WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior change relevant

  1. Expanding the scope and relevance of health interventions: Moving beyond clinical trials and behavior change models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khary K. Rigg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An overemphasis on clinical trials and behavior change models has narrowed the knowledge base that can be used to design interventions. The overarching point is that the process of overanalyzing variables is impeding the process of gaining insight into the everyday experiences that shape how people define health and seek treatment. This claim is especially important to health decision-making and behavior change because subtle interpretations often influence the decisions that people make. This manuscript provides a critique of traditional approaches to developing health interventions, and theoretically justifies what and why changes are warranted. The limited scope of these models is also discussed, and an argument is made to adopt a strategy that includes the perceptions of people as necessary for understanding health and health-related decision-making. Three practical strategies are suggested to be used with the more standard approaches to assessing the effectiveness and relevance of health interventions.

  2. Using Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance to Select Social-Cognitive Determinants for Behavior Change Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik Crutzen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When developing an intervention aimed at behavior change, one of the crucial steps in the development process is to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants. These determinants can be seen as the buttons one needs to push to establish behavior change. Insight into these determinants is needed to select behavior change methods (i.e., general behavior change techniques that are applied in an intervention in the development process. Therefore, a study on determinants is often conducted as formative research in the intervention development process. Ideally, all relevant determinants identified in such a study are addressed by an intervention. However, when developing a behavior change intervention, there are limits in terms of, for example, resources available for intervention development and the amount of content that participants of an intervention can be exposed to. Hence, it is important to select those determinants that are most relevant to the target behavior as these determinants should be addressed in an intervention. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a novel approach to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants and use them in intervention development. This approach is based on visualization of confidence intervals for the means and correlation coefficients for all determinants simultaneously. This visualization facilitates comparison, which is necessary when making selections. By means of a case study on the determinants of using a high dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as ecstasy, we illustrate this approach. We provide a freely available tool to facilitate the analyses needed in this approach.

  3. Relevance of Self-reported Behavioral Changes Before Bariatric Surgery to Predict Success After Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Séverine; Sami, Ouidad; Breuil, Marie-Christine; Delapierre, Marie; Calabrese, Daniela; Msika, Simon; Coupaye, Muriel

    2017-06-01

    International guidelines emphasize the need for multidisciplinary preparation to improve the safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery (BS), but whether the patient is ready for surgery is difficult to assess. The objective of this study was to explore whether inquiries on dietary habits and physical activity before surgery are predictive of postoperative weight loss. We prospectively assessed in 78 candidates for BS (age, 43 ± 12 years; M/F, 15/63; weight, 122 ± 17 kg; IMC, 44 ± 5 kg/m 2 ) anthropometric parameters, food intake, and physical activity (Baecke questionnaire) at the beginning and the end of a systematized preoperative preparation (7 ± 2 months) including consultations (mean number 7 ± 2) with a nutritionist, dietician, psychologist, and sports coach. During the preparation, weight change was zero (±5 kg). In contrast, self-reported caloric intake decreased from 2143 ± 640 to 1906 ± 564 kcal/24 h (p bariatric surgery, as illustrated by the absence of weight changes on average during the preoperative preparation. In contrast to dietary inquiry, self-reported changes in physical activity are predictive of postoperative weight loss after bariatric surgery.

  4. Health behavior change models and their socio-cultural relevance for breast cancer screening in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashing-Giwa, K

    1999-01-01

    Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.

  5. Perspective: Organizational professionalism: relevant competencies and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egener, Barry; McDonald, Walter; Rosof, Bernard; Gullen, David

    2012-05-01

    The professionalism behaviors of physicians have been extensively discussed and defined; however, the professionalism behaviors of health care organizations have not been systemically categorized or described. Defining organizational professionalism is important because the behaviors of a health care organization may substantially impact the behaviors of physicians and others within the organization as well as other institutions and the larger community. In this article, the authors discuss the following competencies of organizational professionalism, derived from ethical values: service, respect, fairness, integrity, accountability, mindfulness, and self-motivation. How nonprofit health care organizations can translate these competencies into behaviors is described. For example, incorporating metrics of population health into assessments of corporate success may increase collaboration among regional health care organizations while also benefiting the community. The unique responsibilities of leadership to model these competencies, promote them in the community, and develop relevant organizational strategies are clarified. These obligations elevate the importance of the executive leadership's capacity for self-reflection and the governing boards' responsibility for mapping operational activities to organizational mission. Lastly, the authors consider how medical organizations are currently addressing professionalism challenges. In an environment made turbulent by regulatory change and financial constraints, achieving proficiency in professionalism competencies can assist nonprofit health care organizations to promote population health and the well-being of their workforces.

  6. Changes in reproductive courtship behaviors of adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Shutt, John L; Letcher, Robert J; Ritchie, James I; Sullivan, Katrina; Bird, David M

    2008-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are increasing in biota. Here, captive adult American kestrels were exposed daily by diet to safflower oil (controls), or one of two levels of a pentaBDE technical formulation, DE-71 (0.3 or 1.6 ppm), for approximately 75 days, commencing 21 days before breeding. This exposure resulted in eggs having PBDE concentrations similar (low exposure) or within the same order of magnitude (high exposure) reported for wild American kestrels and gulls in the Great Lakes. Compared to controls, kestrels in both exposure groups copulated less, spent less time in their nest boxes, and participated in fewer pair-bonding behaviors. Furthermore, the timing of these behaviors, which is important to creating and maintaining the pair-bond, also differed significantly from the controls. The females in the low-exposure group made fewer compatible trilling calls and ate less frequently. These behavioral changes were compounded by increasing exposure to DE-71 during the 9-day courtship period immediately preceding egg laying, a standard measure of the kestrel courtship period. The birds in the high-exposure group made more food transfers, excited "klee" calls, and copulations, the latter only when compared to the low-exposure birds, whereas the low-exposure males performed fewer pair-bonding behaviors. This study demonstrates that the exposure of kestrels to environmentally relevant levels of DE-71 modifies the quality of the pair-bond, affects the reproductive behavior of both sexes, and occurs when birds are exposed for a short period as adults. In addition, these behavioral effects are consistent with the observed reproductive changes in these birds.

  7. [Nuptiality: the most relevant changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodran, J

    1992-01-01

    Changes in family structure throughout the world have prompted research into the role of couple formation and stability as regulators of biological and social reproduction. The demographic transition has changed the demographic context of nuptiality. Mortality decline has increased survival of spouses as well as of children, and voluntary separation of couples has eclipsed widowhood as a cause of marriage dissolution. Marriage dissolution and remarriage have added complexity to family arrangements. Census data are a good source of information on nuptiality in Mexico. Around 1950, Mexico like most Latin American countries experienced an increase in nuptiality. The trend reverted after the 1960s, simultaneously with the increase in separation and divorce. Between 1970 and 1990, the proportion of Mexican men who remained single at age 45-49 declined from 6.0% to 5.6%, while the proportion of women single at the same age increased from 6.8 to 7.2%. Age at first union was 24.5 in 1970; 24.1 in 1980, and 24.7 in 1990 for men, and 21.1 in 1970, 21.6 in 1980, and 22.2 in 1990 for women. The age difference between spouses declined from 3.4 years in 1970 to 2.5 years in 1990, at least partly due to the rapid population growth of 1950-1970, which created an imbalance in the numbers of older men available for marriage to women in the larger slightly younger cohorts. Between 1970 and 1990, the proportion of women in interrupted unions increased from 5.2% to 9.5%, while the corresponding proportion for men declined from 3.3% to 2.9%. In 1990, 86% of unions among persons over age 15 were legal marriages.

  8. Guide to Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Behavior Change Your Weight Is Important Over the past few ... focus on are the dietary and physical activity changes that will lead to long-term weight change. ...

  9. Prenatal immune challenge is an environmental risk factor for brain and behavior change relevant to schizophrenia: evidence from MRI in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk of severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, in the offspring. The most consistent brain structural abnormality in patients with schizophrenia is enlarged lateral ventricles. However, it is unknown whether the aetiology of ventriculomegaly in schizophrenia involves prenatal infectious processes. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between prenatal immune challenge and emergence of ventricular abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD: We used an established mouse model of maternal immune activation (MIA by the viral mimic PolyI:C administered in early (day 9 or late (day 17 gestation. Automated voxel-based morphometry mapped cerebrospinal fluid across the whole brain of adult offspring and the results were validated by manual region-of-interest tracing of the lateral ventricles. Parallel behavioral testing determined the existence of schizophrenia-related sensorimotor gating abnormalities. RESULTS: PolyI:C-induced immune activation, in early but not late gestation, caused marked enlargement of lateral ventricles in adulthood, without affecting total white and grey matter volumes. This early exposure disrupted sensorimotor gating, in the form of prepulse inhibition. Identical immune challenge in late gestation resulted in significant expansion of 4(th ventricle volume but did not disrupt sensorimotor gating. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first experimental evidence that prenatal immune activation is an environmental risk factor for adult ventricular enlargement relevant to schizophrenia. The data indicate immune-associated environmental insults targeting early foetal development may have more extensive neurodevelopmental impact than identical insults in late prenatal life.

  10. Student standpoints relevant for future reproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the various standpoints of students on their motivation for parenthood, planning and deciding on birth giving, influence between marriage and parenthood, parent role complexity and responsibility, on the knowledge of effect and consequences of the problem of insufficient birth giving, with an aim of getting to know the main characteristics of their possible reproductive behavior. The analyzed standpoints are part of a more comprehensive and inclusive research, carried out on a sample of 1494 surveyed persons (1000 secondary-school pupils and 494 students in four biggest regional centers - Belgrade, Novi Sad, Kragujevac and Niš. The orientation only to student’s standpoints had an aim to more completely analyze the already abundant empirical material, which is acceptable due to the fact that students are closer to beginning of birth giving according to their age-situation characteristic. The willingness and desire of the students to become parents is significant, but this is only one of their varied life aspirations (importance of partnership, professional engagement…. The intention is to bring into accordance the realization of the most important roles, which actually indicates to a fairly uniform importance in satisfying the basic individual needs. Apart from that, the need for parenthood is dominantly emotional and altruistic, which can be satisfied by having only one child. Possible reproductive norms - which are directed to having two children, whereby they are higher than the current fertility rates, but also somewhat lower normatively determined expectations in relation to the desired number of children, as well as a significant orientation towards marriage and parenthood and the existence of the knowledge on the problem of the impossibility of simple reproduction and conscience of social need for population reproduction - represent a gap for realization of measures for motivating birth giving and parenthood

  11. Changing the Mobility Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Steffensen, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Short Abstract: Carsharing is one option to change mobility behavior. It is successful in major cities. No research results are available for small and medium size cities. In the project, we analyzed the implementation of carsharing in such a smaller setting. Full Abstract: Traffic jams, noise, CO2-emissions or particulate pollution as well as lack of inner-city space ask for political action and a change of individual mobility behavior. The German discussion about electric cars and ...

  12. Epartners supporting behavior change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Keulen, H. van; Janssen, J.B.; Nunen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on developing a comprehensive framework that guides the design of ePartners that support behavior change to promote health. An ePartner is an interactive, virtual or embodied computer assistant to which one can communicate and that assists persons through tailored advice,

  13. Blocking Avoidance and Escape Responses: Relations With Clinically Relevant Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Bubna Popovitz

    Full Text Available Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the possible effects of interrupting problematic clinically relevant behaviors on the percentage of these responses and of clinical improvement-related responses. Two clients were treated with Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP, alternating two conditions (ABAB. On condition A, procedures to the therapist consisted of responding to the clinical improvement responses, and to description of outside of therapeutic setting behaviors, but therapists were advised to ignore problem behaviors emitted in session. During condition B, therapists followed the same procedures, but they were oriented to block (interrupt problematic responses emitted in session. Results suggest increase in the percentage of problem behaviors during condition B. Results are discussed, highlighting the viability of planning the contingent response the therapist emits to clinically relevant behaviors.

  14. Blocking Avoidance and Escape Responses: Relations With Clinically Relevant Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Popovitz, Juliana Maria Bubna; Silveira, Jocelaine Martins da

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the possible effects of interrupting problematic clinically relevant behaviors on the percentage of these responses and of clinical improvement-related responses. Two clients were treated with Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), alternating two conditions (ABAB). On condition A, procedures to the therapist consisted of responding to the clinical improvement responses, and to description of outside of therapeutic setting behaviors, but therapis...

  15. Behavior change communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, P

    1997-04-01

    Appropriate and effective communication is central to the success of interventions to reduce the risk of HIV infection. This paper reviews what has been learned about the nature of communication in the behavior change process. It examines the contexts in which communication occurs, as well as the contribution of communication theory, social marketing theory, and structural intervention theory to intervention development. Guidance is offered on the most appropriate ways in which to communicate with different groups and audiences, and future priorities for research and intervention are identified.

  16. Evaluation of potential changes in hydrologically relevant statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of potential changes in hydrologically relevant statistics of rainfall in Southern Africa under conditions of climate change # ... As convergence in climate-change scenarios becomes apparent, there is now an arguable basis for developing appropriate response strategies for incorporation into adaptation policy.

  17. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. National inventory of Global Change relevant research in Norway; Nasjonal kartlegging av global change-relevant forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The Norwegian Global Change Committee has made an inventory of global change research (GCR) projects funded by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) in 2001. In lack of a rigid definition, GCR was defined as research that can be considered relevant to the science agenda of the four major international global change programmes DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP. Relevance was judged based on the objectives stated for each of the international programmes and their core projects. It was not attempted to check whether the projects had any kind of link to the programmes they were considered relevant for. The grants provided by the RCN in 2001 to GCR as defined above amounts to about 77 mill. NOK. Based on a recent survey on climate change research it is reasonable to estimate that the RCN finances between 30 and 40 % of all GCR in Norway. Accordingly, the total value of Norwegian research relevant to the four international global change programmes in 2001 can be estimated to 192 - 254 mill. NOK.

  19. The relevance of transformational leadership in shaping employee attitudes towards organizational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penava Suada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research presented in this paper is the role of the leadership of change agents in the implementation of organizational change. The focus of research is on the micro-aspect of change, specifically on the impact of changes in employees and their attitudes and behaviors that have a direct and significant impact on change success. The results of empirical research conducted in one Bosnian company show that the transformational behavior of the change agent is not equally relevant and effective in the case of the three organizational changes implemented in the company. The explanation for this can be found in the characteristics of the changes themselves, both those related to their cause and those related to the depth of the intervention and the expected consequences of change in the organizational culture.

  20. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Rodriguez, Alison C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and the positive control 17β-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17β-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish

  1. Behavior: a relevant tool for brain-immune system interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pinto, Frederico Azevedo; Cohn, Daniel Wagner Hamada; Sa-Rocha, Vanessa Moura; Sa-Rocha, Luiz Carlos; Palermo-Neto, Joao

    2009-02-01

    Neuroimmunomodulation describes the field focused on understanding the mechanisms by which the central nervous system interacts with the immune system, potentially leading to changes in animal behavior. Nonetheless, not many articles dealing with neuroimmunomodulation employ behavior as an analytical endpoint. Even fewer papers deal with social status as a possible modifier of neuroimmune phenomena. In the described sets of experiments, we tackle both, using a paradigm of social dominance and subordination. We first review data on the effects of different ranks within a stable hierarchical relationship. Submissive mice in this condition display more anxiety-like behaviors, have decreased innate immunity, and show a decreased resistance to implantation and development of melanoma metastases in their lungs. This suggests that even in a stable, social, hierarchical rank, submissive animals may be subjected to higher levels of stress, with putative biological relevance to host susceptibility to disease. Second, we review data on how dominant and submissive mice respond differentially to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), employing a motivational perspective to sickness behavior. Dominant animals display decreased number and frequency in several aspects of behavior, particularly agonistic social interaction, that is, directed toward the submissive cage mate. This was not observed in submissive mice that maintained the required behavior expected by its dominant mate. Expression of sickness behavior relies on motivational reorganization of priorities, which are different along different social ranks, leading to diverse outcomes. We suggest that in vitro assessment of neuroimmune phenomena can only be understood based on the behavioral context in which they occur.

  2. Implementation of Culturally Relevant School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Munro, Avi Baron; McCobin, Allison; Miller, Alison

    2016-01-01

    School-wide positive behavioral support (SWPBS) is an evidence-based strategy to alter the school environment by improving procedures to promote appropriate behaviors of all students. Although research has indicated that SWPBS is an empirically supported and effective intervention in reducing disruptive behaviors in most students, results have…

  3. [Health behavior change: motivational interviewing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz

    2017-08-01

    Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.

  4. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buel, Erin M; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Fikse, Lianne; Bosker, Fokko J; Schoevers, Robert A; Klein, Hans C; Pryce, Christopher R; Eisel, Ulrich Lm

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS). Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress. In the present study, mice were first exposed to chronic social stress (CSS) or a control procedure for 15 days followed by ECS or a sham procedure for 10 days. Behavioral effects were investigated using an auditory fear conditioning (learning) and expression (memory) test and a treadmill-running fatigue test. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry was conducted on brain material using the microglial marker Iba-1 and the cholinergic fibre marker ChAT. CSS did not increase fear learning and memory in the present experimental design; in both the control and CSS mice ECS reduced fear learning and fear memory expression. CSS induced the expected fatigue-like effect in the treadmill-running test; ECS induced increased fatigue in CSS and control mice. In CSS and control mice ECS induced inflammation in hippocampus in terms of increased expression of Iba-1 in radiatum of CA1 and CA3. CSS and ECS both reduced acetylcholine function in hippocampus as indicated by decreased expression of ChAT in several hippocampal sub-regions. Therefore, CSS increased fatigue and reduced hippocampal ChAT activity and, rather than reversing these effects, a repeated ECS regimen resulted in impaired fear learning-memory, increased fatigue, increased hippocampal Iba-1 expression, and decreased hippocampal ChAT expression. As such, the current model does not provide insights into the

  5. Changing health behaviors with social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Almazor, M E

    2011-08-01

    Social marketing uses marketing techniques to promote healthy attitudes and behaviors. As in traditional marketing, the development and implementation of social marketing programs is based on the four P's: product, price, place, and promotion, but it also incorporates the partnership and participation of stakeholders to enhance public health and engage policy makers. The "product" in social marketing is generally a behavior, such as a change in lifestyle (e.g., diet) or an increase in a desired health practice (e.g., screening). In order for people to desire this product, it must offer a solution to a problem that is weighed with respect to the price to pay. The price is not just monetary, and it often involves giving something up, such as time (e.g., exercising) or a wanted, satisfying behavior (e.g., smoking). In its development phase, social marketing incorporates qualitative methods to create messages that are powerful and potentially effective. The implementation of the programs commonly involves mass campaigns with advertisement in various media. There have been a few social media campaigns targeting bone health that have been disseminated with substantial outreach. However, these have not been systematically evaluated, specifically with respect to change in behavior and health outcomes. Future campaigns should identify target behaviors that are amenable to change such as bone mass measurement screening or exercise. Audience segmentation will be crucial, since a message for young women to increase peak bone mass would be very different from a message for older individuals who have just experienced a fracture. Campaigns should involve key stakeholders, including policy makers, health providers, and the public. Finally, success must be carefully evaluated, not just by the outreach of the campaign, but also by a change in relevant behaviors and a decrease in deleterious health outcomes.

  6. How relevant is government championing behavior for technology development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, J.S.; Halman, J.I.M.; Song, M.; Dorée, A.G.; van der Bij, J.D.

    Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic

  7. How relevant is government championing behavior for technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, Jasper; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael; Doree, Andries G.; van der Bij, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic

  8. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT side-effects in the treatment of depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M van Buel

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS. Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress. In the present study, mice were first exposed to chronic social stress (CSS or a control procedure for 15 days followed by ECS or a sham procedure for 10 days. Behavioral effects were investigated using an auditory fear conditioning (learning and expression (memory test and a treadmill-running fatigue test. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry was conducted on brain material using the microglial marker Iba-1 and the cholinergic fibre marker ChAT. CSS did not increase fear learning and memory in the present experimental design; in both the control and CSS mice ECS reduced fear learning and fear memory expression. CSS induced the expected fatigue-like effect in the treadmill-running test; ECS induced increased fatigue in CSS and control mice. In CSS and control mice ECS induced inflammation in hippocampus in terms of increased expression of Iba-1 in radiatum of CA1 and CA3. CSS and ECS both reduced acetylcholine function in hippocampus as indicated by decreased expression of ChAT in several hippocampal sub-regions. Therefore, CSS increased fatigue and reduced hippocampal ChAT activity and, rather than reversing these effects, a repeated ECS regimen resulted in impaired fear learning-memory, increased fatigue, increased hippocampal Iba-1 expression, and decreased hippocampal ChAT expression. As such, the current model does not provide insights

  9. Attitude toward Abortion and Attitude-Relevant Overt Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edward H.; Farina, Amerigo

    1978-01-01

    This investigation looked at the relationship between questionnaire-assessed attitude toward abortion, and later behaviors when subjects were requested to make a tape-recording of an emphatically pro- or anti-abortion script. A correlational study allowed the subject to select the script. In the experimental study, a script was assigned randomly.…

  10. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  11. Recognition and localization of relevant human behavior in videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Burghouts, Gertjan; de Penning, Leo; Hanckmann, Patrick; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; Korzec, Sanne; Kruithof, Maarten; Landsmeer, Sander; van Leeuwen, Coen; van den Broek, Sebastiaan; Halma, Arvid; den Hollander, Richard; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-06-01

    Ground surveillance is normally performed by human assets, since it requires visual intelligence. However, especially for military operations, this can be dangerous and is very resource intensive. Therefore, unmanned autonomous visualintelligence systems are desired. In this paper, we present an improved system that can recognize actions of a human and interactions between multiple humans. Central to the new system is our agent-based architecture. The system is trained on thousands of videos and evaluated on realistic persistent surveillance data in the DARPA Mind's Eye program, with hours of videos of challenging scenes. The results show that our system is able to track the people, detect and localize events, and discriminate between different behaviors, and it performs 3.4 times better than our previous system.

  12. Sustainable Seafood Consumption in Action: Relevant Behaviors and their Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Richter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the discussion around sustainable diets, seafood consumption is still a relatively neglected field. This article discusses relevant behaviours consumers can perform to consume seafood sustainably. The predictive power of intention, descriptive social norms, trust, awareness and pro-environmental attitudes are theoretically discussed and statistically tested across two studies in regards to (a using sustainable seafood labels, and (b using sustainable seafood guides. Data analysis (N1 = 309, N2 = 881 Norwegian adults shows that intentions, social norms and trust predict seafood label use across studies. The variables predicting seafood guide use are less stable which might be due to this behaviour being performed by a very small fraction of consumers only. Causal relationships have been identified in study 2 by applying cross-lagged panel analyses between intentions, trust and social norms and seafood label use. Further causal relationships were found between intentions, trust and awareness and seafood guide use. A bidirectional relationship was confirmed between descriptive social norms and seafood guide use. Potential strategies to promote seafood label- and seafood guide use, are discussed based on these results.

  13. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure...... implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  14. A metabolomic study of fipronil for the anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish larvae at environmentally relevant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cui; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Quan; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Meirong

    2016-01-01

    Field residue of fipronil can interfere with the physiological characters of the domesticated fish; thus, lethal dose test and the general biomarker cannot delineate the low-level situation. Manipulating by video track, we observed an anxiety-like behavior including high speed and abnormal photoperiod accommodation after exposure to fipronil at environmental typical dose in zebrafish larvae. Examining the unbiased metabolomic profiles, we found perturbation in several metabolic pathways, including the increased contents of fatty acids and glycerol and the decreased levels of the glycine, serine, and branched amino acid. We presumed that observed enhanced fatty acid utility was in response to increase energy demands caused by anxiety like behavior. Additionally, the body burden of neurotransmitter such as glycine and L-glutamate may concurrently stimulate the swimming behavior. The insight of this study showed that integral perturbation such as metabolism helps us to further understand the risk to aquatic fish at the environmentally relevant levels. - Highlights: • Fipronil increased the swimming speed at 10 μg/L to zebrafish larvae. • Accommodation to light–dark photoperiod switch was disturbed by fipronil. • Metabolomics indicated an increase energy availability for anxiety-like behavior. • Anxiety-like behavior induced by fipronil may attribute to neurotransmitter changes. - Zebrafish larvae exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of fipronil display anxiety like behavior that may attribute to observed changes in energy utilization and neurotransmitter disturbances.

  15. Changing Struggles for Relevance in Eight Fields of Natural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Laurens K.; van Lente, Harro; Grin, John; Smits, Ruud E. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of institutional changes on academic research practices in eight fields of natural science in the Netherlands. The authors analyse the similarities and differences among the dynamics of these different fields and reflect on possible explanations for the changes observed. The study shows that the increasing…

  16. Climate change analysis relevant to Jabiluka. Supervising Scientist report 141

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.N.; Abbs, D.J.; Hennessy, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here is to quantify the effects of climate change on rainfall and temperature, and its implications for parameters used in the design of water storage facilities to be used for the next 30 years at the Jabiluka Project, Northern Territory. Changes to average rainfall and temperature, and rainfall variability on decadal to scales of less than one day are investigated. Climate change scenarios have been constructed where projections of climate change can be quantified. Some submissions to the Draft Jabiluka Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) raised concerns about the impact of climate change on the design of hydrologic structures for the Jabiluka project (eg Supplement to the Draft EIS, Kinhill and ERAES 1997, p5-27; Wasson et al 1998). Six General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations were analysed to determine possible temperature and rainfall changes over the region surrounding the Jabiluka mine site: two simulations of the CSIRO GCM, one from the CSIRO limited area model, DARLAM, and single GCM simulations from the Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), UK Meteorological Office (Hadley Centre) and Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis. Due to uncertainties resulting from differing emission scenarios and climate sensitivities these climate models will give different answers. However, under climate change, the hydrological cycle is expected to become more intense (IPCC 1996) through higher evaporation, an increase in the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere and heavier rainfall. GCM output is required to show how this may change on the regional scale, so CSIRO has investigated the models listed above to create scenarios for seasonal rainfall. This involves deriving patterns of local change calculated from the models. The methods used are described in section 2.2. In addition to the enhanced greenhouse effect, natural climatic variability can also have implications for the design of water retention structures. Decadal

  17. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles

    OpenAIRE

    Grippo, Angela J.; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C. Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks o...

  18. Characterizing autism-relevant social behavior in poodles (Canis familiaris) via owner report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Rachel M; Lit, Lisa; Hamilton, Shelley; Beversdorf, David Q

    2017-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 131(2) of Journal of Comparative Psychology (see record 2017-20237-001). In the article, the scientific name for the species was missing in the title. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. It can be difficult to model the complex behavioral features of this disorder with rodent models, which have limited similarity to human behaviors. The domestic dog may be a promising model of complex human behavior, including core features of ASD. The present study examines ASD-relevant social behavior in Miniature and Standard Poodles using an owner-report questionnaire with questions adapted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2000). A previous study identified 3 behavioral constructs examined by this questionnaire: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors, response to social interaction, and communication. In the present study, confirmatory and experimental factor analyses used to assess how collected data fit with the previous model revealed moderate model fit and a similar factorial structure. Between-breed comparisons across these factors and at the individual question level revealed differences between Miniature and Standard Poodles in showing behaviors. Cluster analyses used to group dogs within each breed according to social behavior identified smaller subgroups of dogs with less social behavior across all 3 factors compared with the average within each breed. Within- and between-breed differences in social behavior warrant investigation of genetic variation underlying this complex trait as it relates to ASD-relevant behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Prevalence of behavioral changes in senile dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Jeronimo Svicero

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Owing to improvements in animal welfare, such as in nutrition, preventive medicine, and diagnostic tools, older dogs have become increasingly more prevalent than before. Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of dogs presenting behavioral changes correlated with this growth in the geriatric population. However, many of these owners consider these signs as normal for old age. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of clinical signs related with behavioral changes in the canine geriatric population admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science College of Universidade Estadual Paulista. The owners of 800 old dogs completed a questionnaire about disorientation, changes in social interaction, loss of training (house soiling, changes in the wake-sleep cycle, physical activity, memory, learning, consciousness, and perception. The results showed that the prevalence of behavioral changes in the canine geriatric population was 90.7% of dogs that presented at least one of these behavioral changes, and 22.3% with at least six changes, and with changes in physical activity (58.5% and loss of acquired training (30.2% being the highest percentage groups that were reported by the owners. We concluded that the prevalence of behavioral changes related with aging in the canine geriatric population was high, and that it was important to include questions about behavioral changes during regular veterinary clinical appointments to identify these clinical signs earlier and investigate the possible causes of the cognitive impairment, including neurological diseases, such as Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome.

  20. Changing struggles for relevance in eight fields of natural science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.; van Lente, H.; Grin, J.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of institutional changes on academic research practices in eight fields of natural science in the Netherlands. The authors analyse the similarities and differences among the dynamics of these different fields and reflect on possible explanations for the

  1. EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities in relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder although its defi nite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ...

  2. Evaluation of potential changes in hydrologically relevant statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-16

    May 16, 2009 ... projected along the west coast and the adjacent interior, with the possibility of a slight increase in inter-annual variability. If correct, this would ... drying, but did report an increase in inter-annual rainfall vari- ability during the 20th ... CSM projections were similar to HadCM with changes rang- ing between a ...

  3. Making Climate Change Education Place Based and Relevant: Minnesota's Changing Climate Education Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppleton, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is the environmental issue of our time and it has become increasingly important to develop education materials that are accessible to teachers and effective for teaching students. In order to inspire interest and an understanding of the personal relevance of this complex issue, and with funding allocated through Minnesota's Environment and Natural Resource Trust Fund, the Will Steger Foundation developed Minnesota's Changing Climate curriculum, online classroom, and professional development opportunities. Minnesota's Changing Climate is based on the tenants of environmental and place based education- knowing that deep understanding and connection to this issue begins with a local connection and sense of appreciation towards the natural environment. The Grades 3-8 and 9-12 curricula gives students the opportunity to explore and learn about Minnesota's unique biomes and what a changing climate means for the state through 6 hands on and interdisciplinary lessons. The online classroom features opportunities to interact with Minnesota's four biomes through panoramas and short videos featuring the biomes and ongoing climate research there. During the first two years of this project over 300 educators have attending professional development opportunities on Minnesota's Changing Climate. Evaluation results show that over 90% of educators found the curriculum and online classroom useful for teaching climate change, The project was selected as the Environmental Education Award Recipient for 2012 by Minnesota Environmental Initiative an organization that honors innovative projects that have achieved extraordinary environmental results by harnessing the power of partnership.; Screen shot of Minnesota's Changing Climate online classroom. ;

  4. Parenting practices and their relevance to child behaviors in Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors.

  5. A behavior change model for internet interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterband, Lee M; Thorndike, Frances P; Cox, Daniel J; Kovatchev, Boris P; Gonder-Frederick, Linda A

    2009-08-01

    The Internet has become a major component to health care and has important implications for the future of the health care system. One of the most notable aspects of the Web is its ability to provide efficient, interactive, and tailored content to the user. Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, researchers in behavioral medicine have been using it to develop and deliver interactive and comprehensive treatment programs with the ultimate goal of impacting patient behavior and reducing unwanted symptoms. To date, however, many of these interventions have not been grounded in theory or developed from behavior change models, and no overarching model to explain behavior change in Internet interventions has yet been published. The purpose of this article is to propose a model to help guide future Internet intervention development and predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement produced by Internet interventions. The model purports that effective Internet interventions produce (and maintain) behavior change and symptom improvement via nine nonlinear steps: the user, influenced by environmental factors, affects website use and adherence, which is influenced by support and website characteristics. Website use leads to behavior change and symptom improvement through various mechanisms of change. The improvements are sustained via treatment maintenance. By grounding Internet intervention research within a scientific framework, developers can plan feasible, informed, and testable Internet interventions, and this form of treatment will become more firmly established.

  6. Behavioral Changes in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam R. Heldner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBehavioral changes are common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, however not as readily recognized as cognitive impairments.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to analyze behavioral changes and its relation to disease characteristics, disability, and cognitive impairments in patients with MS.MethodThis is a single-center cross-sectional study. A detailed neuropsychological examination, including the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe, the Beck depression inventory (BDI, and the Wuerzburg Fatigue Inventory for Multiple Sclerosis (WEIMuS test, was performed. FrSBe results were correlated with disease characteristics, disability, and cognitive assessments.Results66 patients were enrolled (mean age: 43.4 years; disease duration: 9.3 years; Expanded Disability Status Scale: 3.0. Up to one third of patients showed behavioral changes in at least one domain or the total score of the FrSBe. Patients were mildly affected with regard to cognitive functioning. Consistent correlation was found between behavioral changes and fatigue (WEIMuS and depressive symptoms (BDI, but not with disease characteristics, disability, or cognitive functions. There was an increase of behavioral changes on all FrSBe scales in the current status compared to the retrospectively rated status before disease onset. Self- and family ratings with regard to current behavioral changes were similar.ConclusionBehavioral changes are common in otherwise mildly affected MS patients with up to one third being affected. In this patient cohort, behavioral changes occur largely independent of disease characteristics, physical disability, and cognitive functioning but correlate with both fatigue and depressive symptoms. Therefore, they should be tested specifically.

  7. Health Behavior Change for Obesity Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Marques, Marta M

    2017-01-01

    Health behavior change is central in obesity management. Due to its complexity, there has been a growing body of research on: i) the factors that predict the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors, ii) the development and testing of theories that conceptualize relationships among these factors and with health behaviors, and iii) how these factors can be implemented in effective behavior change interventions, considering characteristics of the content (techniques) and delivery. This short review provides an overview of advances in behavior change science theories and methods, focusing on obesity management, and includes a discussion of the main challenges imposed by this research field. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  8. Facing future climate change: is the past relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Luke

    2008-12-28

    From a socio-economic perspective, the 'sharp end' of climate research is very much about looking forward in time. As far as possible, we need to know what to expect and approximately when to expect it. However, it is argued here that our approach to climate change (including its scientific basis and its policy implications) is firmly linked to our understanding of the past. This is mainly due to the role played by palaeoclimate reconstructions in shaping our expectations of the climate system, in particular via their ability to test the accuracy of our climate models. Importantly, this includes the intuitive models that each of us carries around in our mind, as well as the more complex numerical models hiding inside supercomputers. It is through such models that palaeoclimate insights may affect the scientific and political judgements that we must make in the face of persistent and ultimately irreducible predictive uncertainty. Already we can demonstrate a great deal of confidence in our current understanding of the global climate system based specifically on insights from the geological record. If further advances are to be made effectively, climate models should take advantage of both past and present constraints on their behaviour, and should be given added credence to the extent that they are compatible with an increasingly rich tapestry of past climatic phenomena. Furthermore, palaeoclimate data should be accompanied by clearly defined uncertainties, and organized in arrays that are capable of speaking directly to numerical models, and their limitations in particular.

  9. Changing Food Related Behavior Through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    The aim of the workshop is to explore how designers can work actively and deliberately with changing food related behavior through socially responsible design. There will be focus on the holistic aspect of behavioral food design with active involving of the users experience. The workshop is based...

  10. Behavioral approach system (BAS)-relevant cognitive styles and bipolar spectrum disorders: concurrent and prospective associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Walshaw, Patricia D; Gerstein, Rachel K; Keyser, Jessica D; Whitehouse, Wayne G; Urosevic, Snezana; Nusslock, Robin; Hogan, Michael E; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2009-08-01

    The authors examined concurrent and prospective associations of behavioral approach system (BAS)-relevant and non-BAS-relevant cognitive styles with bipolar spectrum disorders. Controlling for depressive and hypomanic/manic symptoms, 195 individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders scored higher than 194 demographically similar normal controls on BAS sensitivity and BAS-relevant cognitive dimensions of performance concerns, autonomy, and self-criticism, but not on behavioral inhibition system sensitivity and non-BAS-relevant dimensions of approval seeking, sociotropy, and dependency. Moreover, group differences on autonomy fully mediated the association between higher BAS sensitivity and bipolar status. In addition, only BAS-related cognitive dimensions predicted the likelihood of onset of depressive and hypomanic/manic episodes among the bipolar individuals over a 3.2-year follow-up, controlling for initial symptoms and past history of mood episodes. Higher autonomy and self-criticism predicted a greater likelihood of hypomanic/manic episodes, and higher autonomy predicted a lower likelihood of major depressive episodes. In addition, autonomy mediated the associations between BAS sensitivity and prospective hypomanic/manic episodes. These findings suggest that individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders may exhibit a unique profile of BAS-relevant cognitive styles that influence the course of their mood episodes.

  11. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  12. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  13. Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autism: Phenotypes of Ten Inbred Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Perez, Antonio; Holloway, L. Paige; Barbaro, Ryan P.; Barbaro, Justin R.; West, Lindsay M.; Threadgill, David W.; Lauder, Jean M.; Magnuson, Terry R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2007-01-01

    Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from ten inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal of the spatial location of the reinforcer in T-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Six strains, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, C3H/HeJ, and AKR/J, showed significant levels of sociability, while A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ mice did not. C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR T+tf/J showed significant preference for social novelty, while C3H/HeJ, AKR/J, A/J, and 129S1/SvImJ did not. Normal scores on relevant control measures confirmed general health and physical abilities in all strains, ruling out artifactual explanations for social deficits. Elevated plus maze scores confirmed high anxiety-like behaviors in A/J, BALB/cByJ, and 129S1/SvImJ, which could underlie components of their low social approach. Strains that showed high levels of performance on acquisition of a T-maze task were also able to reach criterion for reversal learning. On the Morris water maze task, DBA/2J, AKR/J, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ failed to show significant quadrant preference during the reversal probe trial. These results highlight a dissociation between social task performance and reversal learning. BTBR T+tf/J is a particularly interesting strain, displaying both low social approach and resistance to change in routine on the water maze, consistent with an autism-like phenotype. Our multitask strategy for modeling symptoms of autism will be useful for investigating targeted and random gene mutations, QTLs, and microarray analyses. PMID:16971002

  14. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Matthew; Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Family physicians play an important role in identifying and treating the behavioral etiologies of morbidity and mortality. Changing behavior is a challenging process that begins with identifying a patient's readiness to change. Interventions, such as motivational interviewing, are used to increase a patient's desire to change, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be initiated to increase a patient's likelihood of change, particularly if barriers are identified. After patients embark on change, family physicians are uniquely positioned to connect them to self-help programs, more intensive psychotherapy, and newer technology-based support programs, and to provide repeated, brief, positive reinforcement. Specific behavioral interventions that can be effective include computerized smoking cessation programs; electronic reminders and support delivered by family physicians or other clinicians for weight loss; linkage to community-based programs for seniors; increased length and demands of in-school programs to support exercise participation by children; and access reduction education to prevent firearm injury. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  15. Motivation factors for suicidal behavior and their clinical relevance in admitted psychiatric patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior (SB is a major, worldwide health concern. To date there is limited understanding of the associated motivational aspects which accompany this self-initiated conduct.To develop a method for identifying motivational features associated with SB by studying admitted psychiatric patients, and to examine their clinical relevance.By performing a factor analytic study using data obtained from a patient sample exhibiting high suicidality and a variety of SB methods, Motivations for SB Scale (MSBS was constructed to measure the features. Data included assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric and personality disorders, suicide intent, depressive symptomatology, overt aggression, recent life events (RLEs and methods of SB, collated from structured interviews. Association of identified features with clinical variables was examined by correlation analyses and MANCOVA.Factor analyses elicited a 4-factor solution composed of Interpersonal-testing (IT, Interpersonal-change (IC, Self-renunciation (SR and Self-sustenance (SS. These factors were classified according to two distinctions, namely interpersonal vs. intra-personal directedness, and the level of assumed influence by SB or the relationship to prevailing emotions. Analyses revealed meaningful links between patient features and clinical variables. Interpersonal-motivations (IT and IC were associated with overt aggression, low suicidality and RLE discord or conflict, while SR was associated with depression, high suicidality and RLE separation or death. Borderline personality disorder showed association with IC and SS. When self-strangulation was set as a reference SB method, self-cutting and overdose-taking were linked to IT and SS, respectively.The factors extracted in this study largely corresponded to factors from previous studies, implying that they may be useful in a wider clinical context. The association of these features with SB-related factors suggests that they constitute an integral part

  16. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Fabiana Souza; Simioni, Samanta; Bruggimann, Laure; Ruffieux, Christiane; Dudler, Jean; Felley, Christian; Michetti, Pierre; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Schluep, Myriam

    2007-01-01

    Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS). The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS). Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ...

  17. Antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations affect predator avoidance behavior of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Edward T.; Barber, Larry B.; Meghan R. McGee,; Megan A. Buerkley,; Matthew L. Julius,; Vajda, Alan M.; Heiko L. Schoenfuss,; Schultz, Melissa M.; Norris, David O.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of embryonic and larval exposure to environmentally relevant (ng/L) concentrations of common antidepressants, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, and bupropion (singularly and in mixture) on C-start escape behavior were evaluated in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Embryos (postfertilization until hatching) were exposed for 5 d and, after hatching, were allowed to grow in control well water until 12 d old. Similarly, posthatch fathead minnows were exposed for 12 d to these compounds. High-speed (1,000 frames/s) video recordings of escape behavior were collected and transferred to National Institutes of Health Image for frame-by- frame analysis of latency periods, escape velocities, and total escape response (combination of latency period and escape velocity). When tested 12 d posthatch, fluoxetine and venlafaxine adversely affected C-start performance of larvae exposed as embryos. Conversely, larvae exposed for 12 d posthatch did not exhibit altered escape responses when exposed to fluoxetine but were affected by venlafaxine and bupropion exposure. Mixtures of these four antidepressant pharmaceuticals slowed predator avoidance behaviors in larval fathead minnows regardless of the exposure window. The direct impact of reduced C-start performance on survival and, ultimately, reproductive fitness provides an avenue to assess the ecological relevance of exposure in an assay of relatively short duration.

