WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior analysts review

  1. Behavior analysts can be interdisciplinary too: a review of durand's autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram

    2014-10-17

    V. Mark Durand's (2013) book, Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Clinical Guide for General Practitioners, eases readers into the vast scientific literature on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), encourages behavior analysts to examine our place in this literature, and illustrates how we might communicate effectively with a general audience. Durand shows that we have developed many beneficial interventions for individuals with ASD yet may harbor obsolete views about what ASD is. Moreover, his description of ASD suggests that we should consider expanding our range of treatment targets and serve a broader segment of the ASD population. He also shows that investigators in disciplines outside applied behavior analysis (ABA) have contributed to understanding the causes and characteristics of ASD. Thus, rather than focusing mainly on ABA, Durand portrays ABA as one of many disciplines engaged in productive research on ASD; this portrayal may be both accurate and effective as a communication strategy. PMID:25323996

  2. A Review of Domestic Dogs' (Canis Familiaris) Human-Like Behaviors: Or Why Behavior Analysts Should Stop Worrying and Love Their Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Udell, Monique A.R; Wynne, C. D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs likely were the first animals to be domesticated and as such have shared a common environment with humans for over ten thousand years. Only recently, however, has this species' behavior been subject to scientific scrutiny. Most of this work has been inspired by research in human cognitive psychology and suggests that in many ways dogs are more human-like than any other species, including nonhuman primates. Behavior analysts should add their expertise to the study of dog behavior, both to...

  3. Behavioral Economics: A Tutorial for Behavior Analysts in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research i...

  4. Developing the Cultural Awareness Skills of Behavior Analysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth Hughes; Catagnus, Robyn M; Brodhead, Matthew T; Quigley, Shawn; Field, Sean

    2016-03-01

    All individuals are a part of at least one culture. These cultural contingencies shape behavior, behavior that may or may not be acceptable or familiar to behavior analysts from another culture. To better serve individuals, assessments and interventions should be selected with a consideration of cultural factors, including cultural preferences and norms. The purpose of this paper is to provide suggestions to serve as a starting point for developing behavior analysts' cultural awareness skills. We present strategies for understanding behavior analysts' personal cultural values and contingencies and those of their clients, integrating cultural awareness practices into service delivery, supervision, and professional development, and becoming culturally aware in everyday practice. PMID:27606242

  5. A Review of Domestic Dogs' ("Canis Familiaris") Human-Like Behaviors: Or Why Behavior Analysts Should Stop Worrying and Love Their Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A. R.; Wynne, C. D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs likely were the first animals to be domesticated and as such have shared a common environment with humans for over ten thousand years. Only recently, however, has this species' behavior been subject to scientific scrutiny. Most of this work has been inspired by research in human cognitive psychology and suggests that in many ways dogs are…

  6. Behavior analysts and cultural analysis: Troubles and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagodi, E. F.; Jackson, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    Three strategic suggestions are offered to behavior analysts who are concerned with extending the interests of our discipline into domains traditionally assigned to the social sciences: (1) to expand our world-view perspectives beyond the boundaries commonly accepted by psychologists in general; (2) to build a cultural analytic framework upon the foundations we have developed for the study of individuals; and (3) to study the works of those social scientists whose views are generally compatible with, and complementary to, our own. Sociologist C. Wright Mills' distinction between troubles and issues and anthropologist Marvin Harris's principles of cultural materialism are related to topics raised by these three strategies. The pervasiveness of the “psychocentric” world view within psychology and the social sciences, and throughout our culture at large, is discussed from the points of view of Skinner, Mills, and Harris. It is suggested that a thorough commitment to radical behaviorism, and continuation of interaction between radical behaviorism and cultural materialism, are necessary for maintaining and extending an issues orientation within the discipline of behavior analysis and for guarding against dilutions and subversions of that orientation by “deviation-dampening” contingencies that exist in our profession and in our culture at large. PMID:22478014

  7. Accounting standard changes and foreign analyst behavior:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao Wang; Yu Hou; Xiaolin Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates changes in foreign analyst behavior before and after Chinese New Accounting Standards was implemented during 2007.The empirical results show that after the new accounting standards were implemented,forecast error among foreign analysts decreased in both absolute and relative terms in comparison with domestic analysts,and foreign analysts forecast earnings more frequently than they did before the new accounting standards.These results imply that the implementation of new accounting standards in the Chinese capital market helped mitigate both information asymmetry between listed firms in China and foreign investors,and the "home bias" of foreign analysts.It also increased the attractiveness of listed firms and facilitated international communication and cooperation.This study also has significant implications for how resource allocation efficiency in the Chinese capital market can be raised and how the "introducing in" policy should be assessed.

  8. Collaborative Training and Practice among Applied Behavior Analysts Who Support Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amy; Tincani, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, practicing behavior analysts play an integral role as interdisciplinary team members to develop instructional programs for students with autism spectrum disorder. However, there is a lack of research on collaborative training and practice as it relates to professionals in the field of ABA. In this study, 302 behavioral professionals,…

  9. Reinforcement history: a concept underutilized in behavior analysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzinger, K

    1996-09-01

    Some years ago Underwood (1964) grappled with the problem of explaining his finding that rate of forgetting was not a function of the rate of learning but rather seemed to reflect the level of learning achieved. He likened different rates of learning to filling an Erlenmeyer flask of water at different rates and the process of forgetting to the rate of evaporation, which in turn is a function of the exposed surface area. Since an Erlenmeyer flask is cone-shaped, the surface area becomes smaller as the flask is filled, thus the greater the amount of learning achieved, or water added, the less the rate of evaporation independent of how quickly or slowly the flask was filled. I give this example because it is such a clear description of history kept simple, in the psychological process of learning and forgetting. Indeed it is as simple as Charles Dickens' description of how students are to be taught, that is, by considering them to be "little vessels...ready to have imperial gallons of facts poured into them until they were full to the brim" (Dickens, 1961, p. 12). The object of this paper is to show how our neglect in specifying the history of reinforcement and other behavior analytic concepts has resulted in our ceding much of our field to cognitive psychologists even though our knowledge of conditioning enables us to study it more thoroughly than they can. PMID:8959421

  10. Corporate Governance, Manager Behavior, and Analyst Behavior as Determinants of Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bhimani; Mthuli Ncube

    2004-01-01

    The literature on Mergers and Acquisitions activity has espoused various explanations for M&A activity. Some of this captures the nature of defence mechanisms again takeovers. In all the expositions the agency conflicts and degrees of collusion among the claimants to the firm’s cash-flows, are apparent. In this paper we add to the literature by presenting an integrated framework that classifies manager behavior and corporate governance, and show how a manager can use M&A bids as a vehicle f...

  11. Career Concerns of Banking Analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Joanne; Serafeim, Georgios; Wu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    We study how career concerns influence banking analysts’ forecasts and how their forecasting behavior benefits both them and bank managers. We show that banking analysts issue early in the year relatively more optimistic and later in the year more pessimistic forecasts for banks that could be their future employers. This pattern is not observed when the same analysts forecast earnings of companies that are not likely to be their future employers. Moreover, we use the Global Settlement as an e...

  12. IMPROVED GROUND TRUTH IN SOUTHERN ASIA USING IN-COUNTRY DATA, ANALYST WAVEFORM REVIEW, AND ADVANCED ALGORITHMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engdahl, Eric, R.; Bergman, Eric, A.; Myers, Stephen, C.; Ryall, Floriana

    2009-06-19

    A new catalog of seismicity at magnitudes above 2.5 for the period 1923-2008 in the Iran region is assembled from arrival times reported by global, regional, and local seismic networks. Using in-country data we have formed new events, mostly at lower magnitudes that were not previously included in standard global earthquake catalogs. The magnitude completeness of the catalog varies strongly through time, complete to about magnitude 4.2 prior to 1998 and reaching a minimum of about 3.6 during the period 1998-2005. Of the 25,722 events in the catalog, most of the larger events have been carefully reviewed for proper phase association, especially for depth phases and to eliminate outlier readings, and relocated. To better understand the quality of the data set of arrival times reported by Iranian networks that are central to this study, many waveforms for events in Iran have been re-picked by an experienced seismic analyst. Waveforms at regional distances in this region are often complex. For many events this makes arrival time picks difficult to make, especially for smaller magnitude events, resulting in reported times that can be substantially improved by an experienced analyst. Even when the signal/noise ratio is large, re-picking can lead to significant differences. Picks made by our analyst are compared with original picks made by the regional networks. In spite of the obvious outliers, the median (-0.06 s) and spread (0.51 s) are small, suggesting that reasonable confidence can be placed in the picks reported by regional networks in Iran. This new catalog has been used to assess focal depth distributions throughout Iran. A principal result of this study is that the geographic pattern of depth distributions revealed by the relatively small number of earthquakes (~167) with depths constrained by waveform modeling (+/- 4 km) are now in agreement with the much larger number of depths (~1229) determined using reanalysis of ISC arrival-times (+/-10 km), within their

  13. Editorial behaviors in peer review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Jun ZHANG; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respe...

  14. Editorial behaviors in peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respectively. We apply this model to analyze a number of editorial behaviors such as decision strategy, number of reviewers and editorial bias on peer review. We find out that peer review outcomes are significantly sensitive to different editorial behaviors. With a small fraction (10 %) of biased editors, the quality of accepted papers declines 11 %, which indicates that effects of editorial biased behavior is worse than that of biased reviewers (7 %). While several peer review models exist, this is the first account for the study of editorial behaviors that is validated on the basis of simulation analysis. PMID:27386349

  15. "Unavoidable Satisfactions": The Analyst's Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Analysts have often described their work as depriving, painful, and hard to endure, while its pleasures have been the subject of little commentary. The real history and ongoing temptations of boundary violation long ago made the gratifications of psychoanalytic work a matter of anxiety. Analysts' pleasure in their work was problematized. Some of this problematizing is necessary because of real risk, but much of it is not only unnecessary but misleading and destructive. Psychoanalysts pursue achievement of a unique form of human intimacy, yet acquired habits of professional modesty and humility have encouraged the illusion that analyzing can occur without desire or ambition on the analyst's part. These habits have made it difficult for analysts to openly discuss what they get from the intimacy of analyzing that yields its pleasures. Our field demands that analysts deny that the work provides much more than pain (at least until the conclusion of an analysis), but psychoanalysis both misunderstands and misrepresents itself if we cannot speak of the distinctly broad range of pleasures available in analyzing. PMID:27609074

  16. Herd Behavior and Cascading in Capital Markets: A Review and Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hirshleifer, David; Teoh, Siew Hong

    2001-01-01

    We review theory and evidence relating to herd behaviour, payoff and reputational interactions, social learning, and informational cascades in capital markets. We offer a simple taxonomy of effects, and evaluate how alternative theories may help explain evidence on the behavior of investors, firms, and analysts. We consider both incentives for parties to engage in herding or cascading, and the incentives for parties to protect against or take advantage of herding or cascading by others.

