health behavior change (HBC refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL. In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  7. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    action and thus a target for planned social change. However, the model introduced by Sheth and Frazier has never been used to analyse how this socially desirable action can be promoted. Undertaking such an analysis is the ambition of this paper, and based on this analysis, the paper will, will conclude....... The choice of strategy depends on whether the target groups: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards what is socially desired, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in socially desired action During the last 30 years, entrepreneurship has become what most nations would call a socially desirable...

  8. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis C

    2014-01-01

    Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for huma...

  9. Critical Behavior of CP1 at θ=π, Haldane's Conjecture, and the Relevant Universality Class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an approach to analyze the θ dependence of systems with a θ term we recently proposed, the critical behavior of CP1 at θ=π is studied. We find a region outside the strong coupling regime where Haldane's conjecture is verified. The critical line, however, does not belong to the universality class of the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model at topological coupling k=1 since it shows continuously varying critical exponents

  10. Changing Europe and The Relevance of Care and The Caring Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to introduce the challenges of the international care debate of the last ten years in order to grasp basic social needs, to analyse their treatment in the public and private sphere and to look at the orientation of professional answers by the care-professions. The concept of care enhances the societal dealing with - or ignoring of - different forms of dependency on informal and formal personal and social services throughout the life-cycle (child-care, nursing sick or handicapped persons, supporting the elderly and in special life situations (from help to lone mothers and their children, via help to drug-addicts to help for homeless people. All societies have different approaches to deal with these life-situations, they do so by employ-ing various mixtures of: familial support, mostly provided by women, social politics, organized by the state, public and/or private social services. This welfare-mix shows different combinations of private and public obligations, paid and und unpaid work, professional and laymen's tasks based on a specific understanding of mo-rality and justice embedded in the gender structure and intergenerational relationships. The importance of social work as a profession in this context differs according to the historical developments and cultural traditions. Characteristic for the profile of social work is the rele-vance of a care ethics and the existence of social rights, the tension of mothering and profes-sional methods, the relationship between help, denial and punishment and the ways of institu-tionalisation. The actuality of this debate is closely intertwined with the restructuring of societal bonds in the face of globalisation, the political reorganisation of states, the changes in the living to-gether of different generations and both sexes and the consequences for the organisation and contents of welfare. Looking at Germany and Eastern Europe two new phenomena of social relevance for the dis

  11. IDEIA and the Means to Change Behavior Should Be Enough: Growing Support for Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Christopher; Axelrod, Saul

    2008-01-01

    With the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, classrooms are now mandated to employ behavioral methods to address target behaviors. These relevant behavioral strategies have long been advanced and disseminated by the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Notwithstanding this capability, proponents of the…

  12. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status. PMID:26646570

  13. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change. PMID:16182458

  14. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity. PMID:25054888

  15. Providing Decision-Relevant Information for a State Climate Change Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed

  16. Caregiver perspectives of memory and behavior changes in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia C; Dunbar, Sandra B; Aycock, Dawn M; Courtney, Elizabeth; Wolf, Steven L

    2006-01-01

    Post-stroke memory and behavior changes (MBC) are associated with negative outcomes for stroke survivors and caregivers. This article describes the types of MBC that occur most frequently and caregivers' responses to these behaviors. Data were obtained through in-person interviews and administration of questionnaires to 132 caregivers of first-time stroke survivors 3-9 months after stroke. MBC were measured with a modified version of a Memory and Behavior Problems checklist. On average, caregivers reported 7.7 +/- 3.6 (range 0-17) behaviors. Common stroke survivor MBC included appearing sad or depressed, interrupting the caregiver, and being restless or agitated. These MBC were distressing to caregivers. Caregivers may not recognize some MBC as potential symptoms of depression. In addition, caregiver misunderstanding of the amount of control survivors may have over some behaviors has implications for rehabilitation and caregivers' responses to these changes. PMID:16422042

  17. Communicating confidence in the detection and attribution of trends relevant to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Readily understandable and consistent language for describing confidence in detection and attribution statements can be developed based on the approach used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC was founded in 1965 to provide government authorities with expert, independent, scientific opinion on the causes of human cancer. IARC developed four standard terms for evaluations of the strength of evidence for carcinogenicity arising from human and experimental animal data, and for the strength of mechanistic evidence. Evidence is categorized as sufficient, limited, inadequate, and lack of carcinogenicity. The IARC process then combines theory, evidence, and degree of agreement into a summary evaluation that includes concise statements of the principal line(s) of argument that emerged, the conclusions of the working group on the strength of the evidence for each group of studies, citations to indicate which studies were pivotal to these conclusions, and the reasons for any differential weighting of data. The summary IARC categories are: Group 1 for agents carcinogenic to humans; Group 2 includes Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) or Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) on the basis of epidemiological and experimental evidence of carcinogenicity and mechanistic and other relevant data; Group 3 for agents is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans; and Group 4 for agents probably not carcinogenic to humans. There are obvious parallels with describing confidence in key findings on detection and attribution of a trend to anthropogenic climate change with the confidence statements used by the IARC. Developing and consistent application of similar categories along with accompanying explanations of the principal lines of evidence, would be a helpful step in clearing communicating the degree and sources of certainty in the findings of detection and attribution.

  18. Modelling of spatio-temporal precipitation relevant for urban hydrology with focus on scales, extremes and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen

    structures for all possible weather and not only for extreme precipitation where problems are expected. Observational data is investigated at different spatio-temporal scales and rel-evant scales for assessment of climate change for urban application are iden-tified. Four different observational data sets of......Time series of precipitation are necessary for assessment of urban hydrological systems. In a changed climate this is challenging as climate model output is not directly comparable to observations at the scales relevant for urban hydrology. The focus of this PhD thesis is downscaling of...... precipitation to spatio-temporal scales used in urban hydrology. It investigates several observational data products and identifies relevant scales where climate change and precipitation can be assessed for urban use. Precipitation is modelled at different scales using different stochastic techniques. A weather...

  19. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of REM sleep behavior disorder in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduard

    2009-12-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by vigorous movements associated with unpleasant dreams and increased electromyographic activity during REM sleep. Polysomnography with audiovisual recording is needed to confirm the diagnosis of RBD and to exclude other sleep disorders that can mimic its symptoms including obstructive sleep apnea, nocturnal hallucinations and confusional awakenings. RBD may be idiopathic or related to neurodegenerative diseases, particularly multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. RBD may be the first manifestation of these disorders, antedating the onset of parkinsonism, cerebellar syndrome, dysautonomia, and dementia by several years. RBD should thus be considered an integral part of the disease process. When effective, neuroprotective strategies should be considered in subjects with idiopathic RBD. Patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, though, such as spinocerebellar ataxias, may also present with RBD. When clinically required, clonazepam at bedtime is effective in decreasing the intensity of dream-enacting behaviors and unpleasant dreams in both the idiopathic and secondary forms. When part of a neurodegenerative disorder the development of RBD is thought to reflect the location and extent of the underlying lesions involving the REM sleep centers of the brain (e.g., locus subceruleus, amygdala, etc.), leading to a complex multiple neurotransmitter dysfunction that involves GABAergic, glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems. RBD is mediated neither by direct abnormal alpha-synuclein inclusions nor by striatonigral dopaminergic deficiency alone. PMID:19362028

  20. Self-esteem and "at risk" women:determinants and relevance to sexual and HIV-related risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we describe the relationship between self-esteem and HIV-related risk behaviors, and explore what factors predict self-esteem levels of "at risk" women. Interviews were conducted with 250 (predominantly African American) women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area between August 1997 and August 2000. A community identification process was used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted and theoretical sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Self-esteem was related to the number of times having oral sex, the number of times having sex with paying partners, the frequency of sexual risk-taking (all during the 90 days prior to interview), the number of different HIV risk behaviors practiced during the previous year, and condom use attitudes and self-efficacy. Greater involvement HIV risk behaviors was associated with lower self-esteem. Multivariate analyses revealed five significant predictors of women's self-esteem levels: race, religiosity, childhood experiences with emotional neglect, the number of money-related problems experienced, and the number of drug-related problems experienced. The findings indicate that self-esteem is highly relevant to "at risk" women's HIV risk behavior practices, and this has important implications for HIV intervention programs. PMID:15911511

  1. Behavioral assessment of acoustic parameters relevant to signal recognition and preference in a vocal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, J R; Bass, A H

    1998-12-01

    Acoustic signal recognition depends on the receiver's processing of the physical attributes of a sound. This study takes advantage of the simple communication sounds produced by plainfin midshipman fish to examine effects of signal variation on call recognition and preference. Nesting male midshipman generate both long duration (> 1 min) sinusoidal-like "hums" and short duration "grunts." The hums of neighboring males often overlap, creating beat waveforms. Presentation of humlike, single tone stimuli, but not grunts or noise, elicited robust attraction (phonotaxis) by gravid females. In two-choice tests, females differentiated and chose between acoustic signals that differed in duration, frequency, amplitude, and fine temporal content. Frequency preferences were temperature dependent, in accord with the known temperature dependence of hum fundamental frequency. Concurrent hums were simulated with two-tone beat stimuli, either presented from a single speaker or produced more naturally by interference between adjacent sources. Whereas certain single-source beats reduced stimulus attractiveness, beats which resolved into unmodulated tones at their sources did not affect preference. These results demonstrate that phonotactic assessment of stimulus relevance can be applied in a teleost fish, and that multiple signal parameters can affect receiver response in a vertebrate with relatively simple communication signals. PMID:9857511

  2. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  3. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  4. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zheng

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS, a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300 as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1 domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1 have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations.

  5. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Kasper, Lawryn H; Bedford, David C; Lerach, Stephanie; Teubner, Brett J W; Brindle, Paul K

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP) cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300) as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1) domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1) have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations. PMID:26730956

  6. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Kasper, Lawryn H.; Bedford, David C.; Lerach, Stephanie; Teubner, Brett J. W.; Brindle, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP) cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300) as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1) domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1) have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations. PMID:26730956

  7. Efficacy, effectiveness, and behavior change trials in exercise research

    OpenAIRE

    Courneya Kerry S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The widespread incorporation of behavioral support interventions into exercise trials has sometimes caused confusion concerning the primary purpose of a trial. The purpose of the present paper is to offer some conceptual and methodological distinctions among three types of exercise trials with a view towards improving their design, conduct, reporting, and interpretation. Discussion Exercise trials can be divided into "health outcome trials" or "behavior change trials" base...

  8. Climate change and individual behavior : considerations for policy

    OpenAIRE

    Liverani, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is anthropogenic - the product of billions of acts of daily consumption. That solutions need to be anthropogenic too is well accepted. Yet, suggested solutions are normally cast in the realms of finance and technology, often neglecting the primal root of the problem: individual behavior. An emerging body of social-psychology scholarship has examined the barriers and drivers of individual behavior in relation to both adaptation and mitigation. This paper reviews some of its conc...

  9. Using Relevance Feedback to Distinguish the Changes in EEG During Different Absence Seizure Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Xianzeng; Ouyang, Gaoxiang

    2016-07-01

    We carried out a series of statistical experiments to explore the utility of using relevance feedback on electroencephalogram (EEG) data to distinguish between different activity states in human absence epilepsy. EEG recordings from 10 patients with absence epilepsy are sampled, filtered, selected, and dissected from seizure-free, preseizure, and seizure phases. A total of 112 two-second 19-channel EEG epochs from 10 patients were selected from each phase. For each epoch, multiscale permutation entropy of the EEG data was calculated. The feature dimensionality was reduced by linear discriminant analysis to obtain a more discriminative and compact representation. Finally, a relevance feedback technique, that is, direct biased discriminant analysis, was applied to 68 randomly selected queries over nine iterations. This study is a first attempt to apply the statistical analysis of relevance feedback to the distinction of different EEG activity states in absence epilepsy. The average precision in the top 10 returned results was 97.5%, and the standard deviation suggested that embedding relevance feedback can effectively distinguish different seizure phases in absence epilepsy. The experimental results indicate that relevance feedback may be an effective tool for the prediction of different activity states in human absence epilepsy. The simultaneous analysis of multichannel EEG signals provides a powerful tool for the exploration of abnormal electrical brain activity in patients with epilepsy. PMID:25245133

  10. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P

    2015-08-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual's behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone-behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated with

  11. Scavenging by chimpanzees at Ngogo and the relevance of chimpanzee scavenging to early hominin behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David P

    2008-01-01

    Chimpanzees regularly hunt a variety of prey species. However, they rarely scavenge, which distinguishes chimpanzee carnivory from that of some modern hunter-gatherers and, presumably, at least some Plio-Pleistocene hominins. I use observations made over an 11-year period to document all known opportunities for scavenging encountered by chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and describe all cases of scavenging. I also review data on scavenging from other chimpanzee research sites. Chimpanzees at Ngogo encountered scavenging opportunities only about once per 100 days and ate meat from scavenged carcasses only four times. Scavenging opportunities are also rare at other sites, even where leopards are present (Mahale, Taï, Gombe), and scavenging of leopard kills is known only from Mahale. Feeding on prey that chimpanzees had hunted but then abandoned is the most common form of scavenging reported across study sites. For example, several individuals at Ngogo ate meat from a partially consumed red colobus carcass abandoned after a hunt the previous day. Such behavior probably was not common among Oldowan hominins. Ngogo data and those from other sites also show that chimpanzees sometimes eat meat from carcasses of prey that they did not see killed and that were not killed by chimpanzees, and that scavenging allows access to carcasses larger than those of any prey items. However, chimpanzees ignore relatively many opportunities to obtain meat from such carcasses. Scavenging may be rare because fresh carcasses are rare, because the risk of bacterial infections and zoonoses is high, and because chimpanzees may not recognize certain species as potential prey or certain size classes of prey species as food sources. Its minimal nutritional importance, along with the absence of technology to facilitate confrontational scavenging and rapid carcass processing, apparently distinguishes chimpanzee foraging strategies from those of at least some Oldowan hominins. PMID

  12. Quantitative stove use and ventilation guidance for behavior change strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael A; Chiang, Ranyee A

    2015-01-01

    Achieving World Health Organization air quality targets and aspirational fuel savings targets through clean cooking solutions will require high usage rates of high-performing products and low usage rates of traditional stoves. Catalyzing this shift is challenging as fuel and stove use practices associated with new technologies generally differ from those used with traditional technologies. Accompanying this shift with ventilation improvements can help further reduce exposure to emissions of health damaging pollutants. Behavior change strategies will be central to these efforts to move users to new technologies and minimize exposure to emissions. In this article, the authors show how behavior change can be linked to quantitative guidance on stove usage, household ventilation rates, and performance. The guidance provided here can help behavior change efforts in the household energy sector set and achieve quantitative goals for usage and ventilation rates. PMID:25839198

  13. On the relevance of using homogeneous biphasic models to characterize the mechanical behavior of the growth plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois Collin, Loïc; Villemure, Isabelle; Lévesque, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to theoretically evaluate the relevance of using homogeneous biphasic models to represent the mechanical behavior of the growth plate. To that end, representative volume elements (RVEs) of reserve and proliferative zones, where the extracellular matrix was modeled as poroelastic and the chondrocytes were assumed to be isotropic and linearly elastic, were meshed by finite elements. The matrix obeyed either the biphasic poroelastic (BPE) or the transversely isotropic biphasic poroelastic (TIBPE) models. The RVEs were submitted to unconfined compression (UC), confined compression (CC) and to a hybrid loading featuring a prescribed pore pressure. The overall responses of the RVEs to UC and CC were fit by either the BPE or the TIBPE models. The study revealed that the BPE model was unable to predict the responses under UC and CC simultaneously for both modeled zones. The TIBPE model fit with good accuracy the RVEs effective responses under UC and CC, but failed to predict the response of the hybrid loading. These results show that a mixture of poroelastic phases does not lead to an overall behavior that can be fit with the same formulation. Moreover, this study exemplified the fact the even if the TIBPE model fits experimental data under UC and CC due to its increased number of parameters, it can fail to predict other loading cases. This motivates further micromechanical studies where the local behavior of the constituent phases would carefully be evaluated.

  14. Has microblogging changed stock market behavior? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the stock market behavior for a long-lived subset of firms in Shanghai and Shenzhen CSI 300 Index (CSI 300 Index) both before and after the establishment of firms' Microblogging in Sina Weibo. The empirical results show a significant increase in the relative trading volume as well as the decreases in the daily expected stock return and firm-level volatility in the post-Sina Weibo period. These findings suggest that Sina Weibo as an alternative information interaction channel has changed the information environment for individual stock, enhanced the speed of information diffusion and therefore changed the overall stock market behavior.

  15. [Effects of environmental change and others' behavior on cooperative behavior and solution preference in social dilemma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined how environmental change and others' behavior affected cooperative behavior and solution preference of the person in social dilemma situation. Participants in two experiments played an "environment game," in which gradual pollution in environment and reduction in profit rate were simulated. Information on behavior of other players was manipulated: in "free rider" condition, one person was an extreme free rider, and the others were cooperative; in "loafing" condition, everyone loafed. In both experiments, "Bad Apple Effect" was not observed clearly, and cooperative behavior increased as environmental pollution worsened. In Experiment 2, there was no main effect of others' behavior on solution preference. However, significant correlations were found among solution preference, motivation to control others' behavior, and perceived seriousness of the situation, only when an extreme free rider was among them. PMID:11883324

  16. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  17. A Research Agenda to Examine the Efficacy and Relevance of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nigg, Claudio R; Geller, Karly S.; Motl, Rob W.; Horwath, Caroline C.; Wertin, Kristin K.; Dishman, Rodney K.

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) decreases the risk of several chronic diseases including some cancers, type II diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease; however, the majority of US adults are not meeting the recommended levels to experience these benefits. To address this public health concern, the underlying mechanisms for behavior change need to be understood, translated and disseminated into appropriately tailored interventions. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) provides a framework for...

  18. A Research Agenda to Examine the Efficacy and Relevance of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly S.; Motl, Rob W.; Horwath, Caroline C.; Wertin, Kristin K.; Dishman, Rodney K.

    2010-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) decreases the risk of several chronic diseases including some cancers, type II diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease; however, the majority of US adults are not meeting the recommended levels to experience these benefits. To address this public health concern, the underlying mechanisms for behavior change need to be understood, translated and disseminated into appropriately tailored interventions. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) provides a framework for both the conceptualization and measurement of behavior change, as well as facilitating promotion strategies that are individualized and easily adapted. The purpose of this manuscript is to present the constructs of the TTM as they relate to PA behavior change. We begin with a brief synopsis of recent examinations of the TTM constructs and their application. Subsequent to its introduction, we specifically present the TTM within the PA context and discuss its application and usefulness to researchers and practitioners. Criticisms of the TTM are also noted and presented as opportunities for future research to enhance the valid application of the TTM. We offer general study design recommendations to appropriately test the hypothesized relationships within the model. With further examinations using appropriate study design and statistical analyses, we believe the TTM has the potential to advance the public health impact of future PA promotion interventions. PMID:21113323

  19. Efficacy, effectiveness, and behavior change trials in exercise research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courneya Kerry S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread incorporation of behavioral support interventions into exercise trials has sometimes caused confusion concerning the primary purpose of a trial. The purpose of the present paper is to offer some conceptual and methodological distinctions among three types of exercise trials with a view towards improving their design, conduct, reporting, and interpretation. Discussion Exercise trials can be divided into "health outcome trials" or "behavior change trials" based on their primary outcome. Health outcome trials can be further divided into efficacy and effectiveness trials based on their potential for dissemination into practice. Exercise efficacy trials may achieve high levels of exercise adherence by supervising the exercise over a short intervention period ("traditional" exercise efficacy trials or by the adoption of an extensive behavioral support intervention designed to accommodate unsupervised exercise and/or an extended intervention period ("contemporary" exercise efficacy trials. Exercise effectiveness trials may emanate from the desire to test exercise interventions with proven efficacy ("traditional" exercise effectiveness trials or the desire to test behavioral support interventions with proven feasibility ("contemporary" exercise effectiveness trials. Efficacy, effectiveness, and behavior change trials often differ in terms of their primary and secondary outcomes, theoretical models adopted, selection of participants, nature of the exercise and comparison interventions, nature of the behavioral support intervention, sample size calculation, and interpretation of trial results. Summary Exercise researchers are encouraged to clarify the primary purpose of their trial to facilitate its design, conduct, and interpretation.

  20. Behavioral medicine and health psychology in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, J J

    1987-01-01

    Despite long-established roots in experimental psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine, behavioral medicine and health psychology have only recently emerged as recognized, highly visible disciplines within medicine and the behavioral sciences. The rapid development of these fields has resulted partly from important scientific advances in the biomedical and behavioral sciences and partly from changing societal concerns and values. The latter include a greater preoccupation with individual self-expression and self-fulfillment, a decline in respect for authority per se, and an increased skepticism about social institutions. Coupled with these changes has been an increasing desire to take responsibility for one's own life and, in matters of health, of one's own body. The ways in which scientific advances and social changes have influenced the shape of contemporary behavioral medicine and health psychology are explored with the aid of two illustrations: the growth of a developmental perspective in behavioral medicine and health psychology; and work and health, including the effects of job stress and unemployment. Finally, the author stresses the need for a greater sense of community and concern for others, if we are to succeed in creating a growth-enhancing, health-producing climate for society as a whole and for each of us as individuals. PMID:3315133

  1. 31B. Health Coaching: Empowering Patients for Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Linda; Morriss, Blaire

    2013-01-01

    Focus Area: Supporting Behavioral Change Up to half of all premature deaths in the United States are caused by unhealthy lifestyle choices (smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity). The seven “modifiable” chronic diseases (cancer, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, heart disease, pulmonary conditions, and mental disorders) cost $270 billion annually to treat. Patients who are trying to make lifestyle changes often feel overwhelmed and discouraged. As a result, admonishment and education alone ar...

  2. Neural substrates of contingency learning and executive control: dissociating physical, valuative, and behavioral changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge about environmental contingencies allows behavioral flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of experiential learning have focused on the relationship between actions and the values of associated outcomes. However, outcome values have often been confounded with the physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we dissociated contingency learning into valuative and non-valuative forms, using a novel version of the two-alternative choice task, while measuring the neural effects of contingency changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Changes in value-relevant contingencies evoked activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC, posterior parietal cortex (PPC, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC consistent with prior results (e.g., reversal-learning paradigms. Changes in physical contingencies unrelated to value or to action produced similar activations within the LPFC, indicating that LPFC may engage in generalized contingency learning that is not specific to valuation. In contrast, contingency changes that required behavioral shifts evoked activation localized to the DMPFC, supplementary motor, and precentral cortices, suggesting that these regions play more specific roles within the executive control of behavior.

  3. Solving Problems, Ensuring Relevance and Facilitating Change: The Evolution of Needs Assessment Within Cooperative Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry A. Garst

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Helping people solve the practical problems of everyday life while maintaining contemporary relevance describes the mission of Cooperative Extension. To achieve that mission, Extension professionals have increasingly relied on information gathered from stakeholders to identify relevant problems and potential educational solutions. The methods, efforts, and activities to understand people and their problems are collectively referred to as needs assessment. This article explores the history and evolution of needs assessment in Cooperative Extension, as well as in a broader educational context. While tracing needs assessment through the decades, this article examines the needs assessment opportunities and challenges faced by Cooperative Extension. Emerging trends and implications for the future of Extension needs assessment are also discussed.

  4. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  5. Developing Individualized Behavior Change Goals with Clients: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Richard G.; Uhlemann, Max R.

    This document reviews 10 specific and sequential steps which have emerged as being particularly effective in assisting clients in developing individualized behavior change goals in psychotherapy. The therapist and client typically work through these steps together near the beginning of treatment, but only after the client has had the opportunity…

  6. Climate Change and Individual Behavior: Considerations for Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Liverani, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is anthropogenic - the product of billions of acts of daily consumption. That solutions need to be anthropogenic too is well accepted. Yet, suggested solutions are normally cast in the realms of finance and technology, often neglecting the primal root of the problem: individual behavior. An emerging body of social-psychology scholarship has examined the barriers and drivers ...

  7. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  8. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members. PMID:26247206

  9. Behavior Change after Adventure Education Courses: Do Work Colleagues Notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Heather M.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    In this case study, a mixed-method approach is used to examine the extent and type of changes in workplace attitudes and behavior, as self-reported by soldiers who had participated in 6- to 10-day "Experiential Leadership Development Activities" (ELDAs) delivered by the New Zealand Army Leadership Centre. Observations made by workplace…

  10. The Feldenkrais Method: A Dynamic Approach to Changing Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education, noting parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior. Feldenkrais uses movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. DST explains that a human-environment system continually adapts to changing conditions and assembles behaviors…

  11. Watershed Outreach Professionals' Behavior Change Practices, Challenges, and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Meghan; Little, Samuel; Phelps, Kaitlin; Roble, Carrie; Zint, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the practices, challenges, and needs of Chesapeake Bay watershed outreach professionals, as related to behavior change strategies and best outreach practices. Data were collected through a questionnaire e-mailed to applicants to the Chesapeake Bay Trust's environmental outreach grant program (n = 108, r = 56%). Almost all…

  12. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  13. Changes in Women's Sexual Behavior Following Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliramich, Aimee N.; Gray, Matt J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity…

  14. The changes in connotative meaning of politically relevant terms in Belgrade highschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanović Bora R.; Petrović Nebojša B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we have tried to ascertain connotative meaning of some relevant political concepts, like: democracy, nation, political left and right, nationalism, etc. and to compare obtained results with a similar research conducted eight years ago (1997.) Those concepts are used in strong emotional contexts, and consequently level of their affective meaning often become stronger by process of emotional conditioning. It is possible to ascertain attitudes toward examined concepts by using thi...

  15. The Relevance of People’s Attitudes Towards Freedom of Expression in a Changing Media Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa K. NAAB

    2012-01-01

    The article outlines arguments for the relevance of people’s attitudes towards freedom of expression: It is a fundamental principle of democracy that if a virtue does not receive support from the population, it will not be anchored in law and its foundation is endangered in the medium term. People’s support for free speech is becoming even more influential because authoritative control of internet communication is faced with difficulties. Furthermore, with the development of social media user...

  16. Changes is value relevance of earnings and book values of assets and liabilities over the last 50 years in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Nummila, Piamari

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the changes in value relevance of earnings and book values over the last 50 years in the USA. Value relevance refers to the ability of accounting data to explain stock market values or returns. The common claim of the prior research is that the value relevance of earnings has decreased over time, while the value relevance of book values has increased. Researchers have presented several reasons for these changes. The reasons include, firstly, the balance sheet approach purs...

  17. Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Detect Behavior Change in Multiple Advance Care Planning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudore, Rebecca L.; Stewart, Anita L.; Knight, Sara J.; McMahan, Ryan D.; Feuz, Mariko; Miao, Yinghui; Barnes, Deborah E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Advance directives have traditionally been considered the gold standard for advance care planning. However, recent evidence suggests that advance care planning involves a series of multiple discrete behaviors for which people are in varying stages of behavior change. The goal of our study was to develop and validate a survey to measure the full advance care planning process. Methods The Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey assesses “Process Measures” of factors known from Beha...

  18. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. PMID:25936272

  19. Residential energy use and the relevance of changes in household circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    We use a panel of UK households to analyse the impact that various individual, household and dwelling characteristics have on energy expenditures and whether changes in household socio-economic circumstances translate in changes in energy expenditures. Socio-economic characteristics have a moderate impact on per-capita energy expenditures, while dwelling characteristics and especially household size have much larger impacts in magnitude. Similarly, the largest changes in energy expenditures a...

  20. Age-Related Changes in Demand–Withdraw Communication Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Sarah R.; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand–withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands’ and wives’ demand–w...