  18. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Somatic And Behavioral Changes Associated With Difuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The effects of diffuse transcranial electrical stimulation on somatic and behavioral changes in anaesthetized and unanaesthetized normal male and female Wister rats was studied. Method: Diffuse transcranial electrical stimulation (0-25v, frequency 90Hz,pulse width 1ms) was administered via two electrodes clipped ...

  20. Climate change helplessness and the (de)moralization of individual energy behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, Erika; Preston, Jesse; Tannenbaum, Melanie B.

    2017-01-01

    Although most people understand the threat of climate change, they do little to modify their own energy conservation behavior. One reason for this gap between belief and behavior may be that individual actions seem un-impactful and therefore are not morally relevant. This research investigates how climate change helplessness—belief that one’s actions cannot affect climate change—can undermine the moralization of climate change and personal energy conservation. In Study 1, climate change effic...

  1. Behavioral, neurophysiological, and descriptive changes after occupation-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubik-Peplaski, Camille; Carrico, Cheryl; Nichols, Laurel; Chelette, Kenneth; Sawaki, Lumy

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of occupation-based intervention on poststroke upper-extremity (UE) motor recovery, neuroplastic change, and occupational performance in 1 research participant. A 55-yr-old man with chronic stroke and moderately impaired UE motor function participated in 15 sessions of occupation-based intervention in a hospital setting designed to simulate a home environment. We tested behavioral motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Stroke Impact Scale, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and neuroplasticity (transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS]) at baseline and at completion of intervention. We collected descriptive data on occupational participation throughout the study. All behavioral outcomes indicated clinically relevant improvement. TMS revealed bihemispheric corticomotor reorganization. Descriptive data revealed enhanced occupational performance. Occupation-based intervention delivered in a hospital-based, homelike environment can lead to poststroke neuroplastic change, increased functional use of the affected UE, and improved occupational performance. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  3. Neural representation of calling songs and their behavioral relevance in the grasshopper auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula eMeckenhäuser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic communication plays a key role for mate attraction in grasshoppers. Males use songs to advertise themselves to females. Females evaluate the song pattern, a repetitive structure of sound syllables separated by short pauses, to recognize a conspecific male and as proxy to its fitness. In their natural habitat females often receive songs with degraded temporal structure. Perturbations may, for example, result from the overlap with other songs. We studied the response behavior of females to songs that show different signal degradations. A perturbation of an otherwise attractive song at later positions in the syllable diminished the behavioral response, whereas the same perturbation at the onset of a syllable did not affect song attractiveness. We applied naïve Bayes classifiers to the spike trains of identified neurons in the auditory pathway to explore how sensory evidence about the acoustic stimulus and its attractiveness is represented in the neuronal responses. We find that populations of three or more neurons were sufficient to reliably decode the acoustic stimulus and to predict its behavioral relevance from the single-trial integrated firing rate. A simple model of decision making simulates the female response behavior. It computes for each syllable the likelihood for the presence of an attractive song pattern as evidenced by the population firing rate. Integration across syllables allows the likelihood to reach a decision threshold and to elicit the behavioral response. The close match between model performance and animal behavior shows that a spike rate code is sufficient to enable song pattern recognition.

  4. Emotional responses to behavioral economic incentives for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-03-05

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals do not get their prize but receive feedback on what their forgone earnings would have been. This counterfactual feedback should provoke anticipated regret and increase commitment to health goals. We explored which emotions were actually expected upon missing out on a prize due to unsuccessful weight loss and which incentive-characteristics influence their likelihood and intensity. Participants reported their expected emotional response after missing out on a prize in one of 12 randomly presented incentive-scenarios, which varied in incentive type, incentive size and deadline distance. Participants primarily reported feeling disappointment, followed by regret. Regret was expected most when losing a lottery prize (vs. a fixed incentive) and intensified with prize size. Multiple features of the participant and the lottery incentive increase the occurrence and intensity of regret. As such, our findings can be helpful in designing behavioral economic incentives that leverage emotions to support health behavior change.

  5. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks of social isolation versus paired housing. In Experiment 1, oxytocin-immunoreactive cell density was higher in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated females, but not in males. In Experiment 2, sucrose intake, used as an operational definition of hedonia, was reduced in both sexes following 4 weeks of isolation. Animals then received a resident-intruder test, and were sacrificed either 10 min later for the analysis of circulating hormones and peptides, or 2h later to examine neural activation, indexed by c-Fos expression in PVN cells immunoreactive for oxytocin or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Compared to paired animals, plasma oxytocin, ACTH and corticosterone were elevated in isolated females and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated males, following the resident-intruder test. The proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin or c-Fos and CRF was elevated in isolated females, and the proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin was elevated in isolated males following this test. These findings suggest that social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine responses relevant to depression in male and female prairie voles, although neuroendocrine responses in females may be especially sensitive to isolation.

  6. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  7. Voice identity recognition: functional division of the right STS and its behavioral relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Sonja; Kiebel, Stefan J; Maess, Burkhard; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-02-01

    The human voice is the primary carrier of speech but also a fingerprint for person identity. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that speech and identity recognition is accomplished by partially different neural pathways, despite the perceptual unity of the vocal sound. Importantly, the right STS has been implicated in voice processing, with different contributions of its posterior and anterior parts. However, the time point at which vocal and speech processing diverge is currently unknown. Also, the exact role of the right STS during voice processing is so far unclear because its behavioral relevance has not yet been established. Here, we used the high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography and a speech task control to pinpoint transient behavioral correlates: we found, at 200 msec after stimulus onset, that activity in right anterior STS predicted behavioral voice recognition performance. At the same time point, the posterior right STS showed increased activity during voice identity recognition in contrast to speech recognition whereas the left mid STS showed the reverse pattern. In contrast to the highly speech-sensitive left STS, the current results highlight the right STS as a key area for voice identity recognition and show that its anatomical-functional division emerges around 200 msec after stimulus onset. We suggest that this time point marks the speech-independent processing of vocal sounds in the posterior STS and their successful mapping to vocal identities in the anterior STS.

  8. Involvement of posterior cingulate cortex in ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyi; Leung, L Stan

    2018-02-15

    The involvement of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) on ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors was investigated in rats. Bilateral infusion of muscimol, a GABA A receptor agonist, into the PCC significantly antagonized ketamine-induced deficit in prepulse inhibition of a startle reflex (PPI), deficit in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials, and behavioral hyperlocomotion in a dose dependent manner. Local infusion of ketamine directly into the PCC also induced a PPI deficit. Systemic injection of ketamine (3mg/kg,s.c.) induced an increase in power of electrographic activity in the gamma band (30-100Hz) in both the PCC and the hippocampus; peak theta (4-10Hz) power was not significantly altered, but peak theta frequency was increased by ketamine. In order to exclude volume conduction from the hippocampus to PCC, inactivation of the hippocampus was made by local infusion of muscimol into the hippocampus prior to ketamine administration. Muscimol in the hippocampus effectively blocked ketamine-induced increase of gamma power in the hippocampus but not in the PCC, suggesting independent generation of gamma waves in PCC and hippocampus. It is suggested that the PCC is part of the brain network mediating ketamine-induced psychosis related behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing conservation relevance of organism-environment relations using predicted changes in response variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; White, Joseph D.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Cade, Brian S.; Zygo, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    1. Organism–environment models are used widely in conservation. The degree to which they are useful for informing conservation decisions – the conservation relevance of these relations – is important because lack of relevance may lead to misapplication of scarce conservation resources or failure to resolve important conservation dilemmas. Even when models perform well based on model fit and predictive ability, conservation relevance of associations may not be clear without also knowing the magnitude and variability of predicted changes in response variables. 2. We introduce a method for evaluating the conservation relevance of organism–environment relations that employs confidence intervals for predicted changes in response variables. The confidence intervals are compared to a preselected magnitude of change that marks a threshold (trigger) for conservation action. To demonstrate the approach, we used a case study from the Chihuahuan Desert involving relations between avian richness and broad-scale patterns of shrubland. We considered relations for three winters and two spatial extents (1- and 2-km-radius areas) and compared predicted changes in richness to three thresholds (10%, 20% and 30% change). For each threshold, we examined 48 relations. 3. The method identified seven, four and zero conservation-relevant changes in mean richness for the 10%, 20% and 30% thresholds respectively. These changes were associated with major (20%) changes in shrubland cover, mean patch size, the coefficient of variation for patch size, or edge density but not with major changes in shrubland patch density. The relative rarity of conservation-relevant changes indicated that, overall, the relations had little practical value for informing conservation decisions about avian richness. 4. The approach we illustrate is appropriate for various response and predictor variables measured at any temporal or spatial scale. The method is broadly applicable across ecological

  10. Relevance of hydro-climatic change projection and monitoring for assessment of water cycle changes in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, Arvid; Destouni, Georgia

    2011-06-01

    Rapid changes to the Arctic hydrological cycle challenge both our process understanding and our ability to find appropriate adaptation strategies. We have investigated the relevance and accuracy development of climate change projections for assessment of water cycle changes in major Arctic drainage basins. Results show relatively good agreement of climate model projections with observed temperature changes, but high model inaccuracy relative to available observation data for precipitation changes. Direct observations further show systematically larger (smaller) runoff than precipitation increases (decreases). This result is partly attributable to uncertainties and systematic bias in precipitation observations, but still indicates that some of the observed increase in Arctic river runoff is due to water storage changes, for example melting permafrost and/or groundwater storage changes, within the drainage basins. Such causes of runoff change affect sea level, in addition to ocean salinity, and inland water resources, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Process-based hydrological modeling and observations, which can resolve changes in evapotranspiration, and groundwater and permafrost storage at and below river basin scales, are needed in order to accurately interpret and translate climate-driven precipitation changes to changes in freshwater cycling and runoff. In contrast to this need, our results show that the density of Arctic runoff monitoring has become increasingly biased and less relevant by decreasing most and being lowest in river basins with the largest expected climatic changes.

  11. The Role of Incentives in Changing the Behavior of Spinal Care Providers: A Primer on Behavioral Economics in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-12-01

    As spinal care transitions from individual practitioners working in a volume-based reimbursement system toward multidisciplinary health care organizations working in a population-based model with value-based reimbursement, it is critical that insurance companies, administrators, and spine care provider have a clear understanding of how incentives change physician behavior. This article will introduce the concept of behavior economics, and discuss 9 principles relevant to physician decision-making.

  12. Evidence-Based Indicators of Neuropsychological Change in the Individual Patient: Relevant Concepts and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Repeated assessments are a relatively common occurrence in clinical neuropsychology. The current paper will review some of the relevant concepts (e.g., reliability, practice effects, alternate forms) and methods (e.g., reliable change index, standardized based regression) that are used in repeated neuropsychological evaluations. The focus will be on the understanding and application of these concepts and methods in the evaluation of the individual patient through examples. Finally, some future directions for assessing change will be described. PMID:22382384

  13. Change in Frictional Behavior during Olivine Serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, T.; Zhu, W.; French, M. E.; Belzer, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydration of mantle peridotites (serpentinization) is pervasive at plate boundaries. It is widely accepted that serpentinization is intrinsically linked to hydromechanical processes within the sub-seafloor, where the interplay between cracking, fluid supply and chemical reactions is responsible for a spectrum of fault slip, from earthquake swarms at the transform faults, to slow slip events at the subduction zone. Previous studies demonstrate that serpentine minerals can either promote slip or creep depend on many factors that include sliding velocity, temperature, pressure, interstitial fluids, etc. One missing link from the experimental investigation of serpentine to observations of tectonic faults is the extent of alteration necessary for changing the frictional behaviors. We quantify changes in frictional behavior due to serpentinization by conducting experiments after in-situ serpentinization of olivine gouge. In the sample configuration a layer of powder is sandwiched between porous sandstone blocks with 35° saw-cut surface. The starting material of fine-grained (63 120 µm) olivine powder is reacted with deionized water for 72 hours at 150°C before loading starts. Under the conventional triaxial configuration, the sample is stressed until sliding occurs within the gouge. A series of velocity-steps is then performed to measure the response of friction coefficient to variations of sliding velocity from which the rate-and-state parameters are deduced. For comparison, we measured the frictional behavior of unaltered olivine and pure serpentine gouges.Our results confirm that serpentinization causes reduced frictional strength and velocity weakening. In unaltered olivine gouge, an increase in frictional resistance with increasing sliding velocity is observed, whereas the serpentinized olivine and serpentine gouges favor velocity weakening behaviors at the same conditions. Furthermore, we observed that high pore pressures cause velocity weakening in olivine but

  14. PROFOUND AND SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC EFFECTS OF CLINICALLY-RELEVANT LOW DOSE SCATTER IRRADIATION ON THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKovalchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated cells can signal damage and distress to both close and distant neighbors that have not been directly exposed to the radiation (naïve bystanders. While studies have shown that such bystander effects occur in the shielded brain of animals upon body irradiation, their mechanism remains unexplored. Observed effects may be caused by some blood-borne factors; however they may also be explained, at least in part, by very small direct doses received by the brain that result from scatter or leakage. In order to establish the roles of low doses of scatter irradiation in the brain response, we developed a new model for scatter irradiation analysis whereby one rat was irradiated directly at the liver and the second rat was placed adjacent to the first and received a scatter dose to its body and brain. This work focuses specifically on the response of the latter rat brain to the low scatter irradiation dose. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that very low, clinically relevant doses of scatter irradiation alter gene expression, induce changes in dendritic morphology, and lead to behavioral deficits in exposed animals. The results showed that exposure to radiation doses as low as 0.115 cGy caused changes in gene expression and reduced spine density, dendritic complexity, and dendritic length in the prefrontal cortex tissues of females, but not males. In the hippocampus, radiation altered neuroanatomical organization in males, but not in females. Moreover, low dose radiation caused behavioral deficits in the exposed animals. This is the first study to show that low dose scatter irradiation influences the brain and behavior in a sex-specific way.

  15. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  16. "Characterizing autism-relevant social behavior in poodles (Canis familiaris) via owner report": Correction to Zamzow et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Reports an error in "Characterizing Autism-Relevant Social Behavior in Poodles via Owner Report" by Rachel M. Zamzow, Lisa Lit, Shelley Hamilton and David Q. Beversdorf ( Journal of Comparative Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Mar 13, 2017, np). In the article, the scientific name for the species was missing in the title. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-11247-001.) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. It can be difficult to model the complex behavioral features of this disorder with rodent models, which have limited similarity to human behaviors. The domestic dog may be a promising model of complex human behavior, including core features of ASD. The present study examines ASD-relevant social behavior in Miniature and Standard Poodles using an owner-report questionnaire with questions adapted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2000). A previous study identified 3 behavioral constructs examined by this questionnaire: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors, response to social interaction, and communication. In the present study, confirmatory and experimental factor analyses used to assess how collected data fit with the previous model revealed moderate model fit and a similar factorial structure. Between-breed comparisons across these factors and at the individual question level revealed differences between Miniature and Standard Poodles in showing behaviors. Cluster analyses used to group dogs within each breed according to social behavior identified smaller subgroups of dogs with less social behavior across all 3 factors compared with the average within each breed. Within- and between-breed differences in social behavior warrant investigation of genetic variation underlying this

  17. Use of Theory in Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, Shirley M; Bartholomew, L Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W

    2017-04-01

    Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and (2) assess the association between extensiveness of theory use and intervention effectiveness. Studies were previously identified through a systematic search, including only randomized controlled trials published from 2005 to 2013, that addressed physical activity behavior change and studied survivors who were theory items from Michie and Prestwich's coding framework were selected to calculate theory intensity scores. Studies were classified into three subgroups based on extensiveness of theory use (Level 1 = sparse; Level 2 = moderate; and Level 3 = extensive). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met search criteria. Most trials used the transtheoretical model ( n = 5) or social cognitive theory ( n = 3). For extensiveness of theory use, 5 studies were classified as Level 1, 4 as Level 2, and 5 as Level 3. Studies in the extensive group (Level 3) had the largest overall effect size ( g = 0.76). Effects were more modest in Level 1 and 2 groups with overall effect sizes of g = 0.28 and g = 0.36, respectively. Theory use is often viewed as essential to behavior change, but theory application varies widely. In this study, there was some evidence to suggest that extensiveness of theory use enhanced intervention effectiveness. However, there is more to learn about how theory can improve interventions for breast cancer survivors.

  18. Explaining Consumer Safe Food Handling Through Behavior-Change Theories: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Reimer, Danielle; Greig, Judy; Meldrum, Richard; Turgeon, Patricia; Waddell, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Consumers often engage in unsafe food handling behaviors at home. Previous studies have investigated the ability of behavior-change theories to explain and predict these behaviors. The purpose of this review was to determine which theories are most consistently associated with consumers' safe food handling behaviors across the published literature. A standardized systematic review methodology was used, consisting of the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of identified references; confirmation of relevance and characterization of relevant articles; risk-of-bias assessment; data extraction; and descriptive analysis of study results. A total of 20 relevant studies were identified; they were mostly conducted in Australia (40%) and the United States (35%) and used a cross-sectional design (65%). Most studies targeted young adults (65%), and none focused on high-risk consumer groups. The outcomes of 70% of studies received high overall risk-of-bias ratings, largely due to a lack of control for confounding variables. The most commonly applied theory was the Theory of Planned Behavior (45% of studies), which, along with other investigated theories of behavior change, was frequently associated with consumer safe food handling behavioral intentions and behaviors. However, overall, there was wide variation in the specific constructs found to be significantly associated and in the percentage of variance explained in each outcome across studies. The results suggest that multiple theories of behavior change can help to explain consumer safe food handling behaviors and could be adopted to guide the development of future behavior-change interventions. In these contexts, theories should be appropriately selected and adapted to meet the needs of the specific target population and context of interest.

  19. The Promise and Limitations of Using Analogies to Improve Decision-Relevant Understanding of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin T Raimi

    Full Text Available To make informed choices about how to address climate change, members of the public must develop ways to consider established facts of climate science and the uncertainties about its future trajectories, in addition to the risks attendant to various responses, including non-response, to climate change. One method suggested for educating the public about these issues is the use of simple mental models, or analogies comparing climate change to familiar domains such as medical decision making, disaster preparedness, or courtroom trials. Two studies were conducted using online participants in the U.S.A. to test the use of analogies to highlight seven key decision-relevant elements of climate change, including uncertainties about when and where serious damage may occur, its unprecedented and progressive nature, and tradeoffs in limiting climate change. An internal meta-analysis was then conducted to estimate overall effect sizes across the two studies. Analogies were not found to inform knowledge about climate literacy facts. However, results suggested that people found the medical analogy helpful and that it led people-especially political conservatives-to better recognize several decision-relevant attributes of climate change. These effects were weak, perhaps reflecting a well-documented and overwhelming effect of political ideology on climate change communication and education efforts in the U.S.A. The potential of analogies and similar education tools to improve understanding and communication in a polarized political environment are discussed.

  20. The Promise and Limitations of Using Analogies to Improve Decision-Relevant Understanding of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimi, Kaitlin T; Stern, Paul C; Maki, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    To make informed choices about how to address climate change, members of the public must develop ways to consider established facts of climate science and the uncertainties about its future trajectories, in addition to the risks attendant to various responses, including non-response, to climate change. One method suggested for educating the public about these issues is the use of simple mental models, or analogies comparing climate change to familiar domains such as medical decision making, disaster preparedness, or courtroom trials. Two studies were conducted using online participants in the U.S.A. to test the use of analogies to highlight seven key decision-relevant elements of climate change, including uncertainties about when and where serious damage may occur, its unprecedented and progressive nature, and tradeoffs in limiting climate change. An internal meta-analysis was then conducted to estimate overall effect sizes across the two studies. Analogies were not found to inform knowledge about climate literacy facts. However, results suggested that people found the medical analogy helpful and that it led people-especially political conservatives-to better recognize several decision-relevant attributes of climate change. These effects were weak, perhaps reflecting a well-documented and overwhelming effect of political ideology on climate change communication and education efforts in the U.S.A. The potential of analogies and similar education tools to improve understanding and communication in a polarized political environment are discussed.

  1. Parenthood characteristics in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, relevant for reproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of insufficient childbearing is a demographic and social problem of contemporary society. In order to resolve the determination of low fertility in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, empirical research of the effects of reproductive behavior had been intensified. The purpose of this paper is to point out to the characteristics of parenthood relevant for bringing the decision on giving birth to children on the basis of this empirical material. A comparative approach, based on illuminating the compatibility of practice and models of responsible parenthood, enables the recognition of limiting factors of childbearing not only of those who are already parents but of young people who still do not have this experience. The complexity and responsibility of the parent role are stressed as part of the experience as well as the basic characteristic of the parenthood model. An adequate and efficient rehabilitation of the role of parenthood, as a necessity of the pro-natal policy must take into consideration the gender asymmetry of parenthood into consideration as well.

  2. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-14

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  3. Value Relevance Change Under International Accounting Standards: An Empirical Study of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhui Liu; Lee J. Yao; Michelle Y. M. Yao

    2012-01-01

    In face of broad adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is considering its quality and acceptability. This paper reports a study that examines changes in value relevance with a sample of Peru firms mandated to use international accounting standards between 1999 and 2007. The period under study is broken into a period of International Accounting Standards (IAS) between 1999 and 2001, a period of early IFRS between 2002 and 2...

  4. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  5. Revolutionary land use change in the 21st century: Is (rangeland) science relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Brown, J.R.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Andrews, S.S.; Baldi, G.; Davies, J.; Duniway, M.; Havstad, K.M.; Karl, J.W.; Karlen, D.L.; Peters, Debra P.C.; Quinton, J.N.; Riginos, C.; Shaver, P.L.; Steinaker, D.; Twomlow, S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly increasing demand for food, fiber, and fuel together with new technologies and the mobility of global capital are driving revolutionary changes in land use throughout the world. Efforts to increase land productivity include conversion of millions of hectares of rangelands to crop production, including many marginal lands with low resistance and resilience to degradation. Sustaining the productivity of these lands requires careful land use planning and innovative management systems. Historically, this responsibility has been left to agronomists and others with expertise in crop production. In this article, we argue that the revolutionary land use changes necessary to support national and global food security potentially make rangeland science more relevant now than ever. Maintaining and increasing relevance will require a revolutionary change in range science from a discipline that focuses on a particular land use or land cover to one that addresses the challenge of managing all lands that, at one time, were considered to be marginal for crop production. We propose four strategies to increase the relevance of rangeland science to global land management: 1) expand our awareness and understanding of local to global economic, social, and technological trends in order to anticipate and identify drivers and patterns of conversion; 2) emphasize empirical studies and modeling that anticipate the biophysical (ecosystem services) and societal consequences of large-scale changes in land cover and use; 3) significantly increase communication and collaboration with the disciplines and sectors of society currently responsible for managing the new land uses; and 4) develop and adopt a dynamic and flexible resilience-based land classification system and data-supported conceptual models (e.g., state-and-transition models) that represent all lands, regardless of use and the consequences of land conversion to various uses instead of changes in state or condition that are

  6. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  7. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3......A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  8. What is the clinically relevant change on the ADAS-Cog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Anette; Schott, Jonathan M

    2012-02-01

    To establish the minimal clinically relevant change (MCRC) on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cohort study. 59 recruiting sites for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Outpatients with AD in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The authors applied anchor-based MCRC methodology comparing ADAS-Cog change against clinicians' judgement of clinically relevant worsening between baseline and 6 months in four domains: memory and non-memory cognitive performance; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale; and Functional Assessment Questionnaire. The analysis was repeated for the 6-12-month interval. To support these findings, the authors calculated distribution-based measures including half-baseline SD (1/2 SD) and SEM. 181 patients (baseline ADAS-Cog score 18.5±6.4) had ADAS-Cog data at 0 and 6 months. Those undergoing clinically significant worsening on any of the four anchor questions (n=41-47) had an average ADAS-Cog change of 3.1-3.8 points. Similar results were found for the 177 patients with 6-12-month data. The average 1/2 SD for the baseline ADAS-Cog score was 3.2, and the SEM was 3.7. 3 points decline on the ADAS-Cog may be an appropriate MCRC for clinical trials of patients with early AD. However, further studies assessing the MCRC for improvement on the ADAS-Cog, using patient-based judgement as an anchor, and determining the minimal clinically relevant difference between change on two treatments are required. http://clinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00106899.

  9. Extracting the Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus: Unique Neural Representation of Farnesol, a Component of the Recruitment Pheromone of Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Strube-Bloss

    Full Text Available To trigger innate behavior, sensory neural networks are pre-tuned to extract biologically relevant stimuli. Many male-female or insect-plant interactions depend on this phenomenon. Especially communication among individuals within social groups depends on innate behaviors. One example is the efficient recruitment of nest mates by successful bumblebee foragers. Returning foragers release a recruitment pheromone in the nest while they perform a 'dance' behavior to activate unemployed nest mates. A major component of this pheromone is the sesquiterpenoid farnesol. How farnesol is processed and perceived by the olfactory system, has not yet been identified. It is much likely that processing farnesol involves an innate mechanism for the extraction of relevant information to trigger a fast and reliable behavioral response. To test this hypothesis, we used population response analyses of 100 antennal lobe (AL neurons recorded in alive bumblebee workers under repeated stimulation with four behaviorally different, but chemically related odorants (geraniol, citronellol, citronellal and farnesol. The analysis identified a unique neural representation of the recruitment pheromone component compared to the other odorants that are predominantly emitted by flowers. The farnesol induced population activity in the AL allowed a reliable separation of farnesol from all other chemically related odor stimuli we tested. We conclude that the farnesol induced population activity may reflect a predetermined representation within the AL-neural network allowing efficient and fast extraction of a behaviorally relevant stimulus. Furthermore, the results show that population response analyses of multiple single AL-units may provide a powerful tool to identify distinct representations of behaviorally relevant odors.

  10. Past temperature reconstructions from deep ice cores: relevance for future climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Masson-Delmotte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ice cores provide unique archives of past climate and environmental changes based only on physical processes. Quantitative temperature reconstructions are essential for the comparison between ice core records and climate models. We give an overview of the methods that have been developed to reconstruct past local temperatures from deep ice cores and highlight several points that are relevant for future climate change. We first analyse the long term fluctuations of temperature as depicted in the long Antarctic record from EPICA Dome C. The long term imprint of obliquity changes in the EPICA Dome C record is highlighted and compared to simulations conducted with the ECBILT-CLIO intermediate complexity climate model. We discuss the comparison between the current interglacial period and the long interglacial corresponding to marine isotopic stage 11, ~400 kyr BP. Previous studies had focused on the role of precession and the thresholds required to induce glacial inceptions. We suggest that, due to the low eccentricity configuration of MIS 11 and the Holocene, the effect of precession on the incoming solar radiation is damped and that changes in obliquity must be taken into account. The EPICA Dome C alignment of terminations I and VI published in 2004 corresponds to a phasing of the obliquity signals. A conjunction of low obliquity and minimum northern hemisphere summer insolation is not found in the next tens of thousand years, supporting the idea of an unusually long interglacial ahead. As a second point relevant for future climate change, we discuss the magnitude and rate of change of past temperatures reconstructed from Greenland (NorthGRIP and Antarctic (Dome C ice cores. Past episodes of temperatures above the present-day values by up to 5°C are recorded at both locations during the penultimate interglacial period. The rate of polar warming simulated by coupled climate models forced by a CO2 increase of 1% per year is compared to ice

  11. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R. L., II; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850°C. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-SiO2 buffer, which is 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of the fate of

  12. The world is not flat: defining relevant thermal landscapes in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Michael W; Raskin, Evan; Angilletta, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Although climates are rapidly changing on a global scale, these changes cannot easily be extrapolated to the local scales experienced by organisms. In fact, such generalizations might be quite problematic. For instance, models used to predict shifts in the ranges of species during climate change rarely incorporate data resolved to climatic drivers at much smaller scales. Empirical studies alone suggest that the operative temperatures of many organisms vary by as much as 10-20 °C on a local scale, depending on vegetation, geology, and topography. Furthermore, this variation in abiotic factors ignores thermoregulatory behaviors that many animals use to balance heat loads. Through a set of simulations, we demonstrate how variability in elevational topography can attenuate the effects of warming climates. These simulations suggest that changing climates do not always impact organisms negatively. Importantly, these simulations involve well-known relationships in biophysical ecology that show how no two organisms experience the same climate in the same way. We suggest that, when coupled with thermoregulatory behavior, variation in topographic features can mask the acute effect of climate change in many cases. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  13. "Causes" of pesticide safety behavior change in Latino farmworker families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Talton, Jennifer W; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Trejo, Grisel; Mirabelli, Maria C; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-07-01

    To identify the source of behavior change resulting from a health education intervention focused on pesticide safety. Data were from the La Familia Sana demonstration project, a promotora-delivered pesticide safety education intervention conducted with immigrant Latinos (N = 610). The La Familia Sana program produced changes in 3 sets of pesticide safety behaviors. Changes in the conceptual targets of the intervention and promotora attributes explained 0.45-6% and 0.5-3% of the changes in pesticide-related behavior, respectively. The conceptual targets of the La Familia Sana program explained the greatest amount of change in pesticide-related behavior. Promotora attributes also contributed to intervention success.

  14. An integrated assessment of climate change impacts for Athens- relevance to stakeholders and policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Kostopoulou, E.; Varotsos, K.

    2010-09-01

    Analysing climate change and its impact needs a production of relevant elements for policy making that can be very different from the parameters considered by climate experts. In the framework of EU project CIRCE, a more realistic approach to match stakeholders and policy-makers demands is attempted. For this reason, within CIRCE selected case studies have been chosen that will provide assessments that can be integrated in practical decision making. In this work, an integrated assessment of climate change impacts on several sectors for the urban site of Athens in Greece is presented. The Athens urban case study has been chosen since it provides excellent opportunities for using an integrated approach across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work extends from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests. In the temporal dimension, research ranges from the current observed time period (using available meteorological and sector data) to future time periods using data from several climate change projections. In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change impacts is adopted. Impacts sectors covered range from direct climate impacts on natural ecosystems (such as flash floods, air pollution and forest fire risk) to indirect impacts resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages (such as energy demand, tourism and health). Discussion of impact sector risks and adaptation measures are also exploited. Case-study work on impact sector risk to climate change is of particular interest to relevant policy makers and stakeholders, communication with who is ensured through a series of briefing notes and information sheets and through regional workshops.

  15. Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change from the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B.; Berkman, Elliot T.; Mann, Traci; Harrison, Brittany; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Although persuasive messages often alter people’s self-reported attitudes and intentions to perform behaviors, these self-reports do not necessarily predict behavior change. We demonstrate that neural responses to persuasive messages can predict variability in behavior change in the subsequent week. Specifically, an a priori region of interest (ROI) in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was reliably associated with behavior change (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Additionally, an iterative cross-validation approach using activity in this MPFC ROI predicted an average 23% of the variance in behavior change beyond the variance predicted by self-reported attitudes and intentions. Thus, neural signals can predict behavioral changes that are not predicted from self-reported attitudes and intentions alone. Additionally, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that a neural signal can predict complex real world behavior days in advance. PMID:20573889

  16. Changes in intrinsic functional connectivity and group relevant salience: The case of sport rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Zargol; Mantini, Dante; Yankouskaya, Alla; Hewstone, Miles; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2017-08-14

    Studies have shown that attending to salient group relevant information could increase the BOLD activity across distributed neural networks. However, it is unclear how attending to group relevant information changes the functional connectivity across these networks. We investigated this issue combining resting states and task-based fMRI experiment. The task involved football fans learning associations between arbitrary geometric shapes and the badges of in-group, the rival and the neutral football teams. Upon learning, participants viewed different badge/shape pairs and their task was to judge whether the viewed pair was a match or a mismatch. For whole brain analyses increased activity was found in the IFG, DLPFC, AI, fusiform gyrus, precuneus and pSTS (all in the left hemisphere) for the rival over the in-group mismatch. Further, the ROI analyses revealed larger beta-values for the rival badge in the left pSTS, left AI and the left IFG. However, larger beta-values were found in the left pSTS and the left IFG (but not AI) for the in-group shape. The intrinsic functional connectivity analyses revealed that compare to the pre-task, post task functional connectivity was decreased between the left DLPFC and the left AI. In contrast, it was increased between the left IFG and the left AI and this was correlated with the difference in RT for the rival vs. in-group team. Our findings suggest that attending to group relevant information differentially affects the strength of functional coupling in attention networks and this can be explained by the saliency of the group relevant information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting persuasion-induced behavior change from the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Berkman, Elliot T; Mann, Traci; Harrison, Brittany; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-06-23

    Although persuasive messages often alter people's self-reported attitudes and intentions to perform behaviors, these self-reports do not necessarily predict behavior change. We demonstrate that neural responses to persuasive messages can predict variability in behavior change in the subsequent week. Specifically, an a priori region of interest (ROI) in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was reliably associated with behavior change (r = 0.49, p imaging study to demonstrate that a neural signal can predict complex real world behavior days in advance.

  18. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  19. Changing Zaire to Congo: the fate of no-longer relevant mnemonic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan; Stiernstedt, Mikael; Öhlund, Maria; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-11-01

    In an ever-changing world there is constant pressure on revising long-term memory, such when people or countries change name. What happens to the old, pre-existing information? One possibility is that old associations gradually are weakened and eventually lost. Alternatively, old and no longer relevant information may still be an integral part of memory traces. To test the hypothesis that old mnemonic information still becomes activated when people correctly retrieve new, currently relevant information, brain activity was measured with fMRI while participants performed a cued-retrieval task. Paired associates (symbol-sound and symbol-face pairs) were first learned during two days. Half of the associations were then updated during the next two days, followed by fMRI scanning on day 5 and also 18 months later. As expected, retrieval reactivated sensory cortex related to the most recently learned association (visual cortex for symbol-face pairs, auditory cortex for symbol-sound pairs). Critically, retrieval also reactivated sensory cortex related to the no-longer relevant associate. Eighteen months later, only non-updated symbol-face associations were intact. Intriguingly, a subset of the updated associations was now treated as though the original association had taken over, in that memory performance was significantly worse than chance and that activity in sensory cortex for the original but not the updated associate correlated (negatively) with performance. Moreover, the degree of "residual" reactivation during day 5 inversely predicted memory performance 18 months later. Thus, updating of long-term memory involves adding new information to already existing networks, in which old information can stay resilient for a long time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF 238PU RELEVANT TO DECONTAMINATION OF BUILDING 235-F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Kane, M.

    2009-11-24

    This report was prepared to document the physical, chemical and radiological properties of plutonium oxide materials that were processed in the Plutonium Fuel Form Facility (PuFF) in building 235-F at the Savannah River Plant (now known as the Savannah River Site) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. An understanding of these properties is needed to support current project planning for the safe and effective decontamination and deactivation (D&D) of PuFF. The PuFF mission was production of heat sources to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in space craft. The specification for the PuO{sub 2} used to fabricate the heat sources required that the isotopic content of the plutonium be 83 {+-} 1% Pu-238 due to its high decay heat of 0.57 W/g. The high specific activity of Pu-238 (17.1 Ci/g) due to alpha decay makes this material very difficult to manage. The production process produced micron-sized particles which proved difficult to contain during operations, creating personnel contamination concerns and resulting in the expenditure of significant resources to decontaminate spaces after loss of material containment. This report examines high {sup 238}Pu-content material properties relevant to the D&D of PuFF. These relevant properties are those that contribute to the mobility of the material. Physical properties which produce or maintain small particle size work to increase particle mobility. Early workers with {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} felt that, unlike most small particles, Pu-238 oxide particles would not naturally agglomerate to form larger, less mobile particles. It was thought that the heat generated by the particles would prevent water molecules from binding to the particle surface. Particles covered with bound water tend to agglomerate more easily. However, it is now understood that the self-heating effect is not sufficient to prevent adsorption of water on particle surfaces and thus would not prevent agglomeration of particles. Operational

  1. Beyond Behavior: Eliciting Broader Change With Motivational Interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Christopher C.; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    Descriptions of Motivational interviewing (MI) usually focus on helping clients change a single problematic behavior. In contrast, the current case study shows that MI can serve as a more comprehensive psychotherapy, focused not only on multiple problem behaviors but also on broader change consistent with its roots in client-centered therapy. In this case, the therapist interwove a focus on several discrete behaviors with a focus on broader lifestyle change as well as increased clarity of cli...

  2. Neurocognitive elements of antisocial behavior: Relevance of an orbitofrontal cortex account

    OpenAIRE

    Séguin, Jean R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions in antisocial behaviors and the adequacy of a strict OFC account of antisocial disorders where there is no evidence of lesion. Neurocognitive accounts of antisocial behaviors are extended beyond the OFC. Several methodological shortcomings specific to this neuroscience approach to antisocial behavior are identified. A developmental approach is advocated to chart the developmental sequences of impaired brain development and of t...

  3. Associations between change in sedentary behavior and outcome in standard behavioral weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Call, Christine; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan; Butryn, Meghan L

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behavior, particularly in prolonged periods, is an important determinant of health. Little research exploring changes in sedentary behavior during behavioral weight loss programs exists. This study evaluated the magnitude of changes in total and prolonged sedentary behavior and how these changes related to changes in weight and cardiovascular outcomes during a behavioral weight loss program. Participants (n = 450) in two lifestyle modification programs underwent assessments of sedentary behavior (by accelerometry), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and resting heart rate at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Sedentary behavior was defined as both total and prolonged (≥30 continuous minutes) sedentary minutes/day. Reductions in total and prolonged sedentary time were significant and were accounted for by increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only changes in MVPA significantly predicted change in weight when entered into a model simultaneously with changes in sedentary behavior. Changes in total and prolonged sedentary time were not associated with changes in waist circumference, heart rate, or blood pressure. Change in sedentary time was not independently associated with change in health outcomes during a behavioral weight loss treatment. High variability in changes in sedentary time indicate that individual differences may be important to examine. Reducing sedentary time may not be powerful enough to impact these health outcomes above the effects of other changes made during these programs; alternatively, it may be that increasing focus in treatment on reducing sedentary time may engender greater decreases in sedentariness, which could lead to better health outcomes.

  4. All order I.R. finite expansion for short distance behavior of massless theories perturbed by a relevant operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, R. [Genova Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; Magnoli, N. [Genova Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy)

    1996-07-08

    We consider here renormalizable theories without relevant couplings and present an I.R. consistent technique to study corrections to short distance behavior (Wilson O.P.E. coefficients) due to a relevant perturbation. Our method is the result of a complete reformulation of recent works on the field, and is characterized by a more orthodox treatment of U.V. divergences that allows for simpler formulae and consequently an explicit all order (regularization invariant) I.R. finiteness proof. Underlying hypotheses are discussed in detail and found to be satisfied in conformal theories that constitute a natural field of application of this approach. (orig.).

  5. Health Behavior Change: Moving from Observation to Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Klein, William M P; Rothman, Alexander J

    2017-01-03

    How can progress in research on health behavior change be accelerated? Experimental medicine (EM) offers an approach that can help investigators specify the research questions that need to be addressed and the evidence needed to test those questions. Whereas current research draws predominantly on multiple overlapping theories resting largely on correlational evidence, the EM approach emphasizes experimental tests of targets or mechanisms of change and programmatic research on which targets change health behaviors and which techniques change those targets. There is evidence that engaging particular targets promotes behavior change; however, systematic studies are needed to identify and validate targets and to discover when and how targets are best engaged. The EM approach promises progress in answering the key question that will enable the science of health behavior change to improve public health: What strategies are effective in promoting behavior change, for whom, and under what circumstances?

  6. Are Stage of Change constructs relevant for subjective oral health in a vulnerable population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, L M; Parker, E J; Broughton, J; Lawrence, H P; Armfield, J M

    2015-06-01

    Stage of Change constructs may be proxy markers of psychosocial health which, in turn, are related to oral health. To determine if Stage of Change constructs were associated with subjective oral health in a population at heightened risk of dental disease. Stage of Change constructs were developed from a validated 18-item scale and categorised into 'Pre-contemplative', 'Contemplative' and 'Active'. A convenience sample of 446 Australian non-Aboriginal women pregnant by an Aboriginal male (age range 14-43 years) provided data to evaluate the outcome variables (self-rated oral health and oral health impairment), the Stage of Change constructs and socio-demographic, behavioural and access-related factors. Factors significant at the p health and 34% had oral health impairment. Around 12% were 'Pre-contemplative', 46% 'Contemplative' and 42% 'Active'. Being either 'pre-contemplative' or 'contemplative' was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. 'Pre-contemplative' ceased being significant after adjusting for dentate status and dental behaviour. 'Pre-contemplative' remained significant when adjusting for dental cost, but not 'Contemplative'. The Stages of Change constructs ceased being associated with self-rated oral health after adjusting for all confounders. Only 'Contemplative' (reference: 'Active') was a risk indicator in the null model for oral health impairment which persisted after adding dentate status, dental behaviour and dental cost variables, but not socio-demographics. When adjusting for all confounders, 'Contemplative' was not a risk indicator for oral health impairment. Both the 'Pre-contemplative' and 'Contemplative' Stage of Change constructs were associated with poor self-rated oral health and oral health impairment after adjusting for some, but not all, covariates. When considered as a proxy marker of psychosocial health, Stage of Change constructs may have some relevance for subjective oral health.