  17. Brain and Behavior: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Urbina, Guadalupe N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of many scientific disciplines allows us to know surprising aspects of the relationship between the brain and its functions. Current technology and the convergence of these disciplines are essential to understand the complex brain mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper will be described some scientific disciplines whose studies help to understand the biological substrates of normal and altered behavior. We will describe some pathologies or neuropsychological disorders and, in addition, we will review some of the known neurobiological mechanisms that control our brain functions. This allows us to conclude that the behavior and brain functions depend on complex biological mechanisms, many of which are still to be elucidated.

  18. Do Sell-Side Stock Analysts Exhibit Escalation of Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Milkman, Katherine L

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents evidence that when an analyst makes an out-of-consensus forecast of a company's quarterly earnings that turns out to be incorrect, she escalates her commitment to maintaining an out-of-consensus view on the company. Relative to an analyst who was close to the consensus, the out-of-consensus analyst adjusts her forecasts for the current fiscal year's earnings less in the direction of the quarterly earnings surprise. On average, this type of updating behavior reduces forecasting accuracy, so it does not seem to reflect superior private information. Further empirical results suggest that analysts do not have financial incentives to stand by extreme stock calls in the face of contradictory evidence. Managerial and financial market implications are discussed.

  19. Three Essays on Analyst Target Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Noor

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on analyst target prices. The essays contribute to the major debate on the value of analyst target prices in the capital market by addressing the following three questions: Does a bull-bear valuation analysis increase the accuracy of analysts’ target prices? Does analyst ranking affect how informative target prices are to institutional investors? And, do analysts use their cash flow forecasts when setting target prices?In the first essay, I explore whether co...

  20. Do Analysts Tell the Truth? Do Shareholders Listen? An Experimental Study of Analysts' Forecasts and Shareholder Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Shields

    2010-01-01

    This work experimentally examines forecasting and trading behavior. Subjects play the role of both analyst and shareholder over the course of experiments consisting of a series of repeated games with or absent con icts of interest. In a stylized trading setting, I test whether standard equilibrium, normative behavior, or limited strategic reasoning best predicts behavior. In the presence of con icts of interest a substantial proportion of subjects' behavior appears non-skeptical in the role o...

  1. Analyst workbenches state of the art report

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, R

    1987-01-01

    Analyst Workbenches examines various aspects of analyst workbenches and the tasks and data that they should support. The major advances and state of the art in analyst workbenches are discussed. A comprehensive list of the available analyst workbenches, both the experimental and the commercial products, is provided. Comprised of three parts, this book begins by describing International Computers Ltd's approach to automating analysis and design. It then explains what business analysis really means, outlines the principal features of analyst workbenches, and considers the ways in which they can

  2. Do Investors Learn About Analyst Accuracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Charles; Daouk, Hazem; Wang, Albert

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of analyst forecasts on prices to determine whether investors learn about analyst accuracy. Our test market is the crude oil futures market. Prices rise when analysts forecast a decrease (increase) in crude supplies. In the 15 minutes following supply realizations, prices rise (fall) when forecasts have been too high (low). In both the initial price action relative to forecasts and in the subsequent reaction relative to realized forecast errors, the price response is stron...

  3. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  4. Improving the information environment for analysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and analyst following for biotechnology firms listed at the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: Intellectual capital disclosure...... the information content of intellectual capital disclosure. Analysts, probably, deduce intellectual capital of a firm from interaction with management rather than financial statements. Practical implications: Firms in biotechnology sector can improve their information environment by disclosing more information...

  5. Paired analyst recommendations and internet IPOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Goot; N. van Giersbergen

    2008-01-01

    The paper investigates analyst recommendations for internet firms that went public during 1997-2000. Our contribution to the literature is that we match recommendations for the same firm issued by different investment banks that have published the recommendations in an interval around the same date.

  6. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  7. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  8. Perceptions of performance: the reactions of analysts and institutional investors to FRS 3

    OpenAIRE

    O hOgartaigh, Ciaran; Reilly, Eilish

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the reactions of analysts and institutional investors to FRS 3 Reporting Financial Performance. Such reactions were elicited through an analysis of submissions to the Accounting Standards Board concerning FRED 1 (on which FRS 3 is based), a review of published reactions to FRS 3 and by way of a series of inverviews with analysts and institutional investors. Those interviewed were generally supportive of FRS 3. The research finds little support amont those interviewed fo...

  9. Through the Eyes of Analysts: A Content Analysis of Analyst Report Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    analyst reports, and the amount of financial data supplied is not related to the other disclosures in the reports. In comparison to business reporting practices, the fundamental analyst reports put relatively less weight on social and sustainability information, intellectual capital and corporate...... reporting, taking the point of departure in some of the capital market actors that follow companies the closest, namely the sell-side analysts, will reveal which types of information companies should be disclosing through their corporate reports. By focusing on the reports disclosed in connection...... with the analysts' fundamental analyses of a company, this paper constitutes an important contribution to business reporting but also to the study of the capital market actors' perceptions of relevant information. A medium-sized medico-tech company, internationally renowned for its state-of-the-art business...

  10. The relevance of security analyst opinions for investment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Security analysts analyze information regarding publicly traded companies after which they publish their opinion regarding these companies’ stocks. In this dissertation the published opinions of two different types of analysts are analyzed. Technical analysts derive a recommendation to buy, hold, or

  11. 17 CFR 200.17 - Chief Management Analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Organization and Program Management General Organization § 200.17 Chief Management Analyst. The Chief Management Analyst is responsible to the Executive Director... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chief Management Analyst....

  12. Contingency and behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of contingency is central to theoretical discussions of learned behavior and in the application of learning research to problems of social significance. This paper reviews three aspects of the contingency concept as it has been developed by behavior analysts. The first is the empirical analysis of contingency through experimental studies of both human and nonhuman behavior. The second is the synthesis of experimental studies in theoretical and conceptual frameworks to yield a more...

  13. The Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review of Its Applications to Health-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Gaston; Kok, Gerjo

    1996-01-01

    The literature review discussed here located 56 studies examining 87 behaviors that predicted future health-related behaviors using the theory of planned behavior. About 41% of variance in intentions and 34% of variance in future behavior were explained by the theory. Perceived behavioral control explained 11.5% of variance in behavior above…

  14. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work. PMID:27606191

  15. Transference to the analyst as an excluded observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, John

    2008-02-01

    In this paper I briefly review some significant points in the development of ideas on transference which owe so much to the discoveries of Freud. I then discuss some of the subsequent developments which were based on Freud 's work and which have personally impressed me. In particular I mention Melanie Klein's elaboration of an internal world peopled by internal object and her description of the mechanisms of splitting and projective identification, both of which profoundly affect our understanding of transference. Using some clinical material I try to illustrate an important transference situation which I do not think has been sufficiently emphasized although it is part of the 'total situation' outlined by Klein. In this kind of transference the analyst finds himself in an observing position and is no longer the primary object to whom love and hate are directed. Instead he is put in a position of an excluded figure who can easily enact rather than understand the role he has been put in. In this situation he may try to regain the position as the patient's primary object in the transference or avoid the transference altogether and make extra-transference interpretations and in this way enact the role of a judgemental and critical super-ego. If he can tolerate the loss of a central role and understand the transference position he has been put in, the analyst can sometimes reduce enactments and release feelings to do with mourning and loss in both himself and his patient.

  16. Implementation of the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhalter, E Eugene

    2000-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  17. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. E. Hochhalter

    2000-04-28

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  18. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed

  19. A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy A. Steeves; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R.; Eugene C. Fitzhugh; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior mo...

  20. Essays on Online Reviews: Reviewers' Strategic Behaviors and Contributions over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenqi

    2010-01-01

    Online reviews play an important role in consumers' purchasing decisions. Researchers are increasingly interested in studying the dynamic impact of online reviews on product sales. However, the antecedent of online reviews, online reviewers' behaviors, has not been fully explored. Understanding how online reviewers make review decisions can assist…

  1. Is customer satisfaction a relevant metric for financial analysts?

    OpenAIRE

    Ngobo, Paul-Valentin; Casta, Jean-François; Ramond, Olivier,

    2012-01-01

    published on line : 2011/01/08 International audience This study examines the effects of customer satisfaction on analysts' earnings forecast errors. Based on a sample of analysts following companies measured by the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), we find that customer satisfaction reduces earnings forecast errors. However, analysts respond to changes in customer satisfaction but not to the ACSI metric per se. Furthermore, the effects of customer satisfaction are asymmetric...

  2. Competing for Securities Underwriting Mandates: Banking Relationships and Analyst Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Ljungqvist, Alexander P.; Marston, Felicia; Wilhelm Jr, William J

    2003-01-01

    We investigate directly whether analyst behaviour influenced the likelihood of banks winning underwriting mandates for a sample of 16,625 US debt and equity offerings sold between December 1993 and June 2002. We control for the strength of the issuer’s investment-banking relationships with potential competitors for the mandate, prior lending relationships, and the endogeneity of analyst behaviour and the bank’s decision to provide analyst coverage. Contrary to recent allegations, we find no e...

  3. Performance Evaluation of Analyst Recommendations in Chinese Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinYang; ZhaoxueTeng; XiaoqiangLi

    2004-01-01

    Using the samples from every Monday's column 'the Most Promising Stocks Recommended by Analysts This Week' on Shanghai Securities News during the period from Sep.2000 to Dec.2003, this paper analyzes the performance of the stocks recommended by analysts during the following week. Firstly, the analysts are inclined to recommend the stocks with better performance in the latest week. Secondly, the portfolios formed by the analyst recommendations have remarkably positive abnormal returns on Monday, while they do not outperform the market from Tuesday to Friday, even have remarkably negative abnormal returns.