  1. A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-07-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand on previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based on the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with 11 finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of the studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors, even as policy makers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity. PMID:24836967

  2. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior. PMID:26327939

  3. Lattice model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Fierro

    Full Text Available Individual behavioral response to the spreading of an epidemic plays a crucial role in the progression of the epidemic itself. The risk perception induces individuals to adopt a protective behavior, as for instance reducing their social contacts, adopting more restrictive hygienic measures or undergoing prophylaxis procedures. In this paper, starting with a previously developed lattice-gas SIR model, we construct a coupled behavior-disease model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes. The focus is on self-initiated behavioral changes that alter the susceptibility to the disease, without altering the contact patterns among individuals. Three different mechanisms of awareness spreading are analyzed: the local spreading due to the presence in the neighborhood of infective individuals; the global spreading due to the news published by the mass media and to educational campaigns implemented at institutional level; the local spreading occurring through the "thought contagion" among aware and unaware individuals. The peculiarity of the present approach is that the awareness spreading model is calibrated on available data on awareness and concern of the population about the risk of contagion. In particular, the model is validated against the A(H1N1 epidemic outbreak in Italy during the 2009/2010 season, by making use of the awareness data gathered by the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (PASSI. We find that, increasing the accordance between the simulated awareness spreading and the PASSI data on risk perception, the agreement between simulated and experimental epidemiological data improves as well. Furthermore, we show that, within our model, the primary mechanism to reproduce a realistic evolution of the awareness during an epidemic, is the one due to globally available information. This result highlights how crucial is the role of mass media and educational campaigns in influencing the epidemic spreading of infectious

  4. Knowledge gain and behavioral change in citizen-science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C; Gray, Steven A; Howe, David V; Brooks, Wesley R; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2011-12-01

    Citizen-science programs are often touted as useful for advancing conservation literacy, scientific knowledge, and increasing scientific-reasoning skills among the public. Guidelines for collaboration among scientists and the public are lacking and the extent to which these citizen-science initiatives change behavior is relatively unstudied. Over two years, we studied 82 participants in a three-day program that included education about non-native invasive plants and collection of data on the occurrence of those plants. Volunteers were given background knowledge about invasive plant ecology and trained on a specific protocol for collecting invasive plant data. They then collected data and later gathered as a group to analyze data and discuss responsible environmental behavior with respect to invasive plants. We tested whether participants without experience in plant identification and with little knowledge of invasive plants increased their knowledge of invasive species ecology, participation increased knowledge of scientific methods, and participation affected behavior. Knowledge of invasive plants increased on average 24%, but participation was insufficient to increase understanding of how scientific research is conducted. Participants reported increased ability to recognize invasive plants and increased awareness of effects of invasive plants on the environment, but this translated into little change in behavior regarding invasive plants. Potential conflicts between scientific goals, educational goals, and the motivation of participants must be considered during program design. PMID:21967292

  5. Age-Related Changes in Demand-Withdraw Communication Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Sarah R; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    Demand-withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands' and wives' demand-withdraw behaviors (i.e., blame, pressure, withdrawal, avoidance) were objectively rated by trained coders at each time point. Data were analyzed using dyad-level latent growth curve models in a structural equation modeling framework. For both husbands and wives, the results showed a longitudinal pattern of increasing avoidance behavior over time and stability in all other demand and withdraw behaviors. This study supports the notion that there is an important developmental shift in the way that conflict is handled in later life. PMID:23913982

  6. 1999 in review: An assessment of new research developments relevant to the science of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-03-31

    A synthesis of about 350 key scientific papers and reports dealing with the subject of climate change which appeared in the international peer-reviewed literature in 1999 is provided. The literature synthesized here deals with changes in atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, climate modelling, climate trends, climate impacts and adaptations, and climate change policy initiatives, especially the policy-science debate and mitigative response. With respect to the former, there are a number of scientists who continue to argue that there are significant discrepancies between observed trends in climate and trends projected by climate models, and suggest that there is cause for scepticism about the risk of climate change. They also suggest that mitigative action could be delayed until better technologies are developed. Others claim that the countries that are most vulnerable lack the resources to deal with the impacts of climate change and that the number of environmental refugees will increase six-fold by 2050 (estimated at 25 million in 1998). The references are classified under the broad topics used in the synthesis part of the review, with further subdivisions as appropriate. 348 refs.

  7. 1999 in review: An assessment of new research developments relevant to the science of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesis of about 350 key scientific papers and reports dealing with the subject of climate change which appeared in the international peer-reviewed literature in 1999 is provided. The literature synthesized here deals with changes in atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, climate modelling, climate trends, climate impacts and adaptations, and climate change policy initiatives, especially the policy-science debate and mitigative response. With respect to the former, there are a number of scientists who continue to argue that there are significant discrepancies between observed trends in climate and trends projected by climate models, and suggest that there is cause for scepticism about the risk of climate change. They also suggest that mitigative action could be delayed until better technologies are developed. Others claim that the countries that are most vulnerable lack the resources to deal with the impacts of climate change and that the number of environmental refugees will increase six-fold by 2050 (estimated at 25 million in 1998). The references are classified under the broad topics used in the synthesis part of the review, with further subdivisions as appropriate. 348 refs

  8. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  9. Behavior Change Techniques in Popular Alcohol Reduction Apps: Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, David; Garnett, Claire; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Objective Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alco...

  10. Structural Changes of Japanese Firms: Strategy, organization, and behavior (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the characteristics of Japanese firms based on an original survey. Specifically, we analyze the changes in management strategy, corporate governance, internal organization, and business behavior of Japanese firms by comparing a survey conducted in the 1990s with a recent one using the same questionnaires. These surveys cover both listed and unlisted firms, which is an important advantage of this study. There are many stable characteristics: the longer ...

  11. Behavioral Changes in Egyptian Children With Nephrotic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Emil Ghobrial; Sameh Samir Fahmey; Maha Emad Eldin Ahmed; Osama Botrous

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Chronic illnesses, including nephrotic syndrome (NS), are associated with psychosocial stress. Our study aimed to assess psychological problems in children with NS. Materials and Methods. Sixty children with NS were assessed at the Children Hospital, in Cairo for behavioral changes. They responded to the Arabic version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results were compared between those with steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS), steroid-dependent NS (SDNS), and steroid...

  12. Reform from Below: Behavioral and Institutional Change in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Haggard; Marcus Noland

    2009-01-01

    The state is often conceptualized as playing an enabling role in a country's economic development--providing public goods, such as the legal protection of property rights, while the political economy of reform is conceived in terms of bargaining over policy among elites or special interest groups. We document a case that turns this perspective on its head: efficiency-enhancing institutional and behavioral changes arising not out of a conscious, top-down program of reform, but rather as uninte...

  13. Age-related changes in neural functional connectivity and its behavioral relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlee Winfried

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resting-state recordings are characterized by widely distributed networks of coherent brain activations. Disturbances of the default network - a set of regions that are deactivated by cognitive tasks and activated during passive states - have been detected in age-related disorders such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease but alterations in the course of healthy aging still need to be explored. Results Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, the present study investigated how age-related functional resting-state brain connectivity links to cognitive performance in healthy aging in fifty-three participants ranging in age from 18 to 89 years. A beamforming technique was used to reconstruct the brain activity in source space and the interregional coupling was investigated using partial directed coherence (PDC. We found significant age-related alterations of functional resting-state connectivity. These are mainly characterized by reduced information input into the posterior cingulum/precuneus region together with an enhanced information flow to the medial temporal lobe. Furthermore, higher inflow in the medial temporal lobe subsystem was associated with weaker cognitive performance whereas stronger inflow in the posterior cluster was related to better cognitive performance. Conclusion This is the first study to show age-related alterations in subsystems of the resting state network that are furthermore associated with cognitive performance.

  14. Impact of climate change on factors relevant to probable maximum precipitation estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: Large-scale civil engineering works are often designed with reference to the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) design flood, in which one required input is the PMP estimate for a particular catchment. The PMP is the greatest depth of precipitation meteorologically possible for a given duration, area, location and time of year, with no allowance made for long-term climatic trends. PMP estimates are derived for any catchment in Australia using an appropriate generalised method. Each method relies on a catalogue of previous significant rainfall events of various areas and durations for a particular application zone. The PMP rainfall depth is derived from the upper bound of the maximised-standardised convergence rainfall, in which the available moisture for each event has been maximised to its climatological extreme and all events standardised to a common location. The event associated with the PMP rainfall depth (for a particular area and duration) is also assumed to operate at an optimal efficiency. The PMP estimates, although assumed to be independent of climate change, are likely to be influenced by changes in factors contributing to moisture availability (through both storm and extreme precipitable water) and relative storm efficiency (the ratio of rainfall rate to storm precipitable water). Analyses indicate that changes in extreme precipitable water will have the most direct impact on PMP estimates when applied to a particular catchment. The CSIRO Mk3.0 climate model was used to assess for changes in the 90th percentile of precipitable water for different emission scenarios up to the year 2100. These changes indicate that extreme precipitable water will increase for most seasons and locations across Australia that have been associated with previous significant rainfall events. However when assessing the effect of changes, an additional complication results from the transposition process within the generalised methods. There is a

  15. The Relevance of People’s Attitudes Towards Freedom of Expression in a Changing Media Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa K. NAAB

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines arguments for the relevance of people’s attitudes towards freedom of expression: It is a fundamental principle of democracy that if a virtue does not receive support from the population, it will not be anchored in law and its foundation is endangered in the medium term. People’s support for free speech is becoming even more influential because authoritative control of internet communication is faced with difficulties. Furthermore, with the development of social media users gain new opportunities to publicly express their opinions attaching even more importance to normative self-regulation. As a matter of fact, these increased opportunities of self-regulation may either enhance or decrease the exercise of expression rights. Thus, citizen’s endorsement of free expression is a valuable indicator of the status of freedom of expression in a country. To approach to the subject empirically, the paper systematizes findings on people’s attitudes towards free speech: Most people believe in freedom of expression in the abstract. Willingness to apply the right to opposing groups, however, is lower. Perceived threats, confidence in democratic principles, mode of communication, and personality variables influence tolerance of expressions. Finally, a research agenda is put forward to examine appreciation of free expression, its antecedence, and implications.

  16. Frequent changes in subtelomeric DNA methylation patterns and its relevance to telomere regulation during human hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Um, Tae-Hee; Choi, Gi Hong; Park, Young Nyun

    2011-02-15

    Subtelomeric chromatin modifications are important regulators of telomere length. We examined the subtelomeric DNA methylation status of 7q, 8q, 17q, 18p, 21q and XpYp in 32 pairs of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their adjacent non-HCCs via methylation-specific PCR (quantified as methylation ratio). In addition, 10q was subjected to bisulfite-genomic-sequencing. Telomere length was determined by Southern hybridization. In all cases, the relationship between methylation ratio and telomere length was determined. High levels of methylation ratio were found on chromosomes 7q, 18p and XpYp, whereas 8q 17q and 21q were less methylated in both HCCs and non-HCCs. Compared to non-HCCs, HCCs exhibited a higher methylation ratio on 18p and 21q, and a wider distribution of methylation ratio on 7q, 21q and 10q (p telomere length of HCCs, respectively (p HCC to HCC were found at 47 sites and hypomethylation changes at 31 sites. Changes in methylation pattern were observed at three to four sites among six chromosomal sites in 15 patients (47%). There was a tendency toward hypomethylation changes at 7q (p = 0.013) and hypermethylation changes at 21q (p = 0.057) when telomere lengthened from non-HCCs to HCCs. In summary, subtelomeric methylation patterns dynamically changed during hepatocarcinogenesis. Subtelomeric methylation at certain regions was related to telomere lengthening or shortening, suggesting an association between subtelomeric chromatin structure and telomere length regulation in human hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:20473888

  17. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  18. The role of audience participation and task relevance on change detection during a card trick

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tim J.

    2015-01-01

    Magicians utilize many techniques for misdirecting audience attention away from the secret sleight of a trick. One technique is to ask an audience member to participate in a trick either physically by asking them to choose a card or cognitively by having them keep track of a card. While such audience participation is an established part of most magic the cognitive mechanisms by which it operates are unknown. Failure to detect changes to objects while passively viewing magic tricks has been sh...

  19. Protection changes the relevancy of scales of variability in coralligenous assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, L.; La Manna, G.; Cecchi, E.; Serena, F.; Ceccherelli, G.

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of natural spatial patterns of variability is crucial to discriminate between natural changes and human-induced effects and to plan monitoring programs and impact evaluation studies. The present study aimed at estimating the spatial variability of coralligenous habitat, one of the main important habitats of the Mediterranean Sea, at several spatial scales. Specifically, the following hypotheses were tested: i) the structure of coralligenous assemblage and ii) the abundance of main taxa/groups both changed among different spatial scales differently depending on protection. A hierarchical sampling design was used to study 14 localities (7 Marine Protected Areas and 7 unprotected) at multiple spatial scales through photographic recording. The study suggested that, in protected conditions, the structure of coralligenous assemblages mostly varied at small spatial scale (m apart), while the structure is similar across different localities, sites and areas, even if the abundance of the main taxa/morphological groups changed. In unprotected conditions, variability among localities was higher than among Marine Protected Areas, while an opposite trend was observed at the smaller spatial scales.

  20. Identifying stakeholder-relevant climate change impacts: a case study in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, K.; Graves, D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Hatten, James R.; Mastin, Mark C.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Montag, J.; Nieman, Timothy; Voss, Frank D.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    Designing climate-related research so that study results will be useful to natural resource managers is a unique challenge. While decision makers increasingly recognize the need to consider climate change in their resource management plans, and climate scientists recognize the importance of providing locally-relevant climate data and projections, there often remains a gap between management needs and the information that is available or is being collected. We used decision analysis concepts to bring decision-maker and stakeholder perspectives into the applied research planning process. In 2009 we initiated a series of studies on the impacts of climate change in the Yakima River Basin (YRB) with a four-day stakeholder workshop, bringing together managers, stakeholders, and scientists to develop an integrated conceptual model of climate change and climate change impacts in the YRB. The conceptual model development highlighted areas of uncertainty that limit the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and decision alternatives by those who will be most directly affected by those changes, and pointed to areas where additional study and engagement of stakeholders would be beneficial. The workshop and resulting conceptual model highlighted the importance of numerous different outcomes to stakeholders in the basin, including social and economic outcomes that go beyond the physical and biological outcomes typically reported in climate impacts studies. Subsequent studies addressed several of those areas of uncertainty, including changes in water temperatures, habitat quality, and bioenergetics of salmonid populations.

  1. Automatic Detection Method of Behavior Change in Dam Monitor Instruments Cause by Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mucio Bando

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A hydroelectric power plant consists of a project of great relevance for the social and economic development of a country. However, this kind of construction demands extensive attention because the occurrence of unusual behavior on its structure may result in undesirable consequences. Seismic waves are some of the phenomena which demand attention of one in charge of a dam safety because once it happens can directly affect the structure behavior. The target of this work is to present a methodology to automatically detect which monitoring instruments have gone under any change in pattern and their measurements after the seism. The detection method proposed is based on a neuro/fuzzy/bayesian formulation which is divided in three steps. Firstly, a clustering of points in a time series is developed from a self-organizing Kohonen map. Afterwards a fuzzy set is built to transform the initial time series, with arbitrary distribution, into a new series with beta distribution probability and thus enable the detection of changing points through a Monte Carlo simulation via Markov chains. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal the methodology has been applied in time series generated by Itaipu power plant building structures measurement instruments, which showed little behavior change after the earthquake in Chile in 2010.

  2. Pathways to adulthood and changes in health-promoting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frech, Adrianne

    2014-03-01

    The transition to adulthood in the US has become increasingly diverse over the last fifty years, leaving young adults without a normative pathway to adulthood. Using Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=7803), I draw from a cumulative advantages/disadvantages (CAD) perspective to examine the relationships between union formation, parenthood, college attendance, full-time employment, home-leaving, and changes in health-promoting behaviors between adolescence and young adulthood. I find that men and women who marry, cohabit, or attend college during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood report fewer losses in healthy behaviors over time. When the sample is divided into mutually exclusive "pathways to adulthood", two higher-risk groups emerge for both men and women: single parents and those transitioning into fulltime work without attending college or forming families. These groups experience greater losses in healthy behaviors over time even after adjusting for family of origin characteristics and may be at long-term risk for persistently low engagement in health-promoting behaviors. PMID:24796877

  3. Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Alix Peterson; Zinman, Jonathan; Van Dusen, Eric; Pariente, William; Null, Clair; Miguel, Edward; Kremer, Michael; Karlan, Dean S; Hornbeck, Richard; Giné, Xavier; Duflo, Esther; Devoto, Florencia; Crepon, Bruno; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2011-02-01

    Does completing a household survey change the later behavior of those surveyed? In three field studies of health and two of microlending, we randomly assigned subjects to be surveyed about health and/or household finances and then measured subsequent use of a related product with data that does not rely on subjects' self-reports. In the three health experiments, we find that being surveyed increases use of water treatment products and take-up of medical insurance. Frequent surveys on reported diarrhea also led to biased estimates of the impact of improved source water quality. In two microlending studies, we do not find an effect of being surveyed on borrowing behavior. The results suggest that limited attention could play an important but context-dependent role in consumer choice, with the implication that researchers should reconsider whether, how, and how much to survey their subjects. PMID:21245314

  4. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead, they grow up in single-parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence, it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on...... children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1985 is used for the...... analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s health, behavior, and educational outcomes. These results are con.rmed by a differences-in-differences analysis of health outcomes. This suggests that there is not...

  5. Reduced acetylcholine synthesis in Alzheimer's disease is a clinically relevant change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study of patients in the presenium. Psychological assessment was carried out to provide measures of relative severity of dementia, with which pathological and chemical indices of impairment could be compared. Fresh cortical biopsy tissue permitted the assay of ChAT activity, and also the determination of acetylcholine synthesis in a preparation enriched in cortical synaptosomes. Additionally, choline uptake has been measured for comparison. Nuerosurgical samples from all patients were handled and processed for measuring acetylcholine synthesis by incorporation of U-14C-glucoase into C 14-acetylcholine in neocortical tissue prisms. Cortical sections from most of the patients were found on light microscopy to contain the characteristic changes of Alzheimer's disease

  6. Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for Adaptive Learning in Changing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Dimitrije; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic models of decision making under various forms of uncertainty have been applied in recent years to numerous behavioral and model-based fMRI studies. These studies were highly successful in enabling a better understanding of behavior and delineating the functional properties of brain areas involved in decision making under uncertainty. However, as different studies considered different models of decision making under uncertainty, it is unclear which of these computational models provides the best account of the observed behavioral and neuroimaging data. This is an important issue, as not performing model comparison may tempt researchers to over-interpret results based on a single model. Here we describe how in practice one can compare different behavioral models and test the accuracy of model comparison and parameter estimation of Bayesian and maximum-likelihood based methods. We focus our analysis on two well-established hierarchical probabilistic models that aim at capturing the evolution of beliefs in changing environments: Hierarchical Gaussian Filters and Change Point Models. To our knowledge, these two, well-established models have never been compared on the same data. We demonstrate, using simulated behavioral experiments, that one can accurately disambiguate between these two models, and accurately infer free model parameters and hidden belief trajectories (e.g., posterior expectations, posterior uncertainties, and prediction errors) even when using noisy and highly correlated behavioral measurements. Importantly, we found several advantages of Bayesian inference and Bayesian model comparison compared to often-used Maximum-Likelihood schemes combined with the Bayesian Information Criterion. These results stress the relevance of Bayesian data analysis for model-based neuroimaging studies that investigate human decision making under uncertainty.

  7. Empiric validation of a process for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; MacKinnon, David P; Ranby, Krista W; Kuehl, Kerry S; Moe, Esther L

    2016-09-01

    Most behavior change trials focus on outcomes rather than deconstructing how those outcomes related to programmatic theoretical underpinnings and intervention components. In this report, the process of change is compared for three evidence-based programs' that shared theories, intervention elements and potential mediating variables. Each investigation was a randomized trial that assessed pre- and post- intervention variables using survey constructs with established reliability. Each also used mediation analyses to define relationships. The findings were combined using a pattern matching approach. Surprisingly, knowledge was a significant mediator in each program (a and b path effects [p<0.01]). Norms, perceived control abilities, and self-monitoring were confirmed in at least two studies (p<0.01 for each). Replication of findings across studies with a common design but varied populations provides a robust validation of the theory and processes of an effective intervention. Combined findings also demonstrate a means to substantiate process aspects and theoretical models to advance understanding of behavior change. PMID:27528533

  8. Are the stages of change relevant for the development and implementation of a web-based tailored alcohol intervention? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Daniela N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-tailored programs are a promising tool to stimulate health behavior change, such as reducing alcohol intake. Yet more research is needed to assess whether groups differing in their motivational level to change may need different types of feedback. Furthermore, it is unknown whether motivational level may also determine reactions to computer-tailored interventions. Our aim is to identify the potential relevance of the application of the stages of change concept in the development and implementation of alcohol interventions. Methods A web-based instrument was used to disseminate a questionnaire and to provide tailored feedback messages among adults in the Netherlands (N = 170; 96 females. Motivational level was assessed by the stage of change construct. The survey furthermore assessed alcohol consumption, attitude, social influence, self-efficacy, and program evaluation (i.e., survey items, tailored advice, layout and functionality of the program. The Least Significant Difference method was used to compare people in different stages of change with regard to psychosocial determinants of drinking behavior and program evaluation. Results Of the respondents, 34.1% (n = 58 reported no intention to change to healthier drinking habits in the foreseeable future (precontemplation, 22.9% (n = 39 intended to improve their drinking behavior in the near future (contemplation/preparation and 42.9% (n = 73 reported to currently adhere to the Dutch alcohol consumption guidelines (action/maintenance. When comparing the three groups, people in the action or maintenance stage reported the lowest number of pros of drinking alcohol, having most healthy drinking role models and the highest levels of self-efficacy regarding healthy drinking in difficult situations, whereas precontemplators reported to receive the least social support regarding healthy drinking. In general, the intervention was positively evaluated, but it

  9. On the relevance of volume increase for the length changes of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ingress of sulfate ions into cementitious materials leads to the formation of ettringite, gypsum and other phases. The increase in solid volume through the formation of these phases is often assumed to be the only reason for expansion. In this paper we systematically compare the volume increase predicted by thermodynamic modeling to macroscopic expansion for mortars made with CEM I in different sulfate solutions and for mortars made with a range of blended cements in sodium sulfate solution. It is shown that the length changes cannot be explained by simple volume increase alone. A more plausible explanation of expansion lies in the theory of crystallization pressure, in which crystals forming from a supersaturated solution may exert pressure on their surroundings. It is observed that expansion occurs in systems where thermodynamic modeling predicts the co-existence of ettringite with gypsum. In such a case, if monosulfate and gypsum are both present locally, the solution can be highly supersaturated with respect to ettringite, whose formation in confined conditions (such as within C–S–H) can then exert expansive forces

  10. On the relevance of volume increase for the length changes of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunther, Wolfgang, E-mail: wkunther@googlemail.com [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Scrivener, Karen L. [EPFL, Laboratory of Construction Materials, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-04-01

    The ingress of sulfate ions into cementitious materials leads to the formation of ettringite, gypsum and other phases. The increase in solid volume through the formation of these phases is often assumed to be the only reason for expansion. In this paper we systematically compare the volume increase predicted by thermodynamic modeling to macroscopic expansion for mortars made with CEM I in different sulfate solutions and for mortars made with a range of blended cements in sodium sulfate solution. It is shown that the length changes cannot be explained by simple volume increase alone. A more plausible explanation of expansion lies in the theory of crystallization pressure, in which crystals forming from a supersaturated solution may exert pressure on their surroundings. It is observed that expansion occurs in systems where thermodynamic modeling predicts the co-existence of ettringite with gypsum. In such a case, if monosulfate and gypsum are both present locally, the solution can be highly supersaturated with respect to ettringite, whose formation in confined conditions (such as within C–S–H) can then exert expansive forces.

  11. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation relevant to changes in municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikoń, Krzysztof; Gaska, Krzysztof

    2010-07-01

    Standard methods for assessing the environmental impact of waste management systems are needed to underpin the development and implementation of sustainable waste management practice. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for comprehensively ensuring such assessment and covers all impacts associated with waste management. LCA is often called "from cradle to grave" analysis. This paper integrates information on the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of various management options for some of the most common materials in municipal solid waste (MSW). Different waste treatment options for MSW were studied in a system analysis. Different combinations of recycling (cardboard, plastics, glass, metals), biological treatment (composting), and incineration as well as land-filling were studied. The index of environmental burden in the global warming impact category was calculated. The calculations are based on LCA methodology. All emissions taking place in the whole life cycle system were taken into account. The analysis included "own emissions," or emissions from the system at all stages of the life cycle, and "linked emissions," or emissions from other sources linked with the system in an indirect way. Avoided emissions caused by recycling and energy recovery were included in the analysis. Displaced emissions of GHGs originate from the substitution of energy or materials derived from waste for alternative sources. The complex analysis of the environmental impact of municipal waste management systems before and after application of changes in MSW systems according to European Union regulations is presented in this paper. The evaluation is made for MSW systems in Poland. PMID:20681425

  12. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansis, Eberhard; Davis, Steven J.; Pongratz, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Accounting for carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change (LULCC) generally requires choosing from multiple options of how to attribute the fluxes to regions and to LULCC activities. Applying a newly developed and spatially explicit bookkeeping model BLUE (bookkeeping of land use emissions), we quantify LULCC fluxes and attribute them to land use activities and countries by a range of different accounting methods. We present results with respect to a Kyoto Protocol-like "commitment" accounting period, using land use emissions of 2008-2012 as an example scenario. We assess the effect of accounting methods that vary (1) the temporal evolution of carbon stocks, (2) the state of the carbon stocks at the beginning of the period, (3) the temporal attribution of carbon fluxes during the period, and (4) treatment of LULCC fluxes that occurred prior to the beginning of the period. We show that the methodological choices result in grossly different estimates of carbon fluxes for the different attribution definitions.

  13. Changes in tumor tissue oxygenation during microwave hyperthermia-clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue oxygen levels, blood flow and temperature were determined using a multiwire electrode system carried by insertable sutures into cancerous tissues in patients undergoing microwave hyperthermia treatments in different regions of the body. TpO/sub 2/ was determined using a 25 micron gold in teflon wire. Temperature was measured using a 100 micron copper-constantan microthermocouple placed at the same point as the O/sub 2/ electrode. Blood flow was determined using the thermal washout method. Tumors were heated using air cooled microwave applicators at a frequency of 915 or 300 MHz. As previously described TpO/sub 2/ and flow increase in tumor as temperatures increase to 410C and then decrease (microcirculation ''breaking point''). In the present study this response was reproduced in over 25 treatment sessions. However, as treatment progresses (patients are treated for 1 hour 10 times, twice weekly, and concomitantly receive 4000 rads of ionizing radiation) the initial increase of blood flow and TpO/sub 2/ is reduced and there is an immediate decrease in tissue oxygenation. A correlation between microvascular tumor physiological changes and tumor treatment responses is being developed

  14. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  15. Order is needed to promote linear or quantum changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviors: a reaction to 'A chaotic view of behavior change' by Resnicow and Vaughan.

    OpenAIRE

    Brug Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Drs. Ken Resnicow and Roger Vaughan published a thought-provoking paper in the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (IJBNPA). They argue that the most often used social-cognition theories in behavioral nutrition and physical activity are of limited use. These models describe behavior change as a linear event, while Resnicow and Vaughan posit that behavior change is more likely to occur in quantum leaps that are impossible to predict. They intr...