  7. Neuroecology: Neural Mechanisms of Sensory and Motor Processes that Mediate Ecologically Relevant Behaviors: An Introduction to the Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffell, Jeffrey A; Rowe, Ashlee H

    2016-11-01

    What is Neuroecology? Animal behavior mediates many critical ecological processes that, in turn, have implications for the evolution of organismal interactions. Because the peripheral and central nervous systems ultimately control behavior, research in neuroecology seeks to link the neural basis of behavior with behavioral control of ecological interactions, and to determine how specific processes (e.g., environmental and genetic constraints, ecological and evolutionary forces) operating to alter nervous system function might constrain or facilitate adaptive behavior. Our goal for this symposium was to promote a general framework for neuroecology by exploring fundamental questions germane to this new area of research, and to develop a "toolbox" of techniques and approaches for addressing those questions. In the following series of papers, we provide a starting point for future work on neuroecology, including evolutionary context, the role of plasticity in shaping nervous system function and behavior, and an exploration of various sensorimotor systems that control ecological interactions. By promoting an integration of observational and experimental approaches at different levels of organization, we can reveal much about how the neural bases of behaviors influence interactions that occur under ecologically relevant contexts that would otherwise be impossible from isolated physiological, behavioral, or ecological components. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Relevance of a neurophysiological marker of attention allocation for children's learning-related behaviors and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Cynthia J; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Bierman, Karen L; Greenberg, Mark T; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related behaviors in high-risk populations could illuminate resilience processes. This study examined the relevance of a neurophysiological measure of controlled attention allocation, amplitude of the P3b event-related potential, for learning-related behaviors and academic performance in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. The sample consisted of 239 children from an urban, low-income community, approximately half of whom exhibited behavior problems at school entry (45% aggressive/oppositional; 64% male; 69% African American, 21% Hispanic). Results revealed that higher P3b amplitudes to target stimuli in a go/no-go task were associated with more adaptive learning-related behaviors in kindergarten. Furthermore, children's learning-related behaviors in kindergarten mediated a positive indirect effect of P3b amplitude on growth in academic performance from kindergarten to 1st grade. Given that P3b amplitude reflects attention allocation processes, these findings build on the scientific justification for interventions targeting young children's attention skills in order to promote effective learning-related behaviors and academic achievement within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Modeling electric bicycle's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, electric bicycle (EB) has been one important traffic tool due to its own merits. However, EB's motion behaviors (especially at a signalized/non-signalized intersection) are more complex than those of vehicle since it always has lane-changing and retrograde behaviors. In this paper, we propose a model to explore EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors on a road with a signalized intersection. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can qualitatively describe each EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors near a signalized intersection, and that lane-changing and retrograde behaviors have prominent impacts on the signalized intersection (i.e., prominent jams and congestions occur). The above results show that EB should be controlled as a vehicle, i.e., lane-changing and retrograde behaviors at a signalized intersection should strictly be prohibited to improve the operational efficiency and traffic safety at the signalized intersection.

  10. Changing Perceptions and Changing Behavior in Customer Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe formulate a theoretical model in which we postulate that if a customers' behavior is perceived as not optimal, customers will adjust this behavior based on their current satisfaction and payment equity. Furthermore, customers will also include new experiences. In our empirical study

  11. Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, John Janeway

    1987-01-01

    The paper views the emerging role of behavioral medicine and health psychology, addressing: (1) the impact of social change on health and behavioral factors; (2) the growth of a developmental perspective in behavioral medicine and health psychology; and (3) work and health, including the effects of job stress and unemployment. (Author/JDD)

  12. Behavior theory for dietary interventions for cancer prevention: a systematic review of utilization and effectiveness in creating behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Kerry N L; Donovan, Jenny L; Horwood, Jeremy; Lane, J Athene

    2013-03-01

    Theory-based approaches are now recommended to design and enact dietary interventions, but their use in cancer trials is unknown. This systematic review examined application of behavior theory to dietary interventions aimed at preventing cancer to improve the design and interpretation of trials. Electronic databases were searched (inception-July 2011). Data were synthesized and a theory coding scheme (TCS) used to describe and assess how behavior theory informed interventions. Studies not reporting a dietary behavior intervention informed by a specified behavior change model(s) were excluded. Of 237 potentially eligible studies, only 40 (16.9 %) were relevant, mostly RCTs (34, 85.0 %). Twenty-one interventions targeted diet alone (52.5 %) or integrated diet into a lifestyle intervention (19, 47.5 %). Most (24, 60.0 %) invoked several behavior change models, but only 10 (25.0 %) interventions were reported as explicitly theory-informed and none comprehensively targeted or measured theoretical constructs or tested theoretical assumptions. The 10 theory-informed interventions were more effective at improving diet. Dietary interventions for cancer prevention improved diet more effectively if they were informed by behavior theory. While behavior theory was often applied to these dietary interventions, they were rarely implemented or described thoroughly. Accurate intervention reporting is essential to assess theoretical quality and facilitate implementation effective behavior change techniques. Guidelines regarding the application and reporting of behavior theory for complex interventions, for example, proposed by the National Institutes of Health and Medical Research Council, should be revised accordingly. Failure to adequately ground dietary interventions in behavior theory may hinder establishing their effectiveness and relationships between diet and cancer.

  13. Intra-accumbens Raclopride Administration Prevents Behavioral Changes Induced by Intermittent Access to Sucrose Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Josué O. Suárez-Ortiz; Felipe Cortés-Salazar; Ariadna L. Malagón-Carrillo; Verónica E. López-Alonso; Juan M. Mancilla-Díaz; Juan G. Tejas-Juárez; Rodrigo E. Escartín-Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), i...

  14. The Relevance of Retention Behavior in the Development of Accession Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzales, Jose

    2002-01-01

    .... The findings reveal that each accession source has unique accession to retention ratios. A comparison of the retention ratios to accession trends reveals that retention rates can be improved through an understanding of retention behavior...

  15. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Housing Conditions and Stress in Male Rats - Relevance to Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    statistically significant effects for enrichment on various biological measures (e.g., Body weight , adrenal gland weights , fat adipose tissue). Studies of...anxiety-like behaviors as a consequence of neonatal maternal separation in Long-Evans rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 73(1), 131-140...stress field. Journal of Human Stress, 15, 22-36. McIntosh, J., Anisman, H., & Merali, Z. (1999). Short and long-periods of neonatal maternal

  16. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  17. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  18. Expanding the research area of behavior change support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Langrial, Sitwat; Ploderer, Bernd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The First International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems attracted a great research interest. The selected papers focused on abstraction, implementation and evaluation of Behavior Change Support Systems. The workshop is an evidence of how researchers from around the globe have their own

  19. Designing, Modeling and Evaluating Influence Strategiesfor Behavior Change Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öörni, Anssi; Kelders, Saskia Marion; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    Behavior change support systems (BCSS) research is an evolving area. While the systems have been demonstrated to work to the effect, there is still a lot of work to be done to better understand the influence mechanisms of behavior change, and work out their influence on the systems architecture. The

  20. Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at Non-Hanford Sites and Relevance to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-02-01

    Seven sites where Pu release to the environment has raised significant environmental concerns have been reviewed. A summary of the most significant hydrologic and geochemical features, contaminant release events and transport processes relevant to Pu migration at the seven sites is presented.

  1. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.Keywords: social marketing, customer engagement, behavioral influence, change, youth

  2. U.S. landowner behavior, land use and land cover changes, and climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig

    2003-01-01

    Landowner behavior is a major determinant of land use and land cover changes. an important consideration for policy analysts concerned with global change. Study of landowner behavior aids in designing more effective incentives for inducing land use and land cover changes to help mitigate climate change by reducing net greenhouse gas emissions. Afforestation,...

  3. The practice of exposure therapy: relevance of cognitive-behavioral theory and extinction theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2013-12-01

    Exposure therapy is the most effective psychological intervention for people with anxiety disorders. While many therapists learn how to implement exposure techniques through clinical training programs or instructional workshops, not all of these educational efforts include a focus on the theory underlying this treatment. The availability of treatment manuals providing step-by-step instructions for how to implement exposure makes it easier for clinicians to use these techniques with less training than they might otherwise receive. This raises questions regarding whether it is necessary to understand the theory behind the use of exposure. This article argues that knowledge of the relevant theory is crucial to being able to implement exposure therapy in ways that optimize both short- and long-term outcome. Specific ways in which theory is relevant to using exposure techniques are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Relevant microclimate for determining the development rate of malaria mosquitoes and possible implications of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Imbahale, Susan S; Thomas, Matthew B; Takken, Willem

    2010-07-09

    The relationship between mosquito development and temperature is one of the keys to understanding the current and future dynamics and distribution of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Many process-based models use mean air temperature to estimate larval development times, and hence adult vector densities and/or malaria risk. Water temperatures in three different-sized water pools, as well as the adjacent air temperature in lowland and highland sites in western Kenya were monitored. Both air and water temperatures were fed into a widely-applied temperature-dependent development model for Anopheles gambiae immatures, and subsequently their impact on predicted vector abundance was assessed. Mean water temperature in typical mosquito breeding sites was 4-6 degrees C higher than the mean temperature of the adjacent air, resulting in larval development rates, and hence population growth rates, that are much higher than predicted based on air temperature. On the other hand, due to the non-linearities in the relationship between temperature and larval development rate, together with a marginal buffering in the increase in water temperature compared with air temperature, the relative increases in larval development rates predicted due to climate change are substantially less. Existing models will tend to underestimate mosquito population growth under current conditions, and may overestimate relative increases in population growth under future climate change. These results highlight the need for better integration of biological and environmental information at the scale relevant to mosquito biology.

  5. Behavioral Approach System (BAS)-Relevant Cognitive Styles in Individuals with High vs. Moderate BAS Sensitivity: A Behavioral High-Risk Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Shapero, Benjamin G; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Grant, David A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-02-01

    This study used a behavioral high-risk design to evaluate cognitive styles relevant to the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) among individuals at high (n = 171) versus low (n = 119) risk of first onset of bipolar disorder based on BAS sensitivity, a known risk factor for bipolar disorder. Cognitive styles in high-BAS participants paralleled those implicated in bipolar disorder. Linear regressions indicated that individuals with high BAS sensitivity exhibited greater levels of goal striving, positive overgeneralization, rumination on positive affect, depressive brooding, perfectionism, and hypomanic personality. Furthermore, of the cognitive styles, emotion-focused rumination on positive affect mediated the association between BAS sensitivity and current levels of hypomanic symptoms. These results provide evidence that individuals at risk for the development of bipolar disorder have higher levels of BAS-relevant cognitive styles and hypomanic personality than do individuals with lower risk, indicating that these styles are not simply markers of prior (hypo)manic episodes.

  6. The scaling law of climate change and its relevance to assessing (palaeo)biological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Wolfgang; Eichenseer, Kilian

    2014-05-01

    interglacials, are not monotonic, but punctuated by short-term cooling intervals. The fossil record tells us that biodiversity responded dramatically to ancient intervals of climate warming. We can now see that the apparently slower rates of change in some mass extinctions (Permian-Triassic, Triassic-Jurassic) were greater than today when the scaling law is considered. This reassures us that studying deep time patterns of organismic response to climate change is a worthwhile endeavor that is relevant for predicting the future. References Burrows, M. T., Schoeman, D. S., Buckley, L. B., Moore, P., Poloczanska, E. S., Brander, K. M., Brown, C., Bruno, J. F., Duarte, C. M., Halpern, B. S., Holding, J., Kappel, C. V., Kiessling, W., O'Connor, M. I., Pandolfi, J. M., Parmesan, C., Schwing, F. B., Sydeman, W. J., and Richardson, A. J.: The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, Science, 334, 652-655, 2011. Gingerich, P. D.: Quantification and comparison of evolutionary rates, American Journal of Science, 293A, 453-478, 1993. Sadler, P. M.: Sediment accumulation rates and the completeness of stratigraphic sections, Journal of Geology, 89, 569-584, 1981. Sun, Y., Joachimski, M. M., Wignall, P. B., Yan, C., Chen, Y., Jiang, H., Wang, L., and Lai, X.: Lethally hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse, Science, 338, 366-370, 2012.

  7. Anorexia nervosa as a motivated behavior: Relevance of anxiety, stress, fear and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Angela S; Schreyer, Colleen C; Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-12-01

    The high comorbidity between anorexia nervosa (AN) and anxiety disorders is well recognized. AN is a motivated behavioral disorder in which habit formation is likely to contribute to the persistence of abnormal eating and exercise behaviors. Secondary alterations in brain circuitry underlying the reward value of food and exercise, along with disturbances in neuroendocrine hunger and satiety signaling arising from starvation and excessive exercise, are likely contributors to the maintenance of anorectic behaviors in genetically vulnerable individuals. The potential role of fear conditioning in facilitating onset of AN, or of impaired fear extinction in contributing to the high relapse rates observed following weight restoration, is of interest. Evidence from animal models of anxiety and human laboratory studies indicate that low estrogen impairs fear extinction. Low estradiol levels in AN may therefore play a role in perpetuating fear of food and fat in recently weight restored patients. Translational models including the activity based anorexia (ABA) rodent model of AN, and neuroimaging studies of fear extinction and conditioning, could help clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitry involved in food avoidance behaviors in AN. Moreover, the adaptation of novel treatment interventions with efficacy in anxiety disorders may contribute to the development of new treatments for this impairing disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Adolescent Narcissism, Aggression, and Prosocial Behavior: The Relevance of Socially Desirable Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Lui, Joyce H L; Anderson, Alexandra C

    2017-01-01

    An important threat to validity in personality research pertains to an individual's motivation to respond in a socially desirable manner on self-report inventories. This issue was examined in this study in the context of narcissism, aggression, and prosocial behavior in a sample of at-risk adolescents. Participants were 161 adolescents (128 males, 29 females, 4 not reported) ranging in age from 16 to 19 years who were attending a residential program for youth who have dropped out of school. Overall, socially desirable response tendencies were negatively correlated with vulnerable narcissism and self-reported aggression. Moreover, low socially desirable responses strengthened the relation between narcissism and self-reported aggression. Socially desirable responding was not associated with self- or peer-reported prosocial behavior and did not moderate the relation between narcissism and prosocial behavior. These findings indicate that the relation between narcissism and aggression is attenuated by concerns with social desirability. However, further work is needed in broader samples of adolescents to more closely examine whether social desirability concerns actually mitigate aggression among some youth or signify underreporting of one's problem behaviors.

  9. Research in the Social Psychology of Persuasion and Behavior Modification: Relevant to School Health Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard I.

    1973-01-01

    Brief description of a series of investigations designed to determine the relative effectiveness of various motivators in effecting oral hygiene behavior in a group of junior high school. Presented at the annual meeting of the American School Health Association, San Diego, California, 1972. (JC)

  10. Behavioral Relevance of Species-Specific Vasotocin Anatomy in Gregarious Finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial species differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin (VT/VP circuitry of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm and lateral septum (LS; a primary projection target of BSTm VT/VP cells, functional consequences of this variation are poorly known. Previous experiments in the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata demonstrate that BSTm VT neurons promote gregariousness in a male-specific manner and reduce anxiety in both sexes. However, in contrast to the zebra finch, the less gregarious Angolan blue waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus angolensis exhibits fewer VT-immunoreactive cells in the BSTm as well as differences in receptor distribution across the LS subnuclei, suggesting that knockdown of VT production in the BSTm would produce behavioral effects in Angolan blue waxbills that are distinct from zebra finches. Thus, we here quantified social contact, gregariousness (i.e. preference for the larger of two groups, and anxiety-like behavior following bilateral antisense knockdown of VT production in the BSTm of male and female Angolan blue waxbills. We find that BSTm VT neurons promote social contact, but not gregariousness (as in male zebra finches, and that antisense effects on social contact are significantly stronger in male waxbills than in females. Knockdown of BSTm VT production has no effect on anxiety-like behavior. These data provide novel evidence that species differences in the VT/VP circuitry arising in the BSTm are accompanied by species-specific effects on affiliation behaviors.

  11. Brief Report: Assessing Attitudes toward Culturally and Contextually Relevant Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Gage, Nicholas A.; Sugai, George

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased interest and implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems in schools in the United States, practitioners and researchers have become interested in how to improve implementation with students and staff from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Fallon, O'Keeffe, and Sugai (2012) reviewed the literature…

  12. The theoretical basis for practice-relevant medication use research: patient-centered/behavioral theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need for research to improve the quality of medication use among those who require pharmacotherapy. To describe how behavioral science theories can help to achieve this goal. We begin by describing what a theory is and the functions that theories serve. We then provide 8 guiding principles that are crucial for investigators to understand if they are to use theory appropriately. We conclude by discussing the need for a new model of patient medication self-management that incorporates information concerning factors operating at all levels of the ecological framework, ranging from patient-level to societal-level factors. The 8 guiding principles discussed are the following: (1) There is no single theory that is appropriate for guiding all medication use research; (2) Behavioral science theories are probabilistic, not deterministic; (3) When trying to influence a health behavior, the health behavior of interest must be defined precisely; (4) Many factors outside of patient control influence patient medication use; (5) Every patient is unique; (6) Patient motivation is a fundamental ingredient required to optimize medication use, especially when maintenance of long term behavior is the goal; (7) Health care providers can have a profound effect on patient medication use, and this effect can operate through several possible causal pathways; and (8) When planning an intervention to optimize medication use, it is important to develop a conceptual model that links intervention inputs to the ultimate outcomes that are desired. Medication use can be influenced by a wide variety of factors acting at different levels of the ecological model. The quality of research on medication use could be improved by development of an ecological model specific to medication self-management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Behavior Management and Behavioral Change: How Can We Tell Them Apart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the differences between behavior management and behavior change helps adults identify the differences between the two and teaches them what they can do to be effective in the use of both. This article introduces Positive Behavior Facilitation (PBF) Tool #3 which aims to support adults in understanding the differences between behavior…

  14. Active assistance technology for health-related behavior change: an interdisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-06-14

    Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in dialog systems for behavior change, with

  15. Dissonance and importance: attitude change effects of personal relevance and race of the beneficiary of a counterattitudinal advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, Donna; Leippe, Michael R

    2005-08-01

    The authors asked or instructed White college students to write an essay advocating a large tuition hike to increase scholarships for either students in general or Black students (yielding low or high racial symbolism, respectively) that would take effect in the near or far future (yielding high or low personal relevance, respectively). Especially when high-choice participants wrote highly compliant (i.e., unqualified) essays, attitude change was greater when the advocacy had either high (vs. low) personal relevance or high (vs. low) racial symbolism. Yet there was no attitude change when both symbolism and relevance were high. They may increase dissonance by making the dissonant elements more important and numerous. The coupling of relevance and symbolism, however, may link the attitude so strongly to personal values and self-concept that attitude change becomes untenable as a mode of dissonance reduction.

  16. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.

  17. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

  18. Exercise and older adults: changing behavior with the transtheoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Patricia M; Reibe, Deborah; Padula, Cynthia A; Nigg, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    The loss of muscle strength, decreased flexibility and range of motion, and decreased sense of balance that frequently accompany aging contribute to falls and functional decline. Even in advanced old age, one can improve strength, decrease the risk of falls, improve cardiorespiratory fitness, and improve ability to live independently. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change is an internationally recognized model that holds much promise for health behavior changes of all types. This article outlines the effects of exercise on age-related changes in the musculoskeletal system and describes the TTM as a model useful to help older adults change their exercise behavior. Research studies are documented that support the effectiveness of the TTM in changing behavior. Application of the model is described with specific examples illustrated in two case studies.

  19. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition (e.g., Evans et al. 2012; Nittler et al. 201 l; Peplowski et al. 2012; Weider et al. 2012). The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER on the planet's surface suggests a low oxygen fugacity of the present planetary materials. Estimates of the oxygen fugacity for Mercurian magmas are approximately 3- 7 log units below the Iron-Wiistite (Fe-FeO) oxygen buffer (McCubbin et al. 2012; Zolotov et al. 2013), several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from such as the Earth, Moon, or Mars (Herd 2008; Sharp, McCubbin, and Shearer 2013; Wadhwa 2008). Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions are available in our collections (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites). The goal of this study is to conduct experiments at high pressure and temperature conditions to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements as a function of decreasing oxygen fugacity.

  20. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  1. The marine nitrogen cycle: recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Maren; Bange, Hermann W; Dippner, Joachim W; Middelburg, Jack J; Montoya, Joseph P; Ward, Bess

    2013-07-05

    The ocean's nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation, assimilation, nitrification, anammox and denitrification. Dinitrogen is the most abundant form of nitrogen in sea water but only accessible by nitrogen-fixing microbes. Denitrification and nitrification are both regulated by oxygen concentrations and potentially produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a climate-relevant atmospheric trace gas. The world's oceans, including the coastal areas and upwelling areas, contribute about 30 per cent to the atmospheric N2O budget and are, therefore, a major source of this gas to the atmosphere. Human activities now add more nitrogen to the environment than is naturally fixed. More than half of the nitrogen reaches the coastal ocean via river input and atmospheric deposition, of which the latter affects even remote oceanic regions. A nitrogen budget for the coastal and open ocean, where inputs and outputs match rather well, is presented. Furthermore, predicted climate change will impact the expansion of the oceans' oxygen minimum zones, the productivity of surface waters and presumably other microbial processes, with unpredictable consequences for the cycling of nitrogen. Nitrogen cycling is closely intertwined with that of carbon, phosphorous and other biologically important elements via biological stoichiometric requirements. This linkage implies that human alterations of nitrogen cycling are likely to have major consequences for other biogeochemical processes and ecosystem functions and services.

  2. Changes in responsiveness to kit odours across pregnancy: relevance for the onset of maternal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Chirino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Virgin does are indifferent to foster kits but lesions to the main or accessory olfactory systems allow them to behave “maternally” (i.e., they crouch over the litter and allow suckling. This suggests that kit-derived olfactory cues are aversive to virgins but not to lactating does. We hypothesised that the valence of such olfactory cues changes throughout gestation so that, at parturition, does are attracted to the newborn and can then show placentophagia, clean the kits and nurse them. To explore this hypothesis we exposed does to 2 nest boxes containing a variety of pup-derived vs. “neutral” odours, quantifying the number of sniffs and entrances to each box over 60 min. Virgins, confronted with 2 different types of contrasts, showed no significant differences in the number of sniffs or entrances directed at any of the 2 boxes. Pregnant rabbits sniffed the “kit-odour” box significantly more than the “neutral” one as early as gestation day 7, depending on the animals’ experience with the experimental setup and kit odours as virgins. The number of sniffs declined in late pregnancy in all groups. Entrances into the “kit-odour” box were few and significantly higher than those shown towards the “neutral” box only in 1 group. Our findings agree with a correlation between a shift in the valence of kit-derived olfactory cues and the hormonal changes known to occur throughout pregnancy. The relevance of this phenomenon for the onset of maternal responsiveness at parturition is discussed.

  3. On the relevance of modeling viscoelastic bending behavior in finite element forming simulation of continuously fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Dominik; Schirmaier, Fabian J.; Henning, Frank; Kärger, Luise

    2017-10-01

    Finite Element (FE) forming simulation offers the possibility of a detailed analysis of the deformation behavior of multilayered thermoplastic blanks during forming, considering material behavior and process conditions. Rate-dependent bending behavior is a material characteristic, which is so far not considered in FE forming simulation of pre-impregnated, continuously fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs). Therefore, an approach for modeling viscoelastic bending behavior in FE composite forming simulation is presented in this work. The presented approach accounts for the distinct rate-dependent bending behavior of e.g. thermoplastic CFRPs at process conditions. The approach is based on a Voigt-Kelvin (VK) and a generalized Maxwell (GM) approach, implemented within a FE forming simulation framework implemented in several user-subroutines of the commercially available FE solver Abaqus. The VK, GM, as well as purely elastic bending modeling approaches are parameterized according to dynamic bending characterization results for a PA6-CF UD-tape. It is found that only the GM approach is capable to represent the bending deformation characteristic for all of the considered bending deformation rates. The parameterized bending modeling approaches are applied to a hemisphere test and to a generic geometry. A comparison of the forming simulation results of the generic geometry to experimental tests show a good agreement between simulation and experiments. Furthermore, the simulation results reveal that especially a correct modeling of the initial bending stiffness is relevant for the prediction of wrinkling behavior, as a similar onset of wrinkles is observed for the GM, the VK and an elastic approach, fitted to the stiffness observed in the dynamic rheometer test for low curvatures. Hence, characterization and modeling of rate-dependent bending behavior is crucial for FE forming simulation of thermoplastic CFRPs.

  4. Identifying indicators of behavior change: insights from wildfire education programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha C. Monroe; Shruti Agrawal; Pamela J. Jakes; Linda E. Kruger; Kristen C. Nelson; Victoria. Sturtevant

    2013-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged to document behavior changes, because change rarely depends solely on outcomes of education programs, but on many factors. An analysis of 15 communities in the United States that have increased their preparedness for wildfire allowed us to explore how education programs encouraged individual and community change. Agency-sponsored...

  5. Role of ghrelin in drug abuse and reward-relevant behaviors: a burgeoning field and gaps in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitsky, A R; Klein, L C

    2013-09-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain hormone that regulates energy balance through food consumption. While ghrelin is well known for its role in hypothalamic activation and homeostatic feeding, more recent evidence suggests that ghrelin also is involved in hedonic feeding through the dopaminergic reward pathway. This paper investigated how ghrelin administration (intraperitoneal, intracerebroventricular, or directly into dopaminergic reward-relevant brain regions) activates the dopaminergic reward pathway and associated reward-relevant behavioral responses in rodents. A total of 19 empirical publications that examined one or more of these variables were included in this review. Overall, ghrelin administration increases dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, as well as reward-relevant behaviors such as food (both standard chow and palatable foods) and alcohol consumption. Ghrelin administration also increases operant responding for sucrose, and conditioned place preference. Following a review of the small body of literature examining the effects of ghrelin administration on the dopamine reward pathway, we present a model of the relationship between ghrelin and dopaminergic reward activation. Specifically, ghrelin acts on ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) to stimulate the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, which results in increased rewarding behaviors in rodents. Results from this review suggest that selective antagonism of the ghrelin system may serve as potential treatment for addictive drug use. This review highlights gaps in the literature, including a lack of examination of sex- or age-related differences in the effects of ghrelin on dopamine reward processes. In light of vulnerability to drug abuse among female and adolescent populations, future studies should target these individual difference factors.

  6. Mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles at blanket relevant temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurinskiy, Petr, E-mail: petr.kurinskiy@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials—Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rolli, Rolf [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials—Materials Biomechanics (IAM-WBM), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nakamichi, Masaru [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Fusion Institute, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Oaza-Obuchi-Aza-Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aoori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of two kinds of Be–Ti pebbles in the temperature range of 400–800 °C was investigated. • It was experimentally shown that Be-7 at.%Ti pebbles have the enhanced ductile properties compared to Be-7.7 at.%Ti pebbles. • Brittle failure of both kinds of Be–Ti pebbles was observed by testing at 400 °C using the constant loading with 150 N. - Abstract: Mechanical performance of beryllium-based materials is a matter of a great interest from the point of view of their use as neutron multipliers of the tritium breeding blankets. The compression strains which can occur in beryllium pebble beds under blanket working conditions will lead to deformation or even failure of individual pebbles [1,2] (Reimann et al. 2002; Ishitsuka and Kawamura, 1995). Mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles having chemical contents of Be-7.0 at.% Ti and Be-7.7 at.%Ti was investigated in the temperature range of 400–800 °C. Constant loads varying from 10 up to 150 N were applied uniaxially. It was shown that Be–Ti pebbles compared to pure beryllium pebbles possess much lower ductility, although their strength properties exceed corresponding characteristics of pure beryllium. Also, the influence of titanium content on mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles was investigated. Specific features of deformation of pure beryllium and Be–Ti pebbles having different titanium contents at blanket operation temperatures are discussed.

  7. Social relevance drives viewing behavior independent of low-level salience in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrew Solyst

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying attention to social stimuli during the viewing of complex social scenes with eye tracking has proven to be a sensitive method in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders years before average clinical diagnosis. Rhesus macaques provide an ideal model for understanding the mechanisms underlying social viewing behavior, but to date no comparable behavioral task has been developed for use in monkeys. Using a novel scene-viewing task, we monitored the gaze of three rhesus macaques while they freely viewed well-controlled composed social scenes and analyzed the time spent viewing objects and monkeys. In each of six behavioral sessions, monkeys viewed a set of 90 images (540 unique scenes with each image presented twice. In two-thirds of the repeated scenes, either a monkey or an object was replaced with a novel item (manipulated scenes. When viewing a repeated scene, monkeys made longer fixations and shorter saccades, shifting from a rapid orienting to global scene contents to a more local analysis of fewer items. In addition to this repetition effect, in manipulated scenes, monkeys demonstrated robust memory by spending more time viewing the replaced items. By analyzing attention to specific scene content, we found that monkeys strongly preferred to view conspecifics and that this was not related to their salience in terms of low-level image features. A model-free analysis of viewing statistics found that monkeys that were viewed earlier and longer had direct gaze and redder sex skin around their face and rump, two important visual social cues. These data provide a quantification of viewing strategy, memory and social preferences in rhesus macaques viewing complex social scenes, and they provide an important baseline with which to compare to the effects of therapeutics aimed at enhancing social cognition.

  8. Can Big Pharma Behavior Change to Benefit Patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Saul; Chu, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Professors Rosenberg and Chu will discuss how the behavior of large pharmaceutical companies can sometimes compromise the needs of patients. The behavior includes strategies for lobbying Congress, exploiting patent law, targeting large consumer markets, creating demand from patients, and influencing physicians. In some cases, this behavior has created ethical and legal problems. The talk will conclude with a discussion of possible ways to encourage changes that will benefit patients.

  9. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of REM sleep behavior disorder in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduard

    2009-12-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by vigorous movements associated with unpleasant dreams and increased electromyographic activity during REM sleep. Polysomnography with audiovisual recording is needed to confirm the diagnosis of RBD and to exclude other sleep disorders that can mimic its symptoms including obstructive sleep apnea, nocturnal hallucinations and confusional awakenings. RBD may be idiopathic or related to neurodegenerative diseases, particularly multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. RBD may be the first manifestation of these disorders, antedating the onset of parkinsonism, cerebellar syndrome, dysautonomia, and dementia by several years. RBD should thus be considered an integral part of the disease process. When effective, neuroprotective strategies should be considered in subjects with idiopathic RBD. Patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, though, such as spinocerebellar ataxias, may also present with RBD. When clinically required, clonazepam at bedtime is effective in decreasing the intensity of dream-enacting behaviors and unpleasant dreams in both the idiopathic and secondary forms. When part of a neurodegenerative disorder the development of RBD is thought to reflect the location and extent of the underlying lesions involving the REM sleep centers of the brain (e.g., locus subceruleus, amygdala, etc.), leading to a complex multiple neurotransmitter dysfunction that involves GABAergic, glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems. RBD is mediated neither by direct abnormal alpha-synuclein inclusions nor by striatonigral dopaminergic deficiency alone.

  10. Co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and behavioral addictions: relevance of impulsivity and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Marco; Tedeschi, Daniela; De Risio, Luisa; Pettorruso, Mauro; Martinotti, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Filippo; Swierkosz-Lenart, Kevin; Guglielmo, Riccardo; Callea, Antonino; Ruggeri, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Gino; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the occurrence of behavioral addictions (BAs) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) subjects and to investigate the role of impulsivity, personality dimensions and craving. 95 AUD outpatients (DSM-5) and 140 homogeneous controls were assessed with diagnostic criteria and specific tests for gambling disorder, compulsive buying, sexual, internet and physical exercise addictions, as well as with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and Temperamental and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) and Visual Analogue Scale for craving (VASc) were also administered to the AUD sample. 28.4% (n=27) of AUD subjects had at least one BA, as compared to 15% (n=21) of controls (χ(2)=6.27; p=.014). In AUD subjects, direct correlations between BIS-11 and Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), Internet Addiction Disorder test (IAD), Exercise Addiction Inventory-Short Form (EAI-SF) scores (pimpulsivity traits (BIS-11 scores; OR=1.08; p=.012) and higher craving levels (VASc scores; OR=2.48; pimpulsivity and craving for alcohol seem to be associated with other addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgery-induced behavioral changes in aged rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Iris B.; Schoemaker, Regien G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Heineman, Erik; Nyakas, Csaba; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Humpel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Elderly patients may experience impairments in cognition or mood following surgery. To study the development and underlying mechanisms of these postoperative behavioral changes, young (3 months) and aged (18-20 months) male rats were subjected to abdominal surgery followed by behavioral testing

  12. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webinar series on communications strategies and methods addresses how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  13. The forces of change: defining the relevance of soil to the ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kainji Lake National Park covers a total area of 5.340.82sq.km and is composed of two non-contiguous sectors, the Borgu and Zagurma sectors. The study analysed the relevance of soil to the ecosystem of the Park. Eight (8) villages around the Zugurma sector were chosen based on their location and relevance to the Park ...

  14. Age-Relevance of Person Characteristics: Persons' Beliefs about Developmental Change across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Daniel; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Studer, Joseph; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated normative beliefs about personality development. Young, middle-aged, and older adults indicated the age-relevance of 835 French adjectives by specifying person characteristics as typical for any age decade from 0 to 99 years. With this paradigm, the authors determined age-relevance (How typical is a characteristic for a…

  15. Investors Behavior under Changing Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Daviou, Agustin; Paraschiv, Florentina

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reaction of the S&P 500 returns to changes in implied volatility given by the VIX index, using a daily data sample from 1990 to 2012. We found that in normal regimes increases (declines) in the expected market volatility result in lower (higher) subsequent stock market returns. Thus, investors enter into selling positions upon a perception of increased risk for their equity investments, while they enter into long positions when they perceive an improved environment for...

  16. Self-esteem and "at risk" women:determinants and relevance to sexual and HIV-related risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we describe the relationship between self-esteem and HIV-related risk behaviors, and explore what factors predict self-esteem levels of "at risk" women. Interviews were conducted with 250 (predominantly African American) women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area between August 1997 and August 2000. A community identification process was used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted and theoretical sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Self-esteem was related to the number of times having oral sex, the number of times having sex with paying partners, the frequency of sexual risk-taking (all during the 90 days prior to interview), the number of different HIV risk behaviors practiced during the previous year, and condom use attitudes and self-efficacy. Greater involvement HIV risk behaviors was associated with lower self-esteem. Multivariate analyses revealed five significant predictors of women's self-esteem levels: race, religiosity, childhood experiences with emotional neglect, the number of money-related problems experienced, and the number of drug-related problems experienced. The findings indicate that self-esteem is highly relevant to "at risk" women's HIV risk behavior practices, and this has important implications for HIV intervention programs.

  17. Health behavior change in hearing healthcare: a discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya K. C. Manchaiah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Health behavior change (HBC refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL. In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  18. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: background and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.

  19. Applied behavior analysis: understanding and changing behavior in the community-a representative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis, a psychological discipline, has been characterized as the science of behavior change (Chance, 2006). Research in applied behavior analysis has been published for approximately 40 years since the initial publication of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in 1968. The field now encompasses a wide range of human behavior. Although much of the published research centers on problem behaviors that occur in schools and among people with disabilities, a substantial body of knowledge has emerged in community settings. This article provides a review of the behavioral community research published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis as representative of this work, including research in the areas of home and family, health, safety, community involvement and the environment, recreation and sports, crime and delinquency, and organizations. In the interest of space, research in schools and with people with disabilities has been excluded from this review.

  20. IDEIA and the Means to Change Behavior Should Be Enough: Growing Support for Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Christopher; Axelrod, Saul

    2008-01-01

    With the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, classrooms are now mandated to employ behavioral methods to address target behaviors. These relevant behavioral strategies have long been advanced and disseminated by the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Notwithstanding this capability, proponents of the…

  1. Epilepsy-induced behavioral changes during the ictal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy, experiential phenomena and behavioral manifestations may pose a number of problems in terms of differential diagnosis. From a clinical point of view, ictal psychiatric symptoms represent partial seizures, mainly partial ones. In the majority of cases, they are very brief (lasting from a few seconds to a few minutes), stereotyped, out of context, and frequently associated with subtle or overt automatisms and postictal confusion of variable duration. In some cases, such symptoms are followed by alteration of consciousness as the ictus evolves to a complex partial seizure or a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. This paper reviews clinically relevant behavioral patterns during seizures discussing clinical phenomenology and relevance in terms of lateralizing value. © 2013.

  2. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Sigirci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences – such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster – change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01. In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00. Trauma, such as combat, may change one’s decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  3. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences - such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster - change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one's decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  4. Social marketing: a behavior change technology for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Manuel W; Deshpande, Sameer; Rothschild, Michael L

    2006-09-01

    Changing health care worker behaviors is a core function of infection control programs. The social change technologies of education and institutional policy are limited in their capacity to achieve desired behaviors on a sustained basis because they do not address the importance of opportunity and ability in practice enhancement. Social marketing addresses the health care worker's lack of opportunity and ability by offering a bundle of benefits at low cost with high accessibility and by doing this better than the behavioral status quo. This article introduces some social marketing concepts and explicates them in the context of hand hygiene promotion.

  5. Mechanisms of Behavior Change Within Peer-Implemented Alcohol Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Erica M; Magill, Molly; Capone, Christy; Cramer, Margaret A; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Reavy, Racheal; Borsari, Brian

    2018-03-01

    Colleges continue to experience a high number of referred students because of campus alcohol violations. Subsequently, there has been a trend to use peer-implemented minimal interventions (PMIs), often using motivational interviewing (MI). However, little is known about how PMIs facilitate behavior change. This study aims to examine the mechanisms of behavior change within PMIs and their influence on alcohol reduction among mandated students. Participants (N = 146; mean age = 18.7 years; 67% male; 94% White) were college students who violated campus alcohol policy at a Northeastern liberal arts college who received a 15-minute PMI addressing their alcohol use. The Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (Miller et al., 2003) was used to identify peer counselor behaviors that were MI consistent (MICO), client change talk (CT), and client self-exploration. MICO behaviors were positively associated with CT and self-exploration. Client CT and self-exploration were negatively associated with alcohol-related outcomes. Furthermore, mediational models examining MICO behaviors revealed effects for two paths: (a) from MICO to client CT to reduced alcohol use; and (b) from MICO to client self-exploration to reduced alcohol-related consequences and use. These data support the primary causal chain examining the influence of MICO on in-session client behaviors and related post-session behavior change in PMIs among at-risk students.

  6. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  7. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  8. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    Abstract The primary objective of this paper is to analyse some initiatives used to promote entrepreneurship during the last 30 years of Danish Industrial Policy. A statistical description is given of the development that the Danish society has undergone, from an agricultural society through...... the industrial stage to a service or knowledge society. Parallel with this historical development, several initiatives to promote entrepreneurship have been implemented as part of Danish industrial policy. These initiatives are analysed with respect to objectives and means and ordered according to Sheth...... and thus a target for planned social change. However, the model introduced by Sheth and Frazier has never been used to analyse how this socially desirable action can be promoted. Undertaking such an analysis is the ambition of this paper, and based on this analysis, the paper will, will conclude...

  9. Relationships Between Individual Endorsement of Aggressive Behaviors and Thoughts With Prejudice Relevant Correlates Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages. PMID:28344674

  10. Some Current Dimensions of the Behavioral Economics of Health-Related Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K.; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed. PMID:27283095

  11. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-03-10

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV(-/-)) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV(+/-)) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV(-/-) and PV(+/-) mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a

  13. HIV and sexual behavior change: why not Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Despite high rates of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the corresponding high mortality risk associated with risky sexual behavior, behavioral response has been limited. This paper explores three explanations for this: bias in OLS estimates, limited non-HIV life expectancy and limited knowledge. I find support for the first two. First, using a new instrumental variable strategy I find that OLS estimates of the relationship between risky sex and HIV are biased upwards, and IV estimates indicate reductions in risky behavior in response to the epidemic. Second, I find these reductions are larger for individuals who live in areas with higher life expectancy, suggesting high rates of non-HIV mortality suppress behavioral response; this is consistent with optimizing behavior. Using somewhat limited knowledge proxies, I find no evidence that areas with higher knowledge of the epidemic have greater behavior change. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling of spatio-temporal precipitation relevant for urban hydrology with focus on scales, extremes and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen

    Time series of precipitation are necessary for assessment of urban hydrological systems. In a changed climate this is challenging as climate model output is not directly comparable to observations at the scales relevant for urban hydrology. The focus of this PhD thesis is downscaling...... of precipitation to spatio-temporal scales used in urban hydrology. It investigates several observational data products and identifies relevant scales where climate change and precipitation can be assessed for urban use. Precipitation is modelled at different scales using different stochastic techniques. A weather...... generator is used to produce an artificial spatio-temporal precipitation product that can be used both directly in large scale urban hydrological modelling and for derivation of extreme precipitation statistics relevant for urban hydrology. It is discussed why precipitation time series from a changed...

  15. Relevance of neuroimaging for neurocognitive and behavioral outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Marsh; Pouwels, Petra Jw; Ernest van Heurn, L W; Bakx, Roel; Jeroen Vermeulen, R; Carel Goslings, J; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; van der Wees, Marleen; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to (1) investigate the neuropathology of mild to severe pediatric TBI and (2) elucidate the predictive value of conventional and innovative neuroimaging for functional outcome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild RF+ , n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 17) at 2.8 years post-injury. Neuroimaging measures included: acute computed tomography (CT), volumetric analysis on post-acute conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and post-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-wise regression). Functional outcome was measured using Common Data Elements for neurocognitive and behavioral functioning. The results show that intracranial pathology on acute CT-scans was more prevalent after moderate/severe TBI (65%) than after mild RF+ TBI (35%; p = .035), while both groups had decreased white matter volume on conventional MRI (ps ≤ .029, ds ≥ -0.74). The moderate/severe TBI group further showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in a widespread cluster affecting all white matter tracts, in which regional associations with neurocognitive functioning were observed (FSIQ, Digit Span and RAVLT Encoding) that consistently involved the corpus callosum. FA had superior predictive value for functional outcome (i.e. intelligence, attention and working memory, encoding in verbal memory and internalizing problems) relative to acute CT-scanning (i.e. internalizing problems) and conventional MRI (no predictive value). We conclude that children with mild RF+ TBI and moderate/severe TBI are at risk of persistent white matter abnormality. Furthermore, DTI has superior predictive value for neurocognitive out-come relative to conventional neuroimaging.