  4. Environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, T.H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the conceptualization of environmentally responsible behavior and methods for measuring such behavior based on a review of previous studies. Four major scales for the extent to which an individual’s behavior is responsible behavior are discussed. Various theoretical backgrounds and cultures provide diverse conceptualizations of environmentally responsible behavior. Both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior has been identified in the past studies. This study also discusses the precedents of environmentally responsible behavior and with a general overview; it provides insight into improving future research on this subject.

  5. The Role of Neuropeptides in Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluca Serafini; Maurizio Pompili; Daniel Lindqvist; Yogesh Dwivedi; Paolo Girardi

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neurope...

  6. City Size and Human Behavior: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    George H. Conklin

    2003-01-01

    Humans are influenced by their environments, whether we realize it or not in daily life. B. F. Skinner, for example, states we control human behavior the same way we control animal behavior: by manipulating the environment, similar in concept to Louis Wirth's notion of urban size and density. In this review, a signficant article on urban size and civic participation is reviewed as part of Sociation Today's effort to bring to light important articles which should receive further reading

  7. The analyst's authenticity: "if you see something, say something".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, George; Suzuki, Jessica Y

    2015-05-01

    The history of authenticity in psychoanalysis is as old as analysis itself, but the analyst's authenticity in particular has become an increasingly important area of focus in recent decades. This article traces the development of conceptions of analytic authenticity and proposes that the analyst's spontaneous verbalization of his or her unformulated experience in session can be a potent force in the course of an analysis. We acknowledge that although analytic authenticity can be a challenging ideal for the analyst to strive for, it contains the power to transform the experience of the patient and the analyst, as well as the meaning of their work together. Whether it comes in the form of an insight-oriented comment or a simple acknowledgment of things as they seem to be, a therapist's willingness to speak aloud something that has lost its language is a powerful clinical phenomenon that transcends theoretical orientation and modality.

  8. The analyst's authenticity: "if you see something, say something".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, George; Suzuki, Jessica Y

    2015-05-01

    The history of authenticity in psychoanalysis is as old as analysis itself, but the analyst's authenticity in particular has become an increasingly important area of focus in recent decades. This article traces the development of conceptions of analytic authenticity and proposes that the analyst's spontaneous verbalization of his or her unformulated experience in session can be a potent force in the course of an analysis. We acknowledge that although analytic authenticity can be a challenging ideal for the analyst to strive for, it contains the power to transform the experience of the patient and the analyst, as well as the meaning of their work together. Whether it comes in the form of an insight-oriented comment or a simple acknowledgment of things as they seem to be, a therapist's willingness to speak aloud something that has lost its language is a powerful clinical phenomenon that transcends theoretical orientation and modality. PMID:25788152

  9. Behavioral Therapies for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, K; Martyn-St James, M.; Kaltenthaler, E.; Dickinson, K; Cantrell, A.; Wylie, K.; Frodhsam, L.; Hood, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined by short ejaculatory latency and inability to delay ejaculation causing distress. Management may involve behavioral and/or pharmacological approaches. Aim To systematically review the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence for behavioral therapies in the management of PE. Methods Nine databases including MEDLINE were searched up to August 2014. Included RCTs compared behavioral therapy against waitlist control or another therapy, or behav...

  10. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Devnani; Racheal Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, ...

  11. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  12. Sedentary behavior and health outcomes: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende

    Full Text Available 1 To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2 To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found.Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase; PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers.This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted.

  13. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  14. The Role of Neuropeptides in Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Serafini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY, which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper.

  15. The role of neuropeptides in suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Pompili, Maurizio; Lindqvist, Daniel; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper.

  16. Developmental behavior assessment in school by using Direct Behavior Rating (DBR: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Huber

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The developmental assessment of behavior problems in school is an important but challenging task for psychologists, teachers and other experts. The current paper (first gives a short summary of conventional methods of behavior assessment. Second the Method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR as an alternative method of developmental behaviour assessment is introduced. Based on this, a review of empirical works with focus on the test quality of DBR is given. 17 studies are discussed. Results of the reviewed studies suggest a moderate to good criterion-related validity and interrater reliability. Further the studies found that test-quality could be improved, when a set of five DBR-measurements are resumed and the target behavior is defined in a more global way. Further, findings suggest that test quality is varying with the target behavior. The results of all studies are summarized and their relevance for the developmental assessment of behavior in daily school life is discussed.

  17. 2014 Behavioral Health and Performance Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan; Leon, Gloria; Dimsdale, Joel; Balkin, Thomas; Bono, Joyce; Caldwell, John; Joiner, Thomas; Paulus, Martin; Zaccaro, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 17 - 18, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated research plan for the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness, and Work Overload (Sleep Risk) and also received a status update on the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders (BMed Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (Team Risk).

  18. Review of: Theories of information behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, information behaviour is one of the richest research areas in the field of library and information science (LIS. Since the calls for conceptual enrichment within the field of information behaviour in the post-1978 literature, which was emphasised in the Dervin and Nilan's seminal review chapter in ARIST (1986, much effort has been expended to generate new theories and develop new models of human information behaviour. There has also been a paradigm shift from focus on the system to focus on the user. During the sixties and seventies the focus of the studies was rather on the system and researchers tried to understand the users and their needs through the study of the system or the resources used. Since the paradigm shift researchers have paid more attention to the user and their characteristics. Different approaches have been adopted for the study of information behaviour of different user groups and new methodologies have been developed or adopted from other fields such as social sciences. However, most of the literature in this field of study has been scattered in research papers and book chapters. There has been a real need to bring the core of all this literature together in a monograph.

  19. Prevalence of Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A. Harvey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior is a cluster of behaviors adopted in a sitting or lying posture where little energy is being expended. Sedentary behavior is a risk factor for health independent to inactivity. Currently, there are no published systematic reviews on the prevalence of sedentary behavior objectively measured in, or subjectively reported by, older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to collect and analyze published literature relating to reported prevalence of sedentary behavior, written in English, on human adults, where subjects aged 60 years and over were represented in the study. 23 reports covered data from 18 surveys sourced from seven countries. It was noted that sedentary behavior is defined in different ways by each survey. The majority of surveys included used self-report as a measurement of sedentary behavior. Objective measurements were also captured with the use of body worn accelerometers. Whether measurements are subjective or objective, the majority of older adults are sedentary. Almost 60% of older adult’s reported sitting for more than 4 h per day, 65% sit in front of a screen for more than 3 h daily and over 55% report watching more than 2 h of TV. However, when measured objectively in a small survey, it was found that 67% of the older population were sedentary for more than 8.5 h daily.

  20. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  1. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  2. REDUCING THE COGNITIVE LOAD ON ANALYSTS THROUGH HAMMING DISTANCE BASED ALERT AGGREGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous work introduced the idea of grouping alert s at a Hamming distance of 1 to achieve lossless al ert aggregation; such aggregated meta-alerts were shown to increase alert interpretability. However, a mea n of 84023 daily Snort alerts were reduced to a still formidable 14099 meta-alerts. In this work, we add ress this limitation by investigating several approaches that all contribute towards reducing the burden on the analyst and providing timely analysis. We explore m inimizing the number of both alerts and data elemen ts by aggregating at Hamming distances greater than 1. We show how increasing bin sizes can improve aggregation rates. And we provide a new aggregation algorithm that operates up to an order of magnitud e faster at Hamming distance 1. Lastly, we demonstrat e the broad applicability of this approach through empirical analysis of Windows security alerts, Snor t alerts, netflow records, and DNS logs. The result is a reduction in the cognitive load on analysts by mini mizing the overall number of alerts and the number of data elements that need to be reviewed in order for an analyst to evaluate the set of original alerts.

  3. Meta-Analyst: software for meta-analysis of binary, continuous and diagnostic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Christopher H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new and challenging problems. In practice, most meta-analyses are performed in general statistical packages or dedicated meta-analysis programs. Results Herein, we introduce Meta-Analyst, a novel, powerful, intuitive, and free meta-analysis program for the meta-analysis of a variety of problems. Meta-Analyst is implemented in C# atop of the Microsoft .NET framework, and features a graphical user interface. The software performs several meta-analysis and meta-regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, as well as analyses for diagnostic and prognostic test studies in the frequentist and Bayesian frameworks. Moreover, Meta-Analyst includes a flexible tool to edit and customize generated meta-analysis graphs (e.g., forest plots and provides output in many formats (images, Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word-ready RTF. The software architecture employed allows for rapid changes to be made to either the Graphical User Interface (GUI or to the analytic modules. We verified the numerical precision of Meta-Analyst by comparing its output with that from standard meta-analysis routines in Stata over a large database of 11,803 meta-analyses of binary outcome data, and 6,881 meta-analyses of continuous outcome data from the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. Results from analyses of diagnostic and prognostic test studies have been verified in a limited number of meta-analyses versus MetaDisc and MetaTest. Bayesian statistical analyses use the OpenBUGS calculation engine (and are thus as accurate as the standalone OpenBUGS software. Conclusion We have developed and validated a new program for conducting meta-analyses that combines the advantages of existing software for this task.

  4. The Pentagon's Military Analyst Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an investigatory overview of the Pentagon's military analyst program, what it is, how it was implemented, and how it constitutes a form of propaganda. A technical analysis of the program is applied using the theoretical framework of the propaganda model first developed by Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman. Definitions…

  5. Going for Gold : An Analysis of Morningstar Analyst Ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Armstrong (Will); E. Genc (Egemen); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn September 2011 Morningstar launched its qualitative forward-looking analyst ratings to supplement its widely followed backward-looking star ratings. This new system is designed to convey information about a mutual fund’s future performance using a five-tier scale: Gold, Silver, Bronze

  6. MetaboAnalyst 3.0--making metabolomics more meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianguo; Sinelnikov, Igor V; Han, Beomsoo; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    MetaboAnalyst (www.metaboanalyst.ca) is a web server designed to permit comprehensive metabolomic data analysis, visualization and interpretation. It supports a wide range of complex statistical calculations and high quality graphical rendering functions that require significant computational resources. First introduced in 2009, MetaboAnalyst has experienced more than a 50X growth in user traffic (>50 000 jobs processed each month). In order to keep up with the rapidly increasing computational demands and a growing number of requests to support translational and systems biology applications, we performed a substantial rewrite and major feature upgrade of the server. The result is MetaboAnalyst 3.0. By completely re-implementing the MetaboAnalyst suite using the latest web framework technologies, we have been able substantially improve its performance, capacity and user interactivity. Three new modules have also been added including: (i) a module for biomarker analysis based on the calculation of receiver operating characteristic curves; (ii) a module for sample size estimation and power analysis for improved planning of metabolomics studies and (iii) a module to support integrative pathway analysis for both genes and metabolites. In addition, popular features found in existing modules have been significantly enhanced by upgrading the graphical output, expanding the compound libraries and by adding support for more diverse organisms.