  16. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zawadzki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping training to change five environmentally impactful behaviors and then spread behavior change messages to fellow residents during a two-week energy challenge. Eco-reps successfully changed their own behaviors in a pro-environmental direction by generating important barriers and successful facilitators for behavior change, and eco-rep residence halls were more likely to reduce energy and maintain reductions compared to non-eco-rep halls. Implications for future environmental behavior change interventions are discussed.

  17. The relevance of aging-related changes in brain function to rehabilitation in aging-related disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Crosson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aging on rehabilitation of aging-related diseases are rarely a design consideration in rehabilitation research. In this brief review we present strong coincidental evidence from these two fields suggesting that deficits in aging-related disease or injury are compounded by the interaction between aging-related brain changes and disease-related brain changes. Specifically, we hypothesize that some aphasia, motor, and neglect treatments using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in stroke patients may address the aging side of this interaction. The importance of testing this hypothesis and addressing the larger aging by aging-related disease interaction is discussed. Underlying mechanisms in aging that most likely are relevant to rehabilitation of aging-related diseases also are covered.

  18. The relevance of a coproductive capacity framework to climate change adaptation: investigating the health and water sectors in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Bowen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple active partnerships in the health and water sectors in Cambodia exist to address climate change adaptation, operating beyond typical sectoral and organizational divides. Decisions around national adaptation policy are made predominantly by the relevant lead ministry, contrasting with where funding originates from (i.e., major donors, multilaterals, United Nation agencies. Adaptation policy is thus the result of a process of coproduction by state and nonstate actors. The research we present sought to understand the relationships that exist between knowledge- and decision-makers with respect to climate change adaptation in the health and water sectors in Cambodia, and the factors that enabled or constrained these relationships. Forty-four interviews were conducted with representatives of 32 organizations. We found that coproductive relationships were most effective when there were clearly defined roles and responsibilities, coordination of technical and financial resources, and trust. The two key factors of coproductive capacity that enabled and supported these partnerships were scientific resources and governance capability. Ultimately, the roles and responsibilities given to various actors requires commensurate funding and greater consideration of existing relationships and power dynamics. The reliance on international scientific expertise also needs to be challenged so that local research capabilities can be developed and locally relevant, problem-specific information can be provided. The ongoing funding, codevelopment, and sharing of such knowledge would significantly enhance trust and cooperation.

  19. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on...... children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985 is...... used for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....

  20. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of 'shocks' in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on...... children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on both educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985 is used for the analysis. The...... empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children's educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....

  1. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: → Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.→ IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. → IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. → IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. → IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  2. A clash of values: Fear-relevant stimuli can enhance or corrupt adaptive behavior through competition between Pavlovian and instrumental valuation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates preferentially learn to fear and avoid archetypical fear-relevant stimuli. Yet how these learning biases influence adaptive behavior, the basic mechanistic underpinnings of these biases, and how they interact with learning experiences during the life span of an individual remain unknown. To study this, we investigated how 4 classes of fear-relevant stimuli (snakes, threatening in-group faces, racial out-group faces, and guns) influenced adaptive behavior. We showed that stimulus-driven biases have a dramatic influence that can either promote or corrupt adaptive behavior depending on how a bias relates to the environment. We quantified and compared the effects of different fear-relevant stimuli on instrumental behavior using a computational reinforcement learning model that formalized the idea that the bias reflects competition between an instrumental and a Pavlovian valuation system. These results were further clarified by 2 independent rating studies showing that perceived danger of the stimuli corresponded well with their influence on adaptive behavior. PMID:25893448

  3. Indoors illumination and seasonal changes in mood and behavior are associated with the health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Arpo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Seasonal changes in mood and behavior are common in a general population, being of relevance to public health. We wanted to analyze whether the HRQoL is associated with the seasonal changes in mood and behavior. Because the shortage of exposure to daylight or artificial bright light has been linked to the occurrence of the seasonal changes, we wanted to know whether illumination indoors contributes to the HRQoL. Methods Of the sample of 7979 individuals, being representative of the Finnish general population aged 30 and over, 88% were interviewed face to face, and 84% participated in the health status examination after which the self-report assessment of the HRQoL and the seasonal changes in mood and behavior took place. The illumination levels experienced indoors were asked during the interview and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 was filled in before the health examination. Results The HRQoL was influenced by both the seasonal changes in mood and behavior (P Conclusion The routinely emerging seasonal changes in mood and behavior are associated with the HRQoL and mental well-being. Better illumination indoors might alleviate the season-bound symptoms and thereby enhance the HRQoL and mental well-being.

  4. Development and validation of a questionnaire to detect behavior change in multiple advance care planning behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Sudore

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Advance directives have traditionally been considered the gold standard for advance care planning. However, recent evidence suggests that advance care planning involves a series of multiple discrete behaviors for which people are in varying stages of behavior change. The goal of our study was to develop and validate a survey to measure the full advance care planning process. METHODS: The Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey assesses "Process Measures" of factors known from Behavior Change Theory to affect behavior (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, using 5-point Likert scales and "Action Measures" (yes/no of multiple behaviors related to surrogate decision makers, values and quality of life, flexibility for surrogate decision making, and informed decision making. We administered surveys at baseline and 1 week later to 50 diverse, older adults from San Francisco hospitals. Internal consistency reliability of Process Measures was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (only continuous variables and test-retest reliability of Process and Action Measures was examined using intraclass correlations. For discriminant validity, we compared Process and Action Measure scores between this cohort and 20 healthy college students (mean age 23.2 years, SD 2.7. RESULTS: Mean age was 69.3 (SD 10.5 and 42% were non-White. The survey took a mean of 21.4 minutes (±6.2 to administer. The survey had good internal consistency (Process Measures Cronbach's alpha, 0.94 and test-retest reliability (Process Measures intraclass correlation, 0.70; Action Measures, 0.87. Both Process and Action Measure scores were higher in the older than younger group, p<.001. CONCLUSION: A new Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey that measures behavior change (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness and multiple advance care planning actions demonstrates good reliability and validity. Further research is needed to assess whether survey

  5. Designing at Scale: Lessons in Relevance, Quality, and Equity from ChangeScale, a Bay Area environmental education collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, E.

    2015-12-01

    The best environmental education equips people with the know-how and drive to create healthy communities and a healthy planet. While there are many wonderful organizations providing environmental learning, ensuring quality, cultural relevance and equity of access remains an elusive goal--especially if environmental education organizations work in isolation. Organizations across 12 counties in the Bay Area have come together to create a different model. They have founded ChangeScale, a regional collaborative dedicated to providing high quality environmental education to hundreds of thousands of youth---by working together. ChangeScale's work involves setting up school district-level partnerships, providing technical assistance to local environmental education networks, and training environmental educators across the region. In this talk, the presenter, who is a founding member and steering committee chair for ChangeScale, will outline the challenges of working at a regional scale with dozens of organizations. She will share the processes ChangeScale has used to develop a business plan and build membership. She will conclude by sharing the short term and long term potential impacts of working collectively for environmental literacy in the Bay Area.

  6. The lung mechanical behavior change with 100% oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hsuan-Tso

    In medicine, delivery of hyperbaric oxygen to the lung is necessary and quite common to use for critical care. However, it is known that too much oxygen, under different conditions, can be toxic. For example, at an oxygen fraction of 50% at normal atmospheric pressure, the alveoli will show damage after long periods of exposure (several hours). Prolonged or high oxygen concentrations (up to 50%) can cause oxidative damage to cell membranes, the collapse of the alveoli in the lungs, retinal detachment, and seizures. Oxygen toxicity is managed by reducing the exposure to elevated oxygen levels. The possible mechanisms of oxygen toxicity are not fully understood, but the two main hypotheses in literature are direct point out cellular damage or surfactant dysfunction. Most previous studies have focused on long-term (greater than 4 hours) exposure and the effects on lung. Very little is known regarding the short-term effects of oxygen on lung. In this study, we choose to investigate short-term (five tidal volume) changes in lung under oxygen. To test this, we measured any sensitive mechanical behavior change in the lung using indentation. In the experiments, we measured excised mammalian lungs inflated with air or 100% oxygen, to different pressure (4, 12, 25cmH2O) and different indenter displacement (1, 2, 3mm). Our results show the lung becomes stiffer even when exposed to oxygen in the short term. In addition, inflating air again, the lung mechanical property shows some reversible behavior. This phenomenon is more obvious at low inflation pressure than in high pressure after exposure oxygen. We suggest that pulmonary surfactant plays an important role in the observed change. Also, we can say that the exposure time for oxygen toxicity to occur could be shorted that previously thought short-term. This conclusion is important to understand and accommodate oxygen toxicity in the lung.

  7. Enhancing Behavioral Change with Motivational Interviewing: a case study in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada ePietrabissa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: psychological interventions in Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR programs appear relevant in as much they significantly contribute to achieve the goals of rehabilitation, to reduce the risk of relapses and to improve patients’ adherence to therapy. To this aim, Motivational Interviewing (MI has shown promising results in improving motivation to change and individuals’ confidence in their ability to do so. Objective: the purpose of this article is to integrate theory with practice by describing a 3-session case scenario. It illustrates how the use of MI’s skills and strategies can be used to enhance health. MI may be synergistic with other treatment approaches and it is used here in conjunction with Brief Strategic Therapy (BST. Conclusions: by the use of Motivational Interviewing principles and technique, the patient reported an increase in his motivation and ability to change, developing a post discharge plan that incorporates self-care behaviors. Clinical Implications: Motivational Interviewing may be effective in motivating and facilitating health behavior change in patients suffering from heart failure.

  8. Relevance of Retinal Thickness Changes in the OCT Inner and Outer Rings to Predict Progression to Clinical Macular Edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vujosevic, Stela; Varano, Monica; Egan, Catherine;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize the relevance of macular thickness changes in the inner and outer rings in the progression of macular edema in eyes/patients with diabetes type 2. METHODS: A total of 374 type 2 diabetic patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (ETDRS levels 20-35) were...... included in a 12-month prospective observational study to identify retinopathy progression. Retinal thickness analyses were performed in 194 eyes/patients using Cirrus SD- OCT and 166 eyes/patients using Spectralis SD-OCT. The DRCR.net classification of subclinical and clinical macular edema was used. A...... composite grading of macular edema is proposed in this study. RESULTS: A total of 317 eyes/patients completed the study. SD-OCT identified clinical macular edema in 24 eyes/patients (6.7%) and subclinical macular edema in 104 eyes/patients (28.9%) at baseline. Increased thickness of the central subfield is...

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in plant hydraulic traits and their relevance for climate change impacts on vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R L

    2015-02-01

    Plant hydraulics mediate terrestrial woody plant productivity, influencing global water, carbon, and biogeochemical cycles, as well as ecosystem vulnerability to drought and climate change. While inter-specific differences in hydraulic traits are widely documented, intra-specific hydraulic variability is less well known and is important for predicting climate change impacts. Here, I present a conceptual framework for this intra-specific hydraulic trait variability, reviewing the mechanisms that drive variability and the consequences for vegetation response to climate change. I performed a meta-analysis on published studies (n = 33) of intra-specific variation in a prominent hydraulic trait - water potential at which 50% stem conductivity is lost (P50) - and compared this variation to inter-specific variability within genera and plant functional types used by a dynamic global vegetation model. I found that intra-specific variability is of ecologically relevant magnitudes, equivalent to c. 33% of the inter-specific variability within a genus, and is larger in angiosperms than gymnosperms, although the limited number of studies highlights that more research is greatly needed. Furthermore, plant functional types were poorly situated to capture key differences in hydraulic traits across species, indicating a need to approach prediction of drought impacts from a trait-based, rather than functional type-based perspective. PMID:25729797

  10. The eHealth Behavior Management Model: A Stage-based Approach to Behavior Change and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Bensley; Nelda Mercer; Brusk, John J.; Ric Underhile; Jason Rivas; Judith Anderson; Deanne Kelleher; Melissa Lupella; de Jager, André C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the Internet has become an important avenue for disseminating health information, theory-driven strategies for aiding individuals in changing or managing health behaviors are lacking. The eHealth Behavior Management Model combines the Transtheoretical Model, the behavioral intent aspect of the Theory of Planned Behavior, and persuasive communication to assist individuals in negotiating the Web toward stage-specific information. It is here at the point of stage-specific information ...

  11. Integrating behavior change theory into geriatric case management practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enguidanos, S

    2001-01-01

    Case management practices have continued to grow despite a lack of clear evidence of their efficacy. With the expanding segment of the elderly population, there is a critical need to develop and identify programs that will address the many needs of the aging. Geriatric Case Management has been the avenue selected by many health care providers to address these issues, focusing on maintaining health status and improving linkages with medical and community resources. Studies testing the effectiveness of these models have failed to demonstrate their effectiveness in reducing depression, reducing acute care service use, and improving or maintaining health status. The Geriatric Case Management models presented in these lack an evidence-based, theoretical framework that provides definition and direction for case management practice. This article introduces behavior change theories as a method of structuring and delineating the case management intervention. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior are discussed and methods of integrating these theories into practice are discussed. PMID:11878076

  12. HURRICANE CHANGES: EXAMINING ENHANCED MOTIVATION TO CHANGE DRUG USING BEHAVIORS AMONG KATRINA EVACUEES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Twiggs, Robert; Dunlap, Eloise E.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use disorders are credited with greater amounts of death and illness than all other preventable health problems. Billions of dollars are spent on efforts to control drug supplies and fund various treatment approaches, but relatively little resources have been directed towards investigating how environmental conditions can contribute to or detract from substance user’s individual motivation to change behavior. Hurricane Katrina caused untold property damage and upheaval, in addition to the vast numbers of people whose lives it drastically affected. This article examines how surviving this ordeal, subsequent evacuation, and eventual resettlement in New Orleans or re-location to a different city (in this case, Houston) impacted individuals’ motivation to change their substance use patterns and behaviors. This article’s approach is grounded in the values of the social work profession and examines: 1) the role of life events in motivating change of substance using behaviors in the absence of formal treatment interventions; and 2) participant resilience in overcoming the adversities inherent to this disaster. PMID:21852981

  13. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  14. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Junni, E-mail: junxinni@163.com [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Hansen, Alana, E-mail: alana.hansen@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Zhang, Ying, E-mail: ying.zhang@sydney.edu.au [Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, Hong [Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiyuan 030001 Shanxi (China); Liu, Qiyong, E-mail: liuqiyong@icdc.cn [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Sun, Yehuan, E-mail: yhsun@sina.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, Anhui (China); Bi, Peng, E-mail: peng.bi@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  15. Designing Serious Video Games for Health Behavior Change: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which per...

  16. Gamification: What It Is and Why It Matters to Digital Health Behavior Change Developers

    OpenAIRE

    Cugelman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria...

  17. Evidence that implementation intentions reduce drivers' speeding behavior: testing a new intervention to change driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Sarah E; Elliott, Mark A; Kelly, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Implementation intentions have the potential to break unwanted habits and help individuals behave in line with their goal intentions. We tested the effects of implementation intentions in the context of drivers' speeding behavior. A randomized controlled design was used. Speeding behavior, goal intentions and theoretically derived motivational pre-cursors of goal intentions were measured at both baseline and follow-up (one month later) using self-report questionnaires. Immediately following the baseline questionnaire, the experimental (intervention) group (N=117) specified implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet, which required the participants to link critical situations in which they were tempted to speed with goal-directed responses to resist the temptation. The control group (N=126) instead received general information about the risks of speeding. In support of the hypotheses, the experimental group reported exceeding the speed limit significantly less often at follow-up than did the control group. This effect was specific to 'inclined abstainers' (i.e., participants who reported speeding more than they intended to at baseline and were therefore motivated to reduce their speeding) and could not be attributed to any changes in goal intentions to speed or any other measured motivational construct. Also in line with the hypotheses, implementation intentions attenuated the past-subsequent speeding behavior relationship and augmented the goal intention - subsequent speeding behavior relationship. The findings imply that implementation intentions are effective at reducing speeding and that they do so by weakening the effect of habit, thereby helping drivers to behave in accordance with their existing goal intentions. The volitional help sheet used in this study is an effective tool for promoting implementation intentions to reduce speeding. PMID:25463964

  18. Consumer Behavior – A Consequence of Economic and Social Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Moise Elena; Dârzan Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behavior is part of the economic behavior, being observed from a multidimensional and interdisciplinary perspective. Being a consumer is a quality given, in the first place, by the parties involved in the economic activity; the behavior is analyzed from a micro and macroeconomic perspective – behavior oriented towards satisfying individual needs. According to the current economic trends and also as a consequence of the globalization of the markets, the following question arises: a pe...

  19. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  20. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  1. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  2. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Swim, Janet K.; Brittany Bloodhart

    2013-01-01

    Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping train...

  3. The eHealth Behavior Management Model: A Stage-based Approach to Behavior Change and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Bensley

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the Internet has become an important avenue for disseminating health information, theory-driven strategies for aiding individuals in changing or managing health behaviors are lacking. The eHealth Behavior Management Model combines the Transtheoretical Model, the behavioral intent aspect of the Theory of Planned Behavior, and persuasive communication to assist individuals in negotiating the Web toward stage-specific information. It is here — at the point of stage-specific information — that behavioral intent in moving toward more active stages of change occurs. The eHealth Behavior Management Model is applied in three demonstration projects that focus on behavior management issues: parent-child nutrition education among participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; asthma management among university staff and students; and human immunodeficiency virus prevention among South African women. Preliminary results have found the eHealth Behavior Management Model to be promising as a model for Internet-based behavior change programming. Further application and evaluation among other behavior and disease management issues are needed.

  4. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi. PMID:12316887

  5. Impact of Leader’s Change-Promoting Behavior on Readiness for Change: A Mediating Role of Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahnawaz Adil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the leader’s change-promoting behavior on employee’s readiness for change and whether the organizational culture mediates this relationship. A sample of 205 responses is drawn from employees having junior or senior level of managerial responsibilities in Karachi. The method of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses is employed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the measurement model. The structural equation modeling method was then applied to examine the theoretical framework with the help of seven frequently reported goodness-of-fit indices. The results indicate that leader’s change-promoting behavior has a significant positive impact on change readiness and the organizational culture partially mediates the positive relationship between the leader’s change-promoting behavior and change readiness. The present study supports the theory of one of the six conceptual formations of change readiness that it is reflected as employee’s capacity to change. Therefore, managers should clearly advocate the desired change with the help of their own change-prompting behavior as well as establishing a trusting culture in their organization. Future studies may ascertain the impact of employees’ readiness for change in their commitment to change in the context of Pakistan which could further lead to passive or active change-related behaviors.

  6. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n=8 or no therapy (n=6. Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test, and the Nine-Hole Peg Test as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and one month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy but not in the absence of therapy to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  7. Frequency, Clinical Correlates, and Ratings of Behavioral Changes in Primary Brain Tumor Patients: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Grahame K Simpson; Koh, Eng-Siew; Whiting, Diane; Wright, Kylie M.; Simpson, Teresa; Firth, Rochelle; Gillett, Lauren; Younan, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have addressed the specific behavioral changes associated with primary brain tumor (PBT). This paper will report on the frequency and demographic/clinical correlates of such behaviors, and the reliability of rating such behaviors among people with PBT, family informants, and clinicians. The association of behavioral changes and patient functional status will also be discussed. Methods A total of 57 patients with 37 family informants were recruited from two large...

  8. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  9. Education and Training Needs of School Staff Relevant to Preventing Risk Behaviors and Promoting Health Behaviors among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Questioning Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard J.; Porter, J. Davidson; Lehman, Thomas C.; Anderson, Clinton; Anderson, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    A national-level needs assessment of high school psychologists, social workers, counselors, and nurses was conducted to identify training and educational resource material needs of these staff relevant to providing health and mental health services to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning (GLBQ) youth. Systematic sampling procedures were…

  10. Reinforced Readiness Requisites: A Culturally Relevant Behavior Modification Program for Mexican-American, Indian and Black Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiss, Jeffrey M.; Speiss, Madeleine L.

    The Reinforced Readiness Requisites (RRR) program was developed to provide Mexican-American, Indian, and Black children with the necessary motivation for learning. Comprised of a three-stage behavior modification strategy to improve substandard academic performance, RRR utilizes tangible rewards with the additional components of token and…

  11. The young and adolescents: Initiating change in children’s eating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited success in existing interventions for initiating dietary behavior change among children is forcing a more detailed analysis of how to promote change. The mediating variable model provides a conceptual framework for understanding how behavior change interventions work and integrates more basi...

  12. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  13. How to Motivate Energy Efficiency Online : ICT Can Help to Induce Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Graml, Tobias; Baeriswyl, Michael; Staake, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    For energy conservation purposes it is not sufficient to rely on energy efficient technology, energy savings also require changes of behavior and daily routines. However, ICT can play an important role in supporting behavior change. A first step to behavior change is to actively deal with one's energy consumption. We present an interactive online application called aWattgarde which provides customers of an Austrian utility company with insights about their electricity consumption and with sug...

  14. Text Messaging as a Tool for Behavior Change in Disease Prevention and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2010-01-01

    Mobile phone text messaging is a potentially powerful tool for behavior change because it is widely available, inexpensive, and instant. This systematic review provides an overview of behavior change interventions for disease management and prevention delivered through text messaging. Evidence on behavior change and clinical outcomes was compiled from randomized or quasi-experimental controlled trials of text message interventions published in peer-reviewed journals by June 2009. Only those i...

  15. Current status of research on FBR fuel behavior under accident conditions and the relevant NSRR program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the situation that the development of demonstration FBR is being materialized, a substantial research on safety of core fuels under accident conditions is required as the part of the research and development program. The experimental study of fuel integrity against over power accidents etc. and failure behavior is important to establish a criteria for safety evaluation of FBR's. In this report, the scope of the program which is planned in NSRR is shown after reviewing other related experiments and examining the research region left undone. Major in-core experiments on fuel failure are surveyed wide in the view point of experimental region and the inquired results are summarized. Subsequently, the items and methods due to the NSRR experiment program is discussed. The experimental facility plan and the results of preliminary analysis on the fuel energy deposition and temperature behavior are also introduced. (author)

  16. Individual effects of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear behavior on stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Harrison, Michelle L; Size, Daniele D; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be detrimental to their welfare. These behaviors can be reduced through enrichment programs but are often not completely eliminated, so identifying potential triggers is important. The present study investigated the influences of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear activity on stereotypical behaviors exhibited by 3 captive polar bears at the Toronto Zoo. All bears exhibited these behaviors; however, individual differences were found in duration and form. The male exhibited less stereotypical behavior during spring, and the females exhibited less stereotypical behavior during winter. An increase in visitor density was associated with more stereotypical behavior in 1 female but less stereotypical behavior in the other 2 bears. All bears engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were inactive, and 1 female engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were out of sight. Further, when conspecifics were active, all bears engaged in less stereotypical behaviors. Given the variability among individual bears, future enrichment programs must be tailored to the needs of individuals to maximize efficacy. PMID:24933263

  17. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Zheng; Lawryn H Kasper; Bedford, David C.; Stephanie Lerach; Teubner, Brett J.W.; Brindle, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB ...

  18. Behavioral and molecular neuroepigenetic alterations in prenatally stressed mice: relevance for the study of chromatin remodeling properties of antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, E; Tueting, P; Matrisciano, F; Grayson, D R; Guidotti, A

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that mice born from dams stressed during pregnancy (PRS mice), in adulthood, have behavioral deficits reminiscent of behaviors observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder patients. Furthermore, we have shown that the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus of adult PRS mice, like that of postmortem chronic SZ patients, are characterized by increases in DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), ten-eleven methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) and exhibit an enrichment of 5-methylcytosine (5MC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5HMC) at neocortical GABAergic and glutamatergic gene promoters. Here, we show that the behavioral deficits and the increased 5MC and 5HMC at glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (Gad1), reelin (Reln) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) promoters and the reduced expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and proteins corresponding to these genes in FC of adult PRS mice is reversed by treatment with clozapine (5 mg kg(-1) twice a day for 5 days) but not by haloperidol (1 mg kg(-1) twice a day for 5 days). Interestingly, clozapine had no effect on either the behavior, promoter methylation or the expression of these mRNAs and proteins when administered to offspring of nonstressed pregnant mice. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, reduced the elevated levels of DNMT1 and TET1, as well as the elevated levels of DNMT1 binding to Gad1, Reln and Bdnf promoters in PRS mice suggesting that clozapine, unlike haloperidol, may limit DNA methylation by interfering with DNA methylation dynamics. We conclude that the PRS mouse model may be useful preclinically in screening for the potential efficacy of antipsychotic drugs acting on altered epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, PRS mice may be invaluable for understanding the etiopathogenesis of SZ and BP disorder and for predicting treatment responses at early stages of the illness allowing for early detection and remedial intervention. PMID:26756904

  19. The Impact of Information Technology on Patient Engagement and Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashrash, Mohamed; Phalakornkule, Kanitha; Carpenter, Janet S; Jones, Josette F

    2016-01-01

    Background Advancements in information technology (IT) and its increasingly ubiquitous nature expand the ability to engage patients in the health care process and motivate health behavior change. Objective Our aim was to systematically review the (1) impact of IT platforms used to promote patients’ engagement and to effect change in health behaviors and health outcomes, (2) behavior theories or models applied as bases for developing these interventions and their impact on health outcomes, (3) different ways of measuring health outcomes, (4) usability, feasibility, and acceptability of these technologies among patients, and (5) challenges and research directions for implementing IT platforms to meaningfully impact patient engagement and health outcomes. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were searched for studies published from 2000 to December 2014. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included papers, and potentially relevant studies were retrieved and assessed for eligibility based on predetermined inclusion criteria. Results A total of 170 articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. Overall, 88.8% (151/170) of studies showed positive impact on patient behavior and 82.9% (141/170) reported high levels of improvement in patient engagement. Only 47.1% (80/170) referenced specific behavior theories and only 33.5% (57/170) assessed the usability of IT platforms. The majority of studies used indirect ways to measure health outcomes (65.9%, 112/170). Conclusions In general, the review has shown that IT platforms can enhance patient engagement and improve health outcomes. Few studies addressed usability of these interventions, and the reason for not using specific behavior theories remains unclear. Further research is needed to clarify these important questions. In addition, an assessment of these types of interventions should be conducted based on a common framework using a large variety of measurements; these

  20. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the “food addiction” construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that food cannot be “addictive”, unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. “Evolutionary mismatch” viewp...

  1. Behavioral changes in preschoolers treated with/without rotary instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Maru, Viral Pravin; Kumar, Amit; Badiyani, Bhumika Kamal; Sharma, Anant Raghav; Sharma, Jitendra; Dobariya, Chintan Vinodbhai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Behavioral dentistry is an interdisciplinary science which needs to be learned, practiced, and reinforced in order to provide quality dental care in children. Aim: To assess the anxiety experienced during dental treatment in preschool children with/without rotary instruments using behavioral scale. Study and Design: Sixty pediatric patients of preschool age with bilateral occlusal carious lesions extending into dentin were selected for the study. Carious lesions were removed using...

  2. Changing Physical Activity Behavior in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Avery, L.; Flynn, D.; Wersch, A.; Sniehotta, F. F.; Trenell, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Behavioral interventions targeting “free-living” physical activity (PA) and exercise that produce long-term glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes are warranted. However, little is known about how clinical teams should support adults with type 2 diabetes to achieve and sustain a physically active lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (published up to January 2012) to establish the effect of behavioral ...