  16. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zheng

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS, a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300 as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1 domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1 have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations.

  17. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-11-25

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  18. A chaotic view of behavior change: a quantum leap for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of health behavior change, including nutrition and physical activity behaviors, has been rooted in a cognitive-rational paradigm. Change is conceptualized as a linear, deterministic process where individuals weigh pros and cons, and at the point at which the benefits outweigh the cost change occurs. Consistent with this paradigm, the associated statistical models have almost exclusively assumed a linear relationship between psychosocial predictors and behavior. Such a perspective however, fails to account for non-linear, quantum influences on human thought and action. Consider why after years of false starts and failed attempts, a person succeeds at increasing their physical activity, eating healthier or losing weight. Or, why after years of success a person relapses. This paper discusses a competing view of health behavior change that was presented at the 2006 annual ISBNPA meeting in Boston. Discussion Rather than viewing behavior change from a linear perspective it can be viewed as a quantum event that can be understood through the lens of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems. Key principles of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems relevant to understanding health behavior change include: 1 Chaotic systems can be mathematically modeled but are nearly impossible to predict; 2 Chaotic systems are sensitive to initial conditions; 3 Complex Systems involve multiple component parts that interact in a nonlinear fashion; and 4 The results of Complex Systems are often greater than the sum of their parts. Accordingly, small changes in knowledge, attitude, efficacy, etc may dramatically alter motivation and behavioral outcomes. And the interaction of such variables can yield almost infinite potential patterns of motivation and behavior change. In the linear paradigm unaccounted for variance is generally relegated to the catch all "error" term, when in fact such "error" may represent the chaotic component of the

  19. A chaotic view of behavior change: a quantum leap for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, Ken; Vaughan, Roger

    2006-09-12

    The study of health behavior change, including nutrition and physical activity behaviors, has been rooted in a cognitive-rational paradigm. Change is conceptualized as a linear, deterministic process where individuals weigh pros and cons, and at the point at which the benefits outweigh the cost change occurs. Consistent with this paradigm, the associated statistical models have almost exclusively assumed a linear relationship between psychosocial predictors and behavior. Such a perspective however, fails to account for non-linear, quantum influences on human thought and action. Consider why after years of false starts and failed attempts, a person succeeds at increasing their physical activity, eating healthier or losing weight. Or, why after years of success a person relapses. This paper discusses a competing view of health behavior change that was presented at the 2006 annual ISBNPA meeting in Boston. Rather than viewing behavior change from a linear perspective it can be viewed as a quantum event that can be understood through the lens of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems. Key principles of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems relevant to understanding health behavior change include: 1) Chaotic systems can be mathematically modeled but are nearly impossible to predict; 2) Chaotic systems are sensitive to initial conditions; 3) Complex Systems involve multiple component parts that interact in a nonlinear fashion; and 4) The results of Complex Systems are often greater than the sum of their parts. Accordingly, small changes in knowledge, attitude, efficacy, etc may dramatically alter motivation and behavioral outcomes. And the interaction of such variables can yield almost infinite potential patterns of motivation and behavior change. In the linear paradigm unaccounted for variance is generally relegated to the catch all "error" term, when in fact such "error" may represent the chaotic component of the process. The linear and chaotic paradigms are

  20. Issue Paper on Physiological and Behavioral Changes in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper provides a summary of information from the published literature related to behavioral and physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation that may affect women’s exposure or susceptibility to environmental contaminants, provides potentially useful exposure factor data for this population of women, and highlights data gaps. Background Exposures to environmental contaminants can pose a risk to pregnant women’s health, the developing fetus, children, and adults later in their lives. Assessing risks to this potentially susceptible population requires an understanding of the physiological and behavioral changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation. Many physiological and anatomical changes occur in a woman’s organ systems during the course of pregnancy and lactation. For example, blood volume and cardiac output increase during pregnancy, and other metabolic functions are altered to provide for the demands of the fetus. Nutritional demands are greater during pregnancy and lactation. There also are changes in behavior during both pregnancy and lactation. For example, water consumption during pregnancy and lactation increases. These behavioral and physiological changes can lead to different environmental exposures than these women might otherwise experience in the absence of pregnancy or lactation. The purpose of the issue paper is to provide a summary of data available on physiological and behavioral changes in pregnant a

  1. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  2. Identifying Indicators of Behavior Change: Insights from Wildfire Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Agrawal, Shruti; Jakes, Pamela J.; Kruger, Linda E.; Nelson, Kristen C.; Sturtevant, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged to document behavior changes, because change rarely depends solely on outcomes of education programs, but on many factors. An analysis of 15 communities in the United States that have increased their preparedness for wildfire allowed us to explore how education programs encouraged individual and community…

  3. Behavior Change Counseling Curricula for Medical Trainees: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Karen E.; Carney, Patricia A.; Chang, Anna; Satterfield, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Unhealthy behaviors contribute to half of U.S. deaths. However, physicians lack sufficient skill in counseling patients to change behaviors. Characterizing effective published curricular interventions for behavior-change counseling for medical trainees would inform educators toward improved training. Method The authors conducted a systematic literature search of studies published 1965–2011 evaluating curricula on behavior change counseling for medical trainees. Included studies described: (1) behavior change counseling, (2) teaching interventions for medical trainees, and (3) assessment of interventions. The authors extracted eligible articles, rated outcomes for learners and patients using Kirkpatrick’s hierarchy, and determined study quality. Results Of 2,788 identified citations, 109 met inclusion criteria. Most studies were performed in the United States (98), 93 at a single institution, and 81 in primary care settings. Curricular topics for counseling included smoking (67 studies), nutrition (30), alcohol/drug use (26), and exercise (22). Although most studies did not include theoretical frameworks, 39 used the Transtheoretical Model of Change. Sixty-two studies involved eight or fewer hours of curricular time, and 51 spanned four or fewer weeks. The studies with highest-level outcomes and quality employed multiple curricular techniques and included practice of counseling techniques in either simulated or actual clinical settings. Conclusions Existing literature suggests that trainees learn behavior change counseling through active, realistic practice and implementation of reminder and feedback systems within actual clinical practice settings. Multi-institutional medical education research on methods of teaching behavior-change counseling that influence patients’ health outcomes are needed to ensure trainees’ clinical competence and improve patient care. PMID:22622220

  4. Climate change helplessness and the (de)moralization of individual energy behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Erika; Preston, Jesse L; Tannenbaum, Melanie B

    2017-03-01

    Although most people understand the threat of climate change, they do little to modify their own energy conservation behavior. One reason for this gap between belief and behavior may be that individual actions seem unimpactful and therefore are not morally relevant. This research investigates how climate change helplessness-belief that one's actions cannot affect climate change-can undermine the moralization of climate change and personal energy conservation. In Study 1, climate change efficacy predicted both moralization of energy use and energy conservation intentions beyond individual belief in climate change. In Studies 2 and 3, participants read information about climate change that varied in efficacy message, that is, whether individual actions (e.g., using less water, turning down heat) make a difference in the environment. Participants who read that their behavior made no meaningful impact reported weaker moralization and intentions (Study 2), and reported more energy consumption 1 week later (Study 3). Moreover, effects on intentions and actions were mediated by changes in moralization. We discuss ways to improve climate change messages to foster environmental efficacy and moralization of personal energy use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Implementation of behavioral health interventions in real world scenarios: Managing complex change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Khaya D; Miller, Benjamin F; Green, Larry A; de Gruy, Frank V; Davis, Melinda; Cohen, Deborah J

    2017-03-01

    A practice embarks on a radical reformulation of how care is designed and delivered when it decides to integrate medical and behavioral health care for its patients and success depends on managing complex change in a complex system. We examined the ways change is managed when integrating behavioral health and medical care. Observational cross-case comparative study of 19 primary care and community mental health practices. We collected mixed methods data through practice surveys, observation, and semistructured interviews. We analyzed data using a data-driven, emergent approach. The change management strategies that leadership employed to manage the changes of integrating behavioral health and medical care included: (a) advocating for a mission and vision focused on integrated care; (b) fostering collaboration, with a focus on population care and a team-based approaches; (c) attending to learning, which includes viewing the change process as continuous, and creating a culture that promoted reflection and continual improvement; (d) using data to manage change, and (e) developing approaches to finance integration. This paper reports the change management strategies employed by practice leaders making changes to integrate care, as observed by independent investigators. We offer an empirically based set of actionable recommendations that are relevant to a range of leaders (policymakers, medical directors) and practice members who wish to effectively manage the complex changes associated with integrated primary care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  7. Transdiagnostic mechanisms of change and cognitive-behavioral treatments for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Matthew W

    2017-04-01

    This paper reviews the current status of transdiagnostic mechanisms of change targeted in cognitive-behavioral interventions, with a focus on mechanisms that are also relevant to emotional disorders that frequently co-occur with PTSD. First, an overview of the rationale for and key features of identifying mechanisms of change is presented, with a discussion of why it is crucial to examine mechanisms that are relevant across diagnostic boundaries. A review of the current evidence for five promising transdiagnostic mechanisms (hope, neuroticism, emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal, and anxiety sensitivity) is then provided. Finally, the implications of the increasing evidence of transdiagnostic mechanisms of change are discussed in relation to recently developed transdiagnostic treatment protocols that provide an alternative treatment approach for PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mice genetically depleted of brain serotonin display social impairments, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors: possible relevance to autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Kane

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/- showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.

  9. Teaching for Change: New Teachers' Experiences with and Visions for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Noah; Ziauddin, Asra; Ahn, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the voices of thirteen pre- and in-service teachers to showcase their perspectives of culturally relevant pedagogy as a teaching framework. Positionality, critical consciousness, and cultural assets are used as foundations to explore social justice pedagogy. These new teachers discuss the challenges they face in making the…

  10. Size estimates of action-relevant objects remain invariant in the face of systematic changes to postural stability and arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; Aertssen, A.M.; Ham, La.; Stins, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual estimates of action-relevant space have been reported to vary dependent on postural stability and concomitant changes in arousal. These findings contribute to current theories proposing that perception may be embodied. However, systematic manipulations to postural stability have not been

  11. Relevance of Retinal Thickness Changes in the OCT Inner and Outer Rings to Predict Progression to Clinical Macular Edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vujosevic, Stela; Varano, Monica; Egan, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize the relevance of macular thickness changes in the inner and outer rings in the progression of macular edema in eyes/patients with diabetes type 2. METHODS: A total of 374 type 2 diabetic patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (ETDRS levels 20-35) were......: A composite OCT grading of macular edema taking into account the retinal thickness changes in the inner and outer macular rings offers a simple way to characterize macular edema, with added clinical value....

  12. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Bönigk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  13. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849

  14. The marine nitrogen cycle: recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Maren; Bange, Hermann W.; Dippner, Joachim W.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Ward, Bess

    2013-01-01

    The ocean's nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation, assimilation, nitrification, anammox and denitrification. Dinitrogen is the most abundant form of nitrogen in sea water but only accessible by nitrogen-fixing microbes. Denitrification and nitrification are both regulated by oxygen concentrations and potentially produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a climate-relevant atmospheric trace gas. The world's oceans, including the coastal areas and upwelli...

  15. Self-guided Change: The most common form of long-term, maintained health behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, F Michler

    2018-01-01

    Millions of people change risky, health-related behaviors and maintain those changes. However, they often take years to change, and their unhealthy behaviors may harm themselves and others and constitute a significant cost to society. A review—similar in nature to a scoping review—was done of the literature related to long-term health behavior change in six areas: alcohol, cocaine and heroin misuse, gambling, smoking, and overeating. Based on the limited research available, reasons for change and strategies for changing and for maintaining change were also reviewed. Fifty years of research clearly indicate that as people age, in the case of alcohol, heroin and cocaine misuse, smoking, and gambling, 80–90 percent moderate or stop their unhealthy behaviors. The one exception is overeating; only 20 percent maintain their weight loss. Most of these changes, when they occur, appear to be the result of self-guided change. More ways to accelerate self-guided, health-related behavior change need to be developed and disseminated. PMID:29375888

  16. Self-guided Change: The most common form of long-term, maintained health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, F Michler

    2018-01-01

    Millions of people change risky, health-related behaviors and maintain those changes. However, they often take years to change, and their unhealthy behaviors may harm themselves and others and constitute a significant cost to society. A review-similar in nature to a scoping review-was done of the literature related to long-term health behavior change in six areas: alcohol, cocaine and heroin misuse, gambling, smoking, and overeating. Based on the limited research available, reasons for change and strategies for changing and for maintaining change were also reviewed. Fifty years of research clearly indicate that as people age, in the case of alcohol, heroin and cocaine misuse, smoking, and gambling, 80-90 percent moderate or stop their unhealthy behaviors. The one exception is overeating; only 20 percent maintain their weight loss. Most of these changes, when they occur, appear to be the result of self-guided change. More ways to accelerate self-guided, health-related behavior change need to be developed and disseminated.

  17. Common Genetic Risk for Melanoma Encourages Preventive Behavior Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Diseati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10−5, 4.67 × 10−5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.

  18. Modeling behavioral thermoregulation in a climate change sentinel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Mathewson, Paul D; Jones, Gavin M; Kearney, Michael R; Porter, Warren P

    2015-12-01

    When possible, many species will shift in elevation or latitude in response to rising temperatures. However, before such shifts occur, individuals will first tolerate environmental change and then modify their behavior to maintain heat balance. Behavioral thermoregulation allows animals a range of climatic tolerances and makes predicting geographic responses under future warming scenarios challenging. Because behavioral modification may reduce an individual's fecundity by, for example, limiting foraging time and thus caloric intake, we must consider the range of behavioral options available for thermoregulation to accurately predict climate change impacts on individual species. To date, few studies have identified mechanistic links between an organism's daily activities and the need to thermoregulate. We used a biophysical model, Niche Mapper, to mechanistically model microclimate conditions and thermoregulatory behavior for a temperature-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). Niche Mapper accurately simulated microclimate conditions, as well as empirical metabolic chamber data for a range of fur properties, animal sizes, and environmental parameters. Niche Mapper predicted pikas would be behaviorally constrained because of the need to thermoregulate during the hottest times of the day. We also showed that pikas at low elevations could receive energetic benefits by being smaller in size and maintaining summer pelage during longer stretches of the active season under a future warming scenario. We observed pika behavior for 288 h in Glacier National Park, Montana, and thermally characterized their rocky, montane environment. We found that pikas were most active when temperatures were cooler, and at sites characterized by high elevations and north-facing slopes. Pikas became significantly less active across a suite of behaviors in the field when temperatures surpassed 20°C, which supported a metabolic threshold predicted by Niche Mapper. In general

  19. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  20. Overweight youth: changing behaviors that are barriers to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Begnoche, Wendy; Speaker, Suzanne

    2006-11-01

    To motivate change, help parents to realize that overweight in their child is a health risk and not merely an aesthetic concern. Keep in mind that children can be motivated by different goals, such as increased athleticism, appearance, or social acceptance. Several short bursts of physical activity are usually more feasible than longer bouts, and may be more reinforcing for children and adolescents. Changing specific eating and activity behaviors is more realistic than setting a weight management goal.

  1. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partners and found that transitions from traditional to gender-similar sexual behavior in women sexual behavior and that increased risk for HPV infection attributable to transition is preventable by early vaccination. Our study highlights the importance of using time-limited opportunities to introduce HPV vaccination in traditional populations before changes in age-specific sexual patterns occur.

  2. Hemiballismus, Hyperphagia, and Behavioral Changes following Subthalamic Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Etemadifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of subthalamic nucleus (STN which is a part of the basal ganglia system is not clear, but it is hypothesized that this component might be involved in action selection. Unilateral damage to STN, which can commonly occur due to the small vessel stroke mainly, causes hemiballismus and sometimes hemichorea-hemiballismus. This paper deals with a 60-year-old patient with sudden onset of abnormal movements in his right limbs. He had increased appetite and hyperphagia and also developed mood and behavioral changes (aggressiveness, irritability, anxiety, and sometimes obscene speech. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarct area in left subthalamus. In our case, hemiballismus is caused by infarction in left subthalamic area. Occurrence of irritability, anxiety, and some behavioral changes such as aggressiveness and obscene speech can be explained by impairment of STN role in nonmotor behavior and cognitive function as a result of infarct.

  3. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  4. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    including homeless adolescents, people living with dementia, perpetrators of domestic violence, and soldiers grappling with substance use. Mr. Walton is a... people struggling with, but ambiva- lent about changing, high risk behavior, e.g., adults and teens with marijuana use disorders (Stephens, Roffman...directors from multi- ple departments, including Social Work; Chaplain Corps; Child, Youth & School Services; Army Community Ser- vices; Suicide

  5. Social gaming rules : Changing people's behavior through games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, N.J.H.; Visch, V.T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an approach towards designing social games or game elements for changing people’s social behavior for serious applications. We use the concept of the magic circle, which outlines the experience of a game world as different from the real world. We can design a connection

  6. Information acquisition and behavioral change: a social marketing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, L L; Johnson, K

    1991-01-01

    Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.

  7. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  8. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members.

  9. Anger Management Program Participants Gain Behavioral Changes in Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly

    2016-01-01

    RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…

  10. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  11. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  12. Help Preferences among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e.,…

  13. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man’s dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members. PMID:26247206

  14. Watershed Outreach Professionals' Behavior Change Practices, Challenges, and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Meghan; Little, Samuel; Phelps, Kaitlin; Roble, Carrie; Zint, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the practices, challenges, and needs of Chesapeake Bay watershed outreach professionals, as related to behavior change strategies and best outreach practices. Data were collected through a questionnaire e-mailed to applicants to the Chesapeake Bay Trust's environmental outreach grant program (n = 108, r = 56%). Almost all…

  15. The Feldenkrais Method: A Dynamic Approach to Changing Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education, noting parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior. Feldenkrais uses movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. DST explains that a human-environment system continually adapts to changing conditions and assembles behaviors…

  16. A Behavior Change Framework of Health Socialization and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christopher T.; Stanley, Lauren H. K.

    2017-01-01

    An individual's identity related to health is critically important in terms of the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors, and guides approaches to health change across the lifespan. This article presents a review of the literature and proposes a health socialization and health identity framework, which may be used to clarify challenges in…

  17. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  18. Neural substrates of contingency learning and executive control: dissociating physical, valuative, and behavioral changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge about environmental contingencies allows behavioral flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of experiential learning have focused on the relationship between actions and the values of associated outcomes. However, outcome values have often been confounded with the physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we dissociated contingency learning into valuative and non-valuative forms, using a novel version of the two-alternative choice task, while measuring the neural effects of contingency changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Changes in value-relevant contingencies evoked activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC, posterior parietal cortex (PPC, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC consistent with prior results (e.g., reversal-learning paradigms. Changes in physical contingencies unrelated to value or to action produced similar activations within the LPFC, indicating that LPFC may engage in generalized contingency learning that is not specific to valuation. In contrast, contingency changes that required behavioral shifts evoked activation localized to the DMPFC, supplementary motor, and precentral cortices, suggesting that these regions play more specific roles within the executive control of behavior.

  19. Physical activity and dietary behavior change in Internet-based weight loss interventions: comparing two multiple-behavior change indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Sallis, James F; Ramirez, Ernesto R; Patrick, Kevin; Norman, Gregory J

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two Internet-based weight loss interventions on physical activity (PA) and dietary behaviors using two approaches for computing combined behavior change. Participants were 352 overweight/obese women and men completing 12-month interventions in San Diego, California during 2002-2007. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time were measured with accelerometers, and dietary fat and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed with food frequency questionnaires. Longitudinal analyses tested the effect of the intervention on combined health behavior change quantified using a standardized residualized change index (SRCI) and a risk factor change index (RFCI). At baseline, participants engaged in an average of 153 min/week of MVPA and 525 min/day of sedentary time, and consumed 37% of calories from fat and behavior change as measured with each approach (pbehaviors appear effective. The SRCI was more sensitive for evaluating the intervention, but the RFCI may be easier to use for communicating public health significance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Making Education Relevant to Vital Social Change: The Higher Learning and Our National Destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, James E.

    It now seems clear that the decade of the seventies will be a new era of vital social change during which the US will be forced to come to grips with the issues of war, poverty, and racism. Today's student unrest already indicates that a new order is emerging. Moderates seek change through reform and militants seek it through revolution, but both…

  1. Aging Changes in Retinal Microglia and their Relevance to Age-related Retinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxin; Wong, Wai T

    2016-01-01

    Age-related retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma, contain features of chronic retinal inflammation that may promote disease progression. However, the relationship between aging and neuroinflammation is unclear. Microglia are long-lived, resident immune cells of the retina, and mediate local neuroinflammatory reactions. We hypothesize that aging changes in microglia may be causally linked to neuroinflammatory changes underlying age-dependent retinal diseases. Here, we review the evidence for (1) how the retinal microglial phenotype changes with aging, (2) the factors that drive microglial aging in the retina, and (3) aging-related changes in microglial gene expression. We examine how these aspects of microglial aging changes may relate to pathogenic mechanisms of immune dysregulation driving the progression of age-related retinal disease. These relationships can highlight microglial aging as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of retinal disease.

  2. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the “food addiction” construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that food cannot be “addictive”, unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. “Evolutionary mismatch” viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. PMID:25540603

  3. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Storytelling and Technology Combine to Create Student Engagement Around Locally Relevant Climate Change Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, E.; Littrell-Baez, M.; Tayne, K.; Gold, A. U.; Okochi, C.; Oonk, D.; Smith, L. K.; Lynds, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Storytelling is a powerful way for students to engage with science topics, particularly topics that may initially seem too broad to impact their lives, like climate change. Empowering students to telling a personal story about climate change's effects and helping them turn their story into a film is powerful approach. Especially because these films can be shared globally and gives students a voice around a complex topic like climate change. Here, we present impacts of the Lens on Climate Change program (LOCC), which engages middle and high school students in producing short films featuring how climate change impacts their communities. LOCC is offered as an intensive week-long summer program and as an extracurricular program during the school year. The majority of student participants are recruited from historically underserved communities and come from ethnical and socioeconomically diverse backgrounds. Survey data revealed that LOCC participants had a significant increase in their belief in the reality of climate change after participation in their program relative to students in a demographically-matched control groups. Furthermore, participant responses on reflection surveys given after the program included statements that suggest that students had begun thinking more deeply about climate change as a serious global challenge and felt empowered to take actions to mitigate climate change and/or spread awareness in their communities. The majority of students in the LOCC program also reported being very proud of their film and intended to share their film with their friends and family. Additionally, we explored the long-term impacts of participation by interviewing students a year after the program and offered them the opportunity to make a subsequent film. Students in this "advanced group" reported being more aware of climate change in their community following making their films and were enthusiastic to increase their filmmaking skills through producing additional

  5. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  6. Automated indexing of Internet stories for health behavior change: weight loss attitude pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuvinakurike, Ramesh; Velicer, Wayne F; Bickmore, Timothy W

    2014-12-09

    Automated health behavior change interventions show promise, but suffer from high attrition and disuse. The Internet abounds with thousands of personal narrative accounts of health behavior change that could not only provide useful information and motivation for others who are also trying to change, but an endless source of novel, entertaining stories that may keep participants more engaged than messages authored by interventionists. Given a collection of relevant personal health behavior change stories gathered from the Internet, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an automated indexing algorithm that could select the best possible story to provide to a user to have the greatest possible impact on their attitudes toward changing a targeted health behavior, in this case weight loss. An indexing algorithm was developed using features informed by theories from behavioral medicine together with text classification and machine learning techniques. The algorithm was trained using a crowdsourced dataset, then evaluated in a 2×2 between-subjects randomized pilot study. One factor compared the effects of participants reading 2 indexed stories vs 2 randomly selected stories, whereas the second factor compared the medium used to tell the stories: text or animated conversational agent. Outcome measures included changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance for weight loss before and after the stories were read. Participants were recruited from a crowdsourcing website (N=103; 53.4%, 55/103 female; mean age 35, SD 10.8 years; 65.0%, 67/103 precontemplation; 19.4%, 20/103 contemplation for weight loss). Participants who read indexed stories exhibited a significantly greater increase in self-efficacy for weight loss compared to the control group (F1,107=5.5, P=.02). There were no significant effects of indexing on change in decisional balance (F1,97=0.05, P=.83) and no significant effects of medium on change in self-efficacy (F1,107=0.04, P=.84) or decisional

  7. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior.

  8. Neuroscience-Inspired, Behavioral Change Program for University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudziak, James J; Tiemeier, Gesa L

    2017-04-01

    It is clear that environmental influences impact the structure and function of the human brain, and thus, thoughts, actions, and behaviors. These in turn influence whether an individual engages in high-risk (drugs, alcohol, violence) or health-promoting (exercise, meditation, music) activities. The developmental mismatch between cortical and subcortical maturation of the transitional age brain places college students at risk for negative outcomes. This article argues that the prescription of incentive-based behavioral change and brain-building activities simply make good scientific, programmatic, and financial sense for colleges and universities. The authors present University of Vermont Wellness Environment as an example. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 1999 in review: An assessment of new research developments relevant to the science of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-03-31

    A synthesis of about 350 key scientific papers and reports dealing with the subject of climate change which appeared in the international peer-reviewed literature in 1999 is provided. The literature synthesized here deals with changes in atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, climate modelling, climate trends, climate impacts and adaptations, and climate change policy initiatives, especially the policy-science debate and mitigative response. With respect to the former, there are a number of scientists who continue to argue that there are significant discrepancies between observed trends in climate and trends projected by climate models, and suggest that there is cause for scepticism about the risk of climate change. They also suggest that mitigative action could be delayed until better technologies are developed. Others claim that the countries that are most vulnerable lack the resources to deal with the impacts of climate change and that the number of environmental refugees will increase six-fold by 2050 (estimated at 25 million in 1998). The references are classified under the broad topics used in the synthesis part of the review, with further subdivisions as appropriate. 348 refs.

  10. [Health behaviour and changes in health behaviour - are education and social status relevant?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T; Philippi, M; Böcken, J

    2014-01-01

    Individual health behaviour counts as an important factor for health status. A healthier lifestyle substantially contributes to better health. People burdened with lower health and with lower socio-economic status could benefit notably. So far it is not known exhaustively to what extent education and social status contribute to changes in health behaviour and which motifs play a decisive role. Based on cross-sectional data from the seventh wave of the "Gesundheitsmonitor", Bertelsmann Foundation, (n=1 436), the influence of social status and education on health behaviour and changes in behaviour was analysed. Specific health behaviour correlates with level of education and socio-economic status. In contrast, regarding health behaviour changes in the last 12 months prior to survey, no social class- or education-specific effect was found. Age, health status as well as fears and wishes in relation to health seem to be important causalities for changes of health-related behaviour. Interventions to foster healthy lifestyles should include class differences in specific health-related behaviour and personal reasons for behavioural changes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. 1999 in review: An assessment of new research developments relevant to the science of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    A synthesis of about 350 key scientific papers and reports dealing with the subject of climate change which appeared in the international peer-reviewed literature in 1999 is provided. The literature synthesized here deals with changes in atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, climate modelling, climate trends, climate impacts and adaptations, and climate change policy initiatives, especially the policy-science debate and mitigative response. With respect to the former, there are a number of scientists who continue to argue that there are significant discrepancies between observed trends in climate and trends projected by climate models, and suggest that there is cause for scepticism about the risk of climate change. They also suggest that mitigative action could be delayed until better technologies are developed. Others claim that the countries that are most vulnerable lack the resources to deal with the impacts of climate change and that the number of environmental refugees will increase six-fold by 2050 (estimated at 25 million in 1998). The references are classified under the broad topics used in the synthesis part of the review, with further subdivisions as appropriate. 348 refs

  12. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA. No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%. The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

  13. Is gender relevant only for problem alcohol behaviors? An examination of correlates of alcohol use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Zaje A T; Karim, Nidal M

    2008-02-01

    This study examined correlates of alcohol use: substance-use coping, drinking to "feel high," and depressive symptoms as related to drinking behaviors in males and females. A sample of 266 female and 140 male college students from a private and public college were surveyed. Males reported more frequent alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, binge drinking, substance-use coping, and drinking to "feel high." There were no gender differences in self-reported depressive symptoms. Alcohol-use frequency and binge drinking were both accounted for by substance-use coping and drinking to "feel high" among males and females. However, alcohol-related problems were accounted for by males' frequency of alcohol use and drinking to "feel high," whereas females' problems were accounted for by frequency of alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Findings indicate that motivation for drinking is a more robust correlate of alcohol-related problems among males, while depressive symptomatology is a more relevant correlate of alcohol-related problems among females.

  14. Changing automatic behavior through self-monitoring: Does overt change also imply implicit change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Hietbrink, L.; Rinck, M.; Keijsers, G.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Self-monitoring of unwanted behavior is a common component of effective cognitive-behavioral therapy. Self-monitoring has often shown to lead to decreases in undesirable behavior. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of these ‘reactive effects’, we investigated whether

  15. The Crucible simulation: Behavioral simulation improves clinical leadership skills and understanding of complex health policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel; Vlaev, Ivo; McMahon, Laurie; Harvey, Sarah; Mitchell, Andy; Borovoi, Leah; Darzi, Ara

    2017-05-11

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service. A day-long behavioral simulation (The Crucible) was developed and run based on a fictitious but realistic health economy. Participants completed pre- and postsimulation questionnaires generating qualitative and quantitative data. Leadership skills, knowledge, and behavior change processes described by the "theory of planned behavior" were self-assessed pre- and postsimulation. Sixty-nine medical doctors attended. Participants deemed the simulation immersive and relevant. Significant improvements were shown in perceived knowledge, capability, attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and leadership competency following the program. Nearly one third of participants reported that they had implemented knowledge and skills from the simulation into practice within 4 weeks. This study systematically demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral simulation for clinical management training and understanding of health policy reform. Potential future uses and strategies for analysis are discussed. High-quality care requires understanding of health systems and strong leadership. Policymakers should consider the use of behavioral simulation to improve understanding of health service reform and development of leadership skills in clinicians, who readily adopt skills from simulation into everyday practice.

  16. Chapter 3: Climate change and the relevance of historical forest conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.D. Safford; M. North; M.D. Meyer

    2012-01-01

    Increasing human emissions of greenhouse gases are modifying the Earth's climate. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), "Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observation of increases in average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea...

  17. Evidence for climate change relevant to building design in the UK, 1976-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    This work led to the author writing a successful Partners in Innovation (PII) bid, with Prof G Levermore, to analyse building design weather statistics under future climates. This was published as CIBSE Technical Memorandum TM34, ‘Weather Data with Climate Change Scenarios (2004)’, Wright AJ & Parkinson JB, available to CIBSE members on the CIBSE website.

  18. The gap between behavioral risk status and willingness to change behavior among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasila, K; Hallman, M; Kautiainen, H; Vanhala, M; Kettunen, T

    2018-01-01

    This study explored behavioral health risk factors among healthcare professionals and investigated the at-risk persons' satisfaction with their health habits and ongoing change attempts. The study was based on a cross-sectional web-based survey directed at the nurses and physicians ( N = 1233) in Finnish healthcare. Obesity, low physical activity, smoking, and risky alcohol drinking were used as behavioral health risk factors. In all, 70% of the participants had at least one behavioral risk factor, and a significant number of at-risk persons were satisfied with their health habits and had no ongoing change process. Good self-rated health and good self-rated work ability were significantly associated with whether a participant had a behavioral health risk factor. Overall, unhealthy behaviors and a lack of ongoing change attempts were commonly observed among healthcare professionals. Work in healthcare is demanding, and healthy lifestyles can support coping. Thus, healthy lifestyle programs should also be targeted to healthcare professionals.

  19. Lattice model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Fierro

    Full Text Available Individual behavioral response to the spreading of an epidemic plays a crucial role in the progression of the epidemic itself. The risk perception induces individuals to adopt a protective behavior, as for instance reducing their social contacts, adopting more restrictive hygienic measures or undergoing prophylaxis procedures. In this paper, starting with a previously developed lattice-gas SIR model, we construct a coupled behavior-disease model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes. The focus is on self-initiated behavioral changes that alter the susceptibility to the disease, without altering the contact patterns among individuals. Three different mechanisms of awareness spreading are analyzed: the local spreading due to the presence in the neighborhood of infective individuals; the global spreading due to the news published by the mass media and to educational campaigns implemented at institutional level; the local spreading occurring through the "thought contagion" among aware and unaware individuals. The peculiarity of the present approach is that the awareness spreading model is calibrated on available data on awareness and concern of the population about the risk of contagion. In particular, the model is validated against the A(H1N1 epidemic outbreak in Italy during the 2009/2010 season, by making use of the awareness data gathered by the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (PASSI. We find that, increasing the accordance between the simulated awareness spreading and the PASSI data on risk perception, the agreement between simulated and experimental epidemiological data improves as well. Furthermore, we show that, within our model, the primary mechanism to reproduce a realistic evolution of the awareness during an epidemic, is the one due to globally available information. This result highlights how crucial is the role of mass media and educational campaigns in influencing the epidemic spreading of infectious

  20. Behavioral Changes Over Time Following Ayahuasca Exposure in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Savoldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations. We exposed adult zebrafish to five concentrations of the ayahuasca infusion: 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3 ml/L (n = 14 each group, and behavior was recorded for 60 min. We evaluated swimming speed, distance traveled, freezing and bottom dwelling every min for 60 min. Swimming speed and distance traveled decreased with an increase in ayahuasca concentration while freezing increased with 1 and 3 ml/L. Bottom dwelling increased with 1 and 3 ml/L, but declined with 0.1 ml/L. Our data suggest that small amounts of ayahuasca do not affect locomotion and reduce anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish, while increased doses of the drug lead to crescent anxiogenic effects. We conclude that the temporal analysis of zebrafish behavior is a sensitive method for the study of ayahuasca-induced functional changes in the vertebrate brain.

  1. Behavioral Changes Over Time Following Ayahuasca Exposure in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldi, Robson; Polari, Daniel; Pinheiro-da-Silva, Jaquelinne; Silva, Priscila F; Lobao-Soares, Bruno; Yonamine, Mauricio; Freire, Fulvio A M; Luchiari, Ana C

    2017-01-01

    The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N , N -dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations. We exposed adult zebrafish to five concentrations of the ayahuasca infusion: 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3 ml/L ( n = 14 each group), and behavior was recorded for 60 min. We evaluated swimming speed, distance traveled, freezing and bottom dwelling every min for 60 min. Swimming speed and distance traveled decreased with an increase in ayahuasca concentration while freezing increased with 1 and 3 ml/L. Bottom dwelling increased with 1 and 3 ml/L, but declined with 0.1 ml/L. Our data suggest that small amounts of ayahuasca do not affect locomotion and reduce anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish, while increased doses of the drug lead to crescent anxiogenic effects. We conclude that the temporal analysis of zebrafish behavior is a sensitive method for the study of ayahuasca-induced functional changes in the vertebrate brain.

  2. Goal orientations of teacher trainees: Longitudinal analysis of magnitude, change and relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Fasching, Michaela S.; Dresel, Markus; Dickhäuser, Oliver; Nitsche, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The central focus of this paper is to address the magnitudes of and changes in four central components of teacher goal orientation (learning, performance approach, performance avoidance and work avoidance goal orientation) among prospective teachers. The findings reported here were gathered with a sample of 130 teacher trainees who responded to questionnaires at five measuring points over the course of the two years pre-service training which comprise the second phase of teacher education ("R...

  3. An analysis of forest land use, forest land cover, and change at policy-relevant scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Greg Reams; Dave N. Wear; C. Kenneth Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the amount of forest and change in the amount of forest are key to ensure that appropriate management practices and policies are in place to maintain the array of ecosystem services provided by forests. There are a range of analytical techniques and data available to estimate these forest parameters, however, not all ‘forest’ is the same and various...

  4. Relevance of decadal variations in surface radiative fluxes for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that radiative fluxes incident at Earth's surface are not stable over time but undergo significant changes on decadal timescales. This is not only found in the thermal spectral range, where an increase in the downwelling flux is expected due to the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the solar spectral range. Observations suggest that surface solar radiation, after a period of decline from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming"), reversed into a "brightening" since the mid-1980s at widespread locations, often in line with changes in anthropogenic air pollution. These decadal variations observed in both solar and thermal surface radiative fluxes have the potential to affect various aspects of climate change. Discussed here are specifically the evidence for potential effects on global warming, as seen in asymmetries in hemispheric warming rates as well as in differences in the decadal warming rates over land and oceans. These variations in observed warming rates fit well to our conceptual understanding of how aerosol and greenhouse gas-induced changes in the surface radiative fluxes should affect global warming. Specifically, on the Northern Hemisphere, the suppression of warming from the 1950s to the 1980s fits to the concurrent dimming and increasing air pollution, while the accelerated warming from the 1980s to 2000 matches with the brightening and associated reduction in pollution levels. The suppression of warming from the 1950s to the 1980s is even somewhat stronger over oceans than over land, in line with the conceptual idea that aerosol-induced dimming and brightening tendencies may be enhanced through cloud aerosol interactions particularly over the pristine ocean areas. On the Southern Hemisphere, the absence of significant pollution levels as well as trend reversals therein, fit to the observed stable warming rates over the entire 1950 to 2000 period.

  5. EXTRACTING KEY FOR LANDCOVER CHANGE USING MULTITEMPORAL PALSAR IMAGES & ITS CALIBRATION TO RELEVANT OPTICAL IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Amhar, Fahmi; Wijanarto, Antonius B.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of landcover change is very important in developing countiries. Especiallly the rapid deforestation (partially caused by wildfire) will influence not only the local but also regional upto global climate and biodiversity. Current monitoring using optical sensor (LANDSAT) is established but in tropical area has serious drawback: cloudcover. The result is: unhomogenous landcover, since the imagesmosaic comes from different time, partially in month or year just for cloud red...

  6. Bleomycin induces molecular changes directly relevant to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a model for "active" disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ruoqi; Sridhar, Sriram; Tyagi, Gaurav; Phillips, Jonathan E; Garrido, Rosario; Harris, Paul; Burns, Lisa; Renteria, Lorena; Woods, John; Chen, Leena; Allard, John; Ravindran, Palanikumar; Bitter, Hans; Liang, Zhenmin; Hogaboam, Cory M; Kitson, Chris; Budd, David C; Fine, Jay S; Bauer, Carla M T; Stevenson, Christopher S

    2013-01-01

    The preclinical model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, used to investigate mechanisms related to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), has incorrectly predicted efficacy for several candidate compounds suggesting that it may be of limited value. As an attempt to improve the predictive nature of this model, integrative bioinformatic approaches were used to compare molecular alterations in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice and patients with IPF. Using gene set enrichment analysis we show for the first time that genes differentially expressed during the fibrotic phase of the single challenge bleomycin model were significantly enriched in the expression profiles of IPF patients. The genes that contributed most to the enrichment were largely involved in mitosis, growth factor, and matrix signaling. Interestingly, these same mitotic processes were increased in the expression profiles of fibroblasts isolated from rapidly progressing, but not slowly progressing, IPF patients relative to control subjects. The data also indicated that TGFβ was not the sole mediator responsible for the changes observed in this model since the ALK-5 inhibitor SB525334 effectively attenuated some but not all of the fibrosis associated with this model. Although some would suggest that repetitive bleomycin injuries may more effectively model IPF-like changes, our data do not support this conclusion. Together, these data highlight that a single bleomycin instillation effectively replicates several of the specific pathogenic molecular changes associated with IPF, and may be best used as a model for patients with active disease.

  7. Bleomycin induces molecular changes directly relevant to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a model for "active" disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoqi Peng

    Full Text Available The preclinical model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, used to investigate mechanisms related to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, has incorrectly predicted efficacy for several candidate compounds suggesting that it may be of limited value. As an attempt to improve the predictive nature of this model, integrative bioinformatic approaches were used to compare molecular alterations in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice and patients with IPF. Using gene set enrichment analysis we show for the first time that genes differentially expressed during the fibrotic phase of the single challenge bleomycin model were significantly enriched in the expression profiles of IPF patients. The genes that contributed most to the enrichment were largely involved in mitosis, growth factor, and matrix signaling. Interestingly, these same mitotic processes were increased in the expression profiles of fibroblasts isolated from rapidly progressing, but not slowly progressing, IPF patients relative to control subjects. The data also indicated that TGFβ was not the sole mediator responsible for the changes observed in this model since the ALK-5 inhibitor SB525334 effectively attenuated some but not all of the fibrosis associated with this model. Although some would suggest that repetitive bleomycin injuries may more effectively model IPF-like changes, our data do not support this conclusion. Together, these data highlight that a single bleomycin instillation effectively replicates several of the specific pathogenic molecular changes associated with IPF, and may be best used as a model for patients with active disease.

  8. Changing adolescent health behaviors: the healthy teens counseling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ardis L; Gaffney, Cecelia A; Lee, Pamela W; Starr, Pamela

    2008-11-01

    Brief motivational interventions that have been provided in addition to routine primary care have changed adolescent health behaviors. Whether health screening and motivational-interviewing-based counseling provided by clinicians during routine care can change behaviors is unknown. Healthy Teens was a primary care, office-system intervention to support efficient, patient-centered counseling at well visits. Healthy Teens utilized a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based screener that provided the clinician with information about a teen's health risks and motivation to change. Changes in adolescent self-report of diet and activity health behaviors 6 months later were assessed in two cross-sectional samples of teens from five rural practices in 2005 and 2006. Usual-care subjects (N=148) were recruited at well visits prior to the intervention, and the Healthy Teens subjects (N=136) were recruited at well visits after the Healthy Teens system was well established. At 6-month follow-up, the Healthy Teens group had significantly increased self-reported exercise levels and milk-product intake. In the models exploring covariates, the only significant predictors for improvement in exercise levels were intervention-group status (p=0.009) and post-visit interest in making a change (p=0.015). Interest in changing predicted increased milk intake (p=0.028) in both groups. When teens planned an action related to nutrition, physical activity, or both after a well visit, Healthy Teens participants were more likely to report multiple planned actions (68% Healthy Teens vs 32% usual care, pexercise and milk intake.