  7. LG-ANALYST: linguistic geometry for master air attack planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg

    2003-09-01

    We investigate the technical feasibility of implementing LG-ANALYST, a new software tool based on the Linguistic Geometry (LG) approach. The tool will be capable of modeling and providing solutions to Air Force related battlefield problems and of conducting multiple experiments to verify the quality of the solutions it generates. LG-ANALYST will support generation of the Fast Master Air Attack Plan (MAAP) with subsequent conversion into Air Tasking Order (ATO). An Air Force mission is modeled employing abstract board games (ABG). Such a mission may include, for example, an aircraft strike package moving to a target area with the opposing side having ground-to-air missiles, anti-aircraft batteries, fighter wings, and radars. The corresponding abstract board captures 3D air space, terrain, the aircraft trajectories, positions of the batteries, strategic features of the terrain, such as bridges, and their status, radars and illuminated space, etc. Various animated views are provided by LG-ANALYST including a 3D view for realistic representation of the battlespace and a 2D view for ease of analysis and control. LG-ANALYST will allow a user to model full scale intelligent enemy, plan in advance, re-plan and control in real time Blue and Red forces by generating optimal (or near-optimal) strategies for all sides of a conflict.

  8. A scoping review of observational studies examining relationships between environmental behaviors and health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne Hutchinson; Prady, Stephanie L; Smith, Michaela A.; White, Piran C.L; Hilary M. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavio...

  9. Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A.; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T.

    2015-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that a key component of successful infection control efforts is understanding the complex, two-way interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. Human behavior such as contact precautions and social distancing clearly influence disease prevalence, but disease prevalence can in turn alter human behavior, forming a coupled, nonlinear system. Moreover, in many cases, the spatial structure of the population cannot be ignored, such that social and behavioral processes and/or transmission of infection must be represented with complex networks. Research on studying coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks in particular is growing rapidly, and frequently makes use of analysis methods and concepts from statistical physics. Here, we review some of the growing literature in this area. We contrast network-based approaches to homogeneous-mixing approaches, point out how their predictions differ, and describe the rich and often surprising behavior of disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks, and compare them to processes in statistical physics. We discuss how these models can capture the dynamics that characterize many real-world scenarios, thereby suggesting ways that policy makers can better design effective prevention strategies. We also describe the growing sources of digital data that are facilitating research in this area. Finally, we suggest pitfalls which might be faced by researchers in the field, and we suggest several ways in which the field could move forward in the coming years.

  10. Behavior analytic studies of creativity: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, A S; Baker, J E

    1985-01-01

    Studies that treat creativity as operant behavior were critically reviewed. Of the twenty studies, most met minimal requirements for methodological adequacy; all provided at least some evidence for increased creative responding. Major difficulties involved potential confounds between instructions and contingencies, lack of an independent record of the training interaction, lack of social validation data, and very limited evidence for generalization. Several issues were discussed: problems in the behavioral definition of creativity, objections to the use of contingent reinforcement, and the need for empirical analysis of the creative process.

  11. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Devnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.

  12. Herrnstein's hyperbolic matching equation and behavioral pharmacology: review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallery, J; Soto, P L

    2004-11-01

    Behavioral pharmacologists have enlisted Herrnstein's (1970) hyperbolic matching equation to understand the behavioral effects of drugs. Herrnstein's hyperbola describes the relation between absolute response rate and reinforcement rate. The equation has two fitted parameters. The parameter k represents the asymptotic response rate, and the parameter r(e) represents the reinforcement rate necessary to obtain half the asymptotic response rate. According to one interpretation of the equation, changes in k should reflect changes in response or motoric variables, and changes in r(e) should reflect changes in reinforcer or motivational variables, or changes in reinforcement from sources extraneous to the instrumental response. We review research that has applied Herrnstein's equation to distinguish the motoric from the motivational effects of drugs, and to identify additional independent variables responsible for drug effects, such as extraneous reinforcement. The validity of inferences about drug effects depends on the consistency of how k and r(e) respond to environmental manipulations: k should change only with response or motoric variables, and r(e) should change with reinforcer or motivational variables and with the rate of extraneous reinforcement. Empirical tests of these predictions, however, have produced inconsistent results. The review suggests that Herrnstein's theory has not fulfilled its promise of identifying the behavioral mechanisms of drug action. Modifications to the equation, known as bias and sensitivity, may explain some of these inconsistent results, and the modified equation may have utility in behavioral pharmacology.

  13. Special Nuclear Material Gamma-Ray Signatures for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-29

    These are slides on special nuclear material gamma-ray signatures for reachback analysts for an LSS Spectroscopy course. The closing thoughts for this presentation are the following: SNM materials have definite spectral signatures that should be readily recognizable to analysts in both bare and shielded configurations. One can estimate burnup of plutonium using certain pairs of peaks that are a few keV apart. In most cases, one cannot reliably estimate uranium enrichment in an analogous way to the estimation of plutonium burnup. The origin of the most intense peaks from some SNM items may be indirect and from ‘associated nuclides.' Indirect SNM signatures sometimes have commonalities with the natural gamma-ray background.

  14. Audience as analyst: Dennis Potter's The Singing Detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, W

    1997-06-01

    Author Dennis Potter has written an exceptional psychoanalytically informed television series in The Singing Detective. Potter succeeds by echewing the usual portrayal of psychoanalysis in cinema and television as a therapy which the viewer observes but instead creates, by means of the content and structure of the series, a production that forces the audience into a role of analyst. The story of the current life and the childhood of the protagonist, Philip Marlow, has depth and context which allows the audience to examine the personality of Marlow, including character pathology and traits, sexuality, fantasy, dreams, and delusions from several metapsychological viewpoints. Potter allows the audience to use the dynamic, genetic, topographic, and, most unusual in drama, structural viewpoints. The audience can experience aspects of an analyst's experience, including the process of formulating and evaluating over time analytic hypotheses and coping with emotional reactions to the material which at times has transferencelike qualities. PMID:9279935

  15. Teaching Bayesian Statistics To Intelligence Analysts: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemangni Deshmukh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Community must develop and integrate into regular use new tools that can assist analysts in filtering and correlating the vast quantities of information that threaten to overwhelm the analytic process…—Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States.Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (The WMD Report1Unlike the other social sciences and, particularly, the physical sciences, where scientists get to choose the questions they wish to answer and experiments are carefully designed to confirm or negate hypotheses, intelligence analysis requires analysts to deal with the demands of decision makers and estimate the intentions of foreign actors, criminals or business competitors in an environment filled with uncertainty and even deliberate deception.

  16. Development of a Comprehensive Database System for Safety Analyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed barriers associated with the use of Safety Analyst, a state-of-the-art tool that has been developed to assist during the entire Traffic Safety Management process but that is not widely used due to a number of challenges as described in this paper. As part of this study, a comprehensive database system and tools to provide data to multiple traffic safety applications, with a focus on Safety Analyst, were developed. A number of data management tools were developed to extract, collect, transform, integrate, and load the data. The system includes consistency-checking capabilities to ensure the adequate insertion and update of data into the database. This system focused on data from roadways, ramps, intersections, and traffic characteristics for Safety Analyst. To test the proposed system and tools, data from Clark County, which is the largest county in Nevada and includes the cities of Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, was used. The database and Safety Analyst together help identify the sites with the potential for safety improvements. Specifically, this study examined the results from two case studies. The first case study, which identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, included all roadway elements and used default and calibrated Safety Performance Functions (SPFs. The second case study identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, specifically regarding intersections; it used default and calibrated SPFs as well. Conclusions were developed for the calibration of safety performance functions and the classification of site subtypes. Guidelines were provided about the selection of a particular network screening type or performance measure for network screening.

  17. Ownership, Analyst Coverage, and Stock Synchronicity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xunan; Hu, Na; Johansson, Anders C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how ownership structure affects the information environment of publicly traded firms in China. We hypothesize that concentrated ownership and the associated separation of ultimate control and ownership rights create agency conflicts between controlling shareholders and minority investors leading controlling owners to withhold firm-specific information from the market. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of ultimate ownership structure and analyst coverage on st...

  18. Information seeking and use behaviour of economists and business analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Thivant

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this paper is to deal with the information seeking and use problem in a professional context and understand how activity can influence practices, by taking as examples, the research undertaken by economic analysts. We analyse the relationship between the situational approach, described by Cheuk, the work environment complexity (with social, technological and personal aspects, and the information seeking and use strategies, which relied on Ellis and Wilson's model, with Bates's comments. Method. We interviewed eight economists, using a questionnaire and the SICIA (Situation, Complexity and Information Activity method. The SICAI method is a qualitative approach, which underlines the relationship between situations, professional contexts and strategies. Both methods allow better understanding of how investment analysts find out what they need for their job. We can clarify their information sources and practices of information seeking, which are very particular because of their activities. We complete our analysis by interviewing analysts from financial institutions. Analysis. A qualitative mode of analysis was used to interpret the interviewees' comments, within the research framework adopted. Results. We find similarity in information seeking and use strategies used by these two groups and environmental levels meet in most situations. But some differences can be also found, explained by the activity frameworks and goals. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that the activity and also the professional context (here the financial context can directly influence practices.