  3. Changes in Driver Behavior Resulting from Pedestrian Countdown Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Huey, S. Brian; Ragland, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the effects that pedestrian countdown signals have on driver behavior. Observations of two intersections, one with pedestrian signals and one without, were made focusing specifically on driver behavior during the amber and red phases. It was found that drivers at the pedestrian countdown intersection were less likely to enter the intersection at the end of the amber phase than those at the traditional pedestrian signal intersection. It was also found that drivers at the in...

  4. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partner...

  5. Human processing of behaviorally relevant and irrelevant absence of expected rewards: a high-resolution ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Nahum

    Full Text Available Acute lesions of the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC in humans may induce a state of reality confusion marked by confabulation, disorientation, and currently inappropriate actions. This clinical state is strongly associated with an inability to abandon previously valid anticipations, that is, extinction capacity. In healthy subjects, the filtering of memories according to their relation with ongoing reality is associated with activity in posterior medial OFC (area 13 and electrophysiologically expressed at 220-300 ms. These observations indicate that the human OFC also functions as a generic reality monitoring system. For this function, it is presumably more important for the OFC to evaluate the current behavioral appropriateness of anticipations rather than their hedonic value. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test. Participants performed a reversal learning task with intermittent absence of reward delivery. High-density evoked potential analysis showed that the omission of expected reward induced a specific electrocortical response in trials signaling the necessity to abandon the hitherto reward predicting choice, but not when omission of reward had no such connotation. This processing difference occurred at 200-300 ms. Source estimation using inverse solution analysis indicated that it emanated from the posterior medial OFC. We suggest that the human brain uses this signal from the OFC to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality.

  6. Weight loss is coupled with improvements to affective state in obese participants engaged in behavior change therapy based on incremental, self-selected "small changes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxman, Jenny R; Hall, Anna C; Harden, Charlotte J; O'Keeffe, Jean; Simper, Trevor N

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a group behavior change intervention involving self-selected, contextualized, and mediated goal setting on anthropometric, affective, and dietary markers of health. It was hypothesized that the intervention would elicit changes consistent with accepted health recommendations for obese individuals. A rolling program of 12-week "Small Changes" interventions during 24 months recruited 71 participants; each program accommodated 10 to 13 adults (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m²). Fifty-eight participants completed Small Changes. Repeated measures were made at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures included height and weight (to calculate BMI), body composition, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Affective state was monitored using relevant validated questionnaires. Dietary assessment used 3-day household measures food diaries with Schofield equations to monitor underreporting. Relevant blood measures were recorded throughout. Across the measurement period, Small Changes elicited a significant reduction in body weight (baseline, 102.95 ± 15.47 vs 12 weeks 100.09 ± 16.01 kg, P affective state including general well-being (baseline, 58.92 ± 21.22 vs 12 weeks 78.04 ± 14.60, P < .0005) and total mood disturbance (baseline, 31.19 ± 34.03 vs 12 weeks 2.67 ± 24.96, P < .0005). Dietary changes that occurred were largely consistent with evidenced-based recommendations for weight management and included significant reductions in total energy intake and in fat and saturated fat as a proportion of energy. The Small Changes approach can elicit a range of health-orientated benefits for obese participants, and although further work is needed to ascertain the longevity of such effects, the outcomes from Small Changes are likely to help inform health professionals when framing the future of weight management. Long-term follow-up of Small Changes is warranted. PMID:21636010

  7. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the “quiescent” and “proliferative” niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  8. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balduino, Alex, E-mail: balduino@uva.edu.br [School of Dentistry, Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mello-Coelho, Valeria [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhou; Taichman, Russell S.; Krebsbach, Paul H. [Department of Periodontics, Prevention and Geriatrics, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Becker, Kevin G. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mello, Wallace de [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Taub, Dennis D. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Borojevic, Radovan [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the 'quiescent' and 'proliferative' niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  9. Gamification: what it is and why it matters to digital health behavior change developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugelman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria that can be used to assess when gamification provides a potentially promising framework for digital health interventions. PMID:25658754

  10. A Look at Changing Parental Ideologies & Behaviors in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Cherylynn Bassani

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses changes in Japanese parenting over the past two generations. Using an inductive approach to the understanding of Japanese families, 10 separate families were theoretically sampled in the Kansai area during the summer of 2000. Concepts surrounding changing parenting emerged from talks with parents. Four interrelated concepts are eminent in the interviews: the rise of individual ethics in parenting, changing parental roles, impacts of changes on children, and romanticized p...

  11. Collapsibility and Volume Change Behavior of Unsaturated Residual Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Azalan A. Aziz; Faisal H. Ali; chioong F. heng; Thamer A. Mohammed; Bujang Bk. huat

    2006-01-01

    Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. In these places, the soil forming processes are still very active and the weathering development is much faster than the erosive factor. Most residual soil exhibit high suctions for most of the year. The absence of positive pore water pressure except immediately after rain, makes conventional soil mechanics for saturated soil not so relevant. Ignorance or lack of un...

  12. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  13. Establishing a Relationship between Behavior Change Theory and Social Marketing: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…

  14. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  15. Some Structural Changes That Might Facilitate the Development of Behavioral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart

    1992-01-01

    Considers three types of organizational changes that may facilitate the development of behavioral medicine teaching, practice, and research over the next decade: (1) role of Department of Behavioral Medicine within the medical school; (2) support for development of research collaborations across centers; (3) changes in role and organization of…

  16. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstrøm Vilde Hoff; Kjekshus Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager’s behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Methods Leader behavior was measured by questionnai...

  17. Stability and change of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents : the role of neurobiological factors

    OpenAIRE

    van Bokhoven, I.

    2004-01-01

    Aggressive behavior has long been a major concern in our society. There is a growing consensus that disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) originates from the interaction of biologically based child characteristics with non-optimal characteristics of the child's environment. In this thesis, we investigated neurobiological correlates of aggression and the role they play in the stability of antisocial behavior and/or in changes that occur in that behavior. We did this by focusing on the relationshi...

  18. Changes in Price Behavior in the U.S. Catfish Industry: Evidence Using Cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    The implications of market development in the catfish industry on catfish price behavior are explored using cointegration. It is hypothesized that market development, through increases in competition between processors and shifts in consumer preferences toward fish, has caused changes in price behavior among levels of the catfish market. Using monthly catfish price data, a cointegration analysis of subsets of prices shows that price behavior has changed through time, with catfish prices becom...

  19. Is Parenting the Mediator of Change in Behavioral Parent Training for Externalizing Problems of Youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Forehand, Rex; Lafko, Nicole; Parent, Justin; Burt, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Change in parenting behavior is theorized to be the mediator accounting for change in child and adolescent externalizing problems in behavioral parent training (BPT). The purpose of this review is to examine this assumption in BPT prevention and intervention programs. Eight intervention and 17 prevention studies were identified as meeting all criteria or all but one criterion for testing mediation. Parenting behaviors were classified as positive, negative, discipline, monitoring/supervision, ...

  20. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with congenit

  1. A Selectionist Perspective on Systemic and Behavioral Change in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaker, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…

  2. Collective Behavior of Market Participants during Abrupt Stock Price Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskawa, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Under uncertainty, human and animal collectives often respond stochastically to events they encounter. Human or animal individuals behave depending on others' actions, and sometimes follow choices that are sub-optimal for individuals. Such mimetic behaviors are enhanced during emergencies, creating collective behavior of a group. A stock market that is about to crash, as markets did immediately after the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, provides illustrative examples of such behaviors. We provide empirical evidence proving the existence of collective behavior among stock market participants in emergent situations. We investigated the resolution of extreme supply-and-demand order imbalances by increased balancing counter orders: buy and sell orders for excess supply and demand respectively, during times of price adjustment, so-called special quotes on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Counter orders increase positively depending on the quantity of revealed counter orders: the accumulated orders in the book until then. Statistics of the coming counter order are well described using a logistic regression model with the ratio of revealed orders until then to the finally revealed orders as the explanatory variable. Results given here show that the market participants make Bayesian estimations of optimal choices to ascertain whether to order using information about orders of other participants. PMID:27513335

  3. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  4. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed. PMID:26902519

  5. Behavior of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli relevant to lettuce washing processes and consideration of factors for evaluating washing process surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kaiping; Wang, Xue; Yen, Li-Han; Ding, Hongliu; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2014-11-01

    Postharvest processes for fresh produce commonly include washing in water containing antimicrobial chemicals, such as chlorine; however, if the antimicrobials are not present in sufficient levels, washing can promote the spread of contamination that might be present. To understand cross-contamination risk during washing, we tested a collection of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), including O157:H7 and other non-O157 strains, for certain traits during washing of fresh-cut lettuce, i.e., sensitivity to sublethal chlorine levels and ability to cross-contaminate (detach from and attach to) lettuce in the presence of sublethal chlorine levels. Nonpathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and Pediococcus pentosaceus lactic acid bacterial species (LAB) were included as potential washing process validation surrogates. As measured by extension of the lag phase of growth in media containing 0.15 ppm of chlorine, chlorine sensitivity varied among the STECs. Cross-contamination was assessed by evaluating transfer of bacteria from inoculated to uninoculated leaves during washing. Without chlorine, similar transfer to wash water and uninoculated leaves was shown. In 1 ppm of chlorine, cross-contamination was not detected with most strains, except for the substantial transfer by a STEC O111 strain and EcN in some replicates. Strain O111 and EcN showed less inactivation in 0.25 ppm of chlorine water compared with O157 (P < 0.05). LAB showed similar transfer and similar chlorine inactivation to O157. Considering together the sublethal chlorine sensitivity and detachment/attachment traits, neither EcN nor LAB displayed optimal characteristics as washing process surrogates for the STEC strains, although further evaluation is needed. This work demonstrated a range of behaviors of STEC strains during lettuce washing and may be helpful in hazard characterization, identifying factors to consider for evaluating washing process efficacy, and identifying phenotypic traits to select

  6. Multiple health behavior change: a synopsis and comment on “A review of multiple health behavior change interventions for primary prevention”

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Winter; Buscemi, Joanna; Coons, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The ninth column on Evidence-Based Behavioral Medicine is a synthesis of a recent systematic meta-review of multiple health behavior change (MHBC) interventions published by Prochaska and Prochaska in the American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine (Am J Life Med 5:208–221, 2011). Health risk behaviors are highly prevalent and increase the risk of developing and exacerbating chronic disease. The purpose of the meta-review was to examine the efficacy of MHBC interventions in a variety of population...

  7. Parent Predictors of Child Weight Change in Family Based Behavioral Obesity Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Cafri, Guy; Crow, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Family based behavioral treatment for overweight and obese children includes parenting skills targeting the modification of child eating and activity change. The purpose of this study was to examine parenting skills and parent weight change as predictors of child weight change in a sample of 80 parent/child dyads who were enrolled in a family based behavioral weight loss program for childhood obesity. Eighty overweight and obese children and their parents who enrolled in treatment in two site...

  8. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers’ Social Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Lagunes, Paul; Green, Donald P.; Vavreck, Lynn; Peer, Limor; Gomila, Robin

    2015-01-01

    To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote. PMID:26398217

  9. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Lagunes, Paul; Green, Donald P; Vavreck, Lynn; Peer, Limor; Gomila, Robin

    2015-01-01

    To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote. PMID:26398217

  10. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Levy Paluck

    Full Text Available To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote.

  11. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, G.; Lo, S.H.; Peters, G-JY; Ruiter, R. A. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field...

  12. Transcriptional control of behavior: Engrailed knockout changes cockroach escape trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, David; Marie, Bruno; Domenici, Paolo; Blagburn, Jonathan M.; Bacon, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The cerci of the cockroach are covered with identified sensory hairs, which detect air movements. The sensory neurons which innervate these hairs synapse with giant interneurons (GIs) in the terminal ganglion which in turn synapse with interneurons and leg motorneurons in thoracic ganglia. This neural circuit mediates the animal's escape behavior. The transcription factor Engrailed (En) is expressed only in the medially born sensory neurons, which suggested it could work as a positional deter...

  13. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers’ Social Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Lagunes, Paul; Green, Donald P.; Vavreck, Lynn; Peer, Limor; Gomila, Robin

    2015-01-01

    To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists ar...

  14. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. ...

  15. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions. PMID:25903243

  16. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers' motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers' critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers' access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, PMID:26593935

  17. Evaluation of an HIV-related behavior change project for female sex workers in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ding-feng; HU Jun; ZHANG Zhi-ying; WANG Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background As female sex workers (FSWs) were becoming the driving force behind the HIV epidemic in Central China,a project to promote condom use by FSWs was implemented from 2004 to 2009.In this study,we discussed the evaluation of the project,the factors associated with condom use among FSWs within the Chinese context,and proposed suggestions for future interventions for FSWs in China.Methods Two surveys using structured questionnaires were conducted in 2004 and 2009.Data collected from the surveys were analyzed and guided by a behavior change framework.We reviewed relevant articles to supplement the information that was not able to be obtained from the surveys.Results In general,the HIV prevalence among FSWs remained low (less than 1%) in the 5 years.With a high coverage of interventions for all FSWs in Central China,the project yielded better outcomes than the national average over the same time period.The awareness about HIV and condom use grew dramatically during the project period.The four factors/determinants that influence the behavior of FSWs using condoms are population characteristics,opportunity,ability,and motivation.Statistical model shows that the significant variables for using a condom are age,availability of services,HIV-related knowledge,and intention.Conclusions With a high coverage of interventions for FSWs,the project achieved its goals.The differences among workplaces of FSWs may serve as a symbol of their socioeconomic status,patterns of condom use,and therefore risks of acquiring HIV.

  18. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-11-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain in March 2011 on the role and interplay of various social behavior change strategies, including public education, law and legislation, healthy public policy, and social marketing in achieving a sustained reduction in the societal burden of back pain. Given the complexities inherent to health-related behaviors change, the Rothschild framework is applied in which behavior change strategies are viewed on a continuum from public education at one end through law and health policy at the other. Educational endeavors should likely be augmented with social marketing endeavors and supportive laws and health policy to foster sustained change in outcomes such as work disability and health utilization. Practical suggestions are provided for future interventions aimed at changing back pain-related behaviors. Evaluation of previous back pain mass media campaigns reveals that education alone is unlikely to foster positive and persisting behavioral change without concomitant strategies. PMID:23073211

  19. How Can We Make Our Research More Relevant? Bridging the Gap between Workplace Changes and Business Communication Research

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Gail Fann

    2007-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021943607302193 Some management scholars argue that academic literature is becoming less and less relevant to practicing managers. Thomas posits that the same will be true for business communication if scholars do not venture into the field and connect with those who “do” business communication. As organizations shift from manufacturing to service jobs, expand their operations overseas, manage “talent”...

  20. Theory-based behavior change interventions: comments on Hobbis and Sutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Martin; Ajzen, Icek

    2005-01-01

    Hobbis and Sutton (this issue) suggest that Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) techniques can be used in interventions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Although this suggestion has merit, CBT is only one of many applicable methods for producing belief and behavior change. Moreover, CBT's primary purpose is to help people carry out intended behaviors, not to influence intentions, and that it is more useful in face-to-face than in community-level interventions. Contrary to Hobbis and Sutton's critique, TPB can accommodate core beliefs or fundamental assumptions, but the theory suggests that interventions targeted at such beliefs are less effective than interventions targeted at behavior specific beliefs. PMID:15576497

  1. Selective Breeding for a Behavioral Trait Changes Digit Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Reginia H. Y.; Jessica L Malisch; Hannon, Robert M.; Hurd, Peter L.; Theodore Garland

    2008-01-01

    The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger) divided by the fourth digit (ring finger) tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized") in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ra...

  2. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: Emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior: Introduction to the Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Chung, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical ...

  3. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  4. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy

  5. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  6. Relevancy 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Newman, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Where we present an overview on why relevancy is a problem, how important it is and how we can improve it. The topic of relevancy is becoming increasingly important in earth data discovery as our audience is tuned to the accuracy of standard search engines like Google.

  7. I Will If You Will: Similarity in Married Partners' Readiness to Change Health Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Melissa M.; Shields, Cleveland G.; Lim, Eunjung; Sands, Laura P.; Mobley, Stacey; Boushey, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Married men and women (N = 1,899 couples) reported readiness to eat a healthier diet, lose weight, and get more exercise (stage of change) and indicated whether they were confident to make these changes (self-efficacy). Husbands' and wives' reports of readiness to change each health behavior were positively associated. Furthermore, women who…

  8. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  9. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. De Boni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018. Selected drivers (n=683 answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had saliva specimens collected for drug screening. Results: Overall, 60.3% (SE 4.5 of drivers reported they did not change their behavior. Among those who reported behavioral changes, most reported drinking less as their main strategy toward safer driving behavior. Variables independently associated with behavior change included having drunk at a high outlet density area (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.1-2.8] and having a favorable opinion about the law (OR 4.3 [2.1-8.9]. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that awareness of the law has not been enough to promote behavioral change. As most drivers had a favorable opinion of the law and this variable was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior change, efforts to better integrate education and enforcement seem to be pivotal and might be well received by the population.

  10. Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after multisystemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Carter, Rickey E; Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J

    2008-09-01

    The current study investigated the relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and improvement in youth behavior problems one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) results showed therapist adherence predicted improvement in youth behavior. Two structure variables and one climate variable predicted changes in youth behavior, and the climate variable also predicted therapist adherence. No statistical support for formal mediation of organizational effects through adherence was found, though examination of changes in parameter estimates suggest a possible interplay of organizational climate with adherence and youth behavior change. PMID:18561019

  11. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors. PMID:26963733

  12. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders frequently appear in childhood. There is often lack of objective data to support a specific clinical diagnosis. Ultimately it is likely that alterations in production, concentration, storage, release, reuptake and degradation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid play key roles in the manifestations of mood disorders. We sought to determine if more gross anatomic patterns of regional brain activation in a 'baseline' state might also supply an objective means of verifying the presence of a mood disorder characterized by anger or aggressive behavior. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred for SPECT brain imaging with the diagnosis of an attention deficit disorder or autism. All had been reported as having temper problems on the routine questionnaire completed by the parents prior to SPECT imaging. The patients, who were not sedated, had absolute cerebral blood flow measured by the xenon 133 gas inhalation technique followed by intravenous injection of Tc-99m HMPAO with an administered dose calculated according to patient age and weight. One hour following the injection, high resolution brain SPECT imaging was performed using a Picker triple headed camera with fan beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT studies using 3D volume rendered semi-transparent images with dual cut off windows of 88 percent (high) and 60-65 percent (lower value depending on the patient absolute mean cortical blood flow), as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal sections. The dual window 3D display helped demonstrate increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children with similar clinical diagnoses but whose parents did not report temper problems. These preliminary findings support the proposition that an increase in perfusion to the temporal

  13. Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    1977-01-01

    This research presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of "self-efficacy". (Editor/RK)

  14. Positive Exercise Experience Facilitates Behavior Change via Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parschau, Linda; Fleig, Lena; Warner, Lisa Marie; Pomp, Sarah; Barz, Milena; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf; Lippke, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Motivational processes can be set in motion when positive consequences of physical exercise are experienced. However, relationships between positive exercise experience and determinants of the motivational and the volitional phases of exercise change have attracted only sparse attention in research. Method: This research examines direct…

  15. Changes of chemical and mechanical behavior of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai;

    2012-01-01

    200 °C there was no obvious structural change of the wheat straw. At 200–250 °C hemicelluloses started to decompose and were totally degraded when torrefied at 300 °C for 2 h, while cellulose and lignin began to decompose at about 270–300 °C. Tensile failure strength and strain energy of oven dried...

  16. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  17. Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media. PMID:21558472

  18. Exploring Beta’s Changing Behavior ofSwedish Real Estate Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Medhat

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the beta and risk behavior of the Swedish listed real estate stocks. Such a study will provide a clearer picture for investors and researchers about the changing nature of that behavior over time. The research method is based on descriptive statistics and CAPM beta regression analysis of the monthly returns. Correlation analysis is employed to identify diversification benefits within the sector stocks. In order to understand the behavior of beta/riskiness over time,...

  19. Parental changes after involvement in their anxious child's cognitive behavior therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system....

  20. The Quantified Traveler: Changing transport behavior with personalized travel data feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Jariyasunant, Jerald; Carrel, Andre; Ekambaram, Venkatesan; Gaker, David; Sengupta, Raja; Walker, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments using smartphones to influence behavior have been growing rapidly in many fields, especially in health and fitness research, and studies on eco-feedback technologies. In these studies, users are first tracked to understand their baseline behaviors, then measured continuously while they receive feedback about their actions. In transportation, studies using smartphones to change behavior have been limited due to the difficulty in even tracking users in the first place. Collecting da...

  1. Stability and change: Stress responses and the shaping of behavioral phenotypes over the life span

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael B.; Kaiser, Sylvia; Tiedtke, Tobias; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, maternal signals conveyed via influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity may shape behavior of the young to be better adapted for prevailing environmental conditions. However, the mother's influence extends beyond classic stress response systems. In guinea pigs, several hours (h) of separation from the mother activates not only the HPA axis, but also the innate immune system, which effects immediate behavioral change, as well as modifies behavioral responsiveness ...

  2. Comparison of the Oxidation Behaviors of High FeO Chromite and Magnetite Concentrates Relevant to the Induration of Ferrous Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Deqing; Yang, Congcong; Pan, Jian; Li, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Oxidation process plays an important role in producing sufficiently strong ferrous pellets for blast furnace, and the oxidation behavior of pellet feed greatly affects the quality of pellets. As a supplementary research to earlier published work, the present study fixes its particular attention on the fundamental oxidation behavior of a high FeO South African chromite concentrate in comparison to that of typical magnetite concentrate using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetry at various temperatures ranging from 473 K to 1273 K (200 °C to 1000 °C). The reaction mechanism and phase transformation during the oxidation process of chromite spinel is further explained by thermodynamics calculation performed by FactSage software. Besides, routine laboratory preheating-roasting test of single ore pellets is also conducted to reveal the relevance of oxidizability to the consolidation of pellets. The results show that the chromite spinel possesses much poorer oxidizability than magnetite, usually accompanying complex phase transformations via a preferential nucleation of Fe-rich sesquioxide from the chromite spinel matrix at low temperatures and thereafter the formation of Cr-rich sesquioxide on the substrate of Fe-rich phase at high temperatures. The oxidation of chromite spinel is inferior to that of magnetite from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and dynamic kinetics. Good inherent oxidizability of raw materials is found to have a positive effect on the induration process of pellet.

  3. Behavior Change and Perceptions of Change: Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Token Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitman, David, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    Token economies often reduce problematic classroom behavior in preschool settings. In the present study, direct observation and teacher ratings of child behavior and treatment acceptability were utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of a token economy in a Head Start classroom. Because many teachers express concerns about the effort required to…

  4. Organizational Behavior Change: The Effectiveness of Behavior Modification Techniques with and without Participatory Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Goldstein, Marc B.

    This study examines a naturally occurring experiment in a large urban hospital faced with budget cuts, in which departments were ordered to reduce employees' overtime without jeopardizing service quality. The study focuses on two departments that chose to use behavior modification techniques. In one department (Radiology) the intervention combined…

  5. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  6. Innovative Interventions to Promote Behavioral Change in Overweight or Obese Individuals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades placing significant burdens on healthcare in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data shows promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions. PMID:25011006

  7. Classroom changes in ADHD symptoms following clinic-based behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David F; Chapman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Jack; Mire, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined classroom behavioral outcomes for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) following their participation in a manualized, 10-week intervention called Family Skills Training for ADHD-Related Symptoms (Family STARS). Family STARS combined behavioral parent training (BPT) and child-focused behavioral activation therapy (CBAT). Participants were children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. Pre- and post-treatment teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms were compared using a single group, within-subjects research design. Intervention effectiveness was analyzed using paired-samples t-tests. Results indicated statistically significant classroom improvements for externalizing behaviors and attention problems with medium and large main effects (respectively) for the intervention. Possible implications for combining CBAT with BPT for the treatment of ADHD are discussed as well as the relevance of these results for improving the effectiveness and portability of empirically supported interventions. PMID:22678107

  8. Electroencephalographic activity during sexual behavior: a novel approach to the analysis of drug effects on arousal and motivation relevant for sexual dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. PMID:24534418

  9. Changes of marital behavior and family patterns in post-socialist countries: Delayed, incomplete or specific second demographic transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Mina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by questioning the theory of second demographic transition (SDT and its universal relevance in the field of marriage behavior and family organization in low fertility context, arguing for more differentiated approaches. With an aim to illustrate the contextual specifics of post-socialist countries in general and of Serbia in particular, the author claims that analyzed changes have not just been delayed or incomplete in comparison to more developed European countries, but shaped by specific modernization processes, which led to rationally developed strategies in overcoming structural risks, although, without ideational changes typical to the theory of SDT. Slow changes in marital behavior and family organization in Serbia are illustrated in recent sociological (empirical research findings. The perceived changes are linked to specific structural risks (war, slow transformation and enduring economic hardships, weak state and low trust in institutions, etc and value characteristics (persistence of materialism and traditionalism, but with increasing ambivalence. The connection between structural and ideational changes is considered through social stratification variable by relying on Coale's model on necessary preconditions for behavioral changes as well as on social deprivation concept. Having in mind upper social strata (more educated and better off, the value changes precede the behavioral that are adapted to economic uncertainty, which still force more traditional marital and family patterns. Therefore, there is a rank of different options, from extended family (for a short period at the beginning of marriage or after divorce to separated leaving (of married partners in parental households (due to refusing the extended family option thus creating quite specific "living apart together" form, combined with dominant strategy of prolonging the marriage. Hence, for upper social strata, marriage is still a universal but negotiable

  10. Innovative Interventions to Promote Behavioral Change in Overweight or Obese Individuals: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Okorodudu, Daniel E.; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades placing significant burdens on healthcare in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in techn...

  11. Predicting Early Positive Change in Multisystemic Therapy with Youth Exhibiting Antisocial Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n=185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the CBCL Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquenc...

  12. Multiple Health Behavior Changes in a Cancer Prevention Intervention for Construction Workers, 2001-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, Amy E.; Devine, Carol M.; Beard, Binta; Stoddard, Anne M.; Hunt, Mary K.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Few multiple behavior change interventions have addressed tobacco use in conjunction with fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly among high-risk blue-collar workers. Tools for Health, a cancer prevention intervention for construction laborers, was effective in achieving behavior change for smoking cessation and fruit and vegetable consumption separately. This study examines whether addressing smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption was successful in achieving positive...

  13. Active Assistance Technology for Health-Related Behavior Change: An Interdisciplinary Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H.; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Background Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user exper...

  14. A semi-directive interview method to analyze behavioral changes: a focus on two cases studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rocci, A

    2009-01-01

    The surveying of travel behavior changes toward more sustainable mobility practices raises many methodological questions. First is the choice of method, determining how to analyze these behavioral changes via their contextual, temporal, and multifactor dynamics, while attempting to control possible biases. This paper proposes an examination of the use of qualitative methods through two empirical research projects and finds that the order and content of the interview protocol questions can po...

  15. A Semidirective interview method to analyze behavioral changes. A focus on two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rocci, A

    2009-01-01

    The surveying of travel behavior changes toward more sustainable mobility practices raises many methodological questions. First is the choice of method, determining how to analyze these behavioral changes via their contextual, temporal, and multifactor dynamics, while attempting to control possible biases. This paper proposes an examination of the use of qualitative methods through two empirical research projects and finds that the order and content of the interview protocol questions can pot...

  16. Successful behavior change in obesity interventions in adults: a systematic review of self-regulation mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Texeira, Pedro J; Carraça, Eliana V; Marques, Marta M; Rutter, Harry; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Relapse is high in lifestyle obesity interventions involving behavior and weight change. Identifying mediators of successful outcomes in these interventions is critical to improve effectiveness and to guide approaches to obesity treatment, including resource allocation. This article reviews the most consistent self-regulation mediators of medium- and long-term weight control, physical activity, and dietary intake in clinical and community behavior change interventions targeting ove...