  9. Player Experiences and Behaviors in a Multiplayer Game: designing game rules to change interdependent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Vegt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Serious gaming is used as a means for improving organizational teamwork, yet little is known about the effect of individual game elements constituting serious games. This paper presents a game design experiment aimed at generating knowledge on designing game elements for teamwork. In previous work, we suggested that interaction- and goal-driven rules could guide interdependence and teamwork strategies. Based on this finding, for the present experiment we developed two versions of multiplayer Breakout, varying in rule-sets, designed to elicit player strategies of either dependent competition or dependent cooperation. Results showed that the two rule-sets could generate distinct reported player experiences and observable distinct player behaviors that could be further discriminated into four patterns: expected patterns of helping and ignoring, and unexpected patterns of agreeing and obstructing. Classic game theory was applied to understand the four behavior patterns and made us conclude that goal-driven rules steered players towards competition and cooperation. Interaction rules, in contrast, mainly stimulated dependent competitive behavior, e.g. obstructing each other. Since different types of rules thus led to different player behavior, discriminating in game design between interaction- and goal-driven rules seems relevant. Moreover, our research showed that game theory proved to be useful for understanding goal-driven rules.

  10. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  11. Can We Really Get our Patients to Change Unhealthy Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Gustav Pavlov and his early work with canines Theory Stimulus Response or Stimulus Stimulus Learn to associate new stimulus Aversion therapy Flooding...Patients to Change Unhealthy Behaviors? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Army Medical Command,U.S. Army Public Health Command (Provisional),5158

  12. Behavioral Ecology of Narwhals in a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    ecology in the pack ice of Baffin Bay. We will collect data on the species’ acoustic, movement , and diving ecology in the offshore pack ice of Baffin...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Behavioral ecology of narwhals in a changing Arctic...Bay over a 4 year long research program with three ecological focus areas (acoustic ecology , sea ice ecology , and foraging ecology ). Our

  13. Postnatal NMR changes in guinea pig central nervous system: potential relevance to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseworthy, J H; Gilbert, J J; Vandervoort, M K; Karlik, S J

    1988-02-01

    The age of sensitization determines the clinical course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the guinea pig. Adult animals immunized with central nervous system (CNS) tissue develop acute, fulminant EAE, whereas a relapsing-remitting illness resembling multiple sclerosis occurs if sensitization occurs in the first 2 weeks of life. This study characterized the changes in the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and imaging of the CNS during the immediate postnatal period. T1 and T2 relaxation times in cerebral hemispheres and spinal cords of strain 13 guinea pigs were consistently prolonged at birth, progressively shortened in the first few weeks of life, and achieved adult levels by age 6 to 11 weeks. There were no age-dependent differences in T1 and T2 relaxation times and tissue specific gravity in either strain 13 or Hartley guinea pigs following immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant, an agent previously reported to disrupt the blood-brain barrier to IgG and albumin in strain 13 guinea pigs. The CNS of neonatal guinea pigs appeared well myelinated by light microscopy and there was no apparent difference in the extent of myelination between newborn and adult animals. Although it was possible to distinguish gray from white matter in the cervical spinal cord of newborn guinea pigs by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, gray/white contrast was less satisfactory in the cerebral hemispheres until approximately 6 weeks of life when it was possible to differentiate gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. This study indicates that NMR relaxation times change during early postnatal life, at a time corresponding to the unexplained differences in susceptibility to an immune challenge. These developmental changes appear to be independent of the degree of CNS myelination.

  14. Estimates of late Cenozoic climate change relevant to Earth surface processes in tectonically active orogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Mutz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The denudation history of active orogens is often interpreted in the context of modern climate gradients. Here we address the validity of this approach and ask what are the spatial and temporal variations in palaeoclimate for a latitudinally diverse range of active orogens? We do this using high-resolution (T159, ca. 80  ×  80 km at the Equator palaeoclimate simulations from the ECHAM5 global atmospheric general circulation model and a statistical cluster analysis of climate over different orogens (Andes, Himalayas, SE Alaska, Pacific NW USA. Time periods and boundary conditions considered include the Pliocene (PLIO,  ∼  3 Ma, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM,  ∼  21 ka, mid-Holocene (MH,  ∼  6 ka, and pre-industrial (PI, reference year 1850. The regional simulated climates of each orogen are described by means of cluster analyses based on the variability in precipitation, 2 m air temperature, the intra-annual amplitude of these values, and monsoonal wind speeds where appropriate. Results indicate the largest differences in the PI climate existed for the LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and reduced precipitation in the LGM and warming and enhanced precipitation during the PLIO. The LGM climate shows the largest deviation in annual precipitation from the PI climate and shows enhanced precipitation in the temperate Andes and coastal regions for both SE Alaska and the US Pacific Northwest. Furthermore, LGM precipitation is reduced in the western Himalayas and enhanced in the eastern Himalayas, resulting in a shift of the wettest regional climates eastward along the orogen. The cluster-analysis results also suggest more climatic variability across latitudes east of the Andes in the PLIO climate than in other time slice experiments conducted here. Taken together, these results highlight significant changes in late Cenozoic regional climatology over the last  ∼  3 Myr. Comparison

  15. Estimates of late Cenozoic climate change relevant to Earth surface processes in tectonically active orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutz, Sebastian G.; Ehlers, Todd A.; Werner, Martin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Stepanek, Christian; Li, Jingmin

    2018-04-01

    The denudation history of active orogens is often interpreted in the context of modern climate gradients. Here we address the validity of this approach and ask what are the spatial and temporal variations in palaeoclimate for a latitudinally diverse range of active orogens? We do this using high-resolution (T159, ca. 80 × 80 km at the Equator) palaeoclimate simulations from the ECHAM5 global atmospheric general circulation model and a statistical cluster analysis of climate over different orogens (Andes, Himalayas, SE Alaska, Pacific NW USA). Time periods and boundary conditions considered include the Pliocene (PLIO, ˜ 3 Ma), the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ˜ 21 ka), mid-Holocene (MH, ˜ 6 ka), and pre-industrial (PI, reference year 1850). The regional simulated climates of each orogen are described by means of cluster analyses based on the variability in precipitation, 2 m air temperature, the intra-annual amplitude of these values, and monsoonal wind speeds where appropriate. Results indicate the largest differences in the PI climate existed for the LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and reduced precipitation in the LGM and warming and enhanced precipitation during the PLIO. The LGM climate shows the largest deviation in annual precipitation from the PI climate and shows enhanced precipitation in the temperate Andes and coastal regions for both SE Alaska and the US Pacific Northwest. Furthermore, LGM precipitation is reduced in the western Himalayas and enhanced in the eastern Himalayas, resulting in a shift of the wettest regional climates eastward along the orogen. The cluster-analysis results also suggest more climatic variability across latitudes east of the Andes in the PLIO climate than in other time slice experiments conducted here. Taken together, these results highlight significant changes in late Cenozoic regional climatology over the last ˜ 3 Myr. Comparison of simulated climate with proxy-based reconstructions for the MH and

  16. Alveolar dimensional changes relevant to implant placement after minimally traumatic tooth extraction with primary closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Nelson; Bonta, Hernan; Gualtieri, Ariel F; Rojas, Mariana A; Galli, Federico G; Caride, Facundo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dimensional changes that occur in the alveolar ridge after minimally traumatic tooth extraction by means of computed tomography (CT), with special focus on the portion of bone supporting the gingival zenith. Twenty subjects with indication for singlerooted tooth extraction and preserved alveolar walls were selected for this study. After a minimally traumatic extraction, two CT scans were performed; the first within 24 hours postextraction (TC1) and the second 6 months (TC2) later. A radiographic guide with a radiopaque marker was used to obtain references that enabled accurate measurements over time, in both vertical and horizontal directions. The bone crest immediately apical to the gingival zenith was identified and termed "osseous zenith". The displacement of the osseous zenith in horizontal and vertical direction was analyzed and correlated with several alveolar anatomical variables with the aim of identifying possible predictors for bone remodeling. Dimensional changes that occur in postextraction sockets within a 6month period showed significant vertical and horizontal displacement of the osseous zenith (p 3 mm) should be expected. The present study suggests that the width of the alveolar crest at its midlevel, rather than crestal width, may be correlated with the displacement of the osseous zenith. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  17. Development of smartphone applications for nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; Cook, Amelia; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2012-08-22

    Young adults (aged 18 to 35) are a population group at high risk for weight gain, yet we know little about how to intervene in this group. Easy access to treatment and support with self-monitoring of their behaviors may be important. Smartphones are gaining in popularity with this population group and software applications ("apps") used on these mobile devices are a novel technology that can be used to deliver brief health behavior change interventions directly to individuals en masse, with potentially favorable cost-utility. However, existing apps for modifying nutrition or physical activity behaviors may not always reflect best practice guidelines for weight management. This paper describes the process of developing four apps aimed at modifying key lifestyle behaviors associated with weight gain during young adulthood, including physical activity, and consumption of take-out foods (fast food), fruit and vegetables, and sugar-sweetened drinks. The development process involved: (1) deciding on the behavior change strategies, relevant guidelines, graphic design, and potential data collection; (2) selecting the platform (Web-based versus native); (3) creating the design, which required decisions about the user interface, architecture of the relational database, and programming code; and (4) testing the prototype versions with the target audience (young adults aged 18 to 35). The four apps took 18 months to develop, involving the fields of marketing, nutrition and dietetics, physical activity, and information technology. Ten subjects provided qualitative feedback about using the apps. The slow running speed of the apps (due to a reliance on an active Internet connection) was the primary issue identified by this group, as well as the requirement to log in to the apps. Smartphone apps may be an innovative medium for delivering individual health behavior change intervention en masse, but researchers must give consideration to the target population, available technologies

  18. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  19. Identifying stakeholder-relevant climate change impacts: a case study in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, K.; Graves, D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Hatten, James R.; Mastin, Mark C.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Montag, J.; Nieman, Timothy; Voss, Frank D.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    Designing climate-related research so that study results will be useful to natural resource managers is a unique challenge. While decision makers increasingly recognize the need to consider climate change in their resource management plans, and climate scientists recognize the importance of providing locally-relevant climate data and projections, there often remains a gap between management needs and the information that is available or is being collected. We used decision analysis concepts to bring decision-maker and stakeholder perspectives into the applied research planning process. In 2009 we initiated a series of studies on the impacts of climate change in the Yakima River Basin (YRB) with a four-day stakeholder workshop, bringing together managers, stakeholders, and scientists to develop an integrated conceptual model of climate change and climate change impacts in the YRB. The conceptual model development highlighted areas of uncertainty that limit the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and decision alternatives by those who will be most directly affected by those changes, and pointed to areas where additional study and engagement of stakeholders would be beneficial. The workshop and resulting conceptual model highlighted the importance of numerous different outcomes to stakeholders in the basin, including social and economic outcomes that go beyond the physical and biological outcomes typically reported in climate impacts studies. Subsequent studies addressed several of those areas of uncertainty, including changes in water temperatures, habitat quality, and bioenergetics of salmonid populations.

  20. Reduced acetylcholine synthesis in Alzheimer's disease is a clinically relevant change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D.M.; Neary, D.; Sims, N.R.; Snowden, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a study of patients in the presenium. Psychological assessment was carried out to provide measures of relative severity of dementia, with which pathological and chemical indices of impairment could be compared. Fresh cortical biopsy tissue permitted the assay of ChAT activity, and also the determination of acetylcholine synthesis in a preparation enriched in cortical synaptosomes. Additionally, choline uptake has been measured for comparison. Nuerosurgical samples from all patients were handled and processed for measuring acetylcholine synthesis by incorporation of U- 14 C-glucoase into C 14-acetylcholine in neocortical tissue prisms. Cortical sections from most of the patients were found on light microscopy to contain the characteristic changes of Alzheimer's disease

  1. Development and validation of a questionnaire to detect behavior change in multiple advance care planning behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Sudore

    Full Text Available Advance directives have traditionally been considered the gold standard for advance care planning. However, recent evidence suggests that advance care planning involves a series of multiple discrete behaviors for which people are in varying stages of behavior change. The goal of our study was to develop and validate a survey to measure the full advance care planning process.The Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey assesses "Process Measures" of factors known from Behavior Change Theory to affect behavior (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, using 5-point Likert scales and "Action Measures" (yes/no of multiple behaviors related to surrogate decision makers, values and quality of life, flexibility for surrogate decision making, and informed decision making. We administered surveys at baseline and 1 week later to 50 diverse, older adults from San Francisco hospitals. Internal consistency reliability of Process Measures was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (only continuous variables and test-retest reliability of Process and Action Measures was examined using intraclass correlations. For discriminant validity, we compared Process and Action Measure scores between this cohort and 20 healthy college students (mean age 23.2 years, SD 2.7.Mean age was 69.3 (SD 10.5 and 42% were non-White. The survey took a mean of 21.4 minutes (±6.2 to administer. The survey had good internal consistency (Process Measures Cronbach's alpha, 0.94 and test-retest reliability (Process Measures intraclass correlation, 0.70; Action Measures, 0.87. Both Process and Action Measure scores were higher in the older than younger group, p<.001.A new Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey that measures behavior change (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness and multiple advance care planning actions demonstrates good reliability and validity. Further research is needed to assess whether survey scores improve in response to advance care planning

  2. Navigating behavioral energy sufficiency. Results from a survey in Swiss cities on potential behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Moser, Corinne; Blumer, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have some kind of energy-system transformation either planned or ongoing for various reasons, such as to curb carbon emissions or to compensate for the phasing out of nuclear energy. One important component of these transformations is the overall reduction in energy demand. It is generally acknowledged that the domestic sector represents a large share of total energy consumption in many countries. Increased energy efficiency is one factor that reduces energy demand, but behavioral approaches (known as "sufficiency") and their respective interventions also play important roles. In this paper, we address citizens' heterogeneity regarding both their current behaviors and their willingness to realize their sufficiency potentials-that is, to reduce their energy consumption through behavioral change. We collaborated with three Swiss cities for this study. A survey conducted in the three cities yielded thematic sets of energy-consumption behavior that various groups of participants rated differently. Using this data, we identified four groups of participants with different patterns of both current behaviors and sufficiency potentials. The paper discusses intervention types and addresses citizens' heterogeneity and behaviors from a city-based perspective.

  3. Navigating behavioral energy sufficiency. Results from a survey in Swiss cities on potential behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Corinne; Blumer, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have some kind of energy-system transformation either planned or ongoing for various reasons, such as to curb carbon emissions or to compensate for the phasing out of nuclear energy. One important component of these transformations is the overall reduction in energy demand. It is generally acknowledged that the domestic sector represents a large share of total energy consumption in many countries. Increased energy efficiency is one factor that reduces energy demand, but behavioral approaches (known as “sufficiency”) and their respective interventions also play important roles. In this paper, we address citizens’ heterogeneity regarding both their current behaviors and their willingness to realize their sufficiency potentials—that is, to reduce their energy consumption through behavioral change. We collaborated with three Swiss cities for this study. A survey conducted in the three cities yielded thematic sets of energy-consumption behavior that various groups of participants rated differently. Using this data, we identified four groups of participants with different patterns of both current behaviors and sufficiency potentials. The paper discusses intervention types and addresses citizens’ heterogeneity and behaviors from a city-based perspective. PMID:29016642

  4. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansis, Eberhard; Davis, Steven J.; Pongratz, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Accounting for carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change (LULCC) generally requires choosing from multiple options of how to attribute the fluxes to regions and to LULCC activities. Applying a newly developed and spatially explicit bookkeeping model BLUE (bookkeeping of land use emissions), we quantify LULCC fluxes and attribute them to land use activities and countries by a range of different accounting methods. We present results with respect to a Kyoto Protocol-like "commitment" accounting period, using land use emissions of 2008-2012 as an example scenario. We assess the effect of accounting methods that vary (1) the temporal evolution of carbon stocks, (2) the state of the carbon stocks at the beginning of the period, (3) the temporal attribution of carbon fluxes during the period, and (4) treatment of LULCC fluxes that occurred prior to the beginning of the period. We show that the methodological choices result in grossly different estimates of carbon fluxes for the different attribution definitions.

  5. A Methodology for Quantifying Effects and Psychological Functioning of Behavior-Change Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tobias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology to quantify the effects of behavior change techniques (BCTs that allows forecasting campaign effects on behavior and psychological constructs. The approach involves the gathering of longitudinal data during actual campaigns in which different combinations and sequences of BCTs are applied to different groups. Approximate metric data are gathered by asking for simple and specific evaluations. The data are analyzed using regression models that consider the value range of the dependent variable as bounded (bounded linear regression. Based on these models, forecasts of the intervention effects are calculated, considering the uncertainty of the parameter estimates. The methodology is applied to investigate the effects of prompts (external memory aids, public self-commitments, and implementation intentions on affective and instrumental attitudes, injunctive and descriptive norms, forgetting, perceived behavior control, and behavior in a health-promotion campaign in Bolivia. Prompts and public self-commitments reached more than half of the target population but only showed relevant effects when combined or repeated. The effects of both BCTs on behavior were mainly mediated by forgetting. Implementation intentions were not well received by the promoters and the population. From the few cases that implemented this BCT, no clear psychological effects could be derived.

  6. Are the stages of change relevant for the development and implementation of a web-based tailored alcohol intervention? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Daniela N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-tailored programs are a promising tool to stimulate health behavior change, such as reducing alcohol intake. Yet more research is needed to assess whether groups differing in their motivational level to change may need different types of feedback. Furthermore, it is unknown whether motivational level may also determine reactions to computer-tailored interventions. Our aim is to identify the potential relevance of the application of the stages of change concept in the development and implementation of alcohol interventions. Methods A web-based instrument was used to disseminate a questionnaire and to provide tailored feedback messages among adults in the Netherlands (N = 170; 96 females. Motivational level was assessed by the stage of change construct. The survey furthermore assessed alcohol consumption, attitude, social influence, self-efficacy, and program evaluation (i.e., survey items, tailored advice, layout and functionality of the program. The Least Significant Difference method was used to compare people in different stages of change with regard to psychosocial determinants of drinking behavior and program evaluation. Results Of the respondents, 34.1% (n = 58 reported no intention to change to healthier drinking habits in the foreseeable future (precontemplation, 22.9% (n = 39 intended to improve their drinking behavior in the near future (contemplation/preparation and 42.9% (n = 73 reported to currently adhere to the Dutch alcohol consumption guidelines (action/maintenance. When comparing the three groups, people in the action or maintenance stage reported the lowest number of pros of drinking alcohol, having most healthy drinking role models and the highest levels of self-efficacy regarding healthy drinking in difficult situations, whereas precontemplators reported to receive the least social support regarding healthy drinking. In general, the intervention was positively evaluated, but it

  7. Are the stages of change relevant for the development and implementation of a web-based tailored alcohol intervention? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela N; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Hein

    2012-05-17

    Computer-tailored programs are a promising tool to stimulate health behavior change, such as reducing alcohol intake. Yet more research is needed to assess whether groups differing in their motivational level to change may need different types of feedback. Furthermore, it is unknown whether motivational level may also determine reactions to computer-tailored interventions. Our aim is to identify the potential relevance of the application of the stages of change concept in the development and implementation of alcohol interventions. A web-based instrument was used to disseminate a questionnaire and to provide tailored feedback messages among adults in the Netherlands (N = 170; 96 females). Motivational level was assessed by the stage of change construct. The survey furthermore assessed alcohol consumption, attitude, social influence, self-efficacy, and program evaluation (i.e., survey items, tailored advice, layout and functionality of the program). The Least Significant Difference method was used to compare people in different stages of change with regard to psychosocial determinants of drinking behavior and program evaluation. Of the respondents, 34.1% (n = 58) reported no intention to change to healthier drinking habits in the foreseeable future (precontemplation), 22.9% (n = 39) intended to improve their drinking behavior in the near future (contemplation/preparation) and 42.9% (n = 73) reported to currently adhere to the Dutch alcohol consumption guidelines (action/maintenance). When comparing the three groups, people in the action or maintenance stage reported the lowest number of pros of drinking alcohol, having most healthy drinking role models and the highest levels of self-efficacy regarding healthy drinking in difficult situations, whereas precontemplators reported to receive the least social support regarding healthy drinking. In general, the intervention was positively evaluated, but it seemed to be most appreciated by contemplators and preparers. Stage

  8. Changes in women's sexual behavior following sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliramich, Aimee N; Gray, Matt J

    2008-09-01

    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity postassault. Such outcomes are not mutually exclusive possibilities but may instead reflect subtypes of sexual assault victims. A significant percentage of assault survivors did report increases in sexual activity following trauma. Assault survivors also reported increases in posttraumatic alcohol consumption relative to a comparison sample of motor vehicle accident survivors. In both groups, increases in posttraumatic alcohol usage predicted increases in posttraumatic sexual activity, suggesting that use of alcohol as a coping strategy may result in an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. If true, this maladaptive coping mechanism could help to account for some instances of revictimization.

  9. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead, they grow up in single-parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence, it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1985 is used...... for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s health, behavior, and educational outcomes. These results are con.rmed by a differences-in-differences analysis of health outcomes. This suggests...

  10. Unusual crystallization behavior in Ga-Sb phase change alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Putero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined in situ X-ray scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the crystallization behavior of Sb-rich Ga-Sb alloys. Measurements of the sheet resistance during heating indicated a reduced crystallization temperature with increased Sb content, which was confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction. The electrical contrast increased with increasing Sb content and the resistivities in both the amorphous and crystalline phases decreased. It was found that by tuning the composition between Ga:Sb = 9:91 (in at.% and Ga:Sb = 45:55, the change in mass density upon crystallization changes from an increase in mass density which is typical for most phase change materials to a decrease in mass density. At the composition of Ga:Sb = 30:70, no mass density change is observed which should be very beneficial for phase change random access memory (PCRAM applications where a change in mass density during cycling is assumed to cause void formation and PCRAM device failure.

  11. Designing Graphs that Promote Both Risk Understanding and Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Yasmina; Stone, Eric R; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-10-03

    Graphs show promise for improving communications about different types of risks, including health risks, financial risks, and climate risks. However, graph designs that are effective at meeting one important risk communication goal (promoting risk-avoidant behaviors) can at the same time compromise another key goal (improving risk understanding). We developed and tested simple bar graphs aimed at accomplishing these two goals simultaneously. We manipulated two design features in graphs, namely, whether graphs depicted the number of people affected by a risk and those at risk of harm ("foreground+background") versus only those affected ("foreground-only"), and the presence versus absence of simple numerical labels above bars. Foreground-only displays were associated with larger risk perceptions and risk-avoidant behavior (i.e., willingness to take a drug for heart attack prevention) than foreground+background displays, regardless of the presence of labels. Foreground-only graphs also hindered risk understanding when labels were not present. However, the presence of labels significantly improved understanding, eliminating the detrimental effect of foreground-only displays. Labels also led to more positive user evaluations of the graphs, but did not affect risk-avoidant behavior. Using process modeling we identified mediators (risk perceptions, understanding, user evaluations) that explained the effect of display type on risk-avoidant behavior. Our findings contribute new evidence to the graph design literature: unlike what was previously feared, we demonstrate that it is possible to design foreground-only graphs that promote intentions for behavior change without a detrimental effect on risk understanding. Implications for the design of graphical risk communications and decision support are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for Adaptive Learning in Changing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Dimitrije; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic models of decision making under various forms of uncertainty have been applied in recent years to numerous behavioral and model-based fMRI studies. These studies were highly successful in enabling a better understanding of behavior and delineating the functional properties of brain areas involved in decision making under uncertainty. However, as different studies considered different models of decision making under uncertainty, it is unclear which of these computational models provides the best account of the observed behavioral and neuroimaging data. This is an important issue, as not performing model comparison may tempt researchers to over-interpret results based on a single model. Here we describe how in practice one can compare different behavioral models and test the accuracy of model comparison and parameter estimation of Bayesian and maximum-likelihood based methods. We focus our analysis on two well-established hierarchical probabilistic models that aim at capturing the evolution of beliefs in changing environments: Hierarchical Gaussian Filters and Change Point Models. To our knowledge, these two, well-established models have never been compared on the same data. We demonstrate, using simulated behavioral experiments, that one can accurately disambiguate between these two models, and accurately infer free model parameters and hidden belief trajectories (e.g., posterior expectations, posterior uncertainties, and prediction errors) even when using noisy and highly correlated behavioral measurements. Importantly, we found several advantages of Bayesian inference and Bayesian model comparison compared to often-used Maximum-Likelihood schemes combined with the Bayesian Information Criterion. These results stress the relevance of Bayesian data analysis for model-based neuroimaging studies that investigate human decision making under uncertainty.

  13. The relevance of a coproductive capacity framework to climate change adaptation: investigating the health and water sectors in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Bowen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple active partnerships in the health and water sectors in Cambodia exist to address climate change adaptation, operating beyond typical sectoral and organizational divides. Decisions around national adaptation policy are made predominantly by the relevant lead ministry, contrasting with where funding originates from (i.e., major donors, multilaterals, United Nation agencies. Adaptation policy is thus the result of a process of coproduction by state and nonstate actors. The research we present sought to understand the relationships that exist between knowledge- and decision-makers with respect to climate change adaptation in the health and water sectors in Cambodia, and the factors that enabled or constrained these relationships. Forty-four interviews were conducted with representatives of 32 organizations. We found that coproductive relationships were most effective when there were clearly defined roles and responsibilities, coordination of technical and financial resources, and trust. The two key factors of coproductive capacity that enabled and supported these partnerships were scientific resources and governance capability. Ultimately, the roles and responsibilities given to various actors requires commensurate funding and greater consideration of existing relationships and power dynamics. The reliance on international scientific expertise also needs to be challenged so that local research capabilities can be developed and locally relevant, problem-specific information can be provided. The ongoing funding, codevelopment, and sharing of such knowledge would significantly enhance trust and cooperation.

  14. [18F]FDG in recurrent breast cancer: diagnostic performances, clinical impact and relevance of induced changes in management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahek, Dany; Montravers, Francoise; Kerrou, Khaldoun; Aide, Nicolas; Talbot, Jean-Noel; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Prognosis and management of patients with recurrent breast cancer depend on the spread of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose gamma camera positron emission tomography (FDG-GPET) in detecting breast cancer recurrence, its clinical impact and the relevance of induced changes in management. Patients (n=134) with suspicion of recurrence either clinically or on conventional imaging (suspected recurrence: SR) or with an isolated increase in tumour marker levels (occult recurrence: OR) underwent FDG-GPET on a coincidence gamma camera. The reference standard for evaluation of accuracy, either histology (n=26) or follow-up for 1 year (n=49), was available in 75 (56%) patients. A questionnaire was sent to the referring clinician to evaluate the impact of FDG on management. Responses were obtained for 75 patients. Information regarding both approaches was available for 46 patients (46/134=34%). At the patient level, the sensitivity of FDG-GPET was 84%, significantly higher than the 63% sensitivity for conventional modalities, and the specificity was 78% versus 61%. The values for FDG-GPET were 81% and 86% respectively in the SR group and 90% and 73% respectively in the OR group, without any significant difference between these settings. The rate of change in management was 44% overall, 43% in the SR group and 45% in the OR group. Within the two groups, intermodality (major) changes were more frequent than intramodality (minor) changes. In the 46 patients for whom both approaches were available, 93% of management modifications were relevant (validated by biopsy or clinical follow-up). The results of this retrospective study show that FDG-GPET has an important role to play in patient management by confirming and evaluating the extent of recurrence or by localising occult recurrence (orig.)

  15. Readiness to change drinking behavior in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra L; Lee, Christine M; Labrie, Joseph W; Tollison, Sean J

    2009-07-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) therapies are effective in reducing high-risk drinking in college populations. Although research supports efficacy of MI prevention strategies in reducing alcohol use, there are little data examining readiness to change (RTC), the underlying theoretical model of MI interventions. The purpose of the present study was to explore RTC variability and drinking behavior and whether MI increases RTC in an intervention group compared with controls. Two-hundred eighty-five first-year female college students participated in the study. Present analyses focused on those students who consumed alcohol in the month before the study (n = 182). RTC was measured using the Readiness to Change Ruler. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. There was significant variability in RTC: 71.86% of variance in RTC was between-person differences, and 28.14% was within-person differences. Higher RTC was associated with lower intentions to drink and future drinking behavior. However, in weeks in which students drank more, they experienced a decrease in RTC. Based on the significant cross-level interaction, the intervention group had significantly higher RTC than controls. These results provided partial support for our hypotheses. The overall theoretical construct of RTC varies both across and within individuals. These results also offer support for the utility of MI-based prevention strategies in increasing RTC within individuals. However, we did not consistently find that these changes related to drinking changes. Findings provide support for both the construct of RTC and utility of MI interventions in changing these beliefs in female college students.

  16. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  17. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: g.kok@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: siu-hing.lo@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: gj.peters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: r.ruiter@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  18. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Gerjo; Lo, Siu Hing; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: → Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.→ IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. → IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. → IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. → IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  19. Designing at Scale: Lessons in Relevance, Quality, and Equity from ChangeScale, a Bay Area environmental education collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, E.

    2015-12-01

    The best environmental education equips people with the know-how and drive to create healthy communities and a healthy planet. While there are many wonderful organizations providing environmental learning, ensuring quality, cultural relevance and equity of access remains an elusive goal--especially if environmental education organizations work in isolation. Organizations across 12 counties in the Bay Area have come together to create a different model. They have founded ChangeScale, a regional collaborative dedicated to providing high quality environmental education to hundreds of thousands of youth---by working together. ChangeScale's work involves setting up school district-level partnerships, providing technical assistance to local environmental education networks, and training environmental educators across the region. In this talk, the presenter, who is a founding member and steering committee chair for ChangeScale, will outline the challenges of working at a regional scale with dozens of organizations. She will share the processes ChangeScale has used to develop a business plan and build membership. She will conclude by sharing the short term and long term potential impacts of working collectively for environmental literacy in the Bay Area.

  20. Changing Attitudes, Changing Behaviors. Conceptual Change as a Model for Teaching Freedom of Religion or Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Ramirez, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to demonstrate that conceptual change theory and strategies can be applied to areas of the social science, such as human rights education on FORB. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical scope of this paper is conceptual change theory and is intended to introduce the theory and practice of conceptual change in teaching…

  1. Controlling Your "App"etite: How Diet and Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps Lead to Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Belvedere, Lindsay M; Andreasen, Rebecca; Frandsen, Christine; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, obesity has become a serious public health crisis in the United States. Although the problem of obesity is being addressed through a variety of strategies, the use of mobile apps is a relatively new development that could prove useful in helping people to develop healthy dietary habits. Though such apps might lead to health behavior change, especially when relevant behavior change theory constructs are integrated into them, the mechanisms by which these apps facilitate behavior change are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify which behavior change mechanisms are associated with the use of diet- and nutrition-related health apps and whether the use of diet- and nutrition-related apps is associated with health behavior change. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a total of 217 participants. Participants responded to questions on demographics, use of diet and nutrition apps in the past 6 months, engagement and likability of apps, and changes in the participant's dietary behaviors. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior, after controlling for potential confounding variables. The majority of study participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements regarding app use increasing their motivation to eat a healthy diet, improving their self-efficacy, and increasing their desire to set and achieve health diet goals. Additionally, majority of participants strongly agreed that using diet/nutrition apps led to changes in their behavior, namely increases in actual goal setting to eat a healthy diet (58.5%, 127/217), increases in their frequency of eating healthy foods (57.6%, 125/217), and increases in their consistency of eating healthy foods (54.4%, 118/217). Participants also responded favorably to questions related to engagement and likability of diet/nutrition apps. A number of predictors were also positively

  2. Increasing public awareness and facilitating behavior change: Two guiding heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, E.

    2016-12-01

    If there is a single aspiration that unifies the professionals who work on the challenges associated with global change, it is likely their desire to see policy makers, business managers and members of the public make decisions that are better informed by the realities of what we know about how to stabilize the climate and prevent needless harm to people and eco-systems. This calls an obvious question: What can we - as scientists and science organizations - to do more effectively promote evidence-based decision-making and actions by important decision-makers? In this talk I will distinguish between two related challenges: more effectively sharing what we know (i.e., improving our communication); and more effectively helping decision-makers take helpful actions (i.e., improving our efforts to facilitate behavior change). Drawing on both theory and empirical evidence in communication science, behavioral science and other related social sciences, I suggest two guiding heurstics - one for each of the two challenges - that will help scientists and science organizations improve the impact of their outreach efforts. To more effectively share what we know, we need "simple clear messages, repeated often, by a variety of trusted sources." To help people convert their good intentions into effective actions, we need to do more to "make the behaviors we are promoting easy, fun and popular." I refer to each of these as "heuristics" in the sense that they organize a relatively large amount of prescriptive information into a relatively easy to use method or process. In this talk, I will unpack each of these heurtistics with the aim of making them practical for all in attendance.

  3. Can a hearing education campaign for adolescents change their music listening behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichbold, Viktor; Zorowka, Patrick

    2007-03-01

    This study looked at whether a hearing education campaign would have behavioral effects on the music listening practices of high school students. A total of 1757 students participated in a hearing education campaign. Before the campaign and one year thereafter they completed a survey asking for: (1) average frequency of discotheque attendance, (2) average duration of stay in the discotheque, (3) use of earplugs in discotheques, (4) frequency of regeneration breaks while at a discotheque, and (5) mean time per week spent listening to music through headphones. On questions (2), (3) and (5) no relevant post-campaign changes were reported. On question (1) students' answers indicated that the frequency of discotheque attendance had even increased after the campaign. The only change in keeping with the purpose of the campaign was an increase in the number of regeneration breaks when at a discotheque. The effect of hearing education campaigns on music listening behavior is questioned. Additional efforts are suggested to encourage adolescents to adopt protective behaviors.

  4. On the relevance of the micromechanics approach for predicting the linear viscoelastic behavior of semi-crystalline poly(ethylene)terephtalates (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diani, J.; Bedoui, F.; Regnier, G.

    2008-01-01

    The relevance of micromechanics modeling to the linear viscoelastic behavior of semi-crystalline polymers is studied. For this purpose, the linear viscoelastic behaviors of amorphous and semi-crystalline PETs are characterized. Then, two micromechanics modeling methods, which have been proven in a previous work to apply to the PET elastic behavior, are used to predict the viscoelastic behavior of three semi-crystalline PETs. The microstructures of the crystalline PETs are clearly defined using WAXS techniques. Since microstructures and mechanical properties of both constitutive phases (the crystalline and the amorphous) are defined, the simulations are run without adjustable parameters. Results show that the models are unable to reproduce the substantial decrease of viscosity induced by the increase of crystallinity. Unlike the real materials, for moderate crystallinity, both models show materials of viscosity nearly identical to the amorphous material

  5. Relevance of a Neurophysiological Marker of Attention Allocation for Children's Learning-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Cynthia J.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Bierman, Karen L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related…

  6. Validation of Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Ramirez LP

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leivy Patricia Gonzalez-Ramirez,1,2 Jose Maria De la Roca-Chiapas,2 Cecilia Colunga-Rodriguez,3,4 Maria de Lourdes Preciado-Serrano,3 Adrian Daneri-Navarro,5 Francisco Javier Pedroza-Cabrera,6 Reyna Jazmin Martinez-Arriaga1 1Department of Health Sciences, University Centre of Tonala, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 2Department of Psychology, Division of Health Sciences, Campus Leon, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, 3Department of Public Health, University Centre for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, 4Paediatric Hospital, Western National Medical Centre, Mexican Social Security Institute, 5Departament of Physiology, University Centre for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 6Department of Psychology, Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico Background: The transtheoretical model (TTM has been widely used to promote healthy behaviors in different groups. However, a questionnaire has not yet been developed to evaluate the health behaviors that medical practitioners often consider in individuals with cancer or at a high risk of developing cancer.Purpose: The aim of this study was to construct and validate the Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (HBSCQ, which is based on the TTM and health recommendations related to risk and factors that protect against cancer. Methods: Content validity was conducted in two phases (qualitative and quantitative. Item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and discrimination coefficient were obtained based on the classical test theory. Finally, Cronbach’s alpha was used.Results: Measure of concordance showed scores considered adequate and excellent. The item discrimination index obtained a rating of “excellent” and suggested the preservation of all items. The discrimination coefficient scores are >0.74. The global internal consistency of the HBSCQ was 0.384. HBSCQ specification between groups of internal consistency for the

  7. Long-term changes in ADAS-cog: what is clinically relevant for disease modifying trials in Alzheimer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellas, B; Andrieu, S; Cantet, C; Dartigues, J F; Gauthier, S

    2007-01-01

    With the development of long-term disease modifying trials, changes in ADAS-Cog at 18 months will rise certainly many questions. We decided to look in the Real.fr study at the links between changes in cognition, ADAS-Cog and function. A total of 346 Alzheimer's patients with ADAS-cog at entry and at 18 months. were eligible for this analysis. These patients were on average 77.44 years old and 254 (72.36%) were women. The great majority lived at home and about 93% were treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor at baseline. Thirty three patients (9%) had a gain of more than 2 points at the ADAS-cog at 18 months (Group I, improvement); 130 (38%) were considered as stable, the reference group (Group II ) characterized by a stability at the ADAS-cog: decline of 2 points to gain of 2 points, 112 subjects (32%) had a moderate decline between 2 and 7 at the ADAScog (Group III) and finally 71 subjects (21%) had a severe impairment more than seven points at the ADAS-cog. A loss of one Basic ADL is certainly highly relevant, and such a change was found at 18 months in more than half of the subjects, which is not surprising for a long-term evolution in mild to moderate AD. An impairment of more than 7 points at the ADAS-cog was found in 21% of the subjects at 18 months and was associated with loss.

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in plant hydraulic traits and their relevance for climate change impacts on vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R L

    2015-02-01

    Plant hydraulics mediate terrestrial woody plant productivity, influencing global water, carbon, and biogeochemical cycles, as well as ecosystem vulnerability to drought and climate change. While inter-specific differences in hydraulic traits are widely documented, intra-specific hydraulic variability is less well known and is important for predicting climate change impacts. Here, I present a conceptual framework for this intra-specific hydraulic trait variability, reviewing the mechanisms that drive variability and the consequences for vegetation response to climate change. I performed a meta-analysis on published studies (n = 33) of intra-specific variation in a prominent hydraulic trait - water potential at which 50% stem conductivity is lost (P50) - and compared this variation to inter-specific variability within genera and plant functional types used by a dynamic global vegetation model. I found that intra-specific variability is of ecologically relevant magnitudes, equivalent to c. 33% of the inter-specific variability within a genus, and is larger in angiosperms than gymnosperms, although the limited number of studies highlights that more research is greatly needed. Furthermore, plant functional types were poorly situated to capture key differences in hydraulic traits across species, indicating a need to approach prediction of drought impacts from a trait-based, rather than functional type-based perspective.

  9. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy

    2013-06-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: a survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government׳s policy-making, service provider׳s guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents׳ perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of the proposed policies with local

  11. Coordinated neural, behavioral, and phenomenological changes in perceptual plasticity through overtraining of synesthetic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Schwartzman, David J; Bor, Daniel; Seth, Anil K

    2018-01-31

    Synesthesia is associated with additional perceptual experiences, which are automatically and consistently triggered by specific inducing stimuli. Synesthesia is also accompanied by more general sensory and cortical changes, including enhanced modality-specific cortical excitability. Extensive cognitive training has been shown to generate synesthesia-like phenomenology but whether these experiences are accompanied by neurophysiological changes characteristic of synesthesia remains unknown. Addressing this question provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the neural basis of perceptual plasticity relevant to conscious experiences. Here we investigate whether extensive training of letter-color associations leads not only to synesthetic experiences, but also to changes in cortical excitability. We confirm that overtraining synesthetic associations results in synesthetic phenomenology. Stroop tasks further reveal synesthesia-like performance following training. Electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation show, respectively, enhanced visual evoked potentials (in response to untrained patterns) and lower phosphene thresholds, demonstrating specific cortical changes. An active (using letter-symbol training) and a passive control confirmed these results were due to letter-color training and not simply to repeated testing. Summarizing, we demonstrate specific cortical changes, following training-induced acquisition of synesthetic phenomenology that are characteristic of genuine synesthesia. Collectively, our data reveal dramatic plasticity in human visual perception, expressed through a coordinated set of behavioral, neurophysiological, and phenomenological changes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in Pilot Behavior with Predictive System Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, changes in pilot behavior associated with using this predictive information have not been ascertained. The study described here quantified these changes using three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and three initial time intervals until a parameter alert range was reached (ITIs) (1 minute, 5 minutes, and 15 minutes). With predictive information, subjects accomplished most of their tasks before an alert occurred. Subjects organized the time they did their tasks by locus-of-control with no predictive information and for the 1-minute ITI, and by aviatenavigate-communicate for the time for a parameter to reach an alert range and the 15-minute conditions. Overall, predictive information and the longer ITIs moved subjects to performing tasks before the alert actually occurred and had them more mission oriented as indicated by their tasks grouping of aviate-navigate-communicate.

  13. Changes in Thai sexual behavior lower HIV spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-02

    More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.