  19. HELPLESSNESS AND THE ANALYST'S WAR AGAINST FEELING IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Axel; Buie, Dan H

    2016-03-01

    In our view helplessness is a primal, often intolerable feeling. It underlies and intensifies other feelings that are also hard to bear. Both analyst and patients face helplessness, and both resort to defenses, often intensely, in order to avoid it. The intensity of this battle can merit calling it a war. The analyst's war is conducted using distancing, anger, blaming and disparaging as well as by intellectualizing the patient's struggles. Patients then find themselves abandoned and helplessly alone. We analysts, of course, want not to fall into the trap of war, and we try to free ourselves from waging it. A major way we accomplish this is through continuously working, often with the help of analysis and self-analysis, to increase our capacity to maintain our emotional stability in the face of these intensities. We learn to find new forms of awareness, beyond words and ideas. It requires a new understanding of what is threatening to us, which fosters a deeper capacity to empathize with the patient. This helps us to find the psychic, physical and emotional space within ourselves in which to hold our helplessness and other profound affective experiences. In this way we become an increasingly steady resource for our patients as well as for ourselves. PMID:26912242

  20. The Inefficient Use of Macroeconomic Information in Analysts' Earnings Forecasts in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents empirical evidence that security analysts do not efficiently use publicly available macroeconomic information in their earnings forecasts for emerging market stocks. Analysts completely ignore forecasts on political stability, while these provide valuable information

  1. On the relation between forecast precision and trading profitability of financial analysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Carlo; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between earnings forecast accuracy and the expected profitability of financial analysts. Modeling forecast errors with a multivariate normal distribution, a complete characterization of the payoff of each analyst is provided. In particular, closed-form expressions for the ......We analyze the relation between earnings forecast accuracy and the expected profitability of financial analysts. Modeling forecast errors with a multivariate normal distribution, a complete characterization of the payoff of each analyst is provided. In particular, closed-form expressions...

  2. Environmental behavior of engineered nanomaterials in porous media: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Min; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Jang, Min; Son, Ahjeong; Yoon, Yeomin

    2016-05-15

    A pronounced increase in the use of nanotechnology has resulted in nanomaterials being released into the environment. Environmental exposure to the most common engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), such as carbon-based and metal-based nanomaterials, can occur directly via intentional injection for remediation purposes, release during the use of nanomaterial-containing consumer goods, or indirectly via different routes. Recent reviews have outlined potential risks assessments, toxicity, and life cycle analyses regarding ENM emission. In this review, inevitable release of ENMs and their environmental behaviors in aqueous porous media are discussed with an emphasis on influencing factors, including the physicochemical properties of ENMs, solution chemistry, soil hydraulic properties, and soil matrices. Major findings of laboratory column studies and numerical approaches for the transport of ENMs are addressed, and studies on the interaction between ENMs and heavy metal ions in aqueous soil environments are examined. Future research is also presented with specific research directions and outlooks. PMID:26882524

  3. Does Educational Preparation Match Professional Practice: The Case of Higher Education Policy Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Eduardo C.; Martinez, Mario C.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the extent to which higher education policy analysts and master's and doctoral faculty of higher education and public affairs programs match on a set of competencies thought to be important to higher education policy analysis. Analysts matched master's faculty in three competencies while analysts and doctoral faculty matched in…

  4. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Catherine H Yu,1,2 Giuliana Guarna,1 Pamela Tsao,3 Jude R Jesuthasan,1 Adrian NC Lau,3,4 Ferhan S Siddiqi,1 Julie Anne Gilmour,3 Danyal Ladha,1 Henry Halapy,5 Andrew Advani1–3 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Health Network, 5Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases.Methods: The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included.Results: A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated.Conclusion: While the majority of

  5. Stocks’ pricing dynamics and behavioral finance: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritosh Chandra Sinha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In a brief review of the literature on stocks’ pricing, the study shows that information vis-à-vis noise serves critical roles in the equilibrium process. It is dynamic in nature and there are different infiltrating aspects from the standard finance to behavioral finance points of views. The aspects of market efficiency, fundamental risk, noise traders’ risk, and implementation costs make the stock markets noisy and thereby, limit the arbitrage opportunity of informed traders. Investors’ psychological bases viz., belief and preferences contribute more in the equilibrium process. Beliefs include representativeness, conservativeness, and anchoring, availability biases, optimism and wishful thinking, overconfidence, and herd behavior tendency on the part of the investors. On the preferences, investors are influenced by disposition effect, prospects based on reference points, mental accounting, ambiguity aversion, and self control.The study explores the empirical literature also and reviews the six puzzles in the standard finance. Finally, the work identifies a few research gaps to be addressed in the literature.

  6. Behavioral Suppression of Seriously Disruptive Behavior in Psychotic and Retarded Patients: A Review of Punishment and Its Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sandra L.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin

    1978-01-01

    Reviews research on the effectiveness of such procedures as differential reinforcement of behaviors incompatible with disruptive behavior (DRO), a contingent removal of reinforcement (time-out), overcorrection, and punishment to suppress seriously disruptive and self-injurious behaviors. Research on the generalization, maintenance, and side…

  7. Mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Anisha; Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Singh, Yengkokpam Ibotomba

    2007-03-01

    Whether parasitic diseases-and in particular helminth infections because they are extensive and widespread--have an effect on mental functions and educational attainment is by no mean a new question. Concern about the possibility was evident in the early decades of the century, and the results of investigations designed to discover whether the effects of parasite infections had consequences on school children. Many species of helminth have been reported as causing infections in humans. Of the nematode infections, both soil transmitted helminthiasis and lymphatic filariasis are public health problem in the country. Any of these infections may result in morbidity, malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anaemia. Their possible contribution to impaired cognitive function and educational achievement is by the association between iron deficiency anaemia and malnutrition. Research on the effects of parasitic infection has focused on school-age children. Not only are these children the most vulnerable to parasitic infections--they are also the population group most likely to experience the impact of infection on cognitive function. This review paper discusses the mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infection on child's health. Infected children are less active; their behavior is said to be sluggish and both mental and physical activities and processes appear dulled and slow. A reduction in available energy is likely to cause a cascade of effects running through most aspects of the host's daily mental life and behavior.

  8. A review of chemosensation and related behavior in aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, José G

    2011-01-01

    Insects that are secondarily adapted to aquatic environments are able to sense odors from a diverse array of sources. The antenna of these insects, as in all insects, is the main chemosensory structure and its input to the brain allows for integration of sensory information that ultimately ends in behavioral responses. Only a fraction of the aquatic insect orders have been studied with respect to their sensory biology and most of the work has centered either on the description of the different types of sensilla, or on the behavior of the insect as a whole. In this paper, the literature is exhaustively reviewed and ways in which antennal morphology, brain structure, and associated behavior can advance better understanding of the neurobiology involved in processing of chemosensory information are discussed. Moreover, the importance of studying such group of insects is stated, and at the same time it is shown that many interesting questions regarding olfactory processing can be addressed by looking into the changes that aquatic insects undergo when leaving their aquatic environment. PMID:21864156

  9. How Analysts Cognitively “Connect the Dots”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradel, Lauren; Self, Jessica S.; Endert, Alexander; Hossain, Shahriar M.; North, Chris; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2013-06-04

    As analysts attempt to make sense of a collection of documents, such as intelligence analysis reports, they may wish to “connect the dots” between pieces of information that may initially seem unrelated. This process of synthesizing information between information requires users to make connections between pairs of documents, creating a conceptual story. We conducted a user study to analyze the process by which users connect pairs of documents and how they spatially arrange information. Users created conceptual stories that connected the dots using organizational strategies that ranged in complexity. We propose taxonomies for cognitive connections and physical structures used when trying to “connect the dots” between two documents. We compared the user-created stories with a data-mining algorithm that constructs chains of documents using co-occurrence metrics. Using the insight gained into the storytelling process, we offer design considerations for the existing data mining algorithm and corresponding tools to combine the power of data mining and the complex cognitive processing of analysts.

  10. Transformations in hallucinosis and the receptivity of the analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Bion describes transformation in hallucinosis (TH) as a psychic defence present in elusive psychotic scenarios in which there is a total adherence to concrete reality: as the hallucinatory activity which physiologically infiltrates perception and allows us to know reality, setting it off against a background of familiarity; and then, surprisingly, as the ideal state of mind towards which the analyst has to move in order to intuit the facts of the analysis. When hallucinosis is followed by 'awakening', the analyst gains understanding from the experience and goes through a transformation that will inevitably be transmitted to the analytic field and to the patient. In this paper I illustrate Bion's concept and underline its eminently intersubjective nature. Then I differentiate it from two other technical devices: reverie, which unlike hallucinosis does not imply the persistence of a feeling of the real, and Ferro's transformation in dreaming, i.e., purposeful listening to everything that is said in the analysis as if it were the telling of a dream. Finally, I try to demonstrate the practical utility of the concept of transformation in hallucinosis in order to read the complex dynamics of a clinical vignette. Though not well known (only two references in English in the PEP archive), TH proves to be remarkably versatile and productive for thinking about psychoanalytic theory, technique and clinical work.

  11. Fuzzy VIKOR approach for selection of big data analyst in procurement management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Big data and predictive analysis have been hailed as the fourth paradigm of science. Big data and analytics are critical to the future of business sustainability. The demand for data scientists is increasing with the dynamic nature of businesses, thus making it indispensable to manage big data, derive meaningful results and interpret management decisions.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide a brief conceptual review of big data and analytics and further illustrate the use of a multicriteria decision-making technique in selecting the right skilled candidate for big data and analytics in procurement management.Method: It is important for firms to select and recruit the right data analyst, both in terms of skills sets and scope of analysis. The nature of such a problem is complex and multicriteria decision-making, which deals with both qualitative and quantitative factors. In the current study, an application of the Fuzzy VIsekriterijumska optimizacija i KOmpromisno Resenje (VIKOR method was used to solve the big data analyst selection problem.Results: From this study, it was identified that Technical knowledge (C1, Intellectual curiosity (C4 and Business acumen (C5 are the strongest influential criteria and must be present in the candidate for the big data and analytics job.Conclusion: Fuzzy VIKOR is the perfect technique in this kind of multiple criteria decisionmaking problematic scenario. This study will assist human resource managers and procurement managers in selecting the right workforce for big data analytics.