  17. Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GabrieleOettingen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When people engage in mind wandering they drift away from a task towards their inner thoughts and feelings. These thoughts often circle around people’s personal futures. One assumed function of mind wandering is that it aids problem solving and planning for the future. We will discuss different forms of mind wandering and their effects on problem solving and behavior change. While solely fantasizing about a desired future leads to poor problem solving and little behavior change, mind wandering in the form of mental contrasting leads to skilled problem solving and substantial behavior change. In mental contrasting, people first envision the desired future and then imagine the obstacles that need to be surmounted to reach said future. Mental contrasting instigates behavior change by modulating the strength of associations between future and reality and between reality and instrumental action. Intervention research shows that mental contrasting can be taught as a cost- and time-effective self-regulation strategy of behavior change. The findings have implications for research on mind wandering, problem solving, and on creating effective interventions of behavior change.

  18. Behavioral Landscapes and Change in Behavioral Landscapes: A Multiple Time-Scale Density Distribution Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Nilam; Coccia, Michael; Conroy,David; Lorek, Amy; Orland, Brian; Pincus, Aaron; Sliwinski, Martin; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    In developmental arenas, it is well accepted that multiple observations are needed to obtain a robust characterization of individuals’ behavioral tendencies across time and context. In this paper, we fuse core ideas from the study of lifespan development with intraindividual variability based approaches to personality and methods used to characterize the topography of geographic landscapes. We generalize the notion of density distributions into bivariate and multivariate space and draw parall...

  19. A dance to the music of time: aesthetically-relevant changes in body posture in performing art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Daprati

    Full Text Available In performing arts, body postures are both means for expressing an artist's intentions, and also artistic objects, appealing to the audience. The postures of classical ballet obey the body's biomechanical limits, but also follow strict rules established by tradition. This combination offers a perfect milieu for assessing scientifically how the execution of this particular artistic activity has changed over time, and evaluating what factors may induce such changes. We quantified angles between body segments in archive material showing dancers from a leading company over a 60-year period. The data showed that body positions supposedly fixed by codified choreography were in fact implemented by very different elevation angles, according to the year of ballet production. Progressive changes lead to increasingly vertical positions of the dancer's body over the period studied. Experimental data showed that these change reflected aesthetic choices of naïve modern observers. Even when reduced to stick figures and unrecognisable shapes, the more vertical postures drawn from later productions were systematically preferred to less vertical postures from earlier productions. This gradual change within a conservative art form provides scientific evidence that aesthetic change may arise from continuous interaction between artistic tradition, individual artists' creativity, and a wider environmental context. This context may include social aesthetic pressure from audiences.

  20. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean-levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person change in delinquent behavior and whether genetically influenced differences in rate of personality change accounted for this association. Sensation se...

  1. Identity Changes and Consumer Behavior. How Becoming Parents Changes Our Consumption Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Cito, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This research aims at investigating the impact of the identity change on consumption. An identity change is defined as the acquisition of a new identity after a life change event. For instance after the birth of the first child the new identity as parent is acquired and a woman can define herself as a mother. Despite marketing research recognizes that individuals’ identity is unstable and susceptible to change, the investigation of the identity change is still in its infancy. Furthermore, mar...

  2. Adopting public values and climate change adaptation strategies in urban forest management: A review and analysis of the relevant literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez Barona, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management. PMID:26410091

  3. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent…

  4. Forecasting distributional responses of limber pine to climate change at management-relevant scales in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Monahan

    Full Text Available Resource managers at parks and other protected areas are increasingly expected to factor climate change explicitly into their decision making frameworks. However, most protected areas are small relative to the geographic ranges of species being managed, so forecasts need to consider local adaptation and community dynamics that are correlated with climate and affect distributions inside protected area boundaries. Additionally, niche theory suggests that species' physiological capacities to respond to climate change may be underestimated when forecasts fail to consider the full breadth of climates occupied by the species rangewide. Here, using correlative species distribution models that contrast estimates of climatic sensitivity inferred from the two spatial extents, we quantify the response of limber pine (Pinus flexilis to climate change in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA. Models are trained locally within the park where limber pine is the community dominant tree species, a distinct structural-compositional vegetation class of interest to managers, and also rangewide, as suggested by niche theory. Model forecasts through 2100 under two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 W/m(2 show that the distribution of limber pine in the park is expected to move upslope in elevation, but changes in total and core patch area remain highly uncertain. Most of this uncertainty is biological, as magnitudes of projected change are considerably more variable between the two spatial extents used in model training than they are between RCPs, and novel future climates only affect local model predictions associated with RCP 8.5 after 2091. Combined, these results illustrate the importance of accounting for unknowns in species' climatic sensitivities when forecasting distributional scenarios that are used to inform management decisions. We discuss how our results for limber pine may be interpreted in the context of climate change

  5. Framework for Probabilistic Projections of Energy-Relevant Streamflow Indicators under Climate Change Scenarios for the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, Thorsten [Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom); Mann, Michael [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Crane, Robert [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2014-04-29

    This project focuses on uncertainty in streamflow forecasting under climate change conditions. The objective is to develop easy to use methodologies that can be applied across a range of river basins to estimate changes in water availability for realistic projections of climate change. There are three major components to the project: Empirical downscaling of regional climate change projections from a range of Global Climate Models; Developing a methodology to use present day information on the climate controls on the parameterizations in streamflow models to adjust the parameterizations under future climate conditions (a trading-space-for-time approach); and Demonstrating a bottom-up approach to establishing streamflow vulnerabilities to climate change. The results reinforce the need for downscaling of climate data for regional applications, and further demonstrates the challenges of using raw GCM data to make local projections. In addition, it reinforces the need to make projections across a range of global climate models. The project demonstrates the potential for improving streamflow forecasts by using model parameters that are adjusted for future climate conditions, but suggests that even with improved streamflow models and reduced climate uncertainty through the use of downscaled data, there is still large uncertainty is the streamflow projections. The most useful output from the project is the bottom-up vulnerability driven approach to examining possible climate and land use change impacts on streamflow. Here, we demonstrate an inexpensive and easy to apply methodology that uses Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to define the climate and environmental parameters space that can produce vulnerabilities in the system, and then feeds in the downscaled projections to determine the probability top transitioning to a vulnerable sate. Vulnerabilities, in this case, are defined by the end user.

  6. Forecasting distributional responses of limber pine to climate change at management-relevant scales in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William B; Cook, Tammy; Melton, Forrest; Connor, Jeff; Bobowski, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers at parks and other protected areas are increasingly expected to factor climate change explicitly into their decision making frameworks. However, most protected areas are small relative to the geographic ranges of species being managed, so forecasts need to consider local adaptation and community dynamics that are correlated with climate and affect distributions inside protected area boundaries. Additionally, niche theory suggests that species' physiological capacities to respond to climate change may be underestimated when forecasts fail to consider the full breadth of climates occupied by the species rangewide. Here, using correlative species distribution models that contrast estimates of climatic sensitivity inferred from the two spatial extents, we quantify the response of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) to climate change in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). Models are trained locally within the park where limber pine is the community dominant tree species, a distinct structural-compositional vegetation class of interest to managers, and also rangewide, as suggested by niche theory. Model forecasts through 2100 under two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 W/m(2)) show that the distribution of limber pine in the park is expected to move upslope in elevation, but changes in total and core patch area remain highly uncertain. Most of this uncertainty is biological, as magnitudes of projected change are considerably more variable between the two spatial extents used in model training than they are between RCPs, and novel future climates only affect local model predictions associated with RCP 8.5 after 2091. Combined, these results illustrate the importance of accounting for unknowns in species' climatic sensitivities when forecasting distributional scenarios that are used to inform management decisions. We discuss how our results for limber pine may be interpreted in the context of climate change vulnerability and used

  7. Changes in reproductive physiology of mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus following exposure to environmentally relevant doses of ethinyl oestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E L; Weinersmith, K L; Earley, R L

    2016-02-01

    Kryptolebias marmoratus exposed to 4 ng l(-1) of ethinyl oestradiol (EE2) for 30 days experienced significant changes in endogenous 17β-oestradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (KT) and qualitative changes in gonad morphology. Both hermaphrodites and males showed a significant decrease in E2, whereas only males exhibited a significant decrease in KT. Exposure to EE2 resulted in a decrease in spermatid and spermatocyte density in males and an increase in the number of early stage oocytes in hermaphrodites. PMID:26563824

  8. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-07-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field. PMID:22920806

  9. Balancing expenditures on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change : an exploration of Issues relevant to developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lecocq, Franck; Shalizi, Zmarak

    2007-01-01

    Although climate policies have been so far mostly focused on mitigation, adaptation to climate change is a growing concern in developed and developing countries. This paper discusses how adaptation fits into the global climate strategy, at the global and national levels. To do so, a partial equilibrium optimization model of climate policies-which includes mitigation, proactive adaptation (...

  10. Making climate change projections relevant to water management: opportunities and challenges in the Colorado River basin (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    By 2007, motivated by the ongoing drought and release of new climate model projections associated with the IPCC AR4 report, multiple independent studies had made estimates of future Colorado River streamflow. Each study had a unique approach, and unique estimate for the magnitude for mid-21st century streamflow change ranging from declines of only 6% to declines of as much as 45%. The differences among studies provided for interesting scientific debates, but to many practitioners this appeared to be just a tangle of conflicting predictions, leading to the question 'why is there such a wide range of projections of impacts of future climate change on Colorado River streamflow, and how should this uncertainty be interpreted?' In response, a group of scientists from academic and federal agencies, brought together through a NOAA cross-RISA project, set forth to identify the major sources of disparities and provide actionable science and guidance for water managers and decision makers. Through this project, four major sources of disparities among modeling studies were identified that arise from both methodological and model differences. These differences, in order of importance, are: (1) the Global Climate Models (GCMs) and emission scenarios used; (2) the ability of land surface hydrology and atmospheric models to simulate properly the high elevation runoff source areas; (3) the sensitivities of land surface hydrology models to precipitation and temperature changes; and (4) the methods used to statistically downscale GCM scenarios. Additionally, reconstructions of pre-instrumental streamflows provided further insights about the greatest risk to Colorado River streamflow of a multi-decadal drought, like those observed in paleo reconstructions, exacerbated by a steady reduction in flows due to climate change. Within this talk I will provide an overview of these findings and insights into the opportunities and challenges encountered in the process of striving to make

  11. An explorative analysis of the links between learning behavior and change orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der E.C. (Lidewey); Caluwé, L.I.A.; Nistelrooij, van A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The article presents an explorative study on the links between learning behavior and change orientation of individuals. When reading literature on how to develop employees and organizations, it strikes one how less focus there is on learning and change needs of individuals. This paper deals with thi

  12. Effectiveness of a College-Level Self-Management Course on Successful Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jean H.; Chung, Kyong-Mee

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that college-level self-management (SM) courses, which typically require students to complete an individual project as part of the course, can be an effective method for promoting successful self-change (i.e., targeted behavioral change). However, only a handful of studies have focused on and investigated the intensity of the SM…

  13. Neural substrates of contingency learning and executive control: dissociating physical, valuative, and behavioral changes

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge about environmental contingencies allows behavioral flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of experiential learning have focused on the relationship between actions and the values of associated outcomes. However, outcome values have often been confounded with the physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we dissociated contingency learning into valuative...

  14. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent inter-rater and test-retest reliability and shows convergent validity with measures of language and communication skills. The BOSCC Core total demonstrates statistically significant amounts of change over time compared to a no change alternative while the ADOS CSS over the same period of time did not. This work is a first step in the development of a novel outcome measure for social-communication behaviors with applications to clinical trials and longitudinal studies. PMID:27062034

  15. Health behavior change benefits: Perspectives of Latinos with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Burrows, Kimberly; Aschbrenner, Kelly; Barre, Laura K; Pratt, Sarah I; Alegría, Margarita; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the perceived benefits of engaging in health behavior change from the viewpoint of overweight and obese Latinos with severe mental illness (SMI) enrolled in the U.S. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 obese Latinos with SMI who were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of a motivational health promotion intervention adapted for persons with SMI. Overweight and obese Latino participants believed that engaging in health behavior change would have both physical and mental health benefits, including chronic disease management, changes in weight and body composition, and increased self-esteem. Interventions that explicitly link physical activity and healthy eating to improvements in mental health and well-being may motivate Latinos with SMI to adopt health behavior change. PMID:26873582

  16. Applying social marketing in health care: communicating evidence to change consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies. PMID:18556638

  17. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sundling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+ travelers’ motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers’ critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT, five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers’ access to public transport, key findings were: (a service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  18. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jéssica; Maia, Caroline Marques; Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments. All of the enrichments affected the proportions of time spent in different behaviors. Macaws interacted more with certain items (hibiscus and food tree) than with others (a toy or swings and stairs), but introduction of the enrichments that invoked the least interaction caused as many behavioral changes as those that invoked the most. Moreover, feeding behavior was only affected by the enrichment that invoked the least interaction, a change not detected by a general analysis of enrichment effects. In conclusion, little interaction with enrichment does not mean little change in behavior, and the effects of enrichments are more complex than previously considered. PMID:27135378

  19. Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Morgenstern, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience approaches to understand the neural mechanisms of behavior change in AUD, including studies that use neural functioning to predict relapse and abstinence; studies examining neural mechanisms that operate in current evidence-based behavioral interventions for AUD; as well as research on novel behavioral interventions that are being derived from our emerging understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of behavior change in AUD. The article highlights how the regulation of subcortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD. We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms. PMID:26259087

  20. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  1. Startle response memory and hippocampal changes in adult zebrafish pharmacologically-induced to exhibit anxiety/depression-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Julian T; Lott, Chad S

    2014-01-17

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular animal model for neurobehavioral and psychopharmacological research. While startle testing is a well-established assay to investigate anxiety-like behaviors in different species, screening of the startle response and its habituation in zebrafish is a new direction of translational biomedical research. This study focuses on a novel behavioral protocol to assess a tapping-induced startle response and its habituation in adult zebrafish that have been pharmacologically-induced to exhibit anxiety/depression-like behaviors. We demonstrated that zebrafish exhibit robust learning performance in a task adapted from the mammalian literature, a modified plus maze, and showed that ethanol and fluoxetine impair memory performance in this maze when administered after training at a dose that does not impair motor function, however, leads to significant upregulation of hippocampal serotoninergic neurons. These results suggest that the maze associative learning paradigm has face and construct validity and that zebrafish may become a translationally relevant study species for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory changes associated with psychopharmacological treatment of anxiety/depression. PMID:24184510

  2. Integrating the Socio-economic and Physical Drivers of Land-use Change at Climate-relevant Scales: an Example with Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.; Best, N.; Munson, T.; Foster, I. T.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the factors that drive land-use change, and developing better methods for projecting future changes, have become very important in the context of climate change, since land use is both affected by climate and itself is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. While much work has been done to include global forecasts of natural land cover types such as forests and deserts at high spatial resolutions, much less has been done to incorporate into these forecasts the socioeconomic drivers of land-use change, such as agriculture, forestry, and urbanization on a global scale. We describe here a computational framework that allows for efficiently incorporating feedback between economic activity and anthropogenic land use changes for the purpose of improved global land-use forecasts. The Partial-Equilibrium Economic Landuse (PEEL) model is a versatile high-resolution companion to the CIM-EARTH computable general equilibrium (CGE) global economics framework that generates consistent forecasts of the land-use changes (LUC) that result from changing growing conditions, technology, resource availability, and demands. The high resolution (≈ 10 km) of model elements allows for direct integration of climate and socioeconomic factors at the scale of relevant climate variation without the need for aggregation (and the associated information loss). We illustrate this approach by using it to investigate the implications of an aggressive 1st generation biofuels policy on LUC. We discuss the development of PEEL, its limitations, and future directions, focusing especially on data needs and potential new data sources.

  3. Forest management under changing climate conditions: Is timing a tool for Sustainable Forest Management? Relevant questions for research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; McShane, Paul; Tapper, Nigel

    2013-04-01

    Change of climate conditions influence energy fluxes applicable to forest ecosystems. These affect cycles of nutrients and materials, primary productivity of the ecosystem, biodiversity, ecological functionality and, consequently, carbon equilibria of the forest ecosystem. Temporal factors influence physical, biological, ecological, and climatic processes and functions. For example, seasonality, cycles, periodicity, and trends in climate variables; tree growth, forest growth, and forest metabolic activities (i.e., photosynthesis and respiration) are commonly known to be time-related. In tropical forests, the impacts of changing climate conditions may exceed temperature and/or precipitation thresholds critical to forest tree growth or health. Historically, forest management emphasises growth rates and financial returns as affected by species and site. Until recently, the influence of climate variability on growth dynamics has not been influential in forest planning and management. Under this system, especially in climatic and forest regions where most of species are stenoecious, periodical wood harvesting may occur in any phase of growth (increasing, decreasing, peak, and trough). This scenario presents four main situations: a) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is decreasing: future productivity is damaged; the minimum biomass capital may be altered, and CO2 storage is negatively affected; b) harvesting occurs during a trough of the rate of growth: the minimum biomass capital necessary to preserve the resilience of the forest is damaged; the damage can be temporary (decades) or permanent; CO2 storage capacity is deficient - which may be read as an indirect emission of CO2 since the balance appears negative; c) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is increasing: the planned wood mass can be used without compromising the resilience and recovery of the forest; CO2 storage remains increasing; d) harvesting occurs during a peak period of growth: the wood

  4. Holocene vegetation history and sea level changes in the SE corner of the Caspian Sea: relevance to SW Asia climate

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. G. Leroy; Kakroodi, A.A.; Kroonenberg, S.; Lahijani, H.K.; Alimohammadian, H.; Nigarov, A.

    2013-01-01

    The palynological investigation of core TM (27.7 m long) taken in a dried out lagoon reveals both Holocene vegetation history in the north-eastern foothills of the Alborz Mountains and past water level changes of the Caspian Sea (CS). The delay in woodland expansion at the beginning of the Holocene, which is typical of eastern Turkey, the Iranian plateau and recorded in the CS south basin, is only weakly felt as the region is close to glacial refugia of trees. The succession of the main trees...

  5. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    OpenAIRE

    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele

    2014-01-01

    Background: While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interven...

  6. Text messaging as a tool for behavior change in disease prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2010-01-01

    Mobile phone text messaging is a potentially powerful tool for behavior change because it is widely available, inexpensive, and instant. This systematic review provides an overview of behavior change interventions for disease management and prevention delivered through text messaging. Evidence on behavior change and clinical outcomes was compiled from randomized or quasi-experimental controlled trials of text message interventions published in peer-reviewed journals by June 2009. Only those interventions using text message as the primary mode of communication were included. Study quality was assessed by using a standardized measure. Seventeen articles representing 12 studies (5 disease prevention and 7 disease management) were included. Intervention length ranged from 3 months to 12 months, none had long-term follow-up, and message frequency varied. Of 9 sufficiently powered studies, 8 found evidence to support text messaging as a tool for behavior change. Effects exist across age, minority status, and nationality. Nine countries are represented in this review, but it is problematic that only one is a developing country, given potential benefits of such a widely accessible, relatively inexpensive tool for health behavior change. Methodological issues and gaps in the literature are highlighted, and recommendations for future studies are provided. PMID:20354039

  7. Helping young children to see what is relevant and why: supporting cognitive change in earth science using analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Anthony

    This experimental study explores how 60 primary-age children's (9-11 years old) understanding of rocks was effected by instruction that used the conceptual structure of the rock cycle together with the analogy of aluminium can recycling. Using a combination of probes into children's understanding, including concept maps and semi-structured interviews, changes to the content of their knowledge (description and classification of rocks) as categorized by membership of particular hierarchical explanatory frameworks (constructed from children's pre-intervention responses), and how such knowledge appears be organized into possible networks of information, are described. Results are then discussed in terms of the impact of the rock cycle, with or without the use of the analogy, on children's existing conceptions, followed by observations on the positive role of the analogy in supporting understanding. In conclusion, the implications for the nature of cognitive change in this domain as revealed by children's explanatory frameworks and the potential value of the aluminium can analogy in supporting children's understanding are addressed.

  8. Children's behavioral health system transformation: one state's context and strategies for sustained change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburger, Deborah S; Stephan, Sharon H; Kaye, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the State of Maryland as a case study of sustained change efforts in the service delivery system for children with significant behavioral health needs and their families. A punctuated equilibrium paradigm is introduced to describe Maryland's behavioral health system transformation over the course of three decades. The context and specific strategies that characterized Maryland's execution of its recent Mental Health Transformation State Incentive Grant are highlighted. There is a discussion of one of the pinnacle achievements of Maryland's transformation efforts, the recent statewide establishment of care management entities for children with behavioral health challenges, and its implications for behavioral health in the context of health care reform changes. This case study illustrates how a state can systematically and incrementally develop systems of care for children and families that are values-based, sustainable, and flexible. PMID:23657753

  9. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  10. The Importance of Autonomous Regulation for Students' Successful Translation of Intentions into Behavior Change via Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sheng Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has a high prevention potential in adolescents. This study investigated the relations between physical activity and intention, autonomous regulation, and planning. We hypothesized that planning mediates the relationship between intention and behavior and that this mediation should depend on the level of autonomous regulation. Stratified randomization sampling method was administered to assemble a sample of =534 students among two schools in China. To test the hypothesis, autonomous regulation, intention, and physical activity were assessed at baseline as well as planning and follow-up physical activity four weeks after the pretest. A moderated mediation model confirmed that planning mediated the intention-behavior relation with the effect of planning being moderated by autonomous regulation. Study results demonstrated that autonomous regulation facilitated the translation of intention into behavior change via planning. To promote physical activity among adolescents, interventions targeting planning and autonomous regulation might facilitate successful translation of intentions into behavior change.

  11. The orchid-bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala' revisited: relevant changes in community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemésio, A; Paula, I R C

    2013-08-01

    The orchid-bee fauna of 'Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Feliciano Miguel Abdala', a 957-ha preserve of Atlantic Forest in eastern Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, was surveyed 12 years after the first inventory in the area. Orchid-bee males were actively collected with insect nets when attracted to seventeen chemical compounds used as scent baits. Three hundred and nineteen males belonging to nine species were collected during 40 hours in late December, 2011, when orchid bees are supposedly more active. Euglossa despecta Moure, 1968, one of the dominant species in the area 12 years ago, was not recorded in the present study. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, on the other hand, represented only 16% of the collected bees in 1999 and 61% in the present study. Possible causes and consequences of these changes are discussed. PMID:24212691

  12. Land management in the Anthropocene: is history still relevant?: incorporating historical ecology and climate change into land management; Lansdowne, Virginia, 22–25 April 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Hugh D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Hayward, Gregory D.; Wiens, John A.; Regan, Claudia M.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological restoration, conservation, and land management are often based on comparisons with reference sites or time periods, which are assumed to represent “natural” or “properly functioning” conditions. Such reference conditions can provide a vision of the conservation or management goal and a means to measure progress toward that vision. Although historical ecology has been used successfully to guide resource management in many parts of the world, the continuing relevance of history is now being questioned. Some scientists doubt that lessons from the past can inform management in what may be a dramatically different future, given profound climate change, accelerated land use, and an onslaught of plant and animal invasions.

  13. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic......Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...

  14. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 ...

  15. Changes in Routine Health Behaviors Following Late-life Bereavement: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between late-life spousal bereavement and changes in routine health behaviors. We review six behavioral domains/modifiable risk factors that are important for maintaining health among elderly populations: physical activity, nutrition, sleep quality, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and body weight status. Thirty-four articles were identified, derived from 32 studies. We found strong evidence for a relationship between bereavement and nutrition...

  16. ACUTE BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN THE GUPPY (Poecilia reticulata) EXPOSED TO TEMEPHOS

    OpenAIRE

    SELVİ, Mahmut; SARIKAYA, Rabia; Erkoç, Figen

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Temephos  is an organophosphorus  insecticide used to control mosquito, midge and black fly larvae. This  study was aimed to determine the acute toxicity of temephos on behavior of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. Behavioral changes at each temephos concentration were recorded. The experiments were repeated 3 times. The 96 h acute toxicity range of temephos to adult male guppies was within 10 ...

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire; Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade; Marco Aurelio Peres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities.METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar(Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink c...

  18. Environmental Perceptions and Behavioral Change of Hillside Farmers: The Case of Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Bayard, Budry; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2007-01-01

    Land degradation is one of the most serious problems facing resource-poor tropical hillside farmers. Studies examining determinants of farmers’ decisions to invest in land improvement technologies have focused on economic and financial factors, neglecting individuals’ perceptions and awareness of the problems and how they affect land use and behavioral change that enhance environmental sustainability. This study examines Haitian peasants’ environmental behavior structure using a structu...

  19. Using education on irradiated foods to change behavior of Korean elementary, middle, and high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Eunok; Kim, Jaerok; Choi, YoonSeok

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Educational interventions targeted food selection perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Education regarding irradiated food was intended to change food selection behavior specific to it. SUBJECTS AND METHODS There were 43 elementary students (35.0%), 45 middle school students (36.6%), and 35 high school students (28.5%). The first step was research design. Educational targets were selected and informed consent was obtained in step two. An initial survey was cond...

  20. Cage Change Influences Serum Corticosterone and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Skye; Miller, Melinda M.; Filipski, Sarah B.; Tolwani, Ravi J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variables and husbandry practices can influence physiology and alter behavior in mice. Our study evaluated the effects of cage change on serum corticosterone levels and anxiety-like behaviors in C57BL/6 male mice. We examined the effects of 3 different methods of performing cage transfer and of transferring mice to a clean or a dirty familiar cage microenvironment. The 3 different handling methods were forceps transfer, gentle transfer with gloved hands, and a passive transfer t...