  14. Accounting standard changes and foreign analyst behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in foreign analyst behavior before and after Chinese New Accounting Standards was implemented during 2007. The empirical results show that after the new accounting standards were implemented, forecast error among foreign analysts decreased in both absolute and relative terms in comparison with domestic analysts, and foreign analysts forecast earnings more frequently than they did before the new accounting standards. These results imply that the implementation of new accounting standards in the Chinese capital market helped mitigate both information asymmetry between listed firms in China and foreign investors, and the “home bias” of foreign analysts. It also increased the attractiveness of listed firms and facilitated international communication and cooperation. This study also has significant implications for how resource allocation efficiency in the Chinese capital market can be raised and how the “introducing in” policy should be assessed.

  15. Monitoring long-term ecological changes through the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network: science-based and policy relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, H; Brydges, T; Fenech, A; Lumb, A

    2001-01-01

    Ecological monitoring and its associated research programs have often provided answers to various environmental management issues. In the face of changing environmental conditions, ecological monitoring provides decision-makers with reliable information as they grapple with maintaining a sustainable economy and healthy environment. The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN) is a national ecological monitoring network consisting of (1) about 100 case study sites across the country characterized by long-term multi-disciplinary environmental work conducted by a multitude of agencies (142 partners and counting); (2) a variety of less comprehensive yet more extensive monitoring sites; (3) a network where core monitoring variables of ecosystem change are measured; and (4) geo-referenced environmental observations. Environment Canada is the co-ordinating partner for the network through the EMAN Co-ordinating Office. EMAN's mission is to focus a scientifically-sound, policy-relevant ecosystem monitoring and research network based on (a) stabilizing a network of case-study sites operated by a variety of partners, and (b) developing a number of cooperative dispersed monitoring initiatives in order to deliver unique and needed goods and services. These goods and services include: (1) an efficient and cost-effective early warning system which detects, describes and reports on changes in Canadian ecosystems at a national or ecozone scale; and (2) cross-disciplinary and cross-jurisdictional assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes. The early warning system and assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes provide Environment Canada and partner organizations with timely information that facilitates increasingly adaptive policies and priority setting. Canadians are also informed of changes and trends occurring in Canadian ecosystems and, as a result, are better able to make decisions related to conservation and sustainability.

  16. Assessing schizophrenia-relevant cognitive and social deficits in mice: a selection of mouse behavioral tasks and potential therapeutic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Sung; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Wong, Wan-Rong; Pei, Ju-Chun; Chen, Ya-Shan; Hung, Wei-Li

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders are generally diagnosed based on a collection of symptoms defined by a combination of an individual's feelings, perceptions, and behaviors. Many of these disorders are characterized by specific cognitive and social deficits. Although it is nearly impossible to recapitulate the full phenotypic spectrum of schizophrenia in mice, mouse models play an indispensable role in understanding the pathogenesis of this disorder and the development of new therapeutics. Genetic mouse models of schizophrenia and mouse behavioral tests provide a feasible approach for elucidating causal relationships between susceptibility gene(s) and schizophrenia-related symptoms. There has been a proliferation of studies characterizing basic behavioral phenotypes in mice. Since there is no way to completely model human psychiatric symptoms in mice, the major role of behavioral tests is to provide insights into underlying affected circuitry and pathophysiology. Given that the recovery of cognitive and social abilities significantly benefits functional outcomes, there has been an increasing interest in characterizing cognitive and social functions in mutant mice; however, these functions are not easy to measure. In this review, a selection of conventional behavioral tasks was briefly described and three specific behavioral tasks aimed at characterizing social communication, attentional function, and choice behavior in mice were highlighted. The choice of specific behavioral tasks during experimental planning should take into consideration a variety of factors, including their validity, reliability, sensitivity, utility, and specificity. Based upon the hypothetical hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated signaling pathways in the involvement of cognitive and social impairments in schizophrenia, three NMDAR-related compounds/drugs, D-serine, sarcosine, and D-cycloserine, are discussed as an example.

  17. Advances in Understanding Energy Consumption Behavior and the Governance of Its Change – Outline of an Integrated Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Paul; Bezençon, Valéry; Bornemann, Basil; Brosch, Tobias; Carabias-Hütter, Vicente; Farsi, Mehdi; Hille, Stefanie Lena; Moser, Corinne; Ramseier, Céline; Samuel, Robin; Sander, David; Schmidt, Stephan; Sohre, Annika; Volland, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1) it systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e., the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda); (2) it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia); (3) it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences, the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research.

  18. Advances in Understanding Energy Consumption Behavior and the Governance of Its Change – Outline of an Integrated Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Paul, E-mail: paul.burger@unibas.ch [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Bezençon, Valéry [Enterprise Institute, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Bornemann, Basil [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Brosch, Tobias [Department of Psychology, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Carabias-Hütter, Vicente [Institute of Sustainable Development, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Farsi, Mehdi [Institute of Economic Research, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Hille, Stefanie Lena [Institute for Economy and the Environment, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Moser, Corinne [Institute of Sustainable Development, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Ramseier, Céline [Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Samuel, Robin [Institute of Sociology, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Social Research and Methodology Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Sander, David [Department of Psychology, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Schmidt, Stephan; Sohre, Annika [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Volland, Benjamin [Institute of Economic Research, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1) it systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e., the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda); (2) it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia); (3) it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences, the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research.

  19. Intra-accumbens Raclopride Administration Prevents Behavioral Changes Induced by Intermittent Access to Sucrose Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué O. Suárez-Ortiz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS, it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sugar binging induced by intermittent access to a sucrose solution produced changes in the structure of feeding behavior and whether blocking D2 receptors prevented these changes. We used the intermittent access model to a 10% sucrose solution (2 h/day for 4 weeks to induce sugar binging in Sprague Dawley female rats. Experimental subjects consumed in a 2-h period more than 50% of the caloric intake consumed by the subjects with ad-lib access to the sweetened solution without any increase in body weight or fat accumulation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether sugar binging was associated to the estrous cycle and we did not find differences in caloric intake (estrous vs. diestrus. Subsequently, we characterized the structure of feeding behavior (microstructural analysis and the motivation for palatable food (breakpoints of the subjects with sugar binging and found that feeding episodes had short latencies, high frequencies, as well as short durations and inter-episode intervals. The intermittent access model did not increase breakpoints, as occurred in subjects with ad-lib access to the sucrose. Finally, we evaluated the effects of D2 receptor blockade in the NAcS, and found that raclopride (18 nM prevented the observed changes in the frequency and duration of

  20. Intra-accumbens Raclopride Administration Prevents Behavioral Changes Induced by Intermittent Access to Sucrose Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ortiz, Josué O; Cortés-Salazar, Felipe; Malagón-Carrillo, Ariadna L; López-Alonso, Verónica E; Mancilla-Díaz, Juan M; Tejas-Juárez, Juan G; Escartín-Pérez, Rodrigo E

    2018-01-01

    Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sugar binging induced by intermittent access to a sucrose solution produced changes in the structure of feeding behavior and whether blocking D2 receptors prevented these changes. We used the intermittent access model to a 10% sucrose solution (2 h/day for 4 weeks) to induce sugar binging in Sprague Dawley female rats. Experimental subjects consumed in a 2-h period more than 50% of the caloric intake consumed by the subjects with ad-lib access to the sweetened solution without any increase in body weight or fat accumulation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether sugar binging was associated to the estrous cycle and we did not find differences in caloric intake (estrous vs. diestrus). Subsequently, we characterized the structure of feeding behavior (microstructural analysis) and the motivation for palatable food (breakpoints) of the subjects with sugar binging and found that feeding episodes had short latencies, high frequencies, as well as short durations and inter-episode intervals. The intermittent access model did not increase breakpoints, as occurred in subjects with ad-lib access to the sucrose. Finally, we evaluated the effects of D2 receptor blockade in the NAcS, and found that raclopride (18 nM) prevented the observed changes in the frequency and duration of episodes induced by

  1. Evidence that implementation intentions reduce drivers' speeding behavior: testing a new intervention to change driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Sarah E; Elliott, Mark A; Kelly, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Implementation intentions have the potential to break unwanted habits and help individuals behave in line with their goal intentions. We tested the effects of implementation intentions in the context of drivers' speeding behavior. A randomized controlled design was used. Speeding behavior, goal intentions and theoretically derived motivational pre-cursors of goal intentions were measured at both baseline and follow-up (one month later) using self-report questionnaires. Immediately following the baseline questionnaire, the experimental (intervention) group (N=117) specified implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet, which required the participants to link critical situations in which they were tempted to speed with goal-directed responses to resist the temptation. The control group (N=126) instead received general information about the risks of speeding. In support of the hypotheses, the experimental group reported exceeding the speed limit significantly less often at follow-up than did the control group. This effect was specific to 'inclined abstainers' (i.e., participants who reported speeding more than they intended to at baseline and were therefore motivated to reduce their speeding) and could not be attributed to any changes in goal intentions to speed or any other measured motivational construct. Also in line with the hypotheses, implementation intentions attenuated the past-subsequent speeding behavior relationship and augmented the goal intention - subsequent speeding behavior relationship. The findings imply that implementation intentions are effective at reducing speeding and that they do so by weakening the effect of habit, thereby helping drivers to behave in accordance with their existing goal intentions. The volitional help sheet used in this study is an effective tool for promoting implementation intentions to reduce speeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The NIH Science of Behavior Change Program: Transforming the science through a focus on mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Riddle, Melissa; King, Jonathan W; Aklin, Will M; Chen, Wen; Clark, David; Collier, Elaine; Czajkowski, Susan; Esposito, Layla; Ferrer, Rebecca; Green, Paige; Hunter, Christine; Kehl, Karen; King, Rosalind; Onken, Lisa; Simmons, Janine M; Stoeckel, Luke; Stoney, Catherine; Tully, Lois; Weber, Wendy

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation. These principles serve as the foundation for our vision for a unified science of behavior change at the NIH and in the broader research community. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Deconstructing interventions: approaches to studying behavior change techniques across obesity interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, Deborah F.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Matheson, Donna; Moore, Shirley M.; Loria, Catherine M.; Pratt, Charlotte; Ward, Dianne S.; Belle, Steven H.; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Deconstructing interventions into the specific techniques that are used to change behavior represents a new frontier in behavioral intervention research. This paper considers opportunities and challenges in employing the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1) developed by Michie and colleagues, to code the behavior change techniques (BCTs) across multiple interventions addressing obesity and capture dose received at the technique level. Numerous advantages were recognized for using a sh...

  4. Designing Serious Video Games for Health Behavior Change: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which per...

  5. Effects of a self-monitoring device on socially relevant behaviors in adolescents with Asperger disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Heath, Amy K; Davis, John L; Vannest, Kimberley J

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of two case studies. Two middle school-aged participants with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders were taught to self-monitor behaviors impacting their social acceptance by peers in their general education settings: oral self-stimulatory behaviors and conversation skills. Results indicate that the intervention was effective to some degree with both participants. As a result of the self-monitoring intervention, one participant decreased self-stimulatory behaviors; however, his data were highly variable throughout the study though lower on average during intervention than in baseline. The other participant's targeted skills in communication were only slightly improved. Self-monitoring using a vibrating reminder appears to be a low-cost intervention with high levels of social acceptability, low training requirements for teachers or students, and no social stigma.

  6. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  7. Changes in Sexual and Behavioral Relationships among Couples during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoja

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a distinct period in the life of all of women leading to hormonal and physical changes. The changes could affect theirsexuality and behavioral relationship during pregnancy. Lack of adequate information about relationships between couples may cause feelings of tension and discomfort during pregnancy. With regard to the importance of this matter and limited research in this area, the study aimed atexploring women’ sexual relationships during pregnancy.

     

    Methods: This qualitative-descriptive study wascarried out in Gorgan. Open ended interviews were conducted with 51 pregnant women who had referred to the clinic at a teaching hospital in Gorgan (Deziani. All interviews were tape recorded. The data were coded and categorized as is usual in qualitative methods.

     

    Results: In this research, 73% of the women reported low libido during pregnancy. All of the participants refused having intercourse during pregnancy for many reasons, such as concern about baby health, abortion, pain and discomfort due to a big abdomen. Most of the participants made some changes in their coitus position. The most common position for 45% of them during intercourse was "rear position”. All of the women stated that they hadexperienced asense ofbelonging and attachment to their spouses more than before. They had experienced the need to have more emotional care.

     

    Conclusion: According to this study the women face an increase in emotional needs and adecrease in sexual drive. Showing less sexual feelings may be due to personal and cultural beliefs. Appropriate education would probablybe helpful for the married couples.

  8. Changes in Sexual and Behavioral Relationships among Couples during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanagoo A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a distinct period in the life of all of women leading to hormonal and physical changes. The changes could affect theirsexuality and behavioral relationship during pregnancy. Lack of adequate information about relationships between couples may cause feelings of tension and discomfort during pregnancy. With regard to the importance of this matter and limited research in this area, the study aimed atexploring women’ sexual relationships during pregnancy.Methods: This qualitative-descriptive study wascarried out in Gorgan. Open ended interviews were conducted with 51 pregnant women who had referred to the clinic at a teaching hospital in Gorgan (Deziani. All interviews were tape recorded. The data were coded and categorized as is usual in qualitative methods.Results: In this research, 73% of the women reported low libido during pregnancy. All of the participants refused having intercourse during pregnancy for many reasons, such as concern about baby health, abortion, pain and discomfort due to a big abdomen. Most of the participants made some changes in their coitus position. The most common position for 45% of them during intercourse was "rear position”. All of the women stated that they hadexperienced asense ofbelonging and attachment to their spouses more than before. They had experienced the need to have more emotional care.Conclusion: According to this study the women face an increase in emotional needs and adecrease in sexual drive. Showing less sexual feelings may be due to personal and cultural beliefs. Appropriate education would probablybe helpful for the married couples.

  9. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  10. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Junni, E-mail: junxinni@163.com [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Hansen, Alana, E-mail: alana.hansen@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Zhang, Ying, E-mail: ying.zhang@sydney.edu.au [Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, Hong [Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiyuan 030001 Shanxi (China); Liu, Qiyong, E-mail: liuqiyong@icdc.cn [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Sun, Yehuan, E-mail: yhsun@sina.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, Anhui (China); Bi, Peng, E-mail: peng.bi@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  11. The Integrated Gateway Model: a catalytic approach to behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Skinner, Joanna; Takruri, Adel; Storey, Douglas

    2015-08-01

    To develop and test an Integrated Gateway Model of behaviors and factors leading to subsequent positive reproductive, maternal, and child health behaviors. A secondary analysis was conducted using previously published household survey data collected from men (n=5551; 2011) and women (n=16144; 2011) in Nigeria and women in Egypt (n=2240; 2004-2007). The number of health behaviors each potential gateway behavior predicted was assessed by multivariate regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The influence of gateway factors on gateway behaviors was tested via interaction terms. Gateway behaviors and factors were ranked by the number of health outcomes predicted, both separately and synergistically. The key gateway behavior identified in both datasets was spousal communication about family planning, whereas the key gateway factor was exposure to family planning messages. The model could facilitate innovative research and programming that in turn might promote cascades of positive behaviors in reproductive, maternal, and child health. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Social behavior in deer mice as a novel interactive paradigm of relevance for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    Greater obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom severity may be associated with poor social adjustment. Rather than possessing deficits in social skill per se, OCD patients may be more socially isolative in the presence of normal controls. We aimed to apply a novel social interaction challenge (SIC) to an established animal model of OCD, viz., the deer mouse, to assess complex social behavior in animals by investigating group sociability and its response to chronic escitalopram treatment (50 mg/kg/day × 28 days), both within and between non (N)- (viz., normal) and high (H)- (viz., OCD-like) stereotypical cohorts. Using automated screening, we scored approach behavior, episodes of proximity, duration of proximity, and relative net weighted movement. H animals socialized more with one another within cohort in all of the above parameters compared to the within-cohort behavior of N animals. Furthermore, the social behavior of H animals toward one another, both within and between cohort demonstrated significant improvements following chronic escitalopram treatment. However, the study also demonstrates that the social interaction between H and N animals remain poor even after chronic escitalopram treatment. To conclude, findings from the current investigation support clinical data demonstrating altered sociability in patients with OCD.

  13. Sedentary behavior: target for change, challenge to assess

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberger, M

    2012-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is not a new topic, but trying to examine the direct links between sedentary behavior and health outcomes, independent of time spent in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, is a relatively new addition to the relationships between physical activity and health. Defining sedentary behavior as a risk factor and target for intervention opens up novel avenues for disease prevention and health promotion. The relationship between sedentary behavior and obesity is co...

  14. Computer-supported feedback message tailoring: theory-informed adaptation of clinical audit and feedback for learning and behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Lewis, Zach; Brehaut, Jamie C; Hochheiser, Harry; Douglas, Gerald P; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2015-01-21

    Evidence shows that clinical audit and feedback can significantly improve compliance with desired practice, but it is unclear when and how it is effective. Audit and feedback is likely to be more effective when feedback messages can influence barriers to behavior change, but barriers to change differ across individual health-care providers, stemming from differences in providers' individual characteristics. The purpose of this article is to invite debate and direct research attention towards a novel audit and feedback component that could enable interventions to adapt to barriers to behavior change for individual health-care providers: computer-supported tailoring of feedback messages. We argue that, by leveraging available clinical data, theory-informed knowledge about behavior change, and the knowledge of clinical supervisors or peers who deliver feedback messages, a software application that supports feedback message tailoring could improve feedback message relevance for barriers to behavior change, thereby increasing the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions. We describe a prototype system that supports the provision of tailored feedback messages by generating a menu of graphical and textual messages with associated descriptions of targeted barriers to behavior change. Supervisors could use the menu to select messages based on their awareness of each feedback recipient's specific barriers to behavior change. We anticipate that such a system, if designed appropriately, could guide supervisors towards giving more effective feedback for health-care providers. A foundation of evidence and knowledge in related health research domains supports the development of feedback message tailoring systems for clinical audit and feedback. Creating and evaluating computer-supported feedback tailoring tools is a promising approach to improving the effectiveness of clinical audit and feedback.

  15. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  16. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  17. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  18. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-02-22

    Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. © 2011 Epstein et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paluch Rocco A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. Results The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. Conclusions These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00962247

  20. Longitudinal Sedentary Behavior Changes in Adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trang, N.H.H.D.; Hong, T.K.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Hardy, L.L.; Kelly, P.J.; Dibley, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sedentary behavior is associated with increased risk of chronic disease and sedentary behavior is increasing among adolescents. Data on changes in sedentary behavior in developing countries are limited. Purpose: To describe 5-year longitudinal changes in nonschool sedentary hours among

  1. Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to Understand Physicians' Behaviors and Behavior Change in Using Temporary Work Modifications for Return to Work: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horppu, Ritva; Martimo, K P; MacEachen, E; Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Applying the theoretical domains framework (TDF) and the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) to understand physicians' behaviors and behavior change in using temporary work modifications (TWMs) for return to work (RTW). Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 occupational physicians (OPs). Responses were coded using the TDF and the BCW. Results Key behaviors related to applying TWMs were initiating the process with the employee, making recommendations to the workplace, and following up the process. OP behaviors were influenced by several factors related to personal capability and motivation, and opportunities provided by the physical and social environment. Capability comprised relevant knowledge and skills related to applying TWMs, remembering to initiate TWMS and monitor the process, and being accustomed to reflective practice. Opportunity comprised physical resources (e.g., time, predefined procedures, and availability of modified work at companies), and social pressure from stakeholders. Motivation comprised conceptions of a proper OP role, confidence to carry out TWMs, personal RTW-related goals, beliefs about the outcomes of one's actions, feedback received from earlier cases, and feelings related to applying TWMs. OPs' perceived means to target these identified factors were linked to the following BCW intervention functions: education, training, persuasion, environmental restructuring, and enablement. The results suggest that at least these functions should be considered when designing future interventions. Conclusions Our study illustrates how theoretical frameworks TDF and BCW can be utilized in a RTW context to understand which determinants of physicians' behavior need to be targeted, and how, to promote desired behaviors.

  2. Depletion of adult neurogenesis using the chemotherapy drug temozolomide in mice induces behavioural and biological changes relevant to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, M; Guinaudie, C; Du Preez, A; Musaelyan, K; Zunszain, P A; Fernandes, C; Pariante, C M; Thuret, S

    2017-04-25

    Numerous studies have examined links between postnatal neurogenesis and depression using a range of experimental methods to deplete neurogenesis. The antimitotic drug temozolomide (TMZ) has previously been used successfully as an experimental tool in animals to deplete adult neurogenesis and is used regularly on human patients as a standard chemotherapy for brain cancer. In this study, we wanted to evaluate whether TMZ as a model for chemotherapy treatment could affect parameters related to depression in an animal model. Prevalence rates of depression in patients is thought to be highly underdiagnosed, with some studies reporting rates as high as 90%. Results from this study in mice, treated with a regimen of TMZ similar to humans, exhibited behavioural and biochemical changes that have relevance to the development of depression. In particular, behavioural results demonstrated robust deficits in processing novelty and a significant increase in the corticosterone response. Quantification of neurogenesis using a novel sectioning method, which clearly evaluates dorsal and ventral neurogenesis separately, showed a significant correlation between the level of ventral neurogenesis and the corticosterone response. Depression is a complex disorder with discoveries regarding its neurobiology and how it relates to behaviour being only in their infancy. The findings presented in this study demonstrate that chemotherapy-induced decreases in neurogenesis results in previously unreported behavioural and biochemical consequences. These results, we argue, are indicative of a biological mechanism, which may contribute to the development of depression in patients being treated with chemotherapy and is separate from the mental distress resulting from a cancer diagnosis.

  3. Concordance between Stages of Behavior Change Questionnaire and IPAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A low rate of physical activity (PA participation is observed worldwide. The identification of feasible and reliable instruments able to accurately measuring PA and help in the development of interventions to promote PA are necessary. This study aimed to analyze the concordance between the Stages of Behavior Change Questionnaire (SBCQ and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ long-version in assessing adult leisure-time physical activity (LTPA. A total of 1.588 adults completed the IPAQ to assess LTPA and the participants who performed more than 10 min/week were classified in active individuals. Using the SBCQ, active individuals were those classified in the action or maintenance stage and inactive individuals were those classified in the precontemplation, contemplation or preparation stage. The concordance between SBCQ and IPAQ was found to be 0.80. Separated by gender, it was observed a concordance between the two instruments of 0.82 for women, and 0.77 for men. Regarding age group, it was found to be 0.81 for young and middle-aged adults, and 0.77 for older people. The SBCQ presented a very good concordance with IPAQ to assess LTPA.

  4. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  5. Anaerobic Digesters Change the Phosphorus Leaching Behavior of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjerison, R.; Gooch, C.; Pronto, J.; Walter, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed how anaerobic digestion of dairy manure might change the amount, form, and rate of phosphorus (P) leached by rainfall. Anaerobic digestion has become an increasingly popular manure management option because it generates methane that can be used to make energy, but little is known about the behavior of P when digested manure is applied to fields. Leaching experiments were performed using simulated rainfall on digester influent (undigested manure) and effluent (digested manure) collected from a dairy farm near Ithaca, NY. A previously published manure-P model was applied to the experimental data to quantify rates of P leaching. Dissolved P-leaching from digested and undigested manures were similar to each other, although digested manures appear to generally leach more dissolved P. Interestingly, both digester influent and effluent leached dissolved P more rapidly and in greater quantities than fresh manure, i.e., manure from a dairy barn floor. It is suggested that the key difference between the liquid manures in this study and “fresh” manure is that fresh manure has a higher solids content, i.e., it is less liquid than the manure used in anaerobic digesters. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to avoid field spreading of liquid manures when rainfall is imminent or fields are wet in order to prevent nonpoint P loading to streams and lakes.

  6. Educating dental students about diet-related behavior change: does experiential learning work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George W; Stumpos, Madelyn L; Kerschbaum, Wendy; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether an experiential exercise in a nutrition class would a) increase dental students' motivation to change their own diet-related behavior, b) improve their understanding of theoretical concepts related to behavior change, and c) improve their attitudes towards educating their patients about diet-related behavior. Data were collected from 218 senior dental students in one dental school (2010: 106; 2011: 112) during their nutrition class. The students agreed at the beginning that it was important to change their own diet-related behavior. After one week, the majority agreed that they had changed how they felt and thought about the targeted behavior and what they actually did. After three weeks and at the end of the term, they rated the exercise as helpful for gaining a better understanding of health education theories. The majority indicated that the exercise had helped them understand the difficulty of diet-related behavior change and that it had increased their interest in helping patients change their diet-related behavior. In conclusion, this study suggests that experiential learning about diet-related behavior change is likely to affect students' own behavior positively and to result in increased understanding of behavior change theories and positive behavioral intentions concerning future health education efforts with patients.

  7. Strategies to Position Behavior Analysis as the Contemporary Science of What Works in Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    The negative perception of behavior analysis by the public, and conveyed in mass media, is well-recognized by the professional community of behavior analysts. Several strategies for correcting this perception have been deployed in the field by organizational behavior management practitioners, in particular, with encouraging results. These strategies include (a) reframing behaviorism in a more resonant format, (b) pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals, and...

  8. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  9. Change leadership behaviors to change performance results: the foundation of top customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephanie G

    2002-01-01

    Raising customer satisfaction in health-care organizations has been a priority for the past 5 years or more. Articles and books continue to be written on the topic and speeches and presentations are given to eager audiences of professionals who have a deep desire to improve customer satisfaction. Yet research indicates that customer satisfaction, on average, in the health-care industry barely has improved. This column will examine why some organizations, using the same best practice techniques and approaches for top customer satisfaction, achieve wonderful results as most others achieve meager results, at best. The answer to achieving top customer satisfaction lies in the leadership of the organization. When leaders change their thinking and behaviors, results will change.

  10. Promoting sustainable behavior change in body weight control

    OpenAIRE

    Camolas, José; Santos, Osvaldo; Moreira, Pedro; Carmo, Isabel do

    2014-01-01

    There is a wide acknowledgement of obesity as a relevant clinical entity. Such relevance can be inferred by the huge worldwide amount of research and related health promotion and clinical efforts. Though the evidence sustains some cues for the therapeutic success, the overall long-term effectiveness of obesity treatment tends to be not so satisfactory. Scientific literature is not unequivocal in key areas of nutritional intervention, such as the magnitude of caloric restriction, proportion...

  11. Behavioral changes during dental appointments in children having tooth extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonzalez Cademartori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extractions are associated with anxiety-related situations that can cause behavioral problems in pediatric dental clinics. Aim: We aimed to describe the behavior of children during tooth extraction appointments, compare it to their behavior in preceding and subsequent dental appointments, and assess the behavioral differences according to gender, age, type of dentition, and reason for extraction. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study based on information obtained from records of children between 6 and 13 years of age who were cared for at the Dentistry School in Pelotas, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Child behavior was assessed during the dental appointment that preceded the tooth extraction, during the tooth extraction appointment, and in the subsequent dental appointment using the Venham Behavior Rating Scale. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using the Pearson Chi-square and McNemar tests. Results: Eighty-nine children were included. Cooperative behavior prevailed in all the dental appointments. The prevalence of “mild/intense protest” was higher in the tooth extraction appointments than in the previous or subsequent dental appointments (P < 0.001. No significant differences in behavior were detected between the type of dentition (primary or permanent teeth, reason for extraction or gender. Conclusion: In this sample of children treated at a dental school, the occurrence of uncooperative behavior was higher during the tooth extraction appointments than in the preceding and subsequent dental appointments.

  12. Crowd-Designed Motivation: Motivational Messages for Exercise Adherence Based on Behavior Change Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.A.J.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Kwint, Sigrid; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Evers, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Developing motivational technology to support long-term behavior change is a challenge. A solution is to incorporate insights from behavior change theory and design technology to tailor to individual users. We carried out two studies to investigate whether the processes of change, from the

  13. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  14. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  15. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  16. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  17. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n=8 or no therapy (n=6. Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test, and the Nine-Hole Peg Test as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and one month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy but not in the absence of therapy to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  18. Human processing of behaviorally relevant and irrelevant absence of expected rewards: a high-resolution ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Nahum

    Full Text Available Acute lesions of the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC in humans may induce a state of reality confusion marked by confabulation, disorientation, and currently inappropriate actions. This clinical state is strongly associated with an inability to abandon previously valid anticipations, that is, extinction capacity. In healthy subjects, the filtering of memories according to their relation with ongoing reality is associated with activity in posterior medial OFC (area 13 and electrophysiologically expressed at 220-300 ms. These observations indicate that the human OFC also functions as a generic reality monitoring system. For this function, it is presumably more important for the OFC to evaluate the current behavioral appropriateness of anticipations rather than their hedonic value. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test. Participants performed a reversal learning task with intermittent absence of reward delivery. High-density evoked potential analysis showed that the omission of expected reward induced a specific electrocortical response in trials signaling the necessity to abandon the hitherto reward predicting choice, but not when omission of reward had no such connotation. This processing difference occurred at 200-300 ms. Source estimation using inverse solution analysis indicated that it emanated from the posterior medial OFC. We suggest that the human brain uses this signal from the OFC to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality.

  19. Morphology and Clinical Relevance of Vertebral Endplate Changes Following Limited Lumbar Discectomy With or Without Bone-anchored Annular Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursumovic, Adisa; Kienzler, Jenny C; Bouma, Gerrit J; Bostelmann, Richard; Heggeness, Michael; Thome, Claudius; Miller, Larry E; Barth, Martin

    2018-03-13

    Post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial. To characterize the morphology and clinical relevance of vertebral endplate changes (VEPC) following limited lumbar discectomy with or without implantation of a bone-anchored annular closure device (ACD). Implantation of an ACD following limited lumbar discectomy has shown promise in reducing the risk of recurrent herniation in patients with large annular defects. However, the interaction between the ACD and the lumbar endplate over time is not well understood. Patients undergoing limited lumbar discectomy with large postsurgical annular defects were randomized intraoperatively to receive additional ACD implantation or limited lumbar discectomy only (Controls). VEPC morphology, area, and volume were assessed with low-dose computed tomography preoperatively and at 1 and 2 years follow-up. Of 554 randomized patients, the as-treated population consisted of 550 patients (267 ACD, 283 Controls). VEPC were preoperatively identified in 18% of patients in the ACD group and in 15% of Controls. At 2 years, VEPC frequency increased to 85% with ACD and 33% in Controls. Device- or procedure-related serious adverse event (8% vs. 17%, P = 0.001) and secondary surgical intervention (5% vs. 13%, P ACD group over Controls. In the ACD group, clinical outcomes were comparable in patients with and without VEPC at 2 years follow-up. In the Control group, patients with VEPC at 2 years had higher risk of symptomatic reherniation versus patients without VEPC (35% vs. 19%, P ACD reduces risk of postoperative complications despite a greater frequency of VEPC. VEPC were associated with higher risk of symptomatic reherniation in patients treated with limited lumbar discectomy, but not in those who received additional ACD implantation. 2.

  20. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricard, Damien; Legleye, Stéphane; Khlat, Myriam

    2017-06-07

    The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation) and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP) survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  1. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Bricard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  2. A chaotic view of behavior change: a quantum leap for health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Resnicow, Ken; Vaughan, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The study of health behavior change, including nutrition and physical activity behaviors, has been rooted in a cognitive-rational paradigm. Change is conceptualized as a linear, deterministic process where individuals weigh pros and cons, and at the point at which the benefits outweigh the cost change occurs. Consistent with this paradigm, the associated statistical models have almost exclusively assumed a linear relationship between psychosocial predictors and behavior. S...

  3. Changes in brain dopamine levels and aggressive behavior with aging in 2 mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, G M

    1977-05-15

    The genetic programming of brain monoamine changes with aging show remarkable differences in 2 mouse strains. A marked increase in dopamine occurred in 32-week-old grouped ICR mice and the males showed intense irritability and aggressive behavior. Brain amines changed only slightly in old C57BL6J mice and behavior remained benign. Old females showed similar amine changes but aggresive behavior did not occur in either strain.

  4. Gaze Behavior in a Natural Environment with a Task-Relevant Distractor: How the Presence of a Goalkeeper Distracts the Penalty Taker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kurz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaze behavior in natural scenes has been shown to be influenced not only by top–down factors such as task demands and action goals but also by bottom–up factors such as stimulus salience and scene context. Whereas gaze behavior in the context of static pictures emphasizes spatial accuracy, gazing in natural scenes seems to rely more on where to direct the gaze involving both anticipative components and an evaluation of ongoing actions. Not much is known about gaze behavior in far-aiming tasks in which multiple task-relevant targets and distractors compete for the allocation of visual attention via gaze. In the present study, we examined gaze behavior in the far-aiming task of taking a soccer penalty. This task contains a proximal target, the ball; a distal target, an empty location within the goal; and a salient distractor, the goalkeeper. Our aim was to investigate where participants direct their gaze in a natural environment with multiple potential fixation targets that differ in task relevance and salience. Results showed that the early phase of the run-up seems to be driven by both the salience of the stimulus setting and the need to perform a spatial calibration of the environment. The late run-up, in contrast, seems to be controlled by attentional demands of the task with penalty takers having habitualized a visual routine that is not disrupted by external influences (e.g., the goalkeeper. In addition, when trying to shoot a ball as accurately as possible, penalty takers directed their gaze toward the ball in order to achieve optimal foot-ball contact. These results indicate that whether gaze is driven by salience of the stimulus setting or by attentional demands depends on the phase of the actual task.

  5. Individual effects of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear behavior on stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Harrison, Michelle L; Size, Daniele D; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be detrimental to their welfare. These behaviors can be reduced through enrichment programs but are often not completely eliminated, so identifying potential triggers is important. The present study investigated the influences of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear activity on stereotypical behaviors exhibited by 3 captive polar bears at the Toronto Zoo. All bears exhibited these behaviors; however, individual differences were found in duration and form. The male exhibited less stereotypical behavior during spring, and the females exhibited less stereotypical behavior during winter. An increase in visitor density was associated with more stereotypical behavior in 1 female but less stereotypical behavior in the other 2 bears. All bears engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were inactive, and 1 female engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were out of sight. Further, when conspecifics were active, all bears engaged in less stereotypical behaviors. Given the variability among individual bears, future enrichment programs must be tailored to the needs of individuals to maximize efficacy.

  6. Use of Motivational Interview Technique with Transtheoretical Model for Behavioral Change in Smoking Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Taş, Filiz; Güngörmüş, Zeynep; Seviğ, Emine Ümit

    2016-01-01

    Smoking addiction is an important problem and disease for public health. Researches show that transtheoretical model which is used as a guide to make behavior change easy is one of guide model which would provide that individuals would understand better the reasons of changing and/or not changing with motivational interviews focused on change steps and would make behavior change easy. The goal of this article is to present sample interview plans as to make core knowledge for researchers/nurse...

  7. Reoperative Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review of the Reasons for Surgery, Medical and Weight Loss Outcomes, Relevant Behavioral Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Bastos, Ana; Conceição, Eva M; Machado, Paulo P P

    2017-10-01

    Reoperative surgery following the failure of primary bariatric surgery is increasing due to the significant rates of patients experiencing poor weight loss or medical complications. This literature review was conducted to organize the emerging, but scattered, literature regarding the reasons for undergoing surgery, the best available options, the predictors of success, and the psychological characteristics of patients submitted to reoperative surgeries. Reoperative procedures are technically challenging, but the possible benefits of reoperation supplant the increased risks associated with these procedures. The etiology of reasons for undergoing a second surgery includes medical (e.g., fistula, ulcer disease) and behavioral aspects. Factors that may compromise outcomes have not been much studied. Particular attention should be paid to candidates with a history of difficulties in engaging in healthy eating patterns.

  8. Inositol-deficient food augments a behavioral effect of long-term lithium treatment mediated by inositol monophosphatase inhibition: an animal model with relevance for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Liza; Agam, Galila; Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Yuly

    2015-04-01

    Lithium treatment in rodents markedly enhances cholinergic agonists such as pilocarpine. This effect can be reversed in a stereospecific manner by administration of inositol, suggesting that the effect of lithium is caused by inositol monophosphatase inhibition and consequent inositol depletion. If so, inositol-deficient food would be expected to enhance lithium effects. Inositol-deficient food was prepared from inositol-free ingredients. Mice with a homozygote knockout of the inositol monophosphatase 1 gene unable to synthesize inositol endogenously and mimicking lithium-treated animals were fed this diet or a control diet. Lithium-treated wild-type animals were also treated with the inositol-deficient diet or control diet. Pilocarpine was administered after 1 week of treatment, and behavior including seizures was assessed using rating scale. Inositol-deficient food-treated animals, both lithium treated and with inositol monophosphatase 1 knockout, had significantly elevated cholinergic behavior rating and significantly increased or earlier seizures compared with the controls. The effect of inositol-deficient food supports the role of inositol depletion in the effects of lithium on pilocarpine-induced behavior. However, the relevance of this behavior to other more mood-related effects of lithium is not clear.

  9. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balduino, Alex; Mello-Coelho, Valeria; Wang, Zhou; Taichman, Russell S.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Becker, Kevin G.; Mello, Wallace de; Taub, Dennis D.; Borojevic, Radovan

    2012-01-01

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the “quiescent” and “proliferative” niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  10. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balduino, Alex, E-mail: balduino@uva.edu.br [School of Dentistry, Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mello-Coelho, Valeria [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhou; Taichman, Russell S.; Krebsbach, Paul H. [Department of Periodontics, Prevention and Geriatrics, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Becker, Kevin G. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mello, Wallace de [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Taub, Dennis D. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Borojevic, Radovan [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the 'quiescent' and 'proliferative' niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  11. Dynamic changes in neurexins' alternative splicing: role of Rho-associated protein kinases and relevance to memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rozic

    Full Text Available The three neurexins genes (NRXN1/2/3 encode polymorphic synaptic membrane proteins that are involved in cognitive functioning. Neurexins' selectivity of function is presumably conferred through differential use of 2 promoters and 5 alternative splicing sites (SS#1/2/3/4/5. In day-old rat brain neurons grown in culture, activation (depolarization induces reversible, calcium dependent, repression of NRXN2α SS#3 insert. The effects of depolarization on NRXN1/2/3α splicing and biochemical pathways mediating them were further studied in these neurons. NRXN1/2/3α splicing in the course of memory formation in vivo was also explored, using fear conditioning paradigm in rats in which the animals were trained to associate an aversive stimulus (electrical shock with a neutral context (a tone, resulting in the expression of fear responses to the neutral context.In the cultured neurons depolarization induced, beside NRXN2α SS#3, repression of SS#3 and SS#4 exons in NRXN3α but not NRXN1α. The repressions were mediated by the calcium/protein kinase C/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK pathway. Fear conditioning induced significant and transient repressions of the NRXN1/2/3α SS#4 exons in the rat hippocampus. ROCK inhibition prior to training attenuated the behavioral fear response, the NRXN1/2/3α splicing repressions and subsequent recovery and the levels of excitatory (PSD95 and inhibitory (gephyrin synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. No such effects were observed in the prefrontal cortex. Significant correlations existed between the fear response and hippocampal NRXN3α and NRXN2α SS#4 inserts as well as PSD95 protein levels. Hippocampal NRXN1α SS#4 insert and gephyrin levels did not correlate with the behavioral response but were negatively correlated with each other.These results show for the first time dynamic, experience related changes in NRXN1/2/3α alternative splicing in the rat brain and a role for ROCK in them. Specific neurexins

  12. Shifts in foci and priorities. Different relevance of requirements to changing goals yields conflicting prioritizations and is viewpoint-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Breuker, M.E.; Kok, E.

    2006-01-01

    Stakeholders judge goal relevance and software-development project requirements differently, considering them from a business versus a personal viewpoint. Three empirical studies provided evidence that stakeholders' personal goals for a system are valued higher than business goals and that,

  13. Shifts in foci and priorities. Different relevance of requirements to changing goals yields conflicting priorizations and is viewpoint-dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Breuker, M.E.; Kok, E.

    2006-01-01

    Stakeholders judge goal relevance and software-development project requirements differently, considering them from a business versus a personal viewpoint. Three empirical studies provided evidence that stakeholders' personal goals for a system are valued higher than business goals and that,

  14. The Relevance of Big Five Trait Content in Behavior to Subjective Authenticity: Do High Levels of Within-Person Behavioral Variability Undermine or Enable Authenticity Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Wilt, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Individuals vary their behavior from moment to moment a great deal, often acting “out of character” for their traits. This article investigates the consequences for authenticity. We compared two hypotheses—trait consistency: individuals feel most authentic when acting in a way consistent with their traits; and state-content significance: some ways of acting feel more authentic because of their content and consequences, regardless of the actor’s corresponding traits. Three studies using experience-sampling methodology in laboratory and natural settings, with participants aged 18–51, strongly supported the state-content significance hypothesis and did not support the trait-consistency hypothesis. Authenticity was consistently associated with acting highly extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and intellectual, regardless of the actor’s traits. Discussion focuses on possible implications for within-person variability in behavior and for the nature of the self-concept. PMID:20545814

  15. [A cross-sectional study on the changes in dietary behavior stages in resident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang-wen; Ma, Hai-yan; Yang, Ting-zhong; Liu, Ting-jie

    2004-05-01

    To explore the possibility of applying the concept of various stages of dietary behavior changes in Hangzhou residents. The dietary behavior was surveyed and analyzed in 1 388 Hangzhou residents with 18 year-old and older using the various dietary behavior change model model and stages of change. The proportion of Hangzhou residents with unhealthy dietary behavior was high and associated with gender and education level. The changes of dietary behavior could be divided into 5 stages, i.e. preintention, intention, preparation, action and maintenance. These stages of change happen consecutively. The changes of unhealthy dietary behavior do not match the improvement of health knowledge. Although a significant proportion of the residents understand that it is unhealthy to eat too much fat, pickles and high salt food, there are only a few of them really take action to reduce the consumption of these foods and to consume more milk, fruit and vegetable. There are multiple factors that affect the changes of dietary behavior in people. The changes of dietary behavior occur in various consecutive stages. Different intervention measures should be applied to people in different dietary behavior changes.