  12. The use of the analyst as an autistic shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Dolan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper I describe through detailed clinical material the challenges posed by patients who employ entangled autistic defenses. I discuss the complicated nature of treating a patient who employed entangled autistic defenses and utilized my voice in an effort to preserve an undifferentiated state of dual unity. My patient's pursuit of dual unity took a very concrete form in her attempt to mitigate the terror of separateness. This concreteness was expressed via the patient's urgent request that I read letters she wrote to me between sessions. This type of autistic defense placed great strain on my ability to think analytically and I also became increasingly concrete in my response to the patient. Crucial to the analyst's regaining a space in which to think and a sense of separateness is the ability to contact the ground floor of her separate bodily experience. This is just the beginning step in the analyst separating herself from the powerful press to join the patient in a state of dual unity. Interpretation in action (Ogden, 1994) was an effective way to convey the importance of creating and tolerating internal space in myself and begin to create internal space in the patient. Previously such space had been closed down in order to manage primitive fears of annihilation. When a patient is absorbed in an entangling autistic retreat words do not reach the patient on a symbolic level but rather are experienced primarily as an assault on the need for dual unity with the analyst. The patient's need to be wrapped in a sensation based world of dual unity is preferable to a world of spoken words that carry the danger of delineating psychic separateness. In essence there is no self to speak words, only a whirl of an amorphous sensation self lacking definition. I believe with certain kinds of patients it may be necessary to first lose and then work to regain one's analytic mind, as I have powerfully described in the case of Linda. Linda's profound loss of connection to

  13. Cognition and behavior in Turner syndrome: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D S; Reiss, A L

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that Turner syndrome is associated with a distinct pattern of cognitive and neurophysiological characteristics. Typically this has been characterized by relative strengths in verbal skills, contrasting with relative weaknesses in arithmetic, visuospatial and executive function domains. Potential differences in social cognitive processing have also been identified. More recently, applications of neuroimaging techniques have further elucidated underlying differences in brain structure, function and connectivity in individuals with Turner syndrome. Ongoing research in this area is focused on establishing a unified mechanistic model incorporating genetic influences from the X chromosome, sex hormone contributions, neuroanatomical variation and differences in cognitive processes. This review broadly covers current understanding of how X-monosomy impacts neurocognitive phenotype both from the perspective of cognitive-behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Furthermore, relevant clinical aspects of identifying potential learning difficulties and providing anticipatory guidance for affected individuals with TS, are briefly discussed.

  14. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célino, Amandine; Fréour, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Frédéric; Casari, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibers are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibers for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties, and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fiber a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibers are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior). The choice of natural fibers rather than glass fibers as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fiber is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibers are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibers have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behavior of such reinforcing fibers leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibers and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibers and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper. PMID:24790971

  15. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbala

  16. The making of an analyst: from 'ideal' to 'good-enough'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tom

    2007-04-01

    This paper addresses the issue of variances in training modalities and how this is linked to one's personal experience of training and to one's analytic lineage. The author, who bases his reflections on discussions held during the yearly directors of training meeting of the North American Jungian Societies, suggests that, while each institute aims to provide an 'ideal' training programme for its candidates, the philosophy underlying how this ideal is defined depends, in large part, on the theoretical and philosophical orientation of the founding fathers and mothers. This results in a form of analytic lineage that necessarily impacts on the form and content of the 'ideal' programme. Shadow issues related to analytic lineage in the admissions procedures, case consultation, exam committees and review committees are presented. Motivation for why we choose to train and reflections on what makes an analyst 'Jungian' are explored. PMID:17403212

  17. How analysts process information: technical and financial disclosures in the microprocessor industry

    OpenAIRE

    Beccalli, Elena; Miller, Peter; O'Leary, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Following Bradshaw (‘Analyst information processing, financial regulation, and academic research’ [2009], and Analysts' forecasts: What do we know after decades of work? [2011]), this paper examines how analysts process information, particularly in an information environment characterised by multiple and potentially complementary information sources. The setting is the microprocessor industry, one in which technical information is particularly significant and complex to digest. Based on 3837 ...

  18. Does analyst ranking affect how informative target prices are to institutional investors?

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Noor

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that market participants value analysts’ target prices. There is limited evidence, however, on how target price revisions influence investors’ decisions. I examine whether analyst ranking status affects institutional investors’ decisions to incorporate target price information into their investment strategies. This examination is relevant to the economic question: Does analyst reputation mitigate or exacerbate the conflicts of interest that analysts face? Consistent with instit...

  19. The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy. A review of empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, G.P.J.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Empirical studies are reviewed, the aim being to investigate characteristics of the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and to identify therapist or patient interpersonal behavior that affects treatment outcome. CBT is characterized by a more active and directive stance on t

  20. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eCélino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior. The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  1. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célino, Amandine; Freour, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Frederic; Casari, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior). The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  2. An analyst-based method for selecting comparable firms and studying corporate peer effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, Ville

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The main objective of this thesis is to develop and test a method for selecting comparable firms on the basis of common analysts. The method is based on a Monte Carlo simulation on analyst choices, and it produces firm- and time-specific analyst-defined peer groups for sample firms. The analyst-defined peer groups are based entirely on analysts’ choices, and they are independent of conventional industry classifications. As part of the thesis, I also use the analys...

  3. The Visual Causality Analyst: An Interactive Interface for Causal Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Mueller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the causal relations that exist among variables in multivariate datasets is one of the ultimate goals in data analytics. Causation is related to correlation but correlation does not imply causation. While a number of casual discovery algorithms have been devised that eliminate spurious correlations from a network, there are no guarantees that all of the inferred causations are indeed true. Hence, bringing a domain expert into the casual reasoning loop can be of great benefit in identifying erroneous casual relationships suggested by the discovery algorithm. To address this need we present the Visual Causal Analyst-a novel visual causal reasoning framework that allows users to apply their expertise, verify and edit causal links, and collaborate with the causal discovery algorithm to identify a valid causal network. Its interface consists of both an interactive 2D graph view and a numerical presentation of salient statistical parameters, such as regression coefficients, p-values, and others. Both help users in gaining a good understanding of the landscape of causal structures particularly when the number of variables is large. Our framework is also novel in that it can handle both numerical and categorical variables within one unified model and return plausible results. We demonstrate its use via a set of case studies using multiple practical datasets. PMID:26529703

  4. Practitioner versus analyst methods: a nuclear decommissioning case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Cooper, Mhairi; Thompson, Pauline; Jenkins, Dan

    2014-11-01

    A requirement arose during decommissioning work at a UK Magnox Nuclear Power Station to identify the hazards involved in removing High Dose Rate Items from a Cartridge Cooling Pond. Removing objects from the cooling pond under normal situations is a routine event with well understood risks but the situation described in this paper is not a routine event. The power station has shifted from an operational phase in its life-cycle to a decommissioning phase, and as such the risks, and procedures to deal with them, have become more novel and uncertain. This raises an important question. Are the hazard identification methods that have proven useful in one phase of the system lifecycle just as useful in another, and if not, what methods should be used? An opportunity arose at this site to put the issue to a direct test. Two methods were used, one practitioner focussed and in widespread use during the plant's operational phase (the Structured What-If method), the other was an analyst method (Cognitive Work Analysis). The former is proven on this site but might not be best suited to the novelty and uncertainty brought about by a shift in context from operations to decommissioning. The latter is not proven on this site but it is designed for novelty and uncertainty. The paper presents the outcomes of applying both methods to a real-world hazard identification task. PMID:24947001

  5. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  6. Personality and Aggressive Behavior under Provoking and Neutral Conditions: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Ann B.; Talley, Amelia; Benjamin, Arlin James; Valentine, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a comprehensive review to understand the relation between personality and aggressive behavior, under provoking and nonprovoking conditions. The qualitative review revealed that some personality variables influenced aggressive behavior under both neutral and provocation conditions, whereas others influenced aggressive…

  7. Human Rights Review of Intrusive Behavioral Treatments for Students with Severe Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, George S.; Irvin, Larry K.

    1987-01-01

    A rationale for the establishment of human rights review procedures within local education agencies is presented, focusing on students who have severe behavior problems with or without mental retardation, for whom intrusive behavioral treatments are considered. Topics discussed include informed consent, committee review, due process, and least…

  8. Foster Family Characteristics and Behavioral and Emotional Problems of Foster Children: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John G.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the foster family characteristics that are thought to contribute to the behavioral and emotional problems of foster children. The review is shaped by an understanding of the personal and familial factors associated with children's problem behaviors. Factors include parenting, family home environment, family functioning,…

  9. The effectiveness of feedback in improving safe behaviors: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, N A

    1998-01-01

    Reducing unsafe behaviors in the work place is of primary concern in industry. Unsafe behaviors seem to be shaped both by a subtle reinforcement of these behaviors by the work culture and by management's failure to define what constitutes unsafe behavior. Thus, any program to change these behaviors must focus both on defining and reinforcing safe behaviors. This paper reviews some of the literature associated with feedback and its effectiveness in increasing worker safety. The Theory of Planned Behavior is discussed as one possible mechanism for explaining the positive results achieved. PMID:24441557

  10. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, F; Shafigh, F; Roohi, E

    2016-01-01

    In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents' libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans. PMID:27424551

  11. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, F; Shafigh, F; Roohi, E

    2016-01-01

    In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents’ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans. PMID:27424551

  12. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hashemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  13. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Worcester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication training, breaks, and altering the non-preferred stimulus are discussed as effective treatments for escape-maintained behaviors. Similarities between treatment and implications for practitioners are discussed.

  14. Mechanical Behavior of Non-Textbook Soils (Literature Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, J. Antonio H.; Salgado, Rodrigo

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, soil mechanics has focused on the behavior of two distinct types of geomaterials: clean sands and pure clays. Under the application of external loads, these two types of geomaterials represent and are conveniently associated with two extreme types of soil responses: drained and undrained behavior. The drained behavior of clean sands and the undrained behavior of pure clays have been covered extensively in most soil mechanics textbooks. In order to provide some insight into the ...

  15. Girls’ Disruptive Behavior and its Relationship to Family Functioning: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kroneman, L.M.; Loeber, R.; Hipwell, A. E.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework. Clarifying the heterogeneity of development in girls is important for developing and optimizing gender-specific prevention and treatment programs. In the current review, we describe the unique aspects of...

  16. Software tools for assisting the multisource imagery analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privett, Grant J.; Harvey, Peter R. W.; Booth, David M.; Kent, Philip J.; Redding, Nick J.; Evans, Dean; Jones, K. L.