  1. Predicting early positive change in multisystemic therapy with youth exhibiting antisocial behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n = 185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into midtreatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared with those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. PMID:24866967

  2. Does heightening risk appraisals change people's intentions and behavior? A meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Harris, Peter R; Epton, Tracy

    2014-03-01

    Several theories construe risk appraisals as key determinants of decisions and actions, and this idea has been supported in correlational studies. However, correlational data cannot answer the question, "Does heightening risk appraisals change people's intentions and behavior?" The present review meta-analyzed experimental evidence in order to address this issue. We identified 4 elements of risk appraisal-risk perception, anticipatory emotion, anticipated emotion, and perceived severity-and located experiments that (a) engendered a statistically significant increase in risk appraisal among treatment compared to control participants and (b) measured subsequent intention or behavior. Heightening risk appraisals had effects of d+ = .31 (k = 217) and d+ = .23 (k = 93) on intention and behavior, respectively. There was evidence that the elements of risk appraisal combined to influence outcomes. For instance, heightening risk perceptions had larger effects on outcomes when anticipatory emotions or perceived severity was also increased. Crucially, risk appraisal effects were augmented by coping appraisals: Risk appraisals had larger effects on outcomes when response efficacy and self-efficacy were enhanced or when response costs were reduced. The largest effect sizes were observed when risk appraisals, response efficacy, and self-efficacy were simultaneously heightened (d+ = .98 and .45, for intention and behavior, respectively). These findings indicate that heightening risk appraisals changes intentions and behavior. However, the direct effects of risk appraisals were generally small. Exploiting synergies among the elements of risk appraisal, and between risk appraisals and coping appraisals, should make for more effective behavior change interventions. PMID:23731175

  3. The Relation between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training Is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…

  4. Electronic game: A key effective technology to promote behavioral change in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Goodini, Azadeh; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebraeil

    2016-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis is a very unpleasant and unbelievable experience. Appropriate management and treatment of these diseases require a high degree of patient engagement. Interactive health electronic games are engaging, fun, challenging, and experiential and have the potential to change the attitude and behavior, which can improve the player's health. The use of these digital tools, as one of the most attractive and entertaining modern technologies, canem power patients, provide suitable palliative care, promote health behavior change strategies, increase patient engagement, enhance healthy lifestyle habits, improve self.management, and finally improve the quality of life of the patients. Finally, the aim of this article was to describe electronic games and their effects on the promotion of behavior change in cancer patients. In addition, this article describes categories, characteristic features, and benefits of this digital media in the lifestyle modification of cancer patients. PMID:27461596

  5. Promoting health behavior change using appreciative inquiry: moving from deficit models to affirmation models of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley M; Charvat, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a new theoretical approach to health promotion and behavior change that may be especially suited to underserved women. Appreciative inquiry (AI), an organizational development process that focuses on the positive and creative as a force for an improved future, is described and adapted for use as an intervention to achieve health behavior change at the individual level. Guiding principles for its use with clients are provided, and an example of its application is illustrated in a hypothetical case study of an African American woman of low-socioeconomic resources who is attempting to increase lifestyle exercise following a cardiac event. AI is contrasted with the more traditional problem-solving approaches to the provision of care. The advantages, challenges, and issues associated with the use of AI as a health behavior change strategy are discussed. PMID:17159634

  6. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed. PMID:27285906

  7. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstrøm Vilde Hoff

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager’s behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Methods Leader behavior was measured by questionnaire, where employees assessed their line manager’s behavior (N = 1008; response rate 40%. Data on sickness absence were provided at department level (N = 35 and were measured at two times. Analyses were primarily conducted using linear regression; leader behavior was aggregated and weighted by department size. Results The results show a relationship between several leader behaviors and sickness absence. The line managers’ display of loyalty to their superiors was related to higher sickness absence; whereas task monitoring was related to lower absence. Social support was related to higher sickness absence. However, the effect of social support was no longer significant when the line manager also displayed high levels of problem confrontation. Conclusions The findings clearly support the line manager’s importance for employee sickness absence during organizational change. We conclude that more awareness concerning the manager’s role in change processes is needed.

  8. Experimental data showing the thermal behavior of a flat roof with phase change material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuç, Ayça; Başaran, Tahsin; Yesügey, S Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    The selection and configuration of building materials for optimal energy efficiency in a building require some assumptions and models for the thermal behavior of the utilized materials. Although the models for many materials can be considered acceptable for simulation and calculation purposes, the work for modeling the real time behavior of phase change materials is still under development. The data given in this article shows the thermal behavior of a flat roof element with a phase change material (PCM) layer. The temperature and energy given to and taken from the building element are reported. In addition the solid-liquid behavior of the PCM is tracked through images. The resulting thermal behavior of the phase change material is discussed and simulated in [1] A. Tokuç, T. Başaran, S.C. Yesügey, An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: the case of a flat roof in Istanbul, Build. Energy, vol. 102, 2015, pp. 91-104. PMID:26629490

  9. Experimental data showing the thermal behavior of a flat roof with phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Tokuç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection and configuration of building materials for optimal energy efficiency in a building require some assumptions and models for the thermal behavior of the utilized materials. Although the models for many materials can be considered acceptable for simulation and calculation purposes, the work for modeling the real time behavior of phase change materials is still under development. The data given in this article shows the thermal behavior of a flat roof element with a phase change material (PCM layer. The temperature and energy given to and taken from the building element are reported. In addition the solid–liquid behavior of the PCM is tracked through images. The resulting thermal behavior of the phase change material is discussed and simulated in [1] A. Tokuç, T. Başaran, S.C. Yesügey, An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: the case of a flat roof in Istanbul, Build. Energy, vol. 102, 2015, pp. 91–104.

  10. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    OpenAIRE

    Barata José T; Minderico Cláudia S; Martins Sandra S; Branco Teresa L; Teixeira Pedro J; Palmeira António L; Serpa Sidónio O; Sardinha Luís B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y), participating in a 16-wee...

  11. Influence of a local change of depth on the behavior of bouncing oil drops

    CERN Document Server

    Carmigniani, Remi; Symon, Sean; McKeon, Beverley J

    2013-01-01

    The work of Couder \\textit{et al} (see also Bush \\textit{et al}) inspired consideration of the impact of a submerged obstacle, providing a local change of depth, on the behavior of oil drops in the bouncing regime. In the linked videos, we recreate some of their results for a drop bouncing on a uniform depth bath of the same liquid undergoing vertical oscillations just below the conditions for Faraday instability, and show a range of new behaviors associated with change of depth. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.

  12. The Empowering Role of Mobile Apps in Behavior Change Interventions: The Gray Matters Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Chris D; McClean, Sally I; Cleland, Ian; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Clark, Christine J; Norton, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Background Health education and behavior change programs targeting specific risk factors have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing the development of future diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) shares many of the same risk factors, most of which can be addressed via behavior change. It is therefore theorized that a behavior change intervention targeting these risk factors would likely result in favorable rates of AD prevention. Objective The objective of this study was to reduce the future risk of developing AD, while in the short term promoting vascular health, through behavior change. Methods The study was an interventional randomized controlled trial consisting of subjects who were randomly assigned into either treatment (n=102) or control group (n=42). Outcome measures included various blood-based biomarkers, anthropometric measures, and behaviors related to AD risk. The treatment group was provided with a bespoke “Gray Matters” mobile phone app designed to encourage and facilitate behavior change. The app presented evidence-based educational material relating to AD risk and prevention strategies, facilitated self-reporting of behaviors across 6 behavioral domains, and presented feedback on the user’s performance, calculated from reported behaviors against recommended guidelines. Results This paper explores the rationale for a mobile phone–led intervention and details the app’s effect on behavior change and subsequent clinical outcomes. Via the app, the average participant submitted 7.3 (SD 3.2) behavioral logs/day (n=122,719). Analysis of these logs against primary outcome measures revealed that participants who improved their high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during the study duration answered a statistically significant higher number of questions per day (mean 8.30, SD 2.29) than those with no improvement (mean 6.52, SD 3.612), t97.74=−3.051, P=.003. Participants who decreased their body mass index (BMI) performed significantly

  13. Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 induces hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia without abnormal head development and schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as "the Japan Mouse Clinic". No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-γ-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia.

  14. Behavioral changes in neonatal swine after an 8-hour rest during prolonged transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Richert, B T; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D

    2012-09-01

    Long distance transportation of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa) is increasingly common in the united states and may result in delayed eating, drinking, or normal social behaviors. A potential solution is a mid-journey rest (lairage). The objective of this study was to determine if a lairage altered behavior after a 16-h transport. Pigs that weighed approximately 18 kg each (n = 894) were housed in 16 pens with 8 pens per treatment. Lairaged pigs were transported for 8 h and given an 8-h rest with food and water, whereas control pigs were transported continuously for 16 h. The heaviest, the lightest, and 2 average-BW pigs relative to the average weight of the pen were observed by video recording for 24 h immediately before and after transport, and during d 6 and 13 after transport. Postures (lying, sitting, and standing) were recorded using 10-min-interval scan sampling, and behavioral categories included inactivity, activities (eating, drinking, alert, manipulating pen, rooting, and walking) and social interactions (aggression, belly nosing, playing, tail biting, and positive social behaviors). In both treatments, sitting occurred most before transport (P pigs initiated more (P = 0.05) play than continuously transported pigs, but no differences (P = 0.84) were seen in receipt of play behavior. Pigs that were to be transported for 16 h continuously walked less pre-transport, walked more post-transport (treatment × time interaction; P = 0.02), and drank less pre-transport, but drank more on all days post-transport compared with the lairage group (treatment × time interaction; P = 0.001). This study indicated that extended transport without lairage alters some swine behaviors relevant to production (water consumption) and demonstrated that a long-duration transport, regardless of the mid-journey lairage treatment, affects a number of behaviors up to 13 d after transportation. PMID:22966080

  15. Stability and change: Stress responses and the shaping of behavioral phenotypes over the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Kaiser, Sylvia; Tiedtke, Tobias; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, maternal signals conveyed via influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity may shape behavior of the young to be better adapted for prevailing environmental conditions. However, the mother's influence extends beyond classic stress response systems. In guinea pigs, several hours (h) of separation from the mother activates not only the HPA axis, but also the innate immune system, which effects immediate behavioral change, as well as modifies behavioral responsiveness in the future. Moreover, the presence of the mother potently suppresses the behavioral consequences of this innate immune activation. These findings raise the possibility that long-term adaptive behavioral change can be mediated by the mother's influence on immune-related activity of her pups. Furthermore, the impact of social partners on physiological stress responses and their behavioral outcomes are not limited to the infantile period. A particularly crucial period for social development in male guinea pigs is that surrounding the attainment of sexual maturation. At this time, social interactions with adults can dramatically affect circulating cortisol concentrations and social behavior in ways that appear to prepare the male to best cope in its likely future social environment. Despite such multiple social influences on the behavior of guinea pigs at different ages, inter-individual differences in the magnitude of the cortisol response remain surprisingly stable over most of the life span. Together, it appears that throughout the life span, physiological stress responses may be regulated by social stimuli. These influences are hypothesized to adjust behavior for predicted environmental conditions. In addition, stable individual differences might provide a means of facilitating adaptation to less predictable conditions. PMID:26816517

  16. Behavioral swimming effects and acetylcholinesterase activity changes in Jenynsia multidentata exposed to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin individually and in mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Amé, María Valeria

    2016-07-01

    The pesticides cypermethrin (CYP) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) were found together in water bodies located in agricultural and urban areas. However, the impact to non-target biota from exposure to mixtures has received little attention. In the current study, we evaluated changes in swimming behavior and cholinesterase enzymes activity in Jenynsia multidentata, to investigate the possible effects of these insecticides individually and in mixtures. Moreover, differences between technical and commercial mixtures of the pesticides were evaluated. Females of J. multidentata were exposed over 96-h to CYP (0.04 and 0.4µgL(-1)), CPF (0.4 and 4µgL(-1)), individually and in a technical and commercial mixtures. Swimming behavior was recorded after 24h and 96h of exposure. Also, we measured cholinesterase enzymes activity in brain and muscle after 96h of exposure. Exposure to CYP increased the exploratory activity of J. multidentata in the upper area of the aquarium. Fish exposed to CPF (4µg L(-1)) showed a decrease in swimming activity and an increase in the time spent at the bottom of the aquarium. Interestingly, fish exposed to the technical and commercial mixture of CYP and CPF displayed a different behavior based on the concentration of exposure. Low concentration of pesticides elicited an increase in J. multidentata swimming activity with preference for the upper area of the aquarium, and high concentrations caused decrease in swimming activity with preference for the bottom area of the aquarium. Based on the response of cholinesterase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase in muscle was more sensitive to exposure to CYP, CPF and their mixtures than in brain. A decrease in swimming behavior correlates significantly with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle of J. multidentata exposed to high concentrations of pesticides. These results draw attention to the need of more studies on the potential ecotoxicological impact of pesticides and its mixtures at

  17. Residence and Job Location Change Choice Behavior under Flooding and Cyclone Impacts in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change enters significantly into and is shown to be a direct determinant of residence and job location change decisions. Understanding of how people’s residence and job location change choice behavior is affected and thus responds to the impacts of climate change is essential for transportation planners and adaptation decision makers. As an addition to the current literature, the main purposes of this paper are to investigate people’s residence and job location change choice behavior affected by factors at origin and look into the behavioral differences between coastal and inland people under flooding and cyclone scenarios in Bangladesh. Questionnaire data were surveyed in 14 coastal and inland cities of Bangladesh with an orthogonal design of three flooding/cyclone scenarios. The multinomial Logit model and cross-nested Logit model are proposed to address the above purposes. Results of this study indicate that flooding/cyclone factors and income, land owned, and number of family members significantly affects people’s location change choice. In addition, coastal people are also significantly affected by previous experience factors. Furthermore, road connection plays an important role when people choose to change residence locations in coastal areas. It is also found that if there are changes in flooding impacts, the inland people will first consider to change their job locations, while the coastal people would consider both job and residence location changes. Results of this work provide policy suggestions on transportation infrastructure investment, shelter planning and construction, and population migration under flood and cyclone impacts as a result of climate change.

  18. Relevant Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Marta; Majer, Ondrej; Peliš, Michal; Restall, G.

    London: College Publications, 2010 - (Beklemishev, L.; Goranko, V.; Shehtman, V.), s. 22-38. (8). ISBN 978-1-84890-013-4. [Advances in Modal Logic. Moscow (RU), 24.08.2010-27.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018; GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : modal logic * epistemic logic * relevant logic * substructural logic * frame semantics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. Use of three-dimensional accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Jenna E; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E; van Santen, Edzard

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the use of 3-D accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with a low-virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). ANIMALS 20 beef steers (mean weight, 238 kg). PROCEDURES Calves were allocated to a BVDV (n = 10) or control (10) group. On day 0, calves in the BVDV group were inoculated with a low-virulent strain of BVDV (4 × 10(6) TCID50, intranasally), and calves in the control group were sham inoculated with BVDV-free medium (4 mL; intranasally). An accelerometer was affixed to the right hind limb of each calf on day -7 to record activity (lying, walking, and standing) continuously until 35 days after inoculation. Baseline was defined as days -7 to -1. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for CBC, serum biochemical analysis, virus isolation, and determination of anti-BVDV antibody titers. RESULTS All calves in the BVDV group developed viremia and anti-BVDV antibodies but developed only subclinical or mild disease. Calves in the control group did not develop viremia or anti-BVDV antibodies. Mean time allocated to each activity did not differ significantly between the BVDV and control groups on any day except day 8, when calves in the BVDV group spent less time standing than the calves in the control group. Following inoculation, calves in both groups tended to spend more time lying and less time walking and standing than they did during baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that behavioral data obtained by accelerometers could not distinguish calves subclinically infected with BVDV from healthy control calves. However, subtle changes in the behavior of the BVDV-infected calves were detected and warrant further investigation. PMID:27227496

  20. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  1. Certification Change versus Actual Behavior Change in Teenage Suicide Rates, 1955-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gist, Richard; Welch, Q. B.

    1989-01-01

    Examined national data on firearm suicides and accidental deaths for 15- through 19-year-olds from 1955-1979. Considered improved accuracy in determination and certification of suicide in equivocal firearm deaths, actual increases in rate of firearm suicides, or combination. Data support hypothesis of certification changes as primary factor…

  2. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  3. Enhancing Behavioral Change with Motivational Interviewing: a case study in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Giada ePietrabissa; Martina eCeccarini; Maria eBorrello; Gian Mauro eManzoni; Annamaria eTiton; Ferruccio eNibbio; Mariella eMontano; Gianandrea eBertone; Luca eGondoni; Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2015-01-01

    Background: psychological interventions in Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) programs appear relevant in as much they significantly contribute to achieve the goals of rehabilitation, to reduce the risk of relapses and to improve patients’ adherence to therapy. To this aim, Motivational Interviewing (MI) has shown promising results in improving motivation to change and individuals’ confidence in their ability to do so. Objective: the purpose of this article is to integrate theory with practice by de...

  4. Enhancing behavioral change with motivational interviewing: a case study in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrabissa, Giada; Ceccarini, Martina; Borrello, Maria; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Titon, Annamaria; Nibbio, Ferruccio; Montano, Mariella; Bertone, Gianandrea; Gondoni, Luca; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological interventions in cardiac rehabilitation programs appear relevant in as much they significantly contribute to achieve the goals of rehabilitation, to reduce the risk of relapses and to improve patients’ adherence to therapy. To this aim, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promising results in improving motivation to change and individuals’ confidence in their ability to do so. Objective: The purpose of this article is to integrate theory with practice by desc...

  5. Digenean larvae—the cause and beneficiaries of the changes in host snails’ thermal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Żbikowska, Elżbieta; Żbikowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Parasite-induced changes in host’s thermal preferences not only can be interpreted as a physiological defense response of the host but also can represent a pathological manifestation of the parasite. Both may become established in host-parasite relationships if they are beneficial for at least one of the counterparts. This study investigates parasite-induced changes in the thermoregulatory behavior of first intermediate hosts of Digenea (i.e. Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus), infec...

  6. Transformational leadership as an antecedent of change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior

    OpenAIRE

    López Domínguez, Mercedes; Enache, Cristina Mihaela; Simó Guzmán, Pep; Sallán Leyes, José María

    2013-01-01

    This study draws on a general framework of proactive motivation to propose and test a model that evaluates the influence of the individualized consideration dimension of transformational leadership and organizational climate on change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. In this model, individuals' cognitive emotional states (role breadth self-efficacy and felt responsibility for constructive change) act as mediating variables. For the first time in the literature, this paper develop...

  7. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    OpenAIRE

    Paluch Rocco A; Cavanaugh Meghan D; Roemmich James N; Epstein Leonard H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participa...

  8. Dynamical model of financial markets: fluctuating `temperature' causes intermittent behavior of price changes

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Kozuki; Nobuko Fuchikami

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of financial markets originally proposed for a turbulent flow, as a dynamic basis of its intermittent behavior. Time evolution of the price change is assumed to be described by Brownian motion in a power-law potential, where the `temperature' fluctuates slowly. The model generally yields a fat-tailed distribution of the price change. Specifically a Tsallis distribution is obtained if the inverse temperature is $\\chi^{2}$-distributed, which qualitatively agrees with intraday...

  9. Changes in weight and health behaviors after pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus: The CARDIA Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Wendy L.; Liu, Su-Hsun; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Nicholson, Wanda K.; Gunderson, Erica P; Lewis, Cora E.; Clark, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    We compared pre- to post-pregnancy change in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, diet and physical activity in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Using the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study we identified women with at least one pregnancy during 20 years of follow-up (n=1,488 with 3,125 pregnancies). We used linear regression with generalized estimating equations to compare pre- to post-pregnancy changes in health behaviors...

  10. Gene expression changes following extinction testing in a heroin behavioral incubation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Willard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of gene expression studies have investigated changes induced by drug exposure, but few reports describe changes that persist following relapse. In this study, genome-wide analysis of gene expression was conducted following an extinction session (90 min in rats that expressed behavioral incubation of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior. As an important modulator of goal-directed behavior, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC was the target of genomic analysis. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin during 3 h daily sessions for 14 d. Following the self-administration period, rats were reintroduced to the self-administration chambers for a 90-minute extinction session in which they could seek heroin, but received none. Extinction sessions were conducted on groups after either 1 d or 14 d of drug-free enforced abstinence to demonstrate behavioral incubation. Results Behavioral data demonstrated incubation (increased expression of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior after the 14 d abstinent period. That is, following 14 d of enforced abstinence, animals displayed heightened drug-seeking behavior when returned to the environment where they had previously received heroin. This increased drug-seeking took place despite the fact that they received no drug during this extinction session. Whole genome gene expression analysis was performed and results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Microarrays identified 66 genes whose expression was identified as changed by at least 1.4 fold (p bdnf, calb1, dusp5, dusp6, egr1, npy, rgs2. Conclusion Ontological analysis indicates that several of the genes confirmed to be changed are important for neuroplasticity, and through that role may impact learning and behavior. The importance of drug-seeking behavior and memory of previous drug-taking sessions suggest that such genes may be important for relapse. The global gene expression analysis adds to the

  11. Age-related changes in behavior in C57BL/6J mice from young adulthood to middle age

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Takao, Keizo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is considered to be associated with progressive changes in the brain and its associated sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. A large number of studies comparing young and aged animals have reported differences in various behaviors between age-cohorts, indicating behavioral dysfunctions related to aging. However, relatively little is known about behavioral changes from young adulthood to middle age, and the effect of age on behavior during the early stages of life remains ...

  12. Maternal weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum-the influence of behavioral factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Støvring, Henrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied the influence of maternal behavior on weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum. METHODS: We used linear regression to study the independent and combined associations between self-reported behavior in pregnancy (dietary intake, leisure-time exercise, sedentary...... activity, smoking) and postpartum (breastfeeding duration and smoking) on weights at 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years postpartum. RESULTS: Women's average 7-year weight gain was 2.07 kg, with 23% gaining >5 kg. Multivariable analyses suggested that women with healthier dietary intake, more leisure...... behaviors [mean gain 3.03 kg (95% CI: 2.68; 3.39)]. Women who ceased smoking had higher long-term weight gain than nonsmokers, but not smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to healthy behaviors during pregnancy lowered long-term weight gain considerably by lowering postpartum weight retention and subsequent...

  13. Sustaining Behavior Changes Following a Venous Leg Ulcer Client Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charne Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous leg ulcers are a symptom of chronic insufficiency of the veins. This study considered the sustainability of behavior changes arising from a client focus e-Learning education program called the “Leg Ulcer Prevention Program” (LUPP for people with a venous leg ulcer. Data from two related studies were used to enable a single sample (n = 49 examination of behavior maintenance across an average 8 to 9 months period. Physical activity levels increased over time. Leg elevation, calf muscle exercises, and soap substitute use were seen to fluctuate over the follow up time points. The use of a moisturizer showed gradual decline over time. The provision of a client-focused venous leg ulcer program was associated with behavior changes that had varied sustainability across the evaluation period.

  14. Clemastine Enhances Myelination in the Prefrontal Cortex and Rescues Behavioral Changes in Socially Isolated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Gacias, Mar; Frawley, Rebecca; Sikder, Tamjeed; Naik, Payal; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2016-01-20

    Altered myelin structure and oligodendrocyte function have been shown to correlate with cognitive and motor dysfunction and deficits in social behavior. We and others have previously demonstrated that social isolation in mice induced behavioral, transcriptional, and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation could be beneficial in reversing such changes remains unexplored. To test this hypothesis, we orally administered clemastine, an antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vitro, for 2 weeks in adult mice following social isolation. Clemastine successfully reversed social avoidance behavior in mice undergoing prolonged social isolation. Impaired myelination was rescued by oral clemastine treatment, and was associated with enhanced oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and epigenetic changes. Clemastine induced higher levels of repressive histone methylation (H3K9me3), a marker for heterochromatin, in oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, of the PFC. This was consistent with the capability of clemastine in elevating H3K9 histone methyltransferases activity in cultured primary mouse oligodendrocytes, an effect that could be antagonized by cotreatment with muscarine. Our data suggest that promoting adult myelination is a potential strategy for reversing depressive-like social behavior. Significance statement: Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are highly dynamic processes influenced by experience and neuronal activity. However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation is beneficial to treat depressive-like behavior has been unexplored. Mice undergoing prolonged social isolation display impaired myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Clemastine, a Food and Drug Administration-approved antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance myelination under

  15. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  16. Sensitivity to Change of Objectively-Derived Measures of Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Dunstan, David W.; Owen, Neville; Healy, Genevieve N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity to change of measures of sedentary behavior derived from body worn sensors in different intervention designs. Results from two intervention studies: "Stand up for Your Health" (pre-post home-based study with older adults not in paid employment) and "Stand Up Comcare"…

  17. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  18. An Adolescent Nutrition Learning Model to Facilitate Behavior Change in Overweight Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly J.; Ramsay, Samantha A.; Holyoke, Laura B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the process by which adolescents learn about nutrition is necessary for developing tailored education that leads to sustainable behavior change. Teens aged 15-17 participating in an obesity prevention program were interviewed. From the data, three themes emerged and informed development of an adolescent nutrition learning model. The…

  19. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  20. The Role of Persuasive Arguments in Changing Affirmative Action Attitudes and Expressed Behavior in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…

  1. Persuasive Embodied Agents: Using Embodied Agents to Change People's Behavior, Beliefs, and Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (i.e., avatars; ECAs) are appearing in increasingly many everyday contexts, such as e-commerce, occupational training, and airport security. Also common to a typical person's daily life is persuasion. Whether being persuaded or persuading, the ability to change another person's attitude or behavior is a…

  2. Longitudinal Changes in Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Brain Structures Involved in Reward Processing during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, Snezana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin; Luciana, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of radical normative changes and increased risk for substance use, mood disorders, and physical injury. Researchers have proposed that increases in reward sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity of the behavioral approach system [BAS]) and/or increases in reactivity to all emotional stimuli (i.e., reward and threat sensitivities)…

  3. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current

  4. Neuropeptides related to neurohypophyseal hormones interfere with apomorphine-induced behavioral changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, X S; Veldhuis, H D; Van Ree, J M

    1984-01-01

    The interaction between peptides related to neurohypophyseal hormones and brain dopaminergic systems was studied by investigating in rats the effect of these peptides on behavioral changes induced by graded doses of the specific dopamine agonist apomorphine. Low doses of this drug induce hypoactivit

  5. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  6. Early Childhood Behavior Changing in Terms of Communication between Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Nurul Fitria Kumala; Rachmi, Titi; Imaniah, Ikhfi; Firdaus, Moh Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to explore the effectiveness of the approach of communication between parents and teachers to change the behavior of young children. Surely, it prioritizes on the social interaction between teachers and parents of the students. The method used in this study is field research that is qualitative, while the analysis of the data used…

  7. Behavioral Changes Based on a Course in Agroecology: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Kristyn; King, James; Francis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated and described student perceptions of a course in agroecology to determine if participants experienced changed perceptions and behaviors resulting from the Agroecosystems Analysis course. A triangulation validating quantitative data mixed methods approach included a written survey comprised of both quantitative and open-ended…

  8. Playing for Real, Video Games and Stories for Health-Related Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging and entertaining format. Twenty-seven articles were identified on 25 video games that promoted health...

  9. Reduction of brain volume correlates with behavioral changes in queen ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Glennis E; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of reproductive female ants distinctly changes during the transition from virgin to mature, egg-laying queen. A winged female ant flies only once during her lifetime when she engages in the nuptial flight. Once she is mated she sheds her wings, excavates a nest and starts laying eggs, the basis for her future colony. We show for two species of harvester ants that this transition is accompanied by changes in the performance of behavioral tests: flying virgins are positively phototactic and prefer open areas, whereas young queens prefer the dark, avoid open areas and, given the opportunity, dig into the soil. These behavioral changes coincide with morphological changes in the brain. The brains of mature queens are significantly smaller than those of virgin females at the time of their mating flight. A disproportionately large shrinkage occurs in the medulla and other parts of the visual system during the early adult life of the queen. The brain reduction appears to be adaptive as mature queens show reduced behavioral repertoires and live in the dark. In contrast to virgin females, they do not rely on vision and might increase their fitness by reducing metabolically costly neural tissue. PMID:12417820

  10. Natural bathymetric change as a control on century-scale shoreline behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. A. G.; Navas, F.

    2004-06-01

    Identification of the relevant forcing factors behind coastal change is a major societal demand in the face of rising sea level. Changes in the patterns of coastal erosion and accretion at a century scale in Dundrum Bay, Northern Ireland, are here attributed to natural changes in the nearshore bathymetry of sufficient magnitude to alter incident wave-energy dispersal. Simulations of wave propagation across the nearshore reveal a marked change in the nearshore patterns of energy dispersal and related sediment- transport pathways between 1861 and 1968. The 1861 bathymetry is associated with a simulated longshore drift divide in the middle of the bay and with sediment dispersal to the southeast and northeast, whereas the 1968 bathymetry is associated with a consistent northeastward drift throughout the bay. These changes are consistent with recorded shoreline changes: sediment accumulation and foredune accretion in the northeast and northeastward spit elongation across a tidal inlet. This study reveals a case in which purely natural changes in the seafloor at a century scale can be related to long-term shoreline changes. Similar changes during relative sea-level rise during the Holocene were potentially capable of significant modification of shoreline morphology and dynamics. Nearshore extraction of sand for beach nourishment purposes may have consequences of similar magnitude for adjacent beaches.