  16. Playing for real: video games and stories for health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe I; Baranowski, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging and entertaining format. Twenty-seven articles were identified on 25 video games that promoted health-related behavior change through December 2006. Most of the articles demonstrated positive health-related changes from playing the video games. Variability in what was reported about the games and measures employed precluded systematically relating characteristics of the games to outcomes. Many of these games merged the immersive, attention-maintaining properties of stories and fantasy, the engaging properties of interactivity, and behavior-change technology (e.g., tailored messages, goal setting). Stories in video games allow for modeling, vicarious identifying experiences, and learning a story's "moral," among other change possibilities. Research is needed on the optimal use of game-based stories, fantasy, interactivity, and behavior change technology in promoting health-related behavior change.

  17. Behavior change interventions: the potential of ontologies for advancing science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kai R; Michie, Susan; Hekler, Eric B; Gibson, Bryan; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Ahern, David; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Ellis, Rebecca J Bartlett; Hesse, Bradford; Moser, Richard P; Yi, Jean

    2017-02-01

    A central goal of behavioral medicine is the creation of evidence-based interventions for promoting behavior change. Scientific knowledge about behavior change could be more effectively accumulated using "ontologies." In information science, an ontology is a systematic method for articulating a "controlled vocabulary" of agreed-upon terms and their inter-relationships. It involves three core elements: (1) a controlled vocabulary specifying and defining existing classes; (2) specification of the inter-relationships between classes; and (3) codification in a computer-readable format to enable knowledge generation, organization, reuse, integration, and analysis. This paper introduces ontologies, provides a review of current efforts to create ontologies related to behavior change interventions and suggests future work. This paper was written by behavioral medicine and information science experts and was developed in partnership between the Society of Behavioral Medicine's Technology Special Interest Group (SIG) and the Theories and Techniques of Behavior Change Interventions SIG. In recent years significant progress has been made in the foundational work needed to develop ontologies of behavior change. Ontologies of behavior change could facilitate a transformation of behavioral science from a field in which data from different experiments are siloed into one in which data across experiments could be compared and/or integrated. This could facilitate new approaches to hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery in behavioral science.

  18. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Using an Analysis of Behavior Change to Inform Effective Digital Intervention Design: How Did the PRIMIT Website Change Hand Hygiene Behavior Across 8993 Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, B; Steele, M; Stuart, B; Joseph, J; Miller, S; Morrison, L; Little, P; Yardley, L

    2017-06-01

    In designing digital interventions for healthcare, it is important to understand not just whether interventions work but also how and for whom-including whether individual intervention components have different effects, whether a certain usage threshold is required to change behavior in each intervention and whether usage differs across population subgroups. We investigated these questions using data from a large trial of the digital PRimary care trial of a website based Infection control intervention to Modify Influenza-like illness and respiratory tract infection Transmission) (PRIMIT) intervention, which aimed to reduce respiratory tract infections (RTIs) by increasing hand hygiene behavior. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires measured behaviors, intentions and attitudes in hand hygiene. In conjunction with objective measures of usage of the four PRIMIT sessions, we analysed these observational data to examine mechanisms of behavior change in 8993 intervention users. We found that the PRIMIT intervention changed behavior, intentions and attitudes, and this change was associated with reduced RTIs. The largest hand hygiene change occurred after the first session, with incrementally smaller changes after each subsequent session, suggesting that engagement with the core behavior change techniques included in the first session was necessary and sufficient for behavior change. The intervention was equally effective for men and women, older and younger people and was particularly effective for those with lower levels of education. Our well-powered analysis has implications for intervention development. We were able to determine a 'minimum threshold' of intervention engagement that is required for hand hygiene change, and we discuss the potential implications this (and other analyses of this type) may have for further intervention development. We also discuss the application of similar analyses to other interventions.

  20. Parents' obesity-related behavior and confidence to support behavioral change in their obese child: data from the STAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Impact of Information Technology on Patient Engagement and Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawesi, Suhila; Rashrash, Mohamed; Phalakornkule, Kanitha; Carpenter, Janet S; Jones, Josette F

    2016-01-21

    Advancements in information technology (IT) and its increasingly ubiquitous nature expand the ability to engage patients in the health care process and motivate health behavior change. Our aim was to systematically review the (1) impact of IT platforms used to promote patients' engagement and to effect change in health behaviors and health outcomes, (2) behavior theories or models applied as bases for developing these interventions and their impact on health outcomes, (3) different ways of measuring health outcomes, (4) usability, feasibility, and acceptability of these technologies among patients, and (5) challenges and research directions for implementing IT platforms to meaningfully impact patient engagement and health outcomes. PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were searched for studies published from 2000 to December 2014. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included papers, and potentially relevant studies were retrieved and assessed for eligibility based on predetermined inclusion criteria. A total of 170 articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. Overall, 88.8% (151/170) of studies showed positive impact on patient behavior and 82.9% (141/170) reported high levels of improvement in patient engagement. Only 47.1% (80/170) referenced specific behavior theories and only 33.5% (57/170) assessed the usability of IT platforms. The majority of studies used indirect ways to measure health outcomes (65.9%, 112/170). In general, the review has shown that IT platforms can enhance patient engagement and improve health outcomes. Few studies addressed usability of these interventions, and the reason for not using specific behavior theories remains unclear. Further research is needed to clarify these important questions. In addition, an assessment of these types of interventions should be conducted based on a common framework using a large variety of measurements; these measurements should include those related to motivation

  2. Behavioral changes in preschoolers treated with/without rotary instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Maru, Viral Pravin; Kumar, Amit; Badiyani, Bhumika Kamal; Sharma, Anant Raghav; Sharma, Jitendra; Dobariya, Chintan Vinodbhai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Behavioral dentistry is an interdisciplinary science which needs to be learned, practiced, and reinforced in order to provide quality dental care in children. Aim: To assess the anxiety experienced during dental treatment in preschool children with/without rotary instruments using behavioral scale. Study and Design: Sixty pediatric patients of preschool age with bilateral occlusal carious lesions extending into dentin were selected for the study. Carious lesions were removed using...

  3. Processes of behavior change and weight loss in a theory-based weight loss intervention program: a test of the process model for lifestyle behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Reddy, Prasuna; Perry, Rachel; Taylor, Gordon; Bennett, Paul; Dunbar, James; Greaves, Colin

    2015-01-16

    Process evaluation is important for improving theories of behavior change and behavioral intervention methods. The present study reports on the process outcomes of a pilot test of the theoretical model (the Process Model for Lifestyle Behavior Change; PMLBC) underpinning an evidence-informed, theory-driven, group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. 108 people at high risk of diabetes or heart disease were randomized to a group-based weight management intervention targeting diet and physical activity plus usual care, or to usual care. The intervention comprised nine group based sessions designed to promote motivation, social support, self-regulation and understanding of the behavior change process. Weight loss, diet, physical activity and theoretically defined mediators of change were measured pre-intervention, and after four and 12 months. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in fiber intake (M between-group difference = 5.7 g/day, p change, and the predicted mechanisms of change specified in the PMBLC were largely supported. Improvements in self-efficacy and understanding of the behavior change process were associated with engagement in coping planning and self-monitoring activities, and successful dietary change at four and 12 months. While participants reported improvements in motivational and social support variables, there was no effect of these, or of the intervention overall, on physical activity. The data broadly support the theoretical model for supporting some dietary changes, but not for physical activity. Systematic intervention design allowed us to identify where improvements to the intervention may be implemented to promote change in all proposed mediators. More work is needed to explore effective mechanisms within interventions to promote physical activity behavior.

  4. Weekly brief phone support in self-help cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia disorder: Relevance to adherence and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Chung, Ka-Fai; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee; Cheng, Sammy Kin-Wing

    2014-12-01

    Self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an acceptable, low-intensity treatment in a stepped care model for insomnia. We tested the application of self-help CBT-I in a Chinese population. 312 participants with self-report of insomnia associated with distress or daytime impairment 3 or more nights per week for at least 3 months were randomized to self-help CBT-I with telephone support (SHS), self-help CBT-I (SH) and waiting-list (WL). The program was Internet-based with treatment materials delivered once per week, and lasted for 6 consecutive weeks, while the telephone support was limited to 15 min weekly. Mixed-effects analyses found significant group by time interaction in sleep and sleep-related cognitions at immediate and 4-week posttreatment. Post-hoc pairwise comparison with WL revealed that both SHS and SH had significantly higher sleep efficiency at immediate (p = .004 and p = .03, respectively) and 4-week posttreatment (p = .002 and p = .02, respectively) and lower insomnia and dysfunctional beliefs scores. The SHS group had additional improvements in sleep onset latency and sleep quality. Benefits with self-help CBT-I were maintained at 12-week posttreatment, but attrition rate was about 35%. Internet-based self-help CBT-I was effective and acceptable for treating insomnia in the Chinese population. A brief telephone support further enhanced the efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Educational and Gender Differences in Health Behavior Changes After a Gateway Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Elaine M; Margolis, Rachel; Hummer, Robert A

    2018-03-01

    Hypertension represents a gateway diagnosis to more serious health problems that occur as people age. We examine educational differences in three health behavior changes people often make after receiving this diagnosis in middle or older age, and test whether these educational differences depend on (a) the complexity of the health behavior change and (b) gender. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study and conduct logistic regression analysis to examine the likelihood of modifying health behaviors post diagnosis. We find educational differences in three behavior changes-antihypertensive medication use, smoking cessation, and physical activity initiation-after a hypertension diagnosis. These educational differences in health behaviors were stronger among women compared with men. Upon receiving a hypertension diagnosis, education is a more important predictor of behavior changes for women compared with men, which may help explain gender differences in the socioeconomic gradient in health in the United States.

  6. Gamification: what it is and why it matters to digital health behavior change developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugelman, Brian

    2013-12-12

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria that can be used to assess when gamification provides a potentially promising framework for digital health interventions.

  7. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kathryn; Li, Melissa; Giangregorio, Lora; Burns, Catherine; Grindrod, Kelly

    2016-04-27

    Wearable activity trackers are promising as interventions that offer guidance and support for increasing physical activity and health-focused tracking. Most adults do not meet their recommended daily activity guidelines, and wearable fitness trackers are increasingly cited as having great potential to improve the physical activity levels of adults. The objective of this study was to use the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy to examine if the design of wearable activity trackers incorporates behavior change techniques (BCTs). A secondary objective was to critically analyze whether the BCTs present relate to known drivers of behavior change, such as self-efficacy, with the intention of extending applicability to older adults in addition to the overall population. Wearing each device for a period of 1 week, two independent raters used CALO-RE taxonomy to code the BCTs of the seven wearable activity trackers available in Canada as of March 2014. These included Fitbit Flex, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Jawbone UP24, Spark Activity Tracker by SparkPeople, Nike+ FuelBand SE, and Polar Loop. We calculated interrater reliability using Cohen's kappa. The average number of BCTs identified was 16.3/40. Withings Pulse had the highest number of BCTs and Misfit Shine had the lowest. Most techniques centered around self-monitoring and self-regulation, all of which have been associated with improved physical activity in older adults. Techniques related to planning and providing instructions were scarce. Overall, wearable activity trackers contain several BCTs that have been shown to increase physical activity in older adults. Although more research and development must be done to fully understand the potential of wearables as health interventions, the current wearable trackers offer significant potential with regard to BCTs relevant to uptake by all populations, including older adults.

  8. Climate change and environmentally responsible behavior on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee In Yoon; Gerard Kyle; Carena J. vanRiper; Stephen G. Sutton

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Australians' perceptions of climate change, its impact on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and predictors of environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Our hypothesized model suggested that general attitudes toward climate change, social pressure for engaging in ERBs (subjective norms), and perceived behavioral control (...

  9. Developing a Model of Health Behavior Change to Reduce Parasitic Disease in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suni; Do, Trina; Shaw, Christy; Brake, Kaile

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide more deaths occur due to conditions that can be ameliorated by behavior change. Changing health behaviors using models popularized in non-western countries has not proven particularly successful. The purpose of this study was to test variables elicited during qualitative interviews and cultural conversations to develop a model of health…

  10. Behavior change techniques in top-ranked mobile apps for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2014-06-01

    Mobile applications (apps) have potential for helping people increase their physical activity, but little is known about the behavior change techniques marketed in these apps. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior change techniques represented in online descriptions of top-ranked apps for physical activity. Top-ranked apps (n=167) were identified on August 28, 2013, and coded using the Coventry, Aberdeen and London-Revised (CALO-RE) taxonomy of behavior change techniques during the following month. Analyses were conducted during 2013. Most descriptions of apps incorporated fewer than four behavior change techniques. The most common techniques involved providing instruction on how to perform exercises, modeling how to perform exercises, providing feedback on performance, goal-setting for physical activity, and planning social support/change. A latent class analysis revealed the existence of two types of apps, educational and motivational, based on their configurations of behavior change techniques. Behavior change techniques are not widely marketed in contemporary physical activity apps. Based on the available descriptions and functions of the observed techniques in contemporary health behavior theories, people may need multiple apps to initiate and maintain behavior change. This audit provides a starting point for scientists, developers, clinicians, and consumers to evaluate and enhance apps in this market. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Establishing a Relationship between Behavior Change Theory and Social Marketing: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…

  12. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  13. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  14. Mood, Personality, and Behavior Changes During Treatment with Statins: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Cham, Stephanie; Koslik, Hayley J.; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have been reported with statin use, but the literature regarding statin-associated mood/behavioral changes remains limited. We sought to elicit information germane to natural history and characteristics of central nervous system/behavioral changes in apparent connection with statin and/or cholesterol-lowering drug use, and delineate mechanisms that may bear on an association. Participants (and/or proxies) self-referred with behavioral and/or mood chan...

  15. Using behavior change frameworks to improve healthcare worker influenza vaccination rates: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corace, Kimberly M; Srigley, Jocelyn A; Hargadon, Daniel P; Yu, Dorothy; MacDonald, Tara K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Garber, Gary E

    2016-06-14

    Influenza vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) is important for protecting staff and patients, yet vaccine coverage among HCW remains below recommended targets. Psychological theories of behavior change may help guide interventions to improve vaccine uptake. Our objectives were to: (1) review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behavior change to improve HCW influenza vaccination rates, and (2) determine which psychological theories have been used to predict HCW influenza vaccination uptake. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, The Joanna Briggs Institute, SocINDEX, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for studies that applied psychological theories of behavior change to improve and/or predict influenza vaccination uptake among HCW. The literature search yielded a total of 1810 publications; 10 articles met eligibility criteria. All studies used behavior change theories to predict HCW vaccination behavior; none evaluated interventions based on these theories. The Health Belief Model was the most frequently employed theory to predict influenza vaccination uptake among HCW. The remaining predictive studies employed the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Risk Perception Attitude, and the Triandis Model of Interpersonal Behavior. The behavior change framework constructs were successful in differentiating between vaccinated and non-vaccinated HCW. Key constructs identified included: attitudes regarding the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccination, perceptions of risk and benefit to self and others, self-efficacy, cues to action, and social-professional norms. The behavior change frameworks, along with sociodemographic variables, successfully predicted 85-95% of HCW influenza vaccination uptake. Vaccination is a complex behavior. Our results suggest that psychological theories of behavior change are promising tools to increase HCW influenza vaccination uptake. Future studies are needed to develop and evaluate novel

  16. Associations between body mass index, ambulatory blood pressure findings, and changes in cardiac structure: relevance of pulse and nighttime pressures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedecostante, M.; Spannella, F.; Giulietti, F.; Espinosa, E.; Dessi-Fulgheri, P.; Sarzani, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is central in the management of hypertension. Factors related to BP, such as body mass index (BMI), may differently affect particular aspects of 24-hour ABPM profiles. However, the relevance of BMI, the most used index of adiposity, has been

  17. Relevance of Retinal Thickness Changes in the OCT Inner and Outer Rings to Predict Progression to Clinical Macular Edema: An Attempt of Composite Grading of Macular Edema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujosevic, Stela; Varano, Monica; Egan, Catherine; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Menon, Geeta; Erginay, Ali; Verbraak, Frank D.; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Martinez, Jose P.; Jürgens, Ignasi; Smets, Erica; Coriat, Caroline; Wiedemann, Peter; Ágoas, Victor; Querques, Giuseppe; Holz, Frank G.; Nunes, Sandrina; Alves, Dalila; Neves, Catarina; Santos, Torcato; Ribeiro, Luisa; Bandello, Francesco; Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the relevance of macular thickness changes in the inner and outer rings in the progression of macular edema in eyes/patients with diabetes type 2. A total of 374 type 2 diabetic patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (ETDRS levels 20-35) were included in a 12-month

  18. Multifactorial evaluation of a program for lifestyle behavior change in rehabilitation and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisspers, J; Hofman-Bang, C; Nordlander, R; Rydèn, L; Sundin, O; Ohman, A; Nygren, A

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive, multifactorial lifestyle behavior change program was developed for rehabilitation and secondary prevention of subjects with coronary artery disease. The purpose of the present report is to describe this intervention model and to analyze results achieved in a first group of consecutive participants. Main inclusion criteria for the 292 subjects were a recent history of acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery, or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The program commenced with a 4-week residential stay, with the focus on health education and the achievement of behavior change in major lifestyle areas. During the year of follow-up a systematic maintenance program included regular contact with a nurse. Morbidity and mortality was low. Self-reported quality of life improved and there were significant improvements in blood lipids, exercise capacity and body mass index. There were also significant changes both in psychological variables such as Type A behavior, anger, hostility, and in major lifestyle areas such as stress reactions, diet, exercise and smoking. These changes compared favorably with data from relevant samples from the Swedish normal population. This program had a considerable effect on a number of important factors for rehabilitation and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease.

  19. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with

  20. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  1. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2014-05-15

    While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior change interventions influence staff

  2. Probability Learning: Changes in Behavior across Time and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Rista C.; Fulvio, Jacqueline M.; Shutts, Kristin; Green, C. Shawn; Pollak, Seth D.

    2018-01-01

    Individuals track probabilities, such as associations between events in their environments, but less is known about the degree to which experience--within a learning session and over development--influences people's use of incoming probabilistic information to guide behavior in real time. In two experiments, children (4-11 years) and adults…

  3. Rational Behavioral Training and Changes in Self-Actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Norbert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effects on self-actualization of CETA supervisors who participated in a Rational Behavioral Training (RBT) group. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was administered to experimental and control groups before and after the group. Results indicated the RBT experience enabled participants to move toward self-actualization. (RC)

  4. Changes in germination behavior of wheat seeds exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that wheat seeds with low vigor can be invigorated with the use of magnetized water; whereas, the potential to use magnetized seed remain to be extensively studied on larger groups of crops/samples. Key words: Wheat, magnetized water, germination behavior, biomagnetism, presowing magnetic ...

  5. Developing games for health behavior change: Getting started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many investigators are considering developing video games for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked q...

  6. The Decision Tree: A Tool for Achieving Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saren, Dru

    1999-01-01

    Presents a "Decision Tree" process for structuring team decision making and problem solving about specific student behavioral goals. The Decision Tree involves a sequence of questions/decisions that can be answered in "yes/no" terms. Questions address reasonableness of the goal, time factors, importance of the goal, responsibilities, safety,…

  7. A Selectionist Perspective on Systemic and Behavioral Change in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaker, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…

  8. Facilitating Behavior Change with Low-Literacy Patient Education Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Hilary K.; Wallace, Andrea S.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Schillinger, Dean; Arnold, Connie L.; Shilliday, Betsy Bryant; Delgadillo, Adriana; Bengal, Nikki; Davis, Terry C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a process for developing low-literacy health education materials that increase knowledge and activate patients toward healthier behaviors. Methods: We developed a theoretically informed process for developing educational materials. This process included convening a multidisciplinary creative team, soliciting stakeholder…

  9. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  10. Chinese Tourists’ Perceptions of Climate Change and Mitigation Behavior: An Application of Norm Activation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Qiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that tourism development is a prominent contributor to climate change, but is also a “victim” of climate change. Therefore, to mitigate climate change is of great importance for the sustainability of tourism. Yet extant studies regarding tourism and climate change tend to be dominated by a supply-side stance, albeit the core role of the tourist in the tourism industry. While researchers are increasingly adopting a tourist perspective, few seek to understand the linkage between climate change and tourists’ specific mitigation behaviors in a tourism context; this is especially so in China. This study investigates the impact of Chinese tourists’ perceptions of climate change on their mitigation behaviors based on norm activation theory. Drawing on 557 self-administrated questionnaires collected in China, it finds that tourists’ perceptions of climate change and perceived contribution of tourism to climate change both positively affect energy saving and carbon reduction behavior in tourism. Yet, compared with perceived contribution of tourism to climate change, tourists’ perceptions of climate change are found to be a much stronger predictor for energy saving and carbon reduction behavior. Therefore, it suggests that tourists’ perceptions of climate change in a general context is more strongly related to climate change mitigation behavior in tourism, calling for attention to go beyond the tourism context to alleviate the negative impacts of tourism on climate change.

  11. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: key research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-change procedures in video games, the mechanisms that account for changes obtained, and the groups in which these interventions work best. Such research will permit the optimal design of serious video games for diabetes and obesity prevention in the future. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Nonparametric Change Point Diagnosis Method of Concrete Dam Crack Behavior Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on diagnosis method of concrete crack behavior abnormality has always been a hot spot and difficulty in the safety monitoring field of hydraulic structure. Based on the performance of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality in parametric statistical model and nonparametric statistical model, the internal relation between concrete dam crack behavior abnormality and statistical change point theory is deeply analyzed from the model structure instability of parametric statistical model and change of sequence distribution law of nonparametric statistical model. On this basis, through the reduction of change point problem, the establishment of basic nonparametric change point model, and asymptotic analysis on test method of basic change point problem, the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality is created in consideration of the situation that in practice concrete dam crack behavior may have more abnormality points. And the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality is used in the actual project, demonstrating the effectiveness and scientific reasonableness of the method established. Meanwhile, the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality has a complete theoretical basis and strong practicality with a broad application prospect in actual project.

  13. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Propagation of maternal behavior across generations is associated with changes in non-maternal cognitive and behavioral processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovic, Vedran; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-08-01

    Over a number of years we have studied the phenomenology of maternal behavior from endocrine, neural, experiential, and ontogenetic perspectives. Here, we focus on the effects of early life experiences with and without the mother on subsequent maternal and non-maternal behaviors of the offspring. We have used an artificial rearing procedure, which entails removing rat pups from their mother and raising them in isolation, while controlling and manipulating several aspects of their upbringing. As adults, mother-reared (MR) and artificially-reared (AR) rats are assessed on their own maternal behavior, as well several other behaviors. While both AR and MR rats nurse and successfully wean their young, the AR rats spend less time licking, grooming, and crouching over their young. Hence, being raised in social isolation does not seem to affect primary maternal motivational dynamics. Instead, isolation rearing produces alterations in the ongoing execution of the behavior and its effective organization. Here, we present evidence that changes in maternal behavior, as a result of social isolation from mother and siblings, are due to changes in top-down (e.g., sustained attention, flexibility) and bottom-up process (e.g., increased stimulus-driven behavior). These changes are likely due to alterations in brain dopamine systems, which are sensitive to early life manipulations and are modulators of bottom-up and top-down processes. Finally, we draw parallels between the rat and human maternal behavior. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Batsching

    Full Text Available Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  16. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Levy Paluck

    Full Text Available To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote.

  17. Changes in Health and Health Behavior Associated With Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidar Mykletun; Trude Furunes; Per Erik Solem; Astri Syse; Marijke Veenstra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: While poor health contributes to early work exits, it is less clear how early work exits affect health. This study therefore examines changes in health associated with retirement. Method: Survey data from gainfully employed individuals aged 57 to 66 in 2002 were used to assess changes in

  18. Developing Games for Health Behavior Change: Getting Started.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2013-08-01

    Many investigators are considering developing videogames for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked questions are answered, including defining a G4H, considerations in developing a team, considerations in G4H design, and anticipating unintended consequences.

  19. Design of Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self reg...

  20. Improving hand hygiene compliance in healthcare settings using behavior change theories: reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Pittet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Although hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing healthcare-associated infections, hand hygiene practice falls short in many healthcare facilities. The compliance rate is mostly linked to system design and easily accessible hand hygiene products. System change, healthcare worker motivation, and complex behavioral considerations seem to play a significant role. This article discusses the application of behavioral theories in hand hygiene promotion in a theoretical manner. The program relies on the transtheoretical model (TTM) of health behavior change, John Keller's (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Thus, the program links attitudes and behavior to hand hygiene promotion. The TTM of health behavior change helps to tailor interventions to predict and motivate individual movement across the pathway to change. A program could be based on this theory with multiple intercalations with John Keller's ARCS and the TPB. Such a program could be strengthened by linking attitudes and behavior to promote hand hygiene. The program could utilize different strategies such as organization cultural change that may increase the attention as well as fostering the movement in the ARCS stages. In addition, modeling TPB by creating peer pressure, ability to overcome obstacles, and increasing knowledge of the role of hand hygiene may lead to the desired outcome. The understanding and application of behavior change theories may result in an effective program to improve awareness and raise intention and thus may increase the potential for success of hand hygiene promotion programs.

  1. Using Behavior Change Techniques to Guide Selections of Mobile Applications to Promote Fluid Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Dubansky, Alexandra; Remillard, Joshua; Murray, Robert; Pellegrini, Christine A; Phillips, Siobhan M; Streeper, Necole M

    2017-01-01

    To determine the extent to which validated techniques for behavior change have been infused in commercially available fluid consumption applications (apps). Coders evaluated behavior change techniques represented in online descriptions for 50 fluid consumption apps and the latest version of each app. Apps incorporated a limited range of behavior change techniques (operating system but not as a function of whether apps were free or paid. Limitations include the lack of experimental evidence establishing the efficacy of these apps. Patients with urolithiasis can choose from many apps to support the recommended increase in fluid intake. Apps for iOS devices incorporate more behavior change techniques compared to apps for the Android operating system. Free apps are likely to expose patients to a similar number of techniques as paid apps. Physicians and patients should screen app descriptions for features to promote self-monitoring and provide feedback on discrepancies between behavior and a fluid consumption goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deconstructing interventions: approaches to studying behavior change techniques across obesity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Deborah F; Lytle, Leslie A; Sherwood, Nancy E; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Matheson, Donna; Moore, Shirley M; Loria, Catherine M; Pratt, Charlotte; Ward, Dianne S; Belle, Steven H; Michie, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Deconstructing interventions into the specific techniques that are used to change behavior represents a new frontier in behavioral intervention research. This paper considers opportunities and challenges in employing the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1) developed by Michie and colleagues, to code the behavior change techniques (BCTs) across multiple interventions addressing obesity and capture dose received at the technique level. Numerous advantages were recognized for using a shared framework for intervention description. Coding interventions at levels of the social ecological framework beyond the individual level, separate coding for behavior change initiation vs. maintenance, fidelity of BCT delivery, accounting for BCTs mode of delivery, and tailoring BCTs, present both challenges and opportunities. Deconstructing interventions and identifying the dose required to positively impact health-related outcomes could enable important gains in intervention science.

  3. Shape of change in cognitive behavioral therapy for youth anxiety: symptom trajectory and predictors of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian C; Skriner, Laura C; Zandberg, Laurie J

    2013-08-01

    Multilevel growth analysis was used to establish the mean growth trajectory (shape of change) for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with anxiety disorders. Two-level growth analysis was conducted to identify important between-youth predictors of session-by-session symptom change. Fifty-five youth (ages 7-17; 50.9% male) and their parents participated in a 16- to 20-week CBT that emphasized affective, cognitive, and exposure-based exercises. Multilevel growth models (MLMs) were estimated to model session symptom data taking into account an "anxiety spike" hypothesized to occur at initiation of exposure sessions. Three models were compared: a cubic curve, a log-linear curve plus an exposure covariate, and a linear curve plus exposure covariate. Two-level MLM examined the effect of demographic traits (sex, age, race/ethnicity), pretreatment symptom severity, comorbid school refusal, early treatment factors (use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, therapeutic alliance, treatment attrition), and pretreatment coping (engagement, disengagement, and involuntary coping). Fit indices provided support for the cubic growth model using either parent or youth anxiety data. Level 2 analysis identified youth age, symptom severity (anxiety, externalizing), early attrition, and engagement and disengagement coping as significant predictors of symptom trajectories. Predictors accounted for 34%-37% of between-youth variance in midtreatment anxiety scores. Findings suggest that the symptom course of CBT, and the effect of between-youth factors on treatment outcomes, is more complex than previously thought. Educating therapists and clients about findings can aid treatment expectations and dissemination efforts of empirically supported treatments. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Which Individual Therapist Behaviors Elicit Client Change Talk and Sustain Talk in Motivational Interviewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Jackson, Kristina M; Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Barnett, Nancy P

    2016-02-01

    To identify individual therapist behaviors which elicit client change talk or sustain talk in motivational interviewing sessions. Motivational interviewing sessions from a single-session alcohol intervention delivered to college students were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC), a therapy process coding system. Participants included 92 college students and eight therapists who provided their treatment. The MISC was used to code 17 therapist behaviors related to the use of motivational interviewing, and client language reflecting movement toward behavior change (change talk), away from behavior change (sustain talk), or unrelated to the target behavior (follow/neutral). Client change talk was significantly more likely to immediately follow individual therapist behaviors [affirm (p=.013), open question (pmotivational interviewing can either elicit both client change talk and sustain talk or suppress both types of client language. Affirm was the only therapist behavior that both increased change talk and also reduced sustain talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment-related changes in serum lipids and inflammation: clinical relevance remains unclear. Analyses from the Women's Interagency HIV Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Landay, Alan L; Hodis, Howard N; Gange, Stephen J; Norris, Philip J; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Tien, Phyllis C; Xue, Xiaonan; Lazar, Jason; Benning, Lorie; Tracy, Russell P; Kaplan, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Among 127 HIV-infected women, the magnitude of HDLc increases after HAART initiation predicted the magnitude of concurrent decreases in inflammation biomarkers. After HAART initiation, changes in LDLc and inflammation were unrelated. In the same population, predicted risk of coronary heart disease based upon levels of standard clinical risk factors was similar before and after HAART treatment. Thus, it remains unknown whether short-term treatment-related changes in standard risk factors may appreciably change risk of CVD. PMID:23435295

  6. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

  7. Conceptions of pregnancy health and motivations for healthful behavior change among women in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Erica L; Sternberg Lamb, Jeanette M; McGarvey, Stephen T; Faiai, Mata'uitafa; Muasau-Howard, Bethel T; Hawley, Nicola L

    2018-02-01

    American Samoan women are particularly at risk of obesity-related non-communicable disease (NCD), requiring efficacious interventions to protect their health and that of their infants. Prior studies have identified pregnancy as an ideal time for behavior change interventions related to NCD. This study aimed to understand American Samoan women's conceptions of health during pregnancy, their motivations for pregnancy behavior change, and the role of their family in both enabling and preventing these changes. Eighteen women (2-19 weeks post-partum) completed semi-structured interviews that explored their experiences of pregnancy-related behavior change and social support. A thematic analysis identified prominent themes. A stages of change framework was used to describe the sample's readiness for behavior change. Participants expressed a Westernized conception of health during pregnancy that focused on eating a balanced diet and exercising regularly; behaviors that would usually be stigmatized outside of pregnancy. Many were in the contemplative/pre-contemplative stages of change, although some reported initiating healthful behaviors in pregnancy. Participants overwhelmingly described external motivations for adopting healthy behaviors, most notably the perceived benefit to their baby. During pregnancy, women reported protective treatment from their families as a result of communal ownership over the baby that is potentially limiting for women's agency over their health. This study confirmed pregnancy as an opportune moment for health behavior intervention, especially within the context of Samoan culture. Future efforts should capitalize on external motivations for behavior change but also encourage the development of internal motivators to sustain changes initiated in pregnancy post-partum. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate Change and Psychological Adaptation: A Behavioral Environmental Economics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Schöb, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    Economic models of climate policy (or policies to combat other environmental problems) typically neglect psychological adaptation to changing life circumstances. People may adapt or become more sensitive, to different degrees, to a deteriorated environment. The present paper addresses these issues in a simple model of tax policy to combat climate change and elaborates on the consequences for optimal climate policies. Furthermore, it argues from a normative point of view that psychological ada...

  9. Health behavior change in advance care planning: an agent-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ernecoff

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A practical and ethical challenge in advance care planning research is controlling and intervening on human behavior. Additionally, observing dynamic changes in advance care planning (ACP behavior proves difficult, though tracking changes over time is important for intervention development. Agent-based modeling (ABM allows researchers to integrate complex behavioral data about advance care planning behaviors and thought processes into a controlled environment that is more easily alterable and observable. Literature to date has not addressed how best to motivate individuals, increase facilitators and reduce barriers associated with ACP. We aimed to build an ABM that applies the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change to ACP as a health behavior and accurately reflects: 1 the rates at which individuals complete the process, 2 how individuals respond to barriers, facilitators, and behavioral variables, and 3 the interactions between these variables. Methods We developed a dynamic ABM of the ACP decision making process based on the stages of change posited by the Transtheoretical Model. We integrated barriers, facilitators, and other behavioral variables that agents encounter as they move through the process. Results We successfully incorporated ACP barriers, facilitators, and other behavioral variables into our ABM, forming a plausible representation of ACP behavior and decision-making. The resulting distributions across the stages of change replicated those found in the literature, with approximately half of participants in the action-maintenance stage in both the model and the literature. Conclusions Our ABM is a useful method for representing dynamic social and experiential influences on the ACP decision making process. This model suggests structural interventions, e.g. increasing access to ACP materials in primary care clinics, in addition to improved methods of data collection for behavioral studies, e.g. incorporating

  10. Electroencephalographic activity during sexual behavior: a novel approach to the analysis of drug effects on arousal and motivation relevant for sexual dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of 'shocks' in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on both educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985 is used for the analysis...

  12. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985...

  13. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, addiction and behavioral changes in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merims, Doron; Giladi, Nir

    2008-01-01

    Degeneration of the dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease and longstanding exposure to dopaminergic drugs may cause reward system malfunction. This may manifest as addiction to l-dopa and behavioral disturbances associated with the impulse control system. These disturbances include: gambling, excessive spending (shopping), hypersexuality and binge eating. We included one such patient's personal story to emphasize the devastating consequences of these potentially reversible phenomena: the patient describes in his own words how gambling induced by an exposure dopamine agonist therapy significantly worsened his disease-related difficulties.

  14. An entropy-based analysis of lane changing behavior: An interactive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosun, Caglar; Ozdemir, Serhan

    2017-05-19

    As a novelty, this article proposes the nonadditive entropy framework for the description of driver behaviors during lane changing. The authors also state that this entropy framework governs the lane changing behavior in traffic flow in accordance with the long-range vehicular interactions and traffic safety. The nonadditive entropy framework is the new generalized theory of thermostatistical mechanics. Vehicular interactions during lane changing are considered within this framework. The interactive approach for the lane changing behavior of the drivers is presented in the traffic flow scenarios presented in the article. According to the traffic flow scenarios, 4 categories of traffic flow and driver behaviors are obtained. Through the scenarios, comparative analyses of nonadditive and additive entropy domains are also provided. Two quadrants of the categories belong to the nonadditive entropy; the rest are involved in the additive entropy domain. Driving behaviors are extracted and the scenarios depict that nonadditivity matches safe driving well, whereas additivity corresponds to unsafe driving. Furthermore, the cooperative traffic system is considered in nonadditivity where the long-range interactions are present. However, the uncooperative traffic system falls into the additivity domain. The analyses also state that there would be possible traffic flow transitions among the quadrants. This article shows that lane changing behavior could be generalized as nonadditive, with additivity as a special case, based on the given traffic conditions. The nearest and close neighbor models are well within the conventional additive entropy framework. In this article, both the long-range vehicular interactions and safe driving behavior in traffic are handled in the nonadditive entropy domain. It is also inferred that the Tsallis entropy region would correspond to mandatory lane changing behavior, whereas additive and either the extensive or nonextensive entropy region would

  15. Predicting behavior change from persuasive messages using neural representational similarity and social network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegors, Teresa K; Tompson, Steven; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Falk, Emily B

    2017-08-15

    Neural activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), identified as engaging in self-related processing, predicts later health behavior change. However, it is unknown to what extent individual differences in neural representation of content and lived experience influence this brain-behavior relationship. We examined whether the strength of content-specific representations during persuasive messaging relates to later behavior change, and whether these relationships change as a function of individuals' social network composition. In our study, smokers viewed anti-smoking messages while undergoing fMRI and we measured changes in their smoking behavior one month later. Using representational similarity analyses, we found that the degree to which message content (i.e. health, social, or valence information) was represented in a self-related processing MPFC region was associated with later smoking behavior, with increased representations of negatively valenced (risk) information corresponding to greater message-consistent behavior change. Furthermore, the relationship between representations and behavior change depended on social network composition: smokers who had proportionally fewer smokers in their network showed increases in smoking behavior when social or health content was strongly represented in MPFC, whereas message-consistent behavior (i.e., less smoking) was more likely for those with proportionally more smokers in their social network who represented social or health consequences more strongly. These results highlight the dynamic relationship between representations in MPFC and key outcomes such as health behavior change; a complete understanding of the role of MPFC in motivation and action should take into account individual differences in neural representation of stimulus attributes and social context variables such as social network composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling the new franchise creation decision: the relevance of behavioral reasons / Modelagem da decisão de criação de novas franquias: a relevância dos motivos comportamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder de Souza Aguiar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Franchising is one of the fastest-growing operating modes in Brazil. In 2014, the Brazilian Franchising Association reported 2,492 active brands in the country. Some theories with an economic point of view, such as the agency theory, plural forms theory, or scarcity principle, explain why companies choose franchising. However, did the decision makers and founders of these franchises decide on this strategy taking only economic reasons into consideration? The purpose of this study is to understand the a priori criteria (prior to the decision that executives took into account when adopting this strategy and the key motivations for this decision. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The literature emphasizes the economic reasons for the success of the franchise model, but it does not focus on the founders’ motivations when they choose this strategy. This is the gap that this study seeks to address. Dissonance could arise between economic reasons and entry motivations that could result in consequences for the management of new franchises. Key methodological aspects: Ten companies of different industries and different life cycle stages involved with the franchise model were scrutinized using a semi-structured questionnaire based on the literature on decision theory and franchising. Summary of key results: Behavioral factors significantly influence decision makers when choosing the franchise model. Key considerations/conclusions: This study distinguishes the economic reasons from the executives’ motivations when choosing the franchise model and highlights the importance of non-economic factors in this decision. Objetivo: O franchising é um dos modos de operação que mais crescem no Brasil - em 2014, a Associação Brasileira de Franchising contava 2.492 marcas ativas no país. Algumas teorias de carácter econômico, como as teorias da agência, formas plurais ou escassez de recursos explicam as razões que levam as empresas a optar

  17. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.T.; Mishkin, F.; Goldberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy

  18. Linking Microstructural Changes to Bulk Behavior in Shear Disordered Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Daniel

    Soft and biological materials often exhibit disordered and heterogeneous microstructure. In most cases, the transmission and distribution of stresses through these complex materials reflects their inherent heterogeneity. Through the combination of rheology and 4D imaging we can directly alter and quantify the connection between microstructure and local stresses. We subject soft and biological materials to precise shear deformations while measuring real space information about the distribution and redistribution of the applied stress.In this talk, I will focus on the flow behavior of two distinct but related disordered materials; a flowing compressed emulsion above its yield stress and a strained collagen network. In the emulsion system, I will present experimental and computational results on the dynamical response, at the level of individual droplets, that directly links the particle motion and deformation to the rheology. I will also present results that utilize boundary stress microscopy to quantify the spatial distribution of surface stresses that arise from sheared in-vitro collagen networks. I will outline our main conclusions which is that the strain stiffening behavior observed in collagen networks can be parameterized by a single characteristic strain and associated stress. This characteristic rheological signature seems to describe both the strain stiffening regime and network yielding. NSF DMR: 0847490.

  19. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  20. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. De Boni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018. Selected drivers (n=683 answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had saliva specimens collected for drug screening. Results: Overall, 60.3% (SE 4.5 of drivers reported they did not change their behavior. Among those who reported behavioral changes, most reported drinking less as their main strategy toward safer driving behavior. Variables independently associated with behavior change included having drunk at a high outlet density area (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.1-2.8] and having a favorable opinion about the law (OR 4.3 [2.1-8.9]. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that awareness of the law has not been enough to promote behavioral change. As most drivers had a favorable opinion of the law and this variable was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior change, efforts to better integrate education and enforcement seem to be pivotal and might be well received by the population.

  1. Toward a cognitive analysis of behavioral change: the pro active social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Moscoso, Manolete S.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the pro active social behavior construct based on the sociallearning theory. Self efficacy is briefly reviewed and discussed in the context of Bandura' s conceptual work. Reference is made to cognitive variables such as values and beliefs, as fundamental principies in the development of the pro active social behavior. I examine che distinctions between fears of failure, success, and rejection as they relate to the process of self sabotage. Comments are mad...

  2. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K

    2013-01-01

    in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated...... level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons...... and dendrites, permitting local regulation (Schuman). The nature of the 'reset' function that makes animals dependent of sleep is being revealed (Cirelli). Maternal behavior can cause changes in gene expression that stably modify behavior in the offspring (Meaney). Removal of a single sensory channel protein...