    2003-11-01

    Increasingly demanding military requirements and rapid technological advances are producing reconnaissance sensors with greater spatial, spectral and temporal resolution. This, with the benefits to be gained from deploying multiple sensors co-operatively, is resulting in a so-called data deluge, where recording systems, data-links, and exploitation systems struggle to cope with the required imagery throughput. This paper focuses on the exploitation stage and, in particular, the provision of cueing aids for Imagery Analysts (IAs), who need to integrate a variety of sources in order to gain situational awareness. These sources may include multi-source imagery and intelligence feeds, various types of mapping and collateral data, as well the need for the IAs to add their own expertise in military doctrine etc. This integration task is becoming increasingly difficult as the volume and diversity of the input increases. The first stage in many exploitation tasks is that of image registration. It facilitates change detection and many avenues of multi-source exploitation. Progress is reported on the automating this task, on its current performance characteristics, its integration into a potentially operational system, and hence on its expected utility. We also report on the development of an evolutionary architecture, 'ICARUS' in which feature detectors (or cuers) are constructed incrementally using a genetic algorithm that evolves simple sub-structures before combining, and further evolving them, to form more comprehensive and robust detectors. This approach is shown to help overcome the complexity limit that prevents many machine-learning algorithms from scaling up to the real world.

  17. Training the next generation analyst using red cell analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Meghan N.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2016-05-01

    We have seen significant change in the study and practice of human reasoning in recent years from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. Ubiquitous communication coupled with advances in computing and a plethora of analytic support tools have created a push for instantaneous reporting and analysis. This notion is particularly prevalent in law enforcement, emergency services and the intelligence community (IC), where commanders (and their civilian leadership) expect not only a birds' eye view of operations as they occur, but a play-by-play analysis of operational effectiveness. This paper explores the use of Red Cell Analytics (RCA) as pedagogy to train the next-gen analyst. A group of Penn State students in the College of Information Sciences and Technology at the University Park campus of The Pennsylvania State University have been practicing Red Team Analysis since 2008. RCA draws heavily from the military application of the same concept, except student RCA problems are typically on non-military in nature. RCA students utilize a suite of analytic tools and methods to explore and develop red-cell tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs), and apply their tradecraft across a broad threat spectrum, from student-life issues to threats to national security. The strength of RCA is not always realized by the solution but by the exploration of the analytic pathway. This paper describes the concept and use of red cell analytics to teach and promote the use of structured analytic techniques, analytic writing and critical thinking in the area of security and risk and intelligence training.

  18. Generalist analysts at the edge and distributed analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Gavin; Madahar, Bhopinder

    2015-05-01

    Joint Vision 2020 highlights that achievement of `full spectrum dominance rests upon information superiority' and that information capabilities are changing rapidly. Similarly the Eight Great Technologies and McKinsey Global Institute have highlighted the criticality of `Big Data' technologies. But most `Big Data' technologies are predicated on the availability of high quality/bandwidth distributed information Infrastructure and service rich systems, and much of the technology is designed for use by highly trained data scientists. In deployed military operations the context is radically different; many analysts are generalists as opposed to highly trained data scientists, and the information infrastructure is frequently significantly smaller, sparse and brittle but nevertheless complex. Further operations are highly dynamic, temporally challenging, and in an unfamiliar sociocultural environment. As Joint Vision 2020 states `the need to shape ambiguous situations at the low end of the range of operations will present special challenges'. This paper outlines the S&T challenges associated with adapting `Big Data' technologies to build a distributed analytic capability for the deployed operations. In particular we will discuss issues associated with: a) The adoption of data analytic platforms and the need for adaption to a distributed coalition environment and tactical information infrastructures; b) The Volume, Velocity, Variety, Veracity, Viscosity and Value of information and information processing, storage and distribution capabilities; c) The nature of the situations to be understood and the resulting impact on abstract representations and synergistic human-machine teams; d) The role of the human in collaboratively extracting understanding from information and directing the information system.

  19. The Role of Analysts as Gatekeepers: Enhancing Transparency and Curbing Earnings Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of analysts’ coverage, forecasting errors and earnings management. It corroborates the role of analysts as gatekeepers by finding that analysts enhance transparency and reduce the scope of earnings management. To identify analysts’ coverage we used the I/B/E/S, from where we also obtained information on the consensus projections of analysts for listed Brazilian companies. The results indicated a negative correlation between the number of analysts covering firms and the magnitude of their discretionary accruals in absolute terms, indicating that more scrutiny inhibits earnings management. We also found a negative correlation between analysts’ coverage and forecasting errors. Multivariate regressions showed statistically significant results in the same sense. Therefore, market analysts, despite the severe criticism they receive from the specialized press, actually have a beneficial effect on corporate governance by monitoring managers and inhibiting earnings management.

  20. The role of the analyst's facial expressions in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searles, H F

    This paper, while acknowledging implicitly the importance of transference-distortions in the patient's perceptions of the analyst's countenance, focuses primarily upon the real changes in the latter's facial expressions. The analyst's face has a central role in the phase of therapeutic symbiosis, as well as in subsequent individuation. It is in the realm of the analyst's facial expressions that the borderline patient, for example, can best find a bridge out of autism and into therapeutically symbiotic relatedness with the analyst. During this latter phase, then, each participant's facial expressions "belong" as much to the other as to oneself; that is, the expressions of each person are in the realm of transitional phenomena for both of them. The analyst's facial expressions are a highly, and often centrally, significant dimension of both psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy. Illustrative clinical vignettes are presented from work with both patients who use the couch and those who do not.

  1. Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, Bruce Eric

    This document reviews research concerning the factors affecting premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. Trends in the literature prior to 1980 are discussed briefly together with summaries of literature reviews from the decades of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Studies from 1980 to the present are reviewed in some…

  2. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review

    OpenAIRE

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Hawe, Penelope; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today’s youth. Friend’s health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks...

  3. A Meta-Analytic Review of Behavior Modeling Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Chan, Daniel W. L.

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 117 studies evaluated the effects of behavior modeling training (BMT) on 6 training outcomes, across characteristics of training design. BMT effects were largest for learning outcomes, smaller for job behavior, and smaller still for results outcomes. Although BMT effects on declarative knowledge decayed over time, training…

  4. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Use Among Patients with Hepatitis C: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Omar T; Maynard, Quentin R; Melton, Pam A

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol use is a barrier to pharmacologic treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is advantageous for medical and clinical social workers engaged in HCV care to be knowledgeable of behavioral interventions that can be used to reduce alcohol use among patients with HCV. This article identifies and describes studies that designed and implemented behavioral interventions to reduce alcohol use among patients with HCV in clinical settings. To achieve this goal, this article conducts a rigorous systematic review to identify peer-reviewed articles, describes each behavioral intervention, and reports primary outcomes of each study included in the review. PMID:27295132

  5. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options.

  6. Using the living laboratory framework as a basis for understanding next-generation analyst work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeese, Michael D.; Mancuso, Vincent; McNeese, Nathan; Endsley, Tristan; Forster, Pete

    2013-05-01

    The preparation of next generation analyst work requires alternative levels of understanding and new methodological departures from the way current work transpires. Current work practices typically do not provide a comprehensive approach that emphasizes the role of and interplay between (a) cognition, (b) emergent activities in a shared situated context, and (c) collaborative teamwork. In turn, effective and efficient problem solving fails to take place, and practice is often composed of piecemeal, techno-centric tools that isolate analysts by providing rigid, limited levels of understanding of situation awareness. This coupled with the fact that many analyst activities are classified produces a challenging situation for researching such phenomena and designing and evaluating systems to support analyst cognition and teamwork. Through our work with cyber, image, and intelligence analysts we have realized that there is more required of researchers to study human-centered designs to provide for analyst's needs in a timely fashion. This paper identifies and describes how The Living Laboratory Framework can be utilized as a means to develop a comprehensive, human-centric, and problem-focused approach to next generation analyst work, design, and training. We explain how the framework is utilized for specific cases in various applied settings (e.g., crisis management analysis, image analysis, and cyber analysis) to demonstrate its value and power in addressing an area of utmost importance to our national security. Attributes of analyst work settings are delineated to suggest potential design affordances that could help improve cognitive activities and awareness. Finally, the paper puts forth a research agenda for the use of the framework for future work that will move the analyst profession in a viable manner to address the concerns identified.

  7. Online Social Behavior in Twitter : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, O.A.J.; Maanen, P.P. van; Ouboter, T.; Schraagen, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review is aimed at examining state of the art research in the field of online social networks. The goal is to identify the current challenges within this area of research, given the questions raised in society. In this review we pay attention to three aspects of social networks: acto

  8. Review of AIDS Health Education and Behavioral Interventions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yumao(蔡于茂); ZENG Xuchun(曾序春); DONG Shifu(董时富)

    2002-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) isan infectious disease caused by HIV. It has been epidemic formore than 20 years, but there is no cure of it. Health educationand behavioral interventions are some of the most effectiveapproaches in the control and prevention of AIDS. China isone of the countries with the fastest growing HIVseroprevalence rate, and is facing a widespread epidemic ofAIDS. Currently, high-risk populations such as individualswith multiple sexual partners and intravenous drug users arethe main foci of health education and behavioral interventionsin China. Encouraging results have been observed in manyforms of health education and behavioral intervention. Theapplication of health education and behavioral interventionsmust emerge from scientific evidence, follow a series ofstrategies, be carried out from various perspectives, andrequire the participation of all societal communities.

  9. Equine stereotypic behavior as related to horse welfare: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sarrafchi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    There are strong suggestions that equine stereotypies are being connected to poor welfare and a sub-optimal management and/or stabling environment. Until today different forms of equine stereotypic behaviors have been described. Crib-biting, weaving, and box-walking are considered the most prevalent. Several studies have been conducted to establish links between the underlying causes and potential function of such behaviors. Both experimental and epidemiological studies have indicated managem...

  10. How Does Observational Learning Affect the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders? A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Betty A.; Kauffman, James M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews research on observational learning, including model characteristics and observers' responses, vicarious reinforcement as implicit punishment, vicarious effects on students with problem behavior, observers' other characteristics and vicarious effects, and aggression and vicarious processes. Regular class placement of students…

  11. Changes in Routine Health Behaviors Following Late-life Bereavement: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between late-life spousal bereavement and changes in routine health behaviors. We review six behavioral domains/modifiable risk factors that are important for maintaining health among elderly populations: physical activity, nutrition, sleep quality, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and body weight status. Thirty-four articles were identified, derived from 32 studies. We found strong evidence for a relationship between bereavement and nutrition...

  12. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describ...