  11. Behavioral response and cell morphology changes of caenorhabditis elegans under high power millimeter wave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. elegans were exposed to high power millimeter waves (MMWs) with different mean power densities, to investigate their behavioral response and cell morphology changes under MMW irradiation. The time-course photomicrography system was used to record the behavioral changes of C. elegans. The behavioral response and cell morphology changes were further observed by stereoscopic microscopes. The results show that freely moving C. elegans will escape from the MMW irradiation region quickly. After the exposure to MMWs with output mean power of 10 W and 12 W, the bending speed of C. elegans increases significantly at first, while the movement gradually slows down until the bodies get rigid. However, exposed to 5 W MMW, C. elegans show a distinctive tolerant reaction because of the thermal effect. In addition, cell morphological observations show that the nuclear structure of the eggs are abnormal after abnormal after MMW irradiation. High power MMW significantly affects the behaviors and cell morphology of C. elegans, which suggests the C. elegans could be used as a typical model species to study the biological effects of MMW irradiation. (authors)

  12. Joint project. Retention of radionuclides relevant for final disposal in natural clay rock and saline systems. Subproject 2. Geochemical behavior and transport of radionuclides in saline systems in the presence of repository-relevant organics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeide, Katja; Fritsch, Katharina; Lippold, Holger [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Ressource Ecology; and others

    2016-08-01

    retention at these minerals could be attributed to surface-mediated reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). An influence of ionic strength was not observed. The influence of ionic strength (up to 3 mol/kg) and background electrolyte (NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}, MgCl{sub 2}) on U(VI) sorption onto montmorillonite was studied. The U(VI) sorption is influenced by the background electrolyte, the influence of ionic strength is small. Surface complexation modeling was performed applying the 2SPNE SC/CE model. Surface complexation constants were determined for the NaCl and CaCl{sub 2} system and were extrapolated to zero ionic strength. Surface complexation in mixed electrolytes can be modeled applying surface complexation constants derived for pure electrolytes. The influence of citrate on U(VI) diffusion in Opalinus Clay was studied using Opalinus Clay pore water as background electrolyte. The diffusion parameter values obtained for the HTO through-diffusion and the U(VI) in-diffusion in the absence of citric acid were in agreement with literature data. In the presence of citric acid, U(VI) diffusion was significantly retarded, which was attributed to a change in speciation, probably U(VI) was reduced to U(IV). Larger-scale heterogeneous material effects on diffusive transport were investigated with PET. Diffusion parameters were derived by optimum fit of a FEM-model to the measurement. These parameters are in accordance with the results from 1D-through-diffusion experiments. Deviations from the simple transversal-isotropic behavior, which are identified as residuals from the model, are indications for heterogeneous transport on the mm-scale. PET measurements were also conducted in order to display the improvement of the EDZ with waterglass injections. These experiments enable to draw conclusions on the complex reactive transport process and thus an estimation of the achieved improvement of the barrier function. The image reconstruction procedure was largely improved, mainly with the aid of

  13. Inhibition of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons results in complex behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J A; Ramikie, T S; Schmidt, M J; Báldi, R; Garbett, K; Everheart, M G; Warren, L E; Gellért, L; Horváth, S; Patel, S; Mirnics, Károly

    2015-12-01

    Reduced expression of the Gad1 gene-encoded 67-kDa protein isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) is a hallmark of schizophrenia. GAD67 downregulation occurs in multiple interneuronal sub-populations, including the parvalbumin-positive (PVALB+) cells. To investigate the role of the PV-positive GABAergic interneurons in behavioral and molecular processes, we knocked down the Gad1 transcript using a microRNA engineered to target specifically Gad1 mRNA under the control of Pvalb bacterial artificial chromosome. Verification of construct expression was performed by immunohistochemistry. Follow-up electrophysiological studies revealed a significant reduction in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release probability without alterations in postsynaptic membrane properties or changes in glutamatergic release probability in the prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons. Behavioral characterization of our transgenic (Tg) mice uncovered that the Pvalb/Gad1 Tg mice have pronounced sensorimotor gating deficits, increased novelty-seeking and reduced fear extinction. Furthermore, NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor antagonism by ketamine had an opposing dose-dependent effect, suggesting that the differential dosage of ketamine might have divergent effects on behavioral processes. All behavioral studies were validated using a second cohort of animals. Our results suggest that reduction of GABAergic transmission from PVALB+ interneurons primarily impacts behavioral domains related to fear and novelty seeking and that these alterations might be related to the behavioral phenotype observed in schizophrenia. PMID:25623945

  14. Expression of the G72/G30 gene in transgenic mice induces behavioral changes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Lijun; Hattori, Eiji; Nakajima, Akira; Woehrle, Nancy S.; Mark D Opal; Zhang, Chunling; Grennan, Kay; Dulawa, Stephanie C.; Tang, Ya-Ping; Gershon, Elliot S.; Liu, Chunyu

    2013-01-01

    The G72/G30 gene complex is a candidate gene for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, G72 and G30 mRNAs are expressed at very low levels in human brain, with only rare splicing forms observed. We report here G72/G30 expression profiles and behavioral changes in a G72/G30 transgenic mouse model. A human BAC clone containing the G72/G30 genomic region was used to establish the transgenic mouse model, on which gene expression studies, Western blot and behavioral tests were performed. Rel...

  15. Enculturating science: Community-centric design of behavior change interactions for accelerating health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Aarti; Ghosh, Amit Kumar; Samphel, Rigzin; Yadav, Ranjanaa; Yeung, Diana; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite significant advancements in the scientific evidence base of interventions to improve newborn survival, we have not yet been able to "bend the curve" to markedly accelerate global rates of reduction in newborn mortality. The ever-widening gap between discovery of scientific best practices and their mass adoption by families (the evidence-practice gap) is not just a matter of improving the coverage of health worker-community interactions. The design of the interactions themselves must be guided by sound behavioral science approaches such that they lead to mass adoption and impact at a large scale. The main barrier to the application of scientific approaches to behavior change is our inability to "unbox" the "black box" of family health behaviors in community settings. The authors argue that these are not black boxes, but in fact thoughtfully designed community systems that have been designed and upheld, and have evolved over many years keeping in mind a certain worldview and a common social purpose. An empathetic understanding of these community systems allows us to deconstruct the causal pathways of existing behaviors, and re-engineer them to achieve desired outcomes. One of the key reasons for the failure of interactions to translate into behavior change is our failure to recognize that the content, context, and process of interactions need to be designed keeping in mind an organized community system with a very different worldview and beliefs. In order to improve the adoption of scientific best practices by communities, we need to adapt them to their culture by leveraging existing beliefs, practices, people, context, and skills. The authors present a systems approach for community-centric design of interactions, highlighting key principles for achieving intrinsically motivated, sustained change in social norms and family health behaviors, elucidated with progressive theories from systems thinking, management sciences, cross-cultural psychology, learning

  16. Behavior change pathways to voluntary medical male circumcision: narrative interviews with circumcision clients in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Price

    Full Text Available As an HIV prevention strategy, the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC is underway in 14 countries in Africa. For prevention impact, these countries must perform millions of circumcisions in adolescent and adult men before 2015. Although acceptability of VMMC in the region is well documented and service delivery efforts have proven successful, countries remain behind in meeting circumcision targets. A better understanding of men's VMMC-seeking behaviors and experiences is needed to improve communication and interventions to accelerate uptake. To this end, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 clients waiting for surgical circumcision at clinics in Zambia. Based on Stages of Change behavioral theory, men were asked to recount how they learned about adult circumcision, why they decided it was right for them, what they feared most, how they overcame their fears, and the steps they took to make it to the clinic that day. Thematic analysis across all cases allowed us to identify key behavior change triggers while within-case analysis elucidated variants of one predominant behavior change pattern. Major stages included: awareness and critical belief adjustment, norming pressures and personalization of advantages, a period of fear management and finally VMMC-seeking. Qualitative comparative analysis of ever-married and never-married men revealed important similarities and differences between the two groups. Unprompted, 17 of the men described one to four failed prior attempts to become circumcised. Experienced more frequently by older men, failed VMMC attempts were often due to service-side barriers. Findings highlight intervention opportunities to increase VMMC uptake. Reaching uncircumcised men via close male friends and female sex partners and tailoring messages to stage-specific concerns and needs would help accelerate men's movement through the behavior change process. Expanding service access is also needed to meet

  17. Age-dependent change in behavioral feature in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Kurosawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Takao; Sato, Yuji; Kosaki, Rika

    2012-06-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is characterized by developmental delay, postnatal growth retardation, typical facial appearance, and broad thumbs and big toes. The behavioral phenotype of children with RTS has been described as friendly and having good social contacts; however, a short attention span and hyperactivity are sometimes present. Little attention has been paid to the behavioral aspects of adults with RTS. We conducted an observational study focusing on behavioral problems in adolescents and adults with RTS compared with children with RTS. A total of 63 patients with RTS and their caretakers answered self-administered questionnaires regarding behavioral features including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). High total CBCL scores were observed, and the mean score was beyond the clinical cut-off point. After stratification into two groups according to age, the older group (≥14 years) displayed statistically significant higher scores for Anxious/Depression (P = 0.002) and Aggressive Behavior (P = 0.036) than the younger group (≤13 years). In analyses of single items, statistically significant differences between the younger group and the older group were found for 'Nervous, high-strung, or tense' (31.3% vs 67.7%, P = 0.004) and 'Too fearful or anxious' (37.5% vs 64.5%, P = 0.032). Here, we showed that the specific behavioral phenotypes of RTS change during adolescence, with anxiety, mood instability, and aggressive behavior emerging as patients age. A clear need exists to follow-up patients with RTS to catch the eventual emergence of psychiatric problems with age. If necessary, pharmacological treatment should be considered. PMID:22639993

  18. Predicting the effect of climate change on wildfire behavior and initial attack success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, William; Fried, Jeremy S.; Gilless, J. Keith; Riley, William J.; Moody, Tadashi J.; Simon de Blas, Clara; Hayhoe, Katharine; Moritz, Max; Stephens, Scott; Torn, Margaret

    2007-12-01

    This study focused on how climate change-induced effects on weather will translate into changes in wildland fire severity and outcomes in California, particularly on the effectiveness of initial attack at limiting the number of fires that escape initial attack. The results indicate that subtle shifts in fire behavior of the sort that might be induced by the climate changes anticipated for the next century are of sufficient magnitude to generate an appreciable increase in the number of fires that escape initial attack. Such escapes are of considerable importance in wildland fire protection planning, given the high cost to society of a catastrophic escape like those experienced in recent decades in the Berkeley-Oakland, Santa Barbara, San Diego, or Los Angeles areas. However, at least for the three study areas considered, it would appear that relatively modest augmentations to existing firefighting resources might be sufficient to compensate for change-induced changes in wildland fire outcomes.

  19. The association of income with health behavior change and disease monitoring among patients with chronic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J T Campbell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of chronic diseases requires patients to adhere to recommended health behavior change and complete tests for monitoring. While studies have shown an association between low income and lack of adherence, the reasons why people with low income may be less likely to adhere are unclear. We sought to determine the association between household income and receipt of health behavior change advice, adherence to advice, receipt of recommended monitoring tests, and self-reported reasons for non-adherence/non-receipt. METHODS: We conducted a population-weighted survey, with 1849 respondents with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke from Western Canada (n = 1849. We used log-binomial regression to examine the association between household income and the outcome variables of interest: receipt of advice for and adherence to health behavior change (sodium reduction, dietary improvement, increased physical activity, smoking cessation, weight loss, reasons for non-adherence, receipt of recommended monitoring tests (cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure, and reasons for non-receipt of tests. RESULTS: Behavior change advice was received equally by both low and high income respondents. Low income respondents were more likely than those with high income to not adhere to recommendations regarding smoking cessation (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (PRR: 1.55, 95%CI: 1.09-2.20, and more likely to not receive measurements of blood cholesterol (PRR: 1.72, 95%CI 1.24-2.40 or glucose (PRR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.26-2.58. Those with low income were less likely to state that non-adherence/non-receipt was due to personal choice, and more likely to state that it was due to an extrinsic factor, such as cost or lack of accessibility. CONCLUSIONS: There are important income-related differences in the patterns of health behavior change and disease monitoring, as well as reasons for non-adherence or non

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Peres, Marco Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities. METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation) and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling). Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test) and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index), using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8). RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities for

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities.METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar(Brazilian National School Health Survey were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling. Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index, using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8.RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities

  2. Affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events: the moderating effect of religiosity on avoidance behavior among students studying under a high level of terror event exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Zukerman, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the development of affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events among Israeli students studying under a high level of terror event exposure and to assess the effects of religiosity on those changes development. A questionnaire was administered to 770 students in the Ariel University Center in Judea and Samaria. Higher levels of terror exposure were associated with higher levels of avoidance behavior, subjective feelings of insecurity, and emotional distress. Higher religiosity moderated avoidance behavior, even when controlling for the level of objective exposure to terror events exposure, but had no influence on subjective sense of insecurity, or the level of emotional distress. These findings suggest that religiosity moderates behavioral changes development after traumatic event exposure mainly by reducing avoidance behavior. PMID:21660614

  3. How customer satisfaction changes behavior: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vazifedoost

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase on competition industry from one side and the need for customer retention on the other side in banking industry create necessary motivation to learn more about customer behavior. This paper investigated the relationship between seven perspectives of banking services and customers’ attitude towards changing behavior. The seven perspectives included how bank employees’ treat customers, service prices, how to promote and market synergies, place and time to serve customers, products, equipment and process. The proposed study was implemented in two Iranian banks called Mellat and Tejarat in city of Tehran, Iran. The results indicated that all components except one case, which was “how to promote and market synergies” had meaningful and negative relationship with customer behavior.

  4. Korean students' behavioral change toward nuclear power generation through education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kim, Jae Rok; Choi, Yoon Seok [Dept. of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    As a result of conducting a 45 minute-long seminar on the principles, state of use, advantages, and disadvantages of nuclear power generation for Korean elementary, middle, and high school students, the levels of perception including the necessity (p<0.017), safety (p<0.000), information acquisition (p<0.000), and subjective knowledge (p<0.000), objective knowledge (p<0.000), attitude (p<0.000), and behavior (p<0.000) were all significantly higher. This indicates that education can be effective in promoting widespread social acceptance of nuclear power and its continued use. In order to induce behavior change toward positive judgments on nuclear power generation, it is necessary to focus on attitude improvement while providing the information in all areas related to the perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Here, the positive message on the convenience and the safety of nuclear power generation should be highlighted.

  5. Korean students' behavioral change toward nuclear power generation through education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of conducting a 45 minute-long seminar on the principles, state of use, advantages, and disadvantages of nuclear power generation for Korean elementary, middle, and high school students, the levels of perception including the necessity (p<0.017), safety (p<0.000), information acquisition (p<0.000), and subjective knowledge (p<0.000), objective knowledge (p<0.000), attitude (p<0.000), and behavior (p<0.000) were all significantly higher. This indicates that education can be effective in promoting widespread social acceptance of nuclear power and its continued use. In order to induce behavior change toward positive judgments on nuclear power generation, it is necessary to focus on attitude improvement while providing the information in all areas related to the perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Here, the positive message on the convenience and the safety of nuclear power generation should be highlighted.

  6. Change of tensile behavior of a high-strength low-alloy steel with tempering temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tensile behavior of a high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel after tempering at different temperatures from 200 to 700 deg. C was investigated. The steel showed similar tensile behavior with almost no change in strength for tempering below 400 deg. C. However, when the tempering temperature was increased from 500 to 650 deg. C, the steel displayed not only a decrease in strength, but also gradually the upper yield points and lower strain-hardening ability. When the tempering temperature was increased up to 700 deg. C, the steel exhibited a 'round roof' shaped tensile curve and a high strain-hardening exponent. These interesting phenomena of tensile behavior are well explained in view of the interactions of mobile dislocations and dissolved C and N atoms and their effects on the strain-hardening exponent.

  7. Change of tensile behavior of a high-strength low-alloy steel with tempering temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Wei; Zhu Lin [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sha Wei [Metals Research Group, School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Shan Yiyin, E-mail: yyshan@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yang Ke [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-08-20

    The tensile behavior of a high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel after tempering at different temperatures from 200 to 700 deg. C was investigated. The steel showed similar tensile behavior with almost no change in strength for tempering below 400 deg. C. However, when the tempering temperature was increased from 500 to 650 deg. C, the steel displayed not only a decrease in strength, but also gradually the upper yield points and lower strain-hardening ability. When the tempering temperature was increased up to 700 deg. C, the steel exhibited a 'round roof' shaped tensile curve and a high strain-hardening exponent. These interesting phenomena of tensile behavior are well explained in view of the interactions of mobile dislocations and dissolved C and N atoms and their effects on the strain-hardening exponent.

  8. The Relation Between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6–10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent traini...

  9. The Contributions of Regional Knowledge Networks Researching Environmental Changes in Latin America and Africa: a Synthesis of what they can do and why they can be policy relevant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myanna Lahsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide a synthesis of what regional scientific research networks in less developed regions of the world can do and why they might be relevant for societal decisions and practice. We do so through a focus on three regional science network initiatives that aim to enhance understanding of the multiscalar dynamics of global environmental change (GEC regionally and globally, namely the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000, the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA, and the Inter-American Institute for Global Change (IAI. With a view to aiding future efforts at regional research network formation, we assess whether and how these three networks enhanced regional science, and the extent to which they sought and managed to bridge the science-policy gap that challenges GEC science as a whole. Identifying key decisions and attributes bearing on their successes, the analysis attends specifically to how the three networks sought to build capacity, how differences and similarities between them affected their level of autonomy from governments, and how this and other factors influenced their functioning and achievements.

  10. Systematic Review of Health Promotion Programs Focused on Behavioral Changes for People With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Haleigh M; Havercamp, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) experience high rates of chronic health problems and poor overall health compared to people without disabilities. Recent attention to health risk behaviors such as poor diet, lack of physical activity, and underuse of health care has led to the development of several programs intended to reduce disparities in this population through health promotion programs. A review of the literature was conducted focusing on programs developed to target behavioral changes in the person with ID. Thirteen studies, evaluating 10 different health promotion programs, were found. Programs varied significantly in design, targeted health change, and demonstrated effectiveness. Components of each program are systematically reviewed and recommendations made for future programs based upon the current evidence. PMID:26824134

  11. A lack of response of the financial behaviors of biodiversity conservation nonprofits to changing economic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Boyer, Alison G; Armsworth, Paul R

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of conservation organizations is determined in part by how they adapt to changing conditions. Over the previous decade, economic conditions in the United States (US) showed marked variation including a period of rapid growth followed by a major recession. We examine how biodiversity conservation nonprofits in the US responded to these changes through their financial behaviors, focusing on a sample of 90 biodiversity conservation nonprofits and the largest individual organization (The Nature Conservancy; TNC). For the 90 sampled organizations, an analysis of financial ratios derived from tax return data revealed little response to economic conditions. Similarly, more detailed examination of conservation expenditures and land acquisition practices of TNC revealed only one significant relationship with economic conditions: TNC accepted a greater proportion of conservation easements as donated in more difficult economic conditions. Our results suggest that the financial behaviors of US biodiversity conservation nonprofits are unresponsive to economic conditions. PMID:25512840

  12. Understanding the relationship of maternal health behavior change and intervention strategies in a Nicaraguan NGO network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J; Hage, Jerald; Vargas, William

    2005-09-01

    Few studies of community interventions examine independent effects of investments in: (1) capital (i.e., physical, human and social capital), and (2) management systems (e.g., monitoring and evaluation systems (M&E)) on maternal and child health behavior change. This paper does this in the context of an inter-organizational network. In Nicaragua, international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local NGOs formed the NicaSalud Federation. Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), 14 member organizations took baselines measures of maternal safe motherhood and child health behavior indicators during November 1999 and August 2000, respectively, and final evaluation measures in December 2001. In April 2002, retrospective interviews were conducted with supervisors and managers in the 14 organizations to explore changes made to community health strategies, factors associated with the changes, and impacts they attributed to participating in NicaSalud. Physical capital (density of health huts), human capital (density and variety of paramedical personnel) and social capital (density of health committees) were associated with pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) 3+ times, and/or retaining ANC cards. The variety of paramedic personnel was also associated with women making post-partum visits to clinics. Physical capital (density of health huts) and social capital (density of health committees and mothers' clubs) were associated with child diarrhea case management indicators. One safe motherhood indicator (delivery of babies by a clinician) was not associated with intervention strategies. At the management level, NicaSalud's training of members to use LQAS for M&E was associated with the number of strategic and tactical changes they subsequently made to interventions (organizational learning). Organizational learning was related to changes in maternal and child health behaviors of the women (including changes in the proportion using post-partum care). As the

  13. Repeated Predictable Stress Causes Resilience against Colitis-Induced Behavioral Changes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders and can be exacerbated by stress. In this study which was performed with male 10-week old C57Bl/6N mice, we used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis to evaluate behavioral changes caused by intestinal inflammation, to assess the interaction between repeated psychological stress (water avoidance stress, WAS and colitis in modifying behavior, and to analyze neurochemical correlates of this interaction. A 7-day treatment with DSS (2 % in drinking water decreased locomotion and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and reduced social interaction. Repeated exposure to WAS for 7 days had little influence on behavior but prevented the DSS-induced behavioral disturbances in the open field and social interaction tests. In contrast, repeated WAS did not modify colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase content and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, parameters used to assess colitis severity. DSS-induced colitis was associated with an increase in circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY, a rise in the hypothalamic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NPY mRNA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA. Repeated WAS significantly decreased the relative expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the hippocampus. The effect of repeated WAS to blunt the DSS-evoked behavioral disturbances was associated with a rise of circulating corticosterone and an increase in the expression of hypothalamic NPY mRNA. These results show that experimental colitis leads to a particular range of behavioral alterations which can be prevented by repeated WAS, a model of predictable chronic stress, while the severity of colitis remains unabated. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the resilience effect of repeated WAS involves hypothalamic NPY and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  14. Associations between poor sleep quality and stages of change of multiple health behaviors among participants of employee wellness program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-kuen Azor Hui

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that poor sleep quality was associated with an elevated likelihood of contemplating or initiating behavior change, but a decreased likelihood of maintaining healthy behavior change. It is important to include sleep improvement as one of the lifestyle management interventions offered in EWP to comprehensively reduce health risks and promote the health of a large employee population.

  15. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  16. Promising Behavior Change Techniques in a Multicomponent Intervention to Reduce Concerns about Falls in Old Age: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestjens, Lotte; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt

    2015-01-01

    Complex behavior change interventions need evidence regarding the effectiveness of individual components to understand how these interventions work. The objective of this study was to identify the least and most promising behavior change techniques (BCTs) within the Dutch intervention "A Matter of Balance" (AMB-NL) aimed at concerns…

  17. An Instrument for Measuring Behavior Change Among Low-Income Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham, Angela Wood

    1999-01-01

    AN ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING BEHAVIOR CHANGE AMONG LOW-INCOME YOUTH by Angela Wood Dunham Ruby H. Cox, Chairperson Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise (Abstract) The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and its youth component, 4-H EFNEP, were established nationwide by the Cooperative Extension Service in 1969. 4-H EFNEP provides nutrition education to low-income youth, aged 5 to 19 years; however, there has been no standard instrum...

  18. The impact of differential satiation dynamics on changing consumer behavior, wellbeing, and innovative activity

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhard K. Lades

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a formal model in which differential satiation dynamics of various consumer needs translate into long-run changes of consumer behavior when income rises. In the model individuals allocate their income to the consumption categories proportional to need deprivation states corresponding to the consumption categories, a decision making process called matching. The paper compares the Engel curves obtained from matching with the Engel curves obtained from traditional constraine...

  19. Cost–Effectiveness Analysis of a Behavior Change and Social Marketing Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Yanqing Xu; Glenn P. Jenkins

    2012-01-01

    This report develops a methodology for understanding an ex-ante cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) regarding optimal breastfeeding promotion. This is a behavior Change and Social Marketing activity. The study compares the “with” to the “without” project case scenarios. A model has been developed to estimate the cost per Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) saved, cost per diarrhea case averted, cost per diarrhea death averted, and cost per stunting case averted.

  20. Variations on Timing Decisions After Participating in Travel Behavior Change Program

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA GARCÉS, PABLO; Ruiz Sánchez, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Travel Behavior Change Programs (TBCP) based on psychological principles of persuasions, were implemented to habitual drivers in Valencia (Spain) with the objective of convincing them to reduce car use. Participants in TBCP were selected from those involved in a two-wave activity scheduling process panel survey, which collected weekly pre-planned and executed activity-travel agendas. Actions included in TBCP were implemented between the two panel survey waves, so it is possible to analyze the...

  1. Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Nasir H.; Morgenstern, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience app...

  2. Defining Participant Exposure Measures in Web-Based Health Behavior Change Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Danaher, Brian G; Boles, Shawn M.; Akers, Laura; Gordon, Judith S.; Severson, Herbert H.

    2006-01-01

    Background Published research on the use of Web-based behavior change programs is growing rapidly. One of the observations characterized as problematic in these studies is that participants often make relatively few website visits and spend only a brief time accessing the program. Properly structured websites permit the unobtrusive measurement of the ways in which participants access (are exposed to) program content. Research on participant exposure to Web-based programs is not merely of inte...

  3. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel B De Boni; Flavio Pechansky; Mauricio T. de Vasconcellos; Bastos, Francisco I

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO) after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018). Selected drivers (n=683) answered a structured interview, were...

  4. Web-Based Interventions for Behavior Change and Self-Management: Potential, Pitfalls, and Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The potential advantages of using the Internet to deliver self-care and behavior-change programs are well recognized. An aging population combined with the increasing prevalence of long-term conditions and more effective medical interventions place financial strain on all health care systems. Web-based interventions have the potential to combine the tailored approach of face-to-face interventions with the scalability of public health interventions that have low marginal costs per additional u...

  5. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; van Steeg, H.; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association chan...

  6. Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Patrick S; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of parents' divorce on children's adjustment have been studied extensively. This article applies new advances in trajectory modeling to the problem of disentangling the effects of divorce on children's adjustment from related factors such as the child's age at the time of divorce and the child's gender. Latent change score models were used to examine trajectories of externalizing behavior problems in relation to children's experience of their parents' divorce. Participants included 35...

  7. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J. R.; Christophe Gernigon; Yperen, Nico W. Van; Ludovic Marin; Paul L.C. Van Geert

    2014-01-01

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current study we aimed to provide these insights by introducing an experimental dynamical research design. Rowing pairs had to compete against a virtual opponent on rowing ergometers, while a screen in fr...

  8. Neural Changes following Behavioral Activation for a Depressed Breast Cancer Patient: A Functional MRI Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gawrysiak, Michael J.; John P. Carvalho; Rogers, Baxter P.; Nicholas, Christopher R. N.; Dougherty, John H.; Hopko, Derek R.

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging is an innovative but at this stage underutilized method to assess the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in this case study to examine changes in brain activity in a depressed breast cancer patient receiving an 8-session Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD), based on the work of Hopko and Lejuez (2007). A music listening paradigm was used during fMRI brain scans to assess reward responsivenes...

  9. Initiation of Health Behavior Change and Its Psychological Determinants in Prehypertensive People: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of risk perception with change in health behaviors and social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs. Additionally, this study evaluated the feasibility, utility, and practice of self blood pressure monitoring (SBPM). Design: Adults with prehypertension, ages 45-62 (N = 23) completed the Risk Perception Survey for Developing Hypertension (RPS-DH) and Health Belief Survey (HBS) during the screening portion of Dash-2-Wellness (D2W), a lifestyle modific...