  3. Systematic processes of land use/land cover change to identify relevant driving forces: implications on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Zara; Teixeira, Heliana; Marques, João C

    2014-02-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) are driving forces that potentially exert pressures on water bodies, which are most commonly quantified by simply obtained aggregated data. However, this is insufficient to detect the drivers that arise from the landscape change itself. To achieve this objective one must distinguish between random and systematic transitions and identify the transitions that show strong signals of change, since these will make it possible to identify the transitions that have evolved due to population growth, industrial expansion and/or changes in land management policies. Our goal is to describe a method to characterize driving forces both from LULC and dominant LULC changes, recognizing that the presence of certain LULC classes as well as the processes of transition to other uses are both sources of stress with potential effects on the condition of water bodies. This paper first quantifies the driving forces from LULC and also from processes of LULC change for three nested regions within the Mondego river basin in 1990, 2000 and 2006. It then discusses the implications for the environmental water body condition and management policies. The fingerprint left on the landscape by some of the dominant changes found, such as urbanization and industrial expansion, is, as expected, low due to their proportion in the geographic regions under study, yet their magnitude of change and consistency reveal strong signals of change regarding the pressures acting in the system. Assessing dominant LULC changes is vital for a comprehensive study of driving forces with potential impacts on water condition. © 2013.

  4. Antecedents and consequences of organizational change : 'Institutionalizing' the behavioral theory of the firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, FC; Saka - Helmhout, Ayse

    In this paper, we highlight the conditions under which organizations initiate changes in two distinct institutional contexts. While the focus within behavioral research has been on aspiration-driven organizational change, the effect of institutional dynamics on the probability of change has been

  5. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  6. How Changes in Cell Mechanical Properties Induce Cancerous Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katira, Parag; Zaman, Muhammad H.; Bonnecaze, Roger T.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis are ultimately mechanical processes involving cell migration and uncontrolled division. Using a 3D discrete model of cells, we show that increased compliance as observed for cancer cells causes them to grow at a much faster rate compared to surrounding healthy cells. We also show how changes in intercellular binding influence tumor malignancy and metastatic potential. These findings suggest that changes in the mechanical properties of cancer cells is the proximate cause of uncontrolled division and migration and various biochemical factors drive cancer progression via this mechanism.

  7. Is change in health behavior of Dutch medical students related to change in their ideas on how a physician's lifestyle influences their patient's lifestyle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    A change of medical students' health behavior over time may be related to a change in their opinion regarding the relationship between physicians' own health behavior and effective healthy lifestyle counseling in patients. To investigate Dutch medical students' (1) change of health behavior over

  8. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  9. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Carmen; Godberg, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders frequently appear in childhood. There is often lack of objective data to support a specific clinical diagnosis. Ultimately it is likely that alterations in production, concentration, storage, release, reuptake and degradation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid play key roles in the manifestations of mood disorders. We sought to determine if more gross anatomic patterns of regional brain activation in a 'baseline' state might also supply an objective means of verifying the presence of a mood disorder characterized by anger or aggressive behavior. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred for SPECT brain imaging with the diagnosis of an attention deficit disorder or autism. All had been reported as having temper problems on the routine questionnaire completed by the parents prior to SPECT imaging. The patients, who were not sedated, had absolute cerebral blood flow measured by the xenon 133 gas inhalation technique followed by intravenous injection of Tc-99m HMPAO with an administered dose calculated according to patient age and weight. One hour following the injection, high resolution brain SPECT imaging was performed using a Picker triple headed camera with fan beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT studies using 3D volume rendered semi-transparent images with dual cut off windows of 88 percent (high) and 60-65 percent (lower value depending on the patient absolute mean cortical blood flow), as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal sections. The dual window 3D display helped demonstrate increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children with similar clinical diagnoses but whose parents did not report temper problems. These preliminary findings support the proposition that an increase in perfusion to the temporal

  10. Parental changes after involvement in their anxious child's cognitive behavior therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system....

  11. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent  households or in families with a step-parent. For example, in 1980, almost 83% of all Danish children in the ages 0 to 17 lived with both of their parents, but this number steadily...... decreased to 73% in 2005. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on children. International studies mainly suggest a negative relationship between non-nuclear family structure and child outcomes. There are two...... childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral and health outcomes and investigate both the selection and causation explanations. For the estimations I use a Danish administrative register dataset with the full population of children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985. I find a clear negative...

  12. Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media.

  13. A dance to the music of time: aesthetically-relevant changes in body posture in performing art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Daprati

    Full Text Available In performing arts, body postures are both means for expressing an artist's intentions, and also artistic objects, appealing to the audience. The postures of classical ballet obey the body's biomechanical limits, but also follow strict rules established by tradition. This combination offers a perfect milieu for assessing scientifically how the execution of this particular artistic activity has changed over time, and evaluating what factors may induce such changes. We quantified angles between body segments in archive material showing dancers from a leading company over a 60-year period. The data showed that body positions supposedly fixed by codified choreography were in fact implemented by very different elevation angles, according to the year of ballet production. Progressive changes lead to increasingly vertical positions of the dancer's body over the period studied. Experimental data showed that these change reflected aesthetic choices of naïve modern observers. Even when reduced to stick figures and unrecognisable shapes, the more vertical postures drawn from later productions were systematically preferred to less vertical postures from earlier productions. This gradual change within a conservative art form provides scientific evidence that aesthetic change may arise from continuous interaction between artistic tradition, individual artists' creativity, and a wider environmental context. This context may include social aesthetic pressure from audiences.

  14. A dance to the music of time: aesthetically-relevant changes in body posture in performing art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daprati, Elena; Iosa, Marco; Haggard, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    In performing arts, body postures are both means for expressing an artist's intentions, and also artistic objects, appealing to the audience. The postures of classical ballet obey the body's biomechanical limits, but also follow strict rules established by tradition. This combination offers a perfect milieu for assessing scientifically how the execution of this particular artistic activity has changed over time, and evaluating what factors may induce such changes. We quantified angles between body segments in archive material showing dancers from a leading company over a 60-year period. The data showed that body positions supposedly fixed by codified choreography were in fact implemented by very different elevation angles, according to the year of ballet production. Progressive changes lead to increasingly vertical positions of the dancer's body over the period studied. Experimental data showed that these change reflected aesthetic choices of naïve modern observers. Even when reduced to stick figures and unrecognisable shapes, the more vertical postures drawn from later productions were systematically preferred to less vertical postures from earlier productions. This gradual change within a conservative art form provides scientific evidence that aesthetic change may arise from continuous interaction between artistic tradition, individual artists' creativity, and a wider environmental context. This context may include social aesthetic pressure from audiences.

  15. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  16. Modelling and testing behavior in applications to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargiacchi, R.

    2006-01-01

    ROSSELLA BARGIACCHI starts her concluding chapter as follows. It has been our choice in this work to investigate from an economic perspective the question of the optimal extent of climate change prevention. We have therefore chosen an abstract approach to analyze the problem of giving proper

  17. Motivational Interviewing to Affect Behavioral Change in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…

  18. Predictors of College Students Engaging in Social Change Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the 2009 Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership, this article examines the personal characteristics and environmental experiences that contribute to college students' involvement in social change. Results indicate that collegiate environmental characteristics (i.e., student group membership, leadership training, discussions…

  19. Change-supportive employee behavior – A career identity explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lysova, E.; Richardson, J.; Khapova, S.N.; Jansen, P.G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how career identity informs employees’ willingness to engage in organizational change initiatives. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on the findings of a qualitative case study exploring the experiences of 29 employees involved in a

  20. Toward a new methodological paradigm for testing theories of health behavior and health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Mehrotra, Purnima

    2011-03-01

    Traditional theory testing commonly applies cross-sectional (and occasionally longitudinal) survey research to test health behavior theory. Since such correlational research cannot demonstrate causality, a number of researchers have called for the increased use of experimental methods for theory testing. We introduce the multi-methodological theory-testing (MMTT) framework for testing health behavior theory. The MMTT framework introduces a set of principles that broaden the perspective of how we view evidence for health behavior theory. It suggests that while correlational survey research designs represent one method of testing theory, the weaknesses of this approach demand that complementary approaches be applied. Such approaches include randomized lab and field experiments, mediation analysis of theory-based interventions, and meta-analysis. These alternative approaches to theory testing can demonstrate causality in a much more robust way than is possible with correlational survey research methods. Such approaches should thus be increasingly applied in order to more completely and rigorously test health behavior theory. Greater application of research derived from the MMTT may lead researchers to refine and modify theory and ultimately make theory more valuable to practitioners. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral Sciences in a Changing Army. Proceedings in AMEDD Behavioral Sciences Seminar, 19 - 23 March 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-23

    confronting us because we are vitally concerned with many of those issues. In order to help set the stage for that, I’d like to describe where I think Social...complaint concerning thle behavior of a member of (2) Reprmand ;!?is .4sinciatiof stall be inl vt -t. iflJ signo ~d bl, MeO com- 3)Ssesinfo emesi

  2. Online Malicious Behavior Detection in Collaborative Spectrum Sensing: A Change Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent attackers in collaborative spectrum sensing system could act as honest users to conceal themselves and start malicious behavior abruptly since an unpredictable time slot. Affected by honest behavior before attacking time, traditional malicious behavior detection (MBD algorithms are not agile enough to identify the abrupt change of behavior. To alleviate this challenge, in this paper, we propose the Rao test-based malicious behavior detection (RT-MBD algorithm, which could detect the malicious behavior with unknown parameter and unknown starting time. The proposed RT-MBD is not affected by honest behavior before attacking time and has a shorter detection delay with constraint of a certain false alarm rate than conventional algorithms. Performance of RT-MBD is validated by both mathematical proof and numerical experiments.

  3. Verbal Bullying Changes among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…

  4. Which Combinations of Techniques in Internet Based Interventions Effectively Change Health Behavior? a Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genugten, L. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Webb, T.L.; Empelen, P. van

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many online interventions designed to promote health behaviors combine multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs) and additional modes of delivery (MoD, e.g. text messages) to maximize effectiveness. Also, usability factors may influence effectiveness. This study aims to identify

  5. A Culture-Change Approach to School Discipline: Reaction Paper to "School Organization and Student Behavior".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, Stewart C.

    Organizational changes, within the existing structure of public schooling, have the potential to decrease the oppositional behavior of students and to foster humane, positive learning and working enviroments. It has been documented that managers can create organizational structures that promote positive behaviors and facilitate people's…

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Three Approaches to Changing Dental Hygiene Behaviors of Seventh Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Judith E.; And Others

    This study evaluates two approaches to changing dental care behaviors of seventh graders. After receiving instruction in brushing and flossing, students in one experimental group were confronted with inconsistencies between expressed beliefs and actual oral hyginene behaviors, as demonstrated with photographs of their own mouths. Data analyses…

  7. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  8. How Peer Education Changed Peer Sexuality Educators' Self-Esteem, Personal Development, and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Robin G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study measured changes in self-esteem, personal development, and sexual behavior over one academic year in 65 sexuality peer educators from 10 universities. Qualitative data described a positive, though non-statistically significant, increase in peer educators' self-esteem, personal development, and sexual behavior as major program outcomes.…

  9. Testing environment shape differentially modulates baseline and nicotine-induced changes in behavior: Sex differences, hypoactivity, and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, J M; Mactutus, C F; Booze, R M; Harrod, S B

    2018-02-01

    In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males. Nonetheless, characteristics of the testing environment also mediate rodent behavior following drug administration. The current experiment used a within-subjects design to determine if nicotine-induced changes in horizontal activity, center entries, and rearing displayed by male and female rats is detected when behavior was recorded in round vs. square chambers. Behaviors were recorded from each group (males-round: n=19; males-square: n=18; females-square: n=19; and females-round: n=19) immediately following IV injection of saline, acute nicotine, and repeated nicotine (0.05mg/kg/injection). Prior to nicotine treatment, sex differences were apparent only in round chambers. Following nicotine administration, the order of magnitude for the chamber that provided enhanced detection of hypoactivity or sensitization was contingent upon both the dependent measure under examination and the animal's biological sex. As such, round and square testing chambers provide different, and sometimes contradictory, accounts of how male and female rats respond to nicotine treatment. It is possible that a central mechanism such as stress or cue sensitivity is impacted by both drug exposure and environment to drive the sex differences observed in the current experiment. Until these complex relations are better understood, experiments considering sex differences in drug responses should balance

  10. Behavioral changes following participation in a home health promotional program in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, R; Koenig, J Q; Simcox, N; van Belle, G; Fenske, R; Gilbert, S G

    1997-01-01

    This study examined behavioral changes in households after participation in a home environmental assessment. Home assessment visits by a trained coach, which involved a walk-through in the home with the home residents, were conducted in 36 homes. The walk-through included a list of recommended behavioral changes that the residents could make to reduce their exposures to home pollutants in areas such as dust control, moisture problems, indoor air, hazardous household products, and hobbies. Recruited households were surveyed 3 months after the home assessment to evaluate their implementation of the recommendations. Following the home visits, 31 of 36 households reported making at least one behavioral change, and 41% of the recommendations made by the volunteer coaches were implemented. In conclusion, this study found that the majority of the households who participated in the home assessment reported implementing at least one recommendation. This home health promotional method was effective in influencing behavioral changes. PMID:9349831

  11. Innovative interventions to promote behavioral change in overweight or obese individuals: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-05-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.

  12. Adopting public values and climate change adaptation strategies in urban forest management: A review and analysis of the relevant literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez Barona, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, L Kay; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing wisdom in the field of health-related behavior change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory. Using the framework of intervention mapping, we describe and provide examples of how investigators can effectively select and use theory to design, test, and report interventions. We propose five roles for theory and evidence about theories: a) identification of behavior and determinants of behavior related to a specified health problem (i.e., the logic model of the problem); b) explication of a causal model that includes theoretical constructs for producing change in the behavior of interest (i.e., the logic model of change); c) selection of intervention methods and delivery of practical applications to achieve changes in health behavior; d) evaluation of the resulting intervention including theoretical mediating variables; and e) reporting of the active ingredients of the intervention together with the evaluation results. In problem-driven applied behavioral or social science, researchers use one or multiple theories, empiric evidence, and new research, both to assess a problem and to solve or prevent a problem. Furthermore, the theories for description of the problem may differ from the theories for its solution. In an applied approach, the main focus is on solving problems regarding health behavior change and improvement of health outcomes, and the criteria for success are formulated in terms of the problem rather than the theory. Resulting contributions to theory development may be quite useful, but they are peripheral to the problem-solving process.

  14. Analysis on the Changes in Consumer Behavior and Marketing Countermeasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there’s a huge change in the media use habit, demand and route to get the information for the consumers, and the right of consumers to release information is mostly realized, indicating an actual return of consumer sovereignty. In such a background, it is undoubtedly the best choice for the marketing of enterprise brand to focus on the target people, manage the client relation and increase the socialized videos.

  15. Framework for Probabilistic Projections of Energy-Relevant Streamflow Indicators under Climate Change Scenarios for the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, Thorsten [Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom); Mann, Michael [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Crane, Robert [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2014-04-29

    This project focuses on uncertainty in streamflow forecasting under climate change conditions. The objective is to develop easy to use methodologies that can be applied across a range of river basins to estimate changes in water availability for realistic projections of climate change. There are three major components to the project: Empirical downscaling of regional climate change projections from a range of Global Climate Models; Developing a methodology to use present day information on the climate controls on the parameterizations in streamflow models to adjust the parameterizations under future climate conditions (a trading-space-for-time approach); and Demonstrating a bottom-up approach to establishing streamflow vulnerabilities to climate change. The results reinforce the need for downscaling of climate data for regional applications, and further demonstrates the challenges of using raw GCM data to make local projections. In addition, it reinforces the need to make projections across a range of global climate models. The project demonstrates the potential for improving streamflow forecasts by using model parameters that are adjusted for future climate conditions, but suggests that even with improved streamflow models and reduced climate uncertainty through the use of downscaled data, there is still large uncertainty is the streamflow projections. The most useful output from the project is the bottom-up vulnerability driven approach to examining possible climate and land use change impacts on streamflow. Here, we demonstrate an inexpensive and easy to apply methodology that uses Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to define the climate and environmental parameters space that can produce vulnerabilities in the system, and then feeds in the downscaled projections to determine the probability top transitioning to a vulnerable sate. Vulnerabilities, in this case, are defined by the end user.

  16. Promoting dietary change in adolescents: a school-based approach for modifying and maintaining healthful behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A C; Saylor, K E; Foster, S; Killen, J D; Telch, M J; Farquhar, J W; Flora, J A

    1988-01-01

    We examined the immediate and long-term effects of a school-based, behaviorally focused dietary change program for tenth-graders. Our behavioral change objectives included increased consumption of complex carbohydrates and decreased intake of saturated fats, sugar, and salt, particularly in the form of snack foods. We randomly assigned tenth-grade classes in two northern California high schools to either a five-session dietary change program or an assessment-only control group. We collected pre- and postprogram self-report data on 218 students in areas of dietary knowledge, behavior, attitudes, food availability in the home, and intentions and self-efficacy concerning eating in specific ways. We also observed school snack choices both directly and indirectly. Our results indicated significant changes in reported behavior, knowledge, and food availability at home, as well as changes in snack choices at school. We found these changes to be durable at one-year follow-up. Our findings suggest ways in which school-based programs focused on behavioral and environmental changes may be effective in promoting dietary changes at school and at home.

  17. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Pang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC, decrease of active reaction centers (RCs, and the plastoquinone (PQ pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  18. Changes of marital behavior and family patterns in post-socialist countries: Delayed, incomplete or specific second demographic transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Mina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by questioning the theory of second demographic transition (SDT and its universal relevance in the field of marriage behavior and family organization in low fertility context, arguing for more differentiated approaches. With an aim to illustrate the contextual specifics of post-socialist countries in general and of Serbia in particular, the author claims that analyzed changes have not just been delayed or incomplete in comparison to more developed European countries, but shaped by specific modernization processes, which led to rationally developed strategies in overcoming structural risks, although, without ideational changes typical to the theory of SDT. Slow changes in marital behavior and family organization in Serbia are illustrated in recent sociological (empirical research findings. The perceived changes are linked to specific structural risks (war, slow transformation and enduring economic hardships, weak state and low trust in institutions, etc and value characteristics (persistence of materialism and traditionalism, but with increasing ambivalence. The connection between structural and ideational changes is considered through social stratification variable by relying on Coale's model on necessary preconditions for behavioral changes as well as on social deprivation concept. Having in mind upper social strata (more educated and better off, the value changes precede the behavioral that are adapted to economic uncertainty, which still force more traditional marital and family patterns. Therefore, there is a rank of different options, from extended family (for a short period at the beginning of marriage or after divorce to separated leaving (of married partners in parental households (due to refusing the extended family option thus creating quite specific "living apart together" form, combined with dominant strategy of prolonging the marriage. Hence, for upper social strata, marriage is still a universal but negotiable

  19. Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eOettingen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When people engage in mind wandering they drift away from a task towards their inner thoughts and feelings. These thoughts often circle around people’s personal futures. One assumed function of mind wandering is that it aids problem solving and planning for the future. We will discuss different forms of mind wandering and their effects on problem solving and behavior change. While solely fantasizing about a desired future leads to poor problem solving and little behavior change, mind wandering in the form of mental contrasting leads to skilled problem solving and substantial behavior change. In mental contrasting, people first envision the desired future and then imagine the obstacles that need to be surmounted to reach said future. Mental contrasting instigates behavior change by modulating the strength of associations between future and reality and between reality and instrumental action. Intervention research shows that mental contrasting can be taught as a cost- and time-effective self-regulation strategy of behavior change. The findings have implications for research on mind wandering, problem solving, and on creating effective interventions of behavior change.

  20. Are Financial Incentives for Lifestyle Behavior Change Informed or Inspired by Behavioral Economics? A Mapping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Bronwyn; O'Hara, Blythe J; Bauman, Adrian; Grunseit, Anne C; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2018-01-01

    To identify the behavioral economics (BE) conceptual underpinnings of lifestyle financial incentive (FI) interventions. A mapping review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted by searching electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were real-world FI interventions explicitly mentioning BE, targeting individuals, or populations with lifestyle-related behavioral outcomes. Exclusion criteria were hypothetical studies, health professional focus, clinically oriented interventions. Study characteristics were tabulated according to purpose, categorization of BE concepts and FI types, design, outcome measures, study quality, and findings. Data Synthesis and Analysis: Financial incentives were categorized according to type and payment structure. Behavioral economics concepts explicitly used in the intervention design were grouped based on common patterns of thinking. The interplay between FI types, BE concepts, and outcome was assessed. Seventeen studies were identified from 1452 unique records. Analysis showed 76.5% (n = 13) of studies explicitly incorporated BE concepts. Six studies provided clear theoretical justification for the inclusion of BE. No pattern in the type of FI and BE concepts used was apparent. Not all FI interventions claiming BE inclusion did so. For interventions that explicitly included BE, the degree to which this was portrayed and woven into the design varied. This review identified BE concepts common to FI interventions, a first step in providing emergent and pragmatic information to public health and health promotion program planners.

  1. Addition of sulphonylurea to metformin does not relevantly change body weight : a prospective observational cohort study (ZODIAC-39)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijnders, Dennis; Wever, Raiza; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Landman, Gijs W. D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate changes in body weight trajectories after the addition of individual sulphonylureas (SUs) to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study, in a primary care setting in the Netherlands. Patients aged >=

  2. Institutions for Climate Adaptation: An Inventory of Institutions in the Netherlands that are Relevant for Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klostermann, J.E.M.; Gupta, J.; Jong, P.; Bergsma, E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of project IC12, a research project of the Climate changes Spatial Planning programme, is to assess if the formal institutions operating in the Netherlands are improving or hampering adaptive capacity. In order to answer the research question, the most important documents referring

  3. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury.

  4. The Educational Change Team: An Effort to Develop a National Facility to Generate and Implement Information and Resources Relevant to Secondary School Crisis and Change. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesler, Mark; And Others

    The final report of a research effort, interracial and multidisciplinary in nature and designed to deal with the politics of change in professional systems, outlines a) a diagnosis of American high schools and consequent change strategies, b) its goals and objectives, c) program outcomes, and d) issues facing the Educational Change Team and others…

  5. Effects of a behavior change campaign on household drinking water disinfection in the Lake Chad basin using the RANAS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Jonathan; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2018-04-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 700 million people rely on unimproved drinking water sources; even more consume water that is not safe to drink. Inadequate drinking water quality constitutes a major risk factor for cholera and other diarrheal diseases around the globe, especially for young children in developing countries. Household water treatment and safe storage systems represent an intermediate solution for settings that lack infrastructure supplying safe drinking water. However, the correct and consistent usage of such treatment technologies rely almost exclusively on the consumer's behavior. This study targeted at evaluating effects of a behavior change campaign promoting the uptake of household drinking water chlorination in communities along the Chari and Logone rivers in Chad. The campaign was based on formative research using health psychological theory and targeted several behavioral factors identified as relevant. A total of 220 primary caregivers were interviewed concerning their household water treatment practices and mindset related to water treatment six months after the campaign. The Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) model was used to structure the interviews as the RANAS approach had been used for designing the campaign. Results show significantly higher self-reported drinking water chlorination among participants of the intervention. Significant differences from a control group were identified regarding several behavioral factors. Mediation analysis revealed that the intervention positively affected participants' individual risk estimation for diarrheal disease, health knowledge, perceived efforts and benefits of water treatment, social support strategies, knowledge of how to perform chlorination, and perceived ability to do so. The campaign's effect on water treatment was mainly mediated through differences in health knowledge, changes in norms, and self-efficacy convictions. The findings imply that water treatment behavior

  6. Tool guide for lifestyle behavior change in a cardiovascular risk reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicole D; Lenz, Thomas L; Smith, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle medicine behaviors such as a healthy diet, physical activity, and tobacco avoidance, are the cornerstone of treatment in many chronic disease conditions, especially those related to the cardiovascular system. In fact, 80% of premature heart disease, stroke, and diabetes may be prevented through modification of these behaviors. The rate-limiting step in cardiovascular disease prevention is the implementation and maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to provide and discuss a series of tools and strategies that can be used by health care providers to promote health behavior change in their practice.

  7. Economics as a factor in models of behavioral motivation and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, I D; Atkinson, J S; Trevino, R A

    2000-02-01

    This note first presents a summary of four main behavioral models that are used to explain behavioral motivation and change. Three models are based on psychosocial theory. They are: 1) the Theory of Reasoned Action, 2) the Theory of Planned Behavior, and 3) the Theory of Stages-of-Change. The fourth model is based on economic theory and is known as the Rational Addiction Model. Each model is analyzed for its strengths and weaknesses. The note concludes by arguing for the usefulness of integrating the economic and the psychosocial models to study drug use. Specific examples and suggestions are presented.

  8. Relevance of Changes in Serum Creatinine During a Heart Failure Trial of Decongestive Strategies: Insights From the DOSE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Meredith A; Zile, Michael R; Hanberg, Jennifer S; Wilson, F Perry; Parikh, Chirag R; Coca, Steven G; Tang, W H Wilson; Testani, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    Worsening renal function (WRF) is a common endpoint in decompensated heart failure clinical trials because of associations between WRF and adverse outcomes. However, WRF has not universally been identified as a poor prognostic sign, challenging the validity of WRF as a surrogate endpoint. Our aim was to describe the associations between changes in creatinine and adverse outcomes in a clinical trial of decongestive therapies. We investigated the association between changes in creatinine and the composite endpoint of death, rehospitalization or emergency room visit within 60 days in 301 patients in the Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation (DOSE) trial. WRF was defined as an increase in creatinine >0.3 mg/dL and improvement in renal function (IRF) as a decrease >0.3 mg/dL. When examining linear changes in creatinine from baseline to 72 hours (the coprimary endpoint of DOSE), increasing creatinine was associated with lower risk for the composite outcome (HR = 0.81 per 0.3 mg/dL increase, 95% CI 0.67-0.98, P = .026). Compared with patients with stable renal function (n = 219), WRF (n = 54) was not associated with the composite endpoint (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.77-1.78, P = .47). However, compared with stable renal function, there was a strong relationship between IRF (n = 28) and the composite endpoint (HR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.57-4.03, P creatinine, was paradoxically associated with improved outcomes. This was driven by absence of risk attributable to WRF and a strong risk associated with IRF. These results argue against using changes in serum creatinine as a surrogate endpoint in trials of decongestive strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identity Changes and Consumer Behavior. How Becoming Parents Changes Our Consumption Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Cito, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This research aims at investigating the impact of the identity change on consumption. An identity change is defined as the acquisition of a new identity after a life change event. For instance after the birth of the first child the new identity as parent is acquired and a woman can define herself as a mother. Despite marketing research recognizes that individuals’ identity is unstable and susceptible to change, the investigation of the identity change is still in its infancy. Furthermore, mar...

  10. Behavioral economics, neuroeconomics, and climate change policy: baseline review for the garrison institute initiative on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Gowdy

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the increasing scientific certainty that the earth's climate is warming and that human activity is partially responsible, public willingness to take steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions seems to be decreasing. How can the scientific consensus as to the urgency of the climate change problem be conveyed to the general public in such a way as to support greenhouse gas abatement policies and to actually change behavior? This essay explores the standard economic approach to environ...

  11. Bleomycin Induces Molecular Changes Directly Relevant to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Model for “Active” Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Gaurav; Phillips, Jonathan E.; Garrido, Rosario; Harris, Paul; Burns, Lisa; Renteria, Lorena; Woods, John; Chen, Leena; Allard, John; Ravindran, Palanikumar; Bitter, Hans; Liang, Zhenmin; Hogaboam, Cory M.; Kitson, Chris; Budd, David C.; Fine, Jay S.; Bauer, Carla MT.; Stevenson, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    The preclinical model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, used to investigate mechanisms related to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), has incorrectly predicted efficacy for several candidate compounds suggesting that it may be of limited value. As an attempt to improve the predictive nature of this model, integrative bioinformatic approaches were used to compare molecular alterations in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice and patients with IPF. Using gene set enrichment analysis we show for the first time that genes differentially expressed during the fibrotic phase of the single challenge bleomycin model were significantly enriched in the expression profiles of IPF patients. The genes that contributed most to the enrichment were largely involved in mitosis, growth factor, and matrix signaling. Interestingly, these same mitotic processes were increased in the expression profiles of fibroblasts isolated from rapidly progressing, but not slowly progressing, IPF patients relative to control subjects. The data also indicated that TGFβ was not the sole mediator responsible for the changes observed in this model since the ALK-5 inhibitor SB525334 effectively attenuated some but not all of the fibrosis associated with this model. Although some would suggest that repetitive bleomycin injuries may more effectively model IPF-like changes, our data do not support this conclusion. Together, these data highlight that a single bleomycin instillation effectively replicates several of the specific pathogenic molecular changes associated with IPF, and may be best used as a model for patients with active disease. PMID:23565148

  12. Changes in the growth, but not the survival, of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Laird Shutt, J; Ritchie, Ian J; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken; Bird, David M

    2006-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) concentrations are increasing exponentially in biota. We studied the growth of American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings exposed in ovo and during development to environmentally relevant PBDE congeners and concentrations. Eggs within each clutch, divided between groups by laying sequence, were injected into the air cell at 19 days of incubation with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 microg total sigmaPBDEs/egg), approximating current levels in Great Lakes herring gulls. The measured proportions of BDE congeners found in the dosing oil were 56.4% of BDE-47; 27.2% of BDE-99; 24.8% of BDE-100; and 0.6% of BDE-153. For 29 days, nestlings were orally gavaged daily with the same sigmaPBDE mixture (15.6 +/- 0.3 ng/g body weight/day). Relative congener abundances in the dosing mixture compared to the carcasses suggest biotransformation of BDE-47; BDE-183 was also detected. PBDE exposure did not affect hatching or fledging success. PBDE-exposed nestlings were larger (weight, bones, feathers) as they gained weight more quickly and ate more food, the latter in association with their SigmaPBDE body burdens. BDE-100 was most influential on nestling growth, being positively associated with size, weight gain, and food consumption. Increasing concentrations of BDE-183 and -153 were related to longer bones, and BDE-99 to longer feathers. The larger size of the PBDE-exposed birds may be detrimental to their bone structure and have excessive energetic costs. The repeated relationships with BDE-100 and growth may be important for wild Falconidae, since this is the predominant penta-BDE congener in these raptors.

  13. Changing weather causes behavioral responses in the lower mesopelagic

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, S

    2017-05-10

    Mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers at a 700 m deep location in the Red Sea ascended 70 to 80 m during a passing rain storm that reduced light levels at the surface by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The changes in vertical distribution were observed down to the deepest part of the water column and were interpreted as a response to sudden dark weather. However, light measurements suggest that the mesopelagic targets (fish) did not fully compensate for the reduction in ambient light, and the calculated light levels in the scattering layers were similar to 1 order of magnitude lower during the passage of the storm. The results show that fluctuating weather conditions may affect pelagic ecosystems even towards the lower parts of the mesopelagic zone.

  14. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-07-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Culture change and ethnic-minority health behavior: an operant theory of acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2004-12-01

    Data on acculturation and ethnic-minority health indicate that acculturation has opposite effects on the same health behavior among different ethnic groups; opposite effects on different health behaviors within an ethnic group; opposite effects on the same health behavior for the women vs. the men of most ethnic groups; and no effect whatsoever on some health behaviors for some ethnic groups. This evidence is so incoherent that it is unintelligible, and hence it continues to be largely useless to health psychology and behavioral medicine. This paper presents a new theory of acculturation that renders these confusing data coherent by predicting such changes in minority health behavior a priori. By so doing, the operant model of acculturation has the potential to improve health promotion and disease prevention and thereby reduce ethnic health disparities.

  16. Caregiver Behavior Change for Child Survival and Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Examination of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P.; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A.; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H.; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3–4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given. PMID:25315597

  17. Caregiver behavior change for child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries: an examination of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2014-01-01

    In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3-4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given.

  18. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Performance-Based Incentives and the Behavior of Accounting Academics: Responding to Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Soledad; Prior, Diego; Rodríguez-Pérez, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    When laws change the rules of the game, it is important to observe the effects on the players' behavior. Some effects can be anticipated while others are difficult to enunciate before the law comes into force. In this paper we have analyzed articles authored by Spanish accounting academics between 1996 and 2005 to assess the impact of a change in…

  20. When Students Cannot or Will Not Change Their Behavior: Using Brief Strategic Intervention in the School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatea, Ellen S.; Sherrard, Peter A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes application of Mental Research Institute brief therapy model for working with school children who either do not want to change or feel they cannot change their problematic behavior. Describes assumptions which undergird this approach along with specific working procedures. (Author/ABL)

  1. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Johanna D.; Devine, Carol M.; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. PMID:26368577

  2. Predicting the effect of climate change on wildfire behavior and initial attack success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; J. Keith Gilless; William J. Riley; Tadashi J. Moody; Clara Simon de Blas; Katharine Hayhoe; Max Mortiz; Scott Stephens; Margaret Torn

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on how climate change-induced effects on weather will translate into changes in wildland fire severity and outcomes in California, particularly on the effectiveness of initial attack at limiting the number of fires that escape initial attack. The results indicate that subtle shifts in fire behavior of the sort that might be induced by the climate...

  3. Perceived changes in behavior and values after a red blood cell transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broccolo M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Broccolo,1 Nicolas Favez,2 Oliver Karam3,4 1School of Medicine, 2Clinical Psychology Unit, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, 3Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Richmond at VCU, Richmond, VA, USA Background: Several studies have evaluated perceived changes in patients’ behavior after an organ transplant, especially a heart transplant. Although blood transfusions are much more frequent and have many connotations, derived from religious values, mass culture, or personal ideas, there is no study of the perception the patients have of changes in their behavior and values after a transfusion. This study’s objective was to assess perceived changes in behavior and values after a red blood cell transfusion.Materials and methods: Exploratory study through semistructured interviews with seven adults transfused after orthopedic surgery.Results: Blood had strong symbolic values for all subjects. Each of the seven participants mentioned positive characteristics that they would like to receive from the donor. Six subjects out of the seven acknowledged the possibility that transfusions might induce changes in behavior or values. Three subjects clearly stated that they would refuse to receive blood from a criminal for fear that some negative characteristic may be transmitted to them. Furthermore, three subjects acknowledged that their transfusion might have changed their own behavior or values.Discussion: This study shows that patients might feel that transfusions could modify their behavior or values and that certain personality traits of the donor could be transmitted. Further research in a larger population is warranted to evaluate the incidence of a perceived changed in behavior or values after a blood transfusion, which would then lead to changes in the way information is provided to

  4. Counseling for health behavior change in people with COPD: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams MT

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Marie T Williams,1 Tanja W Effing,2,3 Catherine Paquet,4 Carole A Gibbs,5 Hayley Lewthwaite,1 Lok Sze Katrina Li,6 Anna C Phillips,6 Kylie N Johnston6 1Health and Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA, School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Repatriation General Hospital, 3School of Medicine, Flinders University, 4Division of Health Sciences, Centre for Population Health Research, School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, 5Library, University of South Australia, 6Division of Health Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Counseling has been suggested as a promising approach for facilitating changes in health behavior. The aim of this systematic review of counseling interventions for people with COPD was to describe: 1 counseling definitions, 2 targeted health behaviors, 3 counseling techniques and 4 whether commonalities in counseling techniques were associated with improved health behaviors. Ten databases were searched for original randomized controlled trials which included adults with COPD, used the term “counseling” as a sole or component of a multifaceted intervention and were published in the previous 10 years. Data extraction, study appraisal and coding for behavior change techniques (BCTs were completed by two independent reviewers. Data were synthesized descriptively, with meta-analysis conducted where possible. Of the 182 studies reviewed as full-text, 22 were included. A single study provided a definition for counseling. Two key behaviors were the main foci of counseling: physical activity (n=9 and smoking cessation (n=8. Six studies (27% reported underlying models and/or theoretical frameworks. Counseling was the sole intervention in 10 studies and part of a multicomponent intervention in 12

  5. Finding the critical cue: implementation intentions to change one's diet work best when tailored to personally relevant reasons for unhealthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Wit, John B F

    2009-01-01

    Implementation intentions promote acting on one's good intentions. But does specifying where and when to act also suffice when goals involve complex change that requires not merely initiating a behavior but rather substituting a habit with a new response? In a pilot study and two experiments, the authors investigated the efficacy of implementation intentions to replace unhealthy snacks with healthy snacks by linking different types of cues for unhealthy snacking (if-part) to healthy snacking (then-part). The pilot study identified cues for unhealthy snacking, differentiating between situational (where/when) and motivational (why) cues. Studies 1 and 2 tested the efficacy of implementation intentions that specified either situational or motivational cues in altering snacking habits. Results showed that implementation intentions specifying motivational cues decreased unhealthy snack consumption whereas the classic specification of where and when did not. Extending previous research, for complex behavior change "why" seems more important than "where and when."

  6. Formative Evaluation of the Behavior Change Components within a Colorado Weatherization Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Perla K.

    A formative evaluation of behavior change elements of an ongoing Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) offered by the Energy Resource Center (E.R.C.) in Denver, CO was conducted. The WAP as administered by the E.R.C. in Colorado saves residents an average 15% of energy consumption (E.R.C., 2015). However, research suggests that adding behavioral components to WAPs could increase energy savings to 21-26% (Gregory, 1992; APPRAISE, 2002). The goal of this evaluation is to provide recommendations to E.R.C. for program changes using Community Based Social Marketing (CBSM) and Theory of Planned Behavior. The CBSM Step 1- Step 3 is the focus of this formative evaluation. This program evaluation has four components: 1) review of written materials, 2) interviews with staff, 3) surveys mailed to E.R.C. clients and 4) in-home observations conducted with E.R.C. clients. Results of this formative evaluation has 3 sections of behaviors recommended for future intervention high priority, mid priority, and low priority recommendations based on CBSM penetration, probability, and impact factors. Behaviors that are listed as high priority for E.R.C. Behavioral intervention are cold water washing, hang drying, setting back thermostats, and window coverings. Overall increase in staff engagement is also recommended to be pursued. Each staff level is also given recommendations on how to engage in behavior change interventions.

  7. Health Behavior Change Interventions for Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Gemma; Gravestock, Helen L; Hough, Rachael E; King, Wendy M; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-06-01

    It is important that teenage and young adult (TYA) cancer survivors adopt a healthy lifestyle, since health vulnerabilities associated with their diagnosis and treatment may be exacerbated by poor health behaviors. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on health behavior change interventions created specifically for TYA-aged cancer survivors. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched for studies investigating interventions targeting one or more health behaviors, including: physical activity, diet, smoking cessation, and alcohol consumption. Studies were eligible for review if the study population were defined as TYA cancer survivors and the mean age of the sample was younger than 30 years of age. Twelve studies were identified, of which nine were randomized controlled trials. Physical activity was the most commonly targeted health behavior. Six of the 12 interventions included within this review were successful in changing health behavior. Due to the heterogeneity of intervention characteristics, the relationship between intervention efficacy or outcome and intervention content, delivery mode, or theoretical framework was not discernible. Nevertheless, trends emerged relating to the delivery and content of health behavior interventions designed specifically for TYA cancer survivors. More research is required to identify the most effective means of promoting health behavior change among the TYA cancer survivor population. Specifically, future research should focus on providing evidence of the efficiency and feasibility of interventions that use online technologies to facilitate remote intervention delivery and peer support.

  8. Behavioral Disinhibition Can Foster Intentions to Healthy Lifestyle Change by Overcoming Commitment to Past Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Andreassen, Tor W.; Lervik-Olsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    To curb the trend towards obesity and unhealthy living, people may need to change their entire lifestyle to a healthier alternative, something that is frequently perceived to be problematic. The present research, using a large, representative community sample, hypothesized and found that a key

  9. [Association between stages of behavior change related to physical activity and nutritional status in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Alberto Saturno; Corseuil, Herton Xavier; Pelegrini, Andreia; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to verify the association between stages of behavior change related to physical activity and nutritional status among 862 university students. Body mass index cut-off values were used to classify nutritional status. Stages of behavior change were analyzed individually and classified into active (action, maintenance) and inactive (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation). The most prevalent stages of behavior change were contemplation (32%) and preparation (29.5%). Among the entire sample of students, 68.4% were inactive. Prevalence rates for underweight, overweight, and obesity were 9.5%, 12.4%, and 1.7%, respectively. Students classified in the pre-contemplation stage were 5.99 times (CI95%: 2.29-15.68) and 7.98 times (CI95%: 1.41-45.32) more likely to be underweight and overweight, respectively. The university plays a fundamental role in adopting plans and actions targeting the academic community, promoting lifestyle changes through physical activity programs.

  10. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed.

  11. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reliable change in depression during behavioral weight loss treatment among women with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Appelhans, Bradley M; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E; DeBiasse, Michele A; Oleski, Jessica L; Crawford, Sybil L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-03-01

    Although behavioral weight loss interventions generally have been shown to improve depressive symptoms, little is known as to whether some people with major depressive disorder experience worsening of depression during a weight loss intervention. Rates and predictors of change in depression symptoms among 148 obese women with major depressive disorder who participated in a trial comparing depression treatment plus behavioral weight loss treatment (Behavioral Activation; BA) to behavioral weight loss treatment alone (Lifestyle Intervention; LI) were examined. a statistically reliable change in depression was calculated as ≥9 points on the beck depression inventory in this sample. At 6 months, 73% of participants in BA and 54% of participants in LI showed reliable improvement in depression symptoms and 1.5% of participants in BA and 1.3% of participants in LI showed reliable worsening in depression symptoms. Rates of reliable change were similar at 12 months. Participants who experienced reliable improvement in depression lost significantly more weight than those who did not in both conditions. In the LI condition, baseline psychiatric variables and change in physical activity during treatment were also related to reliable improvement in depression. No evidence for an iatrogenic effect of behavioral weight loss treatment on depressive symptoms among obese women with major depressive disorder was detected; rather, behavioral weight loss treatment appears to be associated with significant concurrent improvement in depression. Even greater rates of reliable improvement were observed when depression treatment was added to weight loss treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sundling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+ travelers’ motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers’ critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT, five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers’ access to public transport, key findings were: (a service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  14. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-11-18

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers' motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers' critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers' access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c) when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  15. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.