  10. Just-in-Time Technology to Encourage Incremental, Dietary Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Intille, Stephen S.; Kukla, Charles; Farzanfar, Ramesh; Bakr, Waseem

    2003-01-01

    Our multi-disciplinary team is developing mobile computing software that uses “just-in-time” presentation of information to motivate behavior change. Using a participatory design process, preliminary interviews have helped us to establish 10 design goals. We have employed some to create a prototype of a tool that encourages better dietary decision making through incremental, just-in-time motivation at the point of purchase.

  11. Mechanisms of Cytokine-Induced Behavioral Changes: Psychoneuroimmunology at the Translational Interface Norman Cousins Lecture

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Andrew H.; Timmie, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Work in our laboratory has focused on the mechanisms by which cytokines can influence the brain and behavior in humans and non-human primates. Using administration of interferon (IFN)-alpha as a tool to unravel these mechanisms, we have expanded upon findings from the basic science literature implicating cytokine-induced changes in monoamine metabolism as a primary pathway to depression. More specifically, a role for serotonin metabolism has been supported by the clinical efficacy of serotoni...

  12. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shatavisa Mukherjee; Sukanta Sen; Arunava Biswas; Tapan Kumar Barman; Santanu Kumar Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into f...

  13. Cash management behavior of firms and its structural change in an emerging money market

    OpenAIRE

    Kytönen, E. (Erkki)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Driven by fast evolution in the money market during the past two decades, financial and technological innovations, increasing competition, and internationalizing of businesses, cash and treasury management has become an increasingly important function in most firms. It is reasonable to expect that the role of financial transactions in the cash management process in adding to firm value has increased its importance and changed the cash management behavior of...

  14. Working memory gating mechanisms explain developmental change in rule-guided behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Kerstin; Ackerman, Laura; Chatham, Christopher H; Amso, Dima; Badre, David

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive control requires choosing contextual information to update into working memory (input gating), maintaining it there (maintenance) stable against distraction, and then choosing which subset of maintained information to use in guiding action (output gating). Recent work has raised the possibility that the development of rule-guided behavior, in the transition from childhood to adolescence, is linked specifically to changes in the gating components of working memory (Amso, Haas, McShane, & Badre, 2014). Given the importance of effective rule-guided behavior for decision making in this developmental transition, we used hierarchical rule tasks to probe the precise developmental dynamics of working memory gating. This mechanistic precision informs ongoing efforts to train cognitive control and working memory operations across typical and atypical development. The results of Experiment 1 verified that the development of rule-guided behavior is uniquely linked to increasing hierarchical complexity but not to increasing maintenance demands across 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order rule tasks. Experiment 2 then investigated whether this developmental trajectory in rule-guided behavior is best explained by change in input gating or output gating. Further, as input versus output gating also tend to correlate with a more proactive versus reactive control strategy in these tasks, we assessed developmental change in the degree to which these two processes were deployed efficiently given the task. Experiment 2 shows that the developmental change observed in Experiment 1 and in Amso et al. (2014) is likely a result of increased efficacy of output gating processes, as well as greater strategic efficiency in that adolescents opt for this costly process less often than children. PMID:27336178

  15. Musical hand shaker toward sustainable behavioral changes : Designing of persuasive interaction through emotion arousing

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    Context. This paper aims to investigate the potential of sustainable interaction system by employing persuasive design process. Sustainable Human Computer Interaction community (HCI) strives to find effective ways to change human behavior toward pro-environment. The sustainable HCI community seems to propose ambient display interface as one of its major interaction methods, which have an impact in quiet and static surroundings. However, when it comes to crowded public places where public reso...

  16. Understanding the early cycling evolution behaviors for phase change memory application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RESET current of T-shaped phase change memory cells with 35 nm heating electrodes has been studied to understand the behavior of early cycling evolution. Results show that the RESET current has been significantly reduced after the early cycling evolution (1st RESET) operation. Compared the transmission electron microscope images, it is found that the hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) crystal grains are changed into the grains with face centered cubic structure after the early cycling evolution operation, which is taken as the major reason for the reduced RESET current, confirmed by a two-dimensional finite analysis and ab initio calculations

  17. Apps Seeking Theories: Results of a Study on the Use of Health Behavior Change Theories in Cancer Survivorship Mobile Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. Objective This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile...

  18. Modeling Early Sexual Initiation among Young Adolescents Using Quantum and Continuous Behavior Change Methods: Implications for HIV Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinguang; Lunn, Sonja; Harris, Carole; Li, Xiaoming; Deveaux, Lynette; Marshall, Sharon; Cottrell, Leslie; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral research and prevention intervention science efforts have largely been based on hypotheses of linear or rational behavior change. Additional advances in the field may result from the integration of quantum behavior change and catastrophe models. Longitudinal data from a randomized trial for 1241 pre-adolescents 9–12 years old who self-described as virgin were analyzed. Data for 469 virgins in the control group were included for linear and cusp catastrophe models to describe sexual ...

  19. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus. PMID:26477659

  20. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatavisa Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT. Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05 increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use.

  1. Mobile applications for chronic disease self-management : building a bridge for behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lähdesmäki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the biggest challenges in the future of healthcare is the rising prevalence of chronic, non-communicable diseases. In high-income countries seven out of ten leading risk factors of death are caused by the way people eat, drink or move. Health behavior patterns are considered to account for 40 % of early mortality. If nothing changes, from 2011 until 2030 the cost of chronic disease in the whole world may reach 47 trillion dollars. It is clear that chronic disease care needs to change. Today people with chronic disease spend less than 0,1 % of their time yearly in direct contact with healthcare and guidance. The rest of the time they are under the influence of family, colleagues, acquaintances, media and all the conflicting information from them. Digital elements are emerging in healthcare. Some of these digital elements emerging are mobile applications. Of all the people in Finland, 70 % own a smartphone. These devices are often in the proximity of their owner; in a pocket or a purse, making them easy and fast to use for various purposes. This is why they can also prove to be useful tools for personal healthcare and chronic disease self-management support, for example for recording diet and exercise related values as well as various disease specific values like blood glucose or blood pressure measurements. They also enable two-way interaction with healthcare professionals and patients in their everyday life. This requires well designed applications that affect the patient’s health behavior and are tempting to use. According to research, this is not always the case. Aim The aim of this thesis study was to find out how multipurpose mobile applications intended for chronic disease self-management implement known behavior change techniques in order to change behavior, and to find out how they utilize known gamification features in order to maintain the change. The purpose of this study was to create a new, multidisciplinary

  2. Introducing the Concept of the Minimally Important Difference to Determine a Clinically Relevant Change on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeThe minimally important difference (MID) represents the smallest change in score on patient-reported outcome measures that is relevant to patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the MID for the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) and the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) for patients with intermittent claudication (IC).MethodsIn this multicenter study, we recruited 294 patients with IC between July and October 2012. Patients completed the VascuQol, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 (worst to best), and the WIQ, with scores ranging from 0 to 1 (worst to best) at first visit and after 4 months follow-up. In addition, patients answered an anchor-question rating their health status compared to baseline, as being improved, unchanged, or deteriorated. The MID for improvement and deterioration was calculated by an anchor-based approach, and determined with the upper and lower limits of the 95 % confidence interval of the mean change of the group who had not changed according to the anchor-question.ResultsFor the MID analyses of the VascuQol and WIQ, 163 and 134 patients were included, respectively. The MID values for the VascuQol (mean baseline score 4.25) were 0.87 for improvement and 0.23 for deterioration. For the WIQ (mean baseline score 0.39), we found MID values of 0.11 and −0.03 for improvement and deterioration, respectively.ConclusionIn this study, we calculated the MID for the VascuQol and the WIQ. Applying these MID facilitates better interpretation of treatment outcomes and can help to set treatment goals for individual care

  3. Introducing the Concept of the Minimally Important Difference to Determine a Clinically Relevant Change on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conijn, Anne P., E-mail: a.p.conijn@amc.nl [Academic Medical Center, Departments of Vascular Surgery and Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Jonkers, Wilma, E-mail: wilma.jonkers@achmea.nl [Achmea Insurances, Division of Health Care (Netherlands); Rouwet, Ellen V., E-mail: e.rouwet@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Vahl, Anco C., E-mail: a.c.vahl@olvg.nl [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Koelemay, Mark J. W., E-mail: m.j.koelemaij@amc.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of vascular surgery (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe minimally important difference (MID) represents the smallest change in score on patient-reported outcome measures that is relevant to patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the MID for the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) and the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) for patients with intermittent claudication (IC).MethodsIn this multicenter study, we recruited 294 patients with IC between July and October 2012. Patients completed the VascuQol, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 (worst to best), and the WIQ, with scores ranging from 0 to 1 (worst to best) at first visit and after 4 months follow-up. In addition, patients answered an anchor-question rating their health status compared to baseline, as being improved, unchanged, or deteriorated. The MID for improvement and deterioration was calculated by an anchor-based approach, and determined with the upper and lower limits of the 95 % confidence interval of the mean change of the group who had not changed according to the anchor-question.ResultsFor the MID analyses of the VascuQol and WIQ, 163 and 134 patients were included, respectively. The MID values for the VascuQol (mean baseline score 4.25) were 0.87 for improvement and 0.23 for deterioration. For the WIQ (mean baseline score 0.39), we found MID values of 0.11 and −0.03 for improvement and deterioration, respectively.ConclusionIn this study, we calculated the MID for the VascuQol and the WIQ. Applying these MID facilitates better interpretation of treatment outcomes and can help to set treatment goals for individual care.

  4. A systematic review of community hand washing interventions leading to changes in hygiene behavior in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Madhu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Educational interventions in hygienic practices have shown to be cost effective methods of controlling diarrhea and other diseases spread through poor hygiene. Hand washing is one method of breaking the chain of transmission between household contacts, and especially between mother and child. Effective interventions to promote this behavior should be expanded and encouraged in the developing world. Objectives: To determine the extent and credibility of intervention studies done to promote uptake of improved hand washing behaviors in communities. To assess these interventions on their results in terms of behavior change, and identify factors contributing to their success or failure. Methods: The investigators searched the databases SCOPUS, EMBASE (1980-2010, and Pubmed for English papers written about hygiene promotion interventions in developing countries. Interventions included were community based control trials examining the effectiveness of increased hygiene education through measured behavior change. Only studies measuring behavior change using structured observation or demonstration of hand washing skills were used. Results: The search terms: hand washing, health education, hygiene promotion, behavior change, and diarrhea were used, resulting in a total of 330 titles. The investigators scanned the titles and abstracts to narrow down to 13 hygiene interventions measuring behavior change. Only five control trial interventions met the observation measurement criteria. Behavior change measurements were compiled and compared based on the length of intervention and the degree of change noted with each study. Conclusion: Encouraging uptake of hand washing behavior is possible using educational interventions to promote improved hygiene. The most significant impacts were seen from interventions running for longer periods of time. More robust and long term control trials are necessary to gather conclusive data on the sustainability of

  5. Reference Model of Desired Yaw Angle for Automated Lane Changing Behavior of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianbo Ren; Guanzhe Zhang; Hangzhe Wu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it studies the problem of trajectory planning and tracking for lane changing behavior of vehicle in automatic highway systems. Based on the model of yaw angle acceleration with positive and negative trapezoid constraint, by analyzing the variation laws of yaw motion of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, the reference model of desired yaw angle and yaw rate for lane changing is generated. According to the yaw angle model, the vertical and horizontal coordinates of trajectory for vehicle lane change are calculated. Assuming that the road curvature is a constant, the difference and associations between two scenarios are analyzed, the lane changing maneuvers occurred on curve road and straight road, respectively. On this basis, it deduces the calculation method of desired yaw angle for lane changing on circular road. Simulation result shows that, it is different from traditional lateral acceleration planning method with the trapezoid constraint, by applying the trapezoidal yaw acceleration reference model proposed in this paper, the resulting expected yaw angular acceleration is continuous, and the step tracking for steering angle is not needed to implement. Due to the desired yaw model is direct designed based on the variation laws of raw movement of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, rather than indirectly calculated from the trajectory model for lane changing, the calculation steps are simplified.

  6. Epigenetic and Proteomic Expression Changes Promoted by Eating Addictive-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Samantha; Burokas, Aurelijus; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Gutiérrez-Martos, Miriam; Martín-García, Elena; Pucci, Mariangela; Falconi, Anastasia; D'Addario, Claudio; Maccarrone, Mauro; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    An increasing perspective conceptualizes obesity and overeating as disorders related to addictive-like processes that could share common neurobiological mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed at validating an animal model of eating addictive-like behavior in mice, based on the DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria, using operant conditioning maintained by highly palatable chocolate-flavored pellets. For this purpose, we evaluated persistence of food-seeking during a period of non-availability of food, motivation for food, and perseverance of responding when the reward was associated with a punishment. This model has allowed identifying extreme subpopulations of mice related to addictive-like behavior. We investigated in these subpopulations the epigenetic and proteomic changes. A significant decrease in DNA methylation of CNR1 gene promoter was revealed in the prefrontal cortex of addict-like mice, which was associated with an upregulation of CB1 protein expression in the same brain area. The pharmacological blockade (rimonabant 3 mg/kg; i.p.) of CB1 receptor during the late training period reduced the percentage of mice that accomplished addiction criteria, which is in agreement with the reduced performance of CB1 knockout mice in this operant training. Proteomic studies have identified proteins differentially expressed in mice vulnerable or not to addictive-like behavior in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex. These changes included proteins involved in impulsivity-like behavior, synaptic plasticity, and cannabinoid signaling modulation, such as alpha-synuclein, phosphatase 1-alpha, doublecortin-like kinase 2, and diacylglycerol kinase zeta, and were validated by immunoblotting. This model provides an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the vulnerability to develop eating addictive-like behavior. PMID:25944409

  7. Behavior Change or Empowerment: On the Ethics of Health-Promotion Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2016-03-01

    One important ethical issue for health promotion and public health work is to determine what the goals for these practices should be. This paper will try to clarify what some of these goals are thought to be, and what they ought to be. It will specifically discuss two different approaches to health promotion, such as, behavior change and empowerment. The general aim of this paper is, thus, to compare the behavior-change approach and the empowerment approach, concerning their immediate (instrumental) goals or aims, and to morally evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these two goal models, in relation to the ultimate goal of health promotion. The investigation shows that the behavior-change approach has several moral problems. First of all, it is overly paternalistic and often disregards the individual's or group's own perception of what is important-something that also increases the risk of failed interventions. Furthermore, it risks leading to 'victim blaming' and stigmatization, and to increased inequalities in health, and it puts focus on the 'wrong' problems, i.e., behavior instead of the 'causes of the causes'. It is thereafter shown that the empowerment approach does not have any of these problems. Finally, some specific problems for the empowerment approach are discussed and resolved, such as, the idea that empowering some groups might lead to power over others, the objection that the focus is not primarily on health (which it should be), and the fact that empowered people might choose to live lives that risk reducing their health. PMID:24100936

  8. Three empirical essays on consumer behavior related to climate change and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Grant Douglas

    This dissertation consists of three essays. All of the chapters address a topic in the area of household and consumer behavior related to climate change or energy. The first chapter is titled "The Al Gore Effect: An Inconvenient Truth and Voluntary Carbon Offsets". This chapter examines the relationship between climate change awareness and household behavior by testing whether Al Gore's documentary An Inconvenient Truth caused an increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The analysis shows that in the two months following the film's release, zip codes within a 10-mile radius of a zip code where the film was shown experienced a 50 percent relative increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The second chapter is titled "Are Building Codes Effective at Saving Energy? Evidence from Residential Billing Data in Florida". The analysis shows that Florida's energy-code change that took effect in 2002 is associated with a 4-percent decrease in electricity consumption and a 6-percent decrease in natural-gas consumption in Gainesville, FL. The estimated private payback period for the average residence is 6.4 years and the social payback period ranges between 3.5 and 5.3 years. The third chapter in this dissertation is titled "Do Environmental Offsets Increase Demand for Dirty Goods? Evidence from Residential Electricity Demand". This study evaluates the relationship between green products and existing patterns of consumer behavior by examining the relationship between household enrollment in a green electricity program and consumption of residential electricity. The results suggest there are two different types of green consumers. One type makes a small monthly donation and partially views the donation as a substitute for a previously existing pattern of green behavior, in this case, energy conservation. The other type makes a larger monthly donation and views the donation as a way to make strictly additional improvements in environmental quality.

  9. The Relationship between Alcohol and Individual Differences Variables on Attitudes and Behavioral Skills Relevant To Sexual Health among Heterosexual Young Adult Men

    OpenAIRE

    Maisto, Stephen A; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Gordon, Christopher M.; Schum, Jennifer L.; Lynch, Kevin G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of alcohol, alcohol sex expectancies, and sexual sensation seeking on determinants of sexual health behavior according to the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model. The participants were 48 heterosexual young adult males who attended two laboratory sessions. During Session 1, participants completed a set of screening and individual differences measures, and during Session 2 they were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 bever...

  10. Effects of temperature change on elastic behavior of steel beams with semi-rigid connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jian-guo; FENG Jian; HAN Yun-long

    2010-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear displacement-strain relationship,the virtual work principle method was used to establish the nonlinear equilibrium equations of steel beams with semi-rigid connections under vertical uniform loads and temperature change.Considering the non-uniform temperature distribution across the thickness of beams,the formulas for stresses and vertical displacements were presented.On the basis of a flowchart for analysis of the numerical example,the effect of temperature change on the elastic behavior of steel beams was investigated.It is found that the maximal stress is mainly influenced by axial temperature change,and the maximal vertical displacement is principally affected by temperature gradients.And the effect of temperature gradients on the maximal vertical displacement decreases with the increase of rotational stiffness of joints.Both the maximal stress and vertical displacement decrease with the increase of rotational stiffness of joints.It can be concluded that the effects of temperature changes and rotational stiffness of joints on the elastic behavior of steel beams are significant.However,the influence of rotational stiffness becomes smaller when the rotational stiffness is larger.

  11. Personality change after Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Johansson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI by Cloninger is a widely used instrument to measure personality dimensions. Two dimensions of the TCI, Harm avoidance (HA and Self-Directedness (SD, are known to be influenced by depressed mood. This study investigated changes in HA and SD after 10 weeks of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT in a sample of clinically depressed subjects (N = 108. Differences in personality changes among treatment responders and non-responders were also investigated. Exploratory investigations on changes for other TCI dimensions, were also conducted. Methods. Depressed subjects were randomized either to ICBT or to a moderated online discussion group, which served as an active control group. The interventions lasted for 10 weeks. TCI was measured at baseline and after treatment. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results. There were significant changes on HA and SD after ICBT. However, when comparing post-treatment HA and SD to the control, no differences were found. Among responders, larger changes compared to non-responders were found in HA and in SD, as well as in Cooperativeness. Conclusions. The study showed that HA and SD changed after ICBT. The changes in personality seem related to improvement in depression rather than a direct effect of ICBT.

  12. Relevance, Derogation and Permission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Audun

    We show that a recently developed theory of positive permission based on the notion of derogation is hampered by a triviality result that indicates a problem with the underlying full-meet contraction operation. We suggest a solution that presupposes a particular normal form for codes of norms, adapted from the theory of relevance through propositional letter sharing. We then establish a correspondence between contractions on sets of norms in input/output logic (derogations), and AGM-style contractions on sets of formulae, and use it as a bridge to migrate results on propositional relevance from the latter to the former idiom. Changing the concept accordingly we show that positive permission now incorporates a relevance requirement that wards off triviality.

  13. Changes of the more relevant PHTS parameters after the cleaning of the steam generators primary side at Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operation of the plant magnetite deposition occurs at the inner walls of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). This deposition is particularly significant at the U-tubes of steam generators. The consequence of this is the deterioration of heat transfer to the Secondary System. In order to minimize this impact, during the annual outage of 2000, the steam generators primary side cleaning by the SIVABLAST technique was carried out. This technique consists in blasting the inner walls with tiny stainless steel balls propelled by air at high pressure. This paper presents the change of the more relevant parameters of PHTS after that cleaning. The parameters analyzed and the main results are the following: 1) Inlet header temperature dropped 4.7 C degrees at full power; 2) Exit quality at the outlet headers decreased from 3,5% to 1,5%; 3) Global PHTS flow in single phase evaluated from: a) In-site instrumentation increased 4,6%; b) Thermalhydraulic code NUCIRC 1.0 increased 3,2%; c) measured flows at the instrumented fuel channels increased 4.4%. (author)

  14. Changes in sexual risk behavior in the Mombasa cohort: 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan M; Raboud, Janet; Jaoko, Walter; Mandaliya, Kishor; McClelland, R Scott; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2014-01-01

    The Mombasa Cohort is an open cohort study following HIV-seronegative women reporting transactional sex. Established in 1993, the cohort provides regular HIV counseling and testing at monthly visits. Over time, HIV acquisition risk has declined steadily in this cohort. To evaluate whether this decline may reflect changes in sexual risk behavior, we investigated trends in condom use and partner numbers among women who participated in the Mombasa Cohort between 1993 and 2007. Multinomial logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association of calendar time and follow-up time with key risk behaviors, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. At enrollment visits by 1,844 women, the adjusted probability of never using condoms decreased over time, from 34.2% to 18.9%. Over 23,911 follow-up visits, the adjusted probabilities of reporting >2 partners decreased from 9.9% to 4.9% and inconsistent condom use decreased from 7.9% to 5.3% after ≥12 cohort visits. Important predictors of risk behavior were work venue, charging low fees for sex, and substance abuse. Women with a later sexual debut had less risky behavior. Although sexual risk has declined among women participating in the Mombasa Cohort, HIV acquisition continues to occur and interventions to promote and reinforce safer sex are clearly needed. PMID:25415287

  15. Changes in Sexual Risk Behavior in the Mombasa Cohort: 1993–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan M.; Raboud, Janet; Jaoko, Walter; Mandaliya, Kishor; McClelland, R. Scott; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    The Mombasa Cohort is an open cohort study following HIV-seronegative women reporting transactional sex. Established in 1993, the cohort provides regular HIV counseling and testing at monthly visits. Over time, HIV acquisition risk has declined steadily in this cohort. To evaluate whether this decline may reflect changes in sexual risk behavior, we investigated trends in condom use and partner numbers among women who participated in the Mombasa Cohort between 1993 and 2007. Multinomial logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association of calendar time and follow-up time with key risk behaviors, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. At enrollment visits by 1,844 women, the adjusted probability of never using condoms decreased over time, from 34.2% to 18.9%. Over 23,911 follow-up visits, the adjusted probabilities of reporting >2 partners decreased from 9.9% to 4.9% and inconsistent condom use decreased from 7.9% to 5.3% after ≥12 cohort visits. Important predictors of risk behavior were work venue, charging low fees for sex, and substance abuse. Women with a later sexual debut had less risky behavior. Although sexual risk has declined among women participating in the Mombasa Cohort, HIV acquisition continues to occur and interventions to promote and reinforce safer sex are clearly needed. PMID:25415287

  16. Exploring behaviors of stochastic differential equation models of biological systems using change of measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Sumit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE are often used to model the stochastic dynamics of biological systems. Unfortunately, rare but biologically interesting behaviors (e.g., oncogenesis can be difficult to observe in stochastic models. Consequently, the analysis of behaviors of SDE models using numerical simulations can be challenging. We introduce a method for solving the following problem: given a SDE model and a high-level behavioral specification about the dynamics of the model, algorithmically decide whether the model satisfies the specification. While there are a number of techniques for addressing this problem for discrete-state stochastic models, the analysis of SDE and other continuous-state models has received less attention. Our proposed solution uses a combination of Bayesian sequential hypothesis testing, non-identically distributed samples, and Girsanov's theorem for change of measures to examine rare behaviors. We use our algorithm to analyze two SDE models of tumor dynamics. Our use of non-identically distributed samples sampling contributes to the state of the art in statistical verification and model checking of stochastic models by providing an effective means for exposing rare events in SDEs, while retaining the ability to compute bounds on the probability that those events occur.

  17. Fire behavior potential in central Saskatchewan under predicted climate change : summary document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses fire danger and fire behaviour potential in central Saskatchewan using simulated climate scenarios produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), including scenario analysis of base, double and triple level carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and uses available forest fuels to develop an absolute measure of fire behaviour. For each of these climate scenarios, the CRCM-generated weather was used as input variables into the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction (FBP) System. Fire behavior potential was quantified using head fire intensity, a measure of the fire's energy output because it can be related to fire behavior characteristics, suppression effectiveness, and fire effects. The report discusses the implications of fire behavior potential changes for fire and forest management. Preliminary results suggest a large increase in area burned in the study area by the end of the twenty-first century. Some of the possible fire management activities for long-term prediction include: pre-positioning of resources, preparedness planning, prioritization of fire and forest management activities and fire threat evaluation. 16 refs., 1 tab, 7 figs

  18. Exploring environmental identity and behavioral change in an Environmental Science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-06-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures, impact the environmental identity and behavior of students. In this investigation, the identity theory of emotion of Stryker (2004) from the field of sociology is utilized in the interpretation of students' reactions to classroom experiences as they proceed through the Environmental Science course. The participants in this study are an Environmental Science teacher and the 10-12th grade students in her Environmental Science elective course. The researcher collected data for a period of six months, attending class on a daily basis. Data was collected through participant observation, videotaping, interviews, and cogenerative dialogues. The results of this study inform science educators by illuminating important elements, such as students' emotional responses to activities in class, conflicting elements of students' identities, and students' openness and willingness to critically reflect upon new information, which contribute to whether a student is likely to change their views towards the environment and pro-environmental behaviors.

  19. A Behavioral Model of Landscape Change in the Amazon Basin: The Colonist Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. A.; Drzyzga, S. A.; Li, Y. L.; Wi, J. G.; Caldas, M.; Arima, E.; Vergara, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a predictive model capable of describing both magnitudes of deforestation and its spatial articulation into patterns of forest fragmentation. In a departure from other landscape models, it establishes an explicit behavioral foundation for algorithm development, predicated on notions of the peasant economy and on household production theory. It takes a 'bottom-up' approach, generating the process of land-cover change occurring at lot level together with the geography of a transportation system to describe regional landscape change. In other words, it translates the decentralized decisions of individual households into a collective, spatial impact. In so doing, the model unites the richness of survey research on farm households with the analytical rigor of spatial analysis enabled by geographic information systems (GIs). The paper describes earlier efforts at spatial modeling, provides a critique of the so-called spatially explicit model, and elaborates a behavioral foundation by considering farm practices of colonists in the Amazon basin. It then uses, insight from the behavioral statement to motivate a GIs-based model architecture. The model is implemented for a long-standing colonization frontier in the eastern sector of the basin, along the Trans-Amazon Highway in the State of Para, Brazil. Results are subjected to both sensitivity analysis and error assessment, and suggestions are made about how the model could be improved.

  20. Hegemonic Masculinity, HIV/AIDS Risk Perception, and Sexual Behavior Change Among Young People in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori

    2016-05-01

    Among the youth in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, a paradoxical mix of adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS and high-risk behavior characterizes their daily lives. Based on original qualitative research in Ghana, I explore in this article the ways in which the social construction of masculinity influences youth's responses to behavior change HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Findings show that although awareness of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the risks of infection is very high among the youth, a combination of hegemonic masculinity and perceptions of personal invulnerability acts to undermine the processes of young people's HIV/AIDS risk construction and appropriate behavioral change. I argue that if HIV/AIDS prevention is to be effective and sustained, school- and community-based initiatives should be developed to provide supportive social spaces in which the construction of masculinity, the identity of young men and women as gendered persons, and perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS infection are challenged. PMID:25721715