  13. Sociodemographic Antecedent Validators of Suicidal Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Ismael; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Giner, Lucas; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    Suicidal behavior and its prevention constitute a major public health issue. Etiology of suicidal behavior is multifactorial. Whereas current research is mostly focused on clinical and biological risk factors, the sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior, first highlighted by Durkheim, have received less attention. Besides the well-known impact of age and gender, sociodemographic variables such as marital and parental status, education, occupation, income, employment status, religion, migration or minority status, and sexual orientation are repeatedly reported to play an important role in suicidal behavior. This narrative review aimed to summarize recent research on sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior and to elicit possible implications for suicide prevention. PMID:27595860

  14. Behavior therapy in drug abuse treatment: review and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; McCaul, M E

    1985-01-01

    The goal of drug abuse treatment is to decrease the dominance of drug-related behaviors while enhancing the dominance of alternative socially acceptable behaviors. The behavioral techniques of extinction, satiation, and punishment can be used to suppress undesirable behaviors, and reinforcement can be used to enhance desirable behaviors. Methadone maintenance offers unique advantages for treatment of opiate abuse since methadone satiates the drug abuser, thereby reducing the reinforcing efficacy of illicit opiate drugs, while also serving as a reinforcer whose delivery in the treatment setting can be used in contingent arrangements. Short-term efficacy has been demonstrated in studies that used contingent treatment termination or contingent dose decreases as punishing events and contingent dose increases or contingent take-home privileges as reinforcing events to promote reductions in drug use and cooperation with clinic rules. Systematic use of dose adjustments and take-home privileges may be a useful adjunct to methadone maintenance treatment, having a positive impact both on client outcomes and clinic operation. Rehabilitation efforts might also benefit if delivery of reinforcers available at the clinic is contingent upon participation in skills training and therapy programs or community activities outside the drug abuse clinic. PMID:3929125

  15. Systematic Review of School-based Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior: Does Intervention Intensity Impact Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…

  16. Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior and Sexual Orientation: A Conceptual Analysis and Quantitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. Michael; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews research examining the predictive aspects of childhood sex-typed behavior for sexual orientation. Prospective studies suggest that childhood cross-typed behavior is strongly predictive of adult homosexual orientation for men, whereas retrospective studies are useful in determining how many homosexual individuals displayed cross-sex…

  17. Exposure to Metal Pollutants and Behavioral Disorders in Children: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike

    The paper reviews research on effects of metal pollutants on behavioral disorders in children. Methodological programs of studies conducted in the 1970's are described. Research since 1980 is then addressed in terms of general population studies and studies of behaviorally disordered populations. Findings of research on the latter subject group…

  18. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  19. College Students' Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors, 1974-1985: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spees, Emil R.

    1987-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on college students' sexual attitudes and behaviors from 1974 through 1985. Found a rise in sexual activity and in openness to discuss sexual issues, a relationship between soft drugs and sexual activity, greater concern for rape, and greater male student awareness of male responsibility for contraceptive behavior.…

  20. Ethical Decision Making in Academic Dishonesty with Application of Modified Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper studies the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) in academic dishonesty with the mediating variable of ethical ideologies. The study reviews literature on the Theory of Planned Behavior and past studies pertaining to academic dishonesty. The paper analyses the relationship of the variables of TPB on academic…

  1. Self-Monitoring Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; McDaniel, Sara; Kreigh, Christi

    2015-01-01

    Explicitly teaching skills associated with self-determination has been promoted to support students' independence and control over their own lives. This is especially important for students with behavior problems. One self-determination skill or behavior that has been studied widely is self-monitoring. Although multiple reviews of various…

  2. Management earnings forecasts and analyst forecasts:Evidence from mandatory disclosure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao; Wang; Yunsen; Chen; Juxian; Wang

    2015-01-01

    Distinct from the literature on the effects that management earnings forecasts(MEFs) properties, such as point, range and qualitative estimations, have on analyst forecasts, this study explores the effects of selective disclosure of MEFs.Under China’s mandatory disclosure system, this study proposes that managers issue frequent forecasts to take advantage of opportune changes in predicted earnings. The argument herein is that this selective disclosure of MEFs increases information asymmetry and uncertainty, negatively influencing analyst earnings forecasts. Empirical evidence shows that firms that issue more frequent forecasts and make significant changes in MEFs are less likely to attract an analyst following, which can lead to less accurate analyst forecasts. The results imply that the selective disclosure of MEFs damages information transmission and market efficiency, which can enlighten regulators seeking to further enhance disclosure policies.

  3. BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH ASD IN INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS : A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased and more and more children with ASD are educated in inclusive classrooms. Although their inclusion can have several benefits, teachers face some challenges. The main reason is these students’ problem behavior or lack of a desirable behavior. The aim of this systematic literature review was to analyze interventions for behavior management of students with ASD, since the ratification of S...

  4. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  5. Measures of Consumer Satisfaction in Social Welfare and Behavioral Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark W.; Wu, Shiyou

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the origins, conceptual bases, psychometric properties, and limitations of consumer satisfaction measures in social welfare and behavioral health. Based on a systematic review of research reports published between 2003 and 2013, we identify 58 consumer satisfaction measures. On average, these measures have acceptable…

  6. A Systematic Review of Factors Utilized in Preconception Health Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delissaint, Dieula; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review critically synthesizes the literature focusing on factors related to preconception health behaviors (PCHBs) among childbearing age women in the United States, developed countries, and developing countries. Ovid Medline and CINAHL databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2008 relating to…

  7. Contextual Behavior Therapies in the Treatment of PTSD: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Landers, Sara J.; Kanter, Jonathan W.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical evidence supports cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), with exposure therapy typically being the most frequently utilized. While the success of exposure treatments is well established there are factors which may hinder their use in "real-world" settings (e.g., poor treatment…

  8. A brief review of cephalopod behavioral responses to sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Julia E.; Aran Mooney, T.; Gussekloo, Sander W.S.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2016-01-01

    Sound is a widely available cue in aquatic environments and is used by many marine animals for vital behaviors. Most research has focused on marine vertebrates. Relatively little is known about sound detection in marine invertebrates despite their abundance and importance in marine environments.

  9. Using MetaboAnalyst 3.0 for Comprehensive Metabolomics Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianguo; Wishart, David S

    2016-01-01

    MetaboAnalyst (http://www.metaboanalyst.ca) is a comprehensive Web application for metabolomic data analysis and interpretation. MetaboAnalyst handles most of the common metabolomic data types from most kinds of metabolomics platforms (MS and NMR) for most kinds of metabolomics experiments (targeted, untargeted, quantitative). In addition to providing a variety of data processing and normalization procedures, MetaboAnalyst also supports a number of data analysis and data visualization tasks using a range of univariate, multivariate methods such as PCA (principal component analysis), PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis), heatmap clustering and machine learning methods. MetaboAnalyst also offers a variety of tools for metabolomic data interpretation including MSEA (metabolite set enrichment analysis), MetPA (metabolite pathway analysis), and biomarker selection via ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis, as well as time series and power analysis. This unit provides an overview of the main functional modules and the general workflow of the latest version of MetaboAnalyst (MetaboAnalyst 3.0), followed by eight detailed protocols. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27603023

  10. Using MetaboAnalyst 3.0 for Comprehensive Metabolomics Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianguo; Wishart, David S

    2016-09-07

    MetaboAnalyst (http://www.metaboanalyst.ca) is a comprehensive Web application for metabolomic data analysis and interpretation. MetaboAnalyst handles most of the common metabolomic data types from most kinds of metabolomics platforms (MS and NMR) for most kinds of metabolomics experiments (targeted, untargeted, quantitative). In addition to providing a variety of data processing and normalization procedures, MetaboAnalyst also supports a number of data analysis and data visualization tasks using a range of univariate, multivariate methods such as PCA (principal component analysis), PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis), heatmap clustering and machine learning methods. MetaboAnalyst also offers a variety of tools for metabolomic data interpretation including MSEA (metabolite set enrichment analysis), MetPA (metabolite pathway analysis), and biomarker selection via ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis, as well as time series and power analysis. This unit provides an overview of the main functional modules and the general workflow of the latest version of MetaboAnalyst (MetaboAnalyst 3.0), followed by eight detailed protocols. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. 情报分析中证据证明问题研究--《情报分析证据与推理》评介%Research on the Proof of Evidence in Intelligence Analysis---Review of the Book Evidence and Inference for the Intelligence Analyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟伟; 阎宏瑞; 王万

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] The book Evidence and Inference for the Intelligence Analyst is one of the classical masterpieces on in-telligence analysis, because of its systemic introduction of the evidence proving method to intelligence analysis for the first time. The core of the book is about evidence proving. So the research on it not only offers the intelligence personnel deep learning and admission of the book, but also benefits the deconstruction and cognition of the analyzing process. [ Method/Process] The paper describes and analyzes the proof of evidence in intelligence analysis, based on the deep research of the book. First, the paper elaborates the classification of the evi-dences and analyzes the cause of difference. Then, the paper studies the evaluation of probative force in the dimensions of direction and strength. The emphasis is on three sorts of evaluation methods consisting of Bayes theory,Inductive probability method and Shafer system. Then the paper discusses the evaluation methods of multiple proofs in complicated situation. [ Result/Conclusion] Finally, the paper eval-uates the research on evidence proving in intelligence analysis by Schum. Under the premise of recognizing the value, the paper indicates the existed limitation.%[目的/意义]《情报分析证据与推理》由于首次系统的将证据证明方法引入情报分析领域而成为情报学的经典名著。证据证明问题是著作核心,对其进行研究既助于情报人员对经典的学习与吸纳,也助于情报人员对情报分析过程的解构和认知。[方法/过程]论文结合对戴维·舒姆《情报分析证据与推理》一书一、二两卷的研究,对情报分析中的证据证明问题进行了描述和分析。首先,对证据分类方法进行简单阐述,并分析了引起分类差异的原因;然后,将证明力视作矢量,从证明力方向和证明力大小两个方面研究证明力评估问题,重点介绍贝叶斯概

  12. Review article: review of behavioral operations experimental studies of newsvendor problems for operating room management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

    2010-06-01

    Operating room (OR) managers must plan staffing in the face of uncertain demand for OR time. Planning too much staffing results in underutilized OR time. Planning too little staffing causes overutilized time, which is approximately twice as expensive as underutilized time. Deciding how much staffing to plan for an OR is analogous to the classic newsvendor problem in operations research. A newsvendor must decide how much product to order based on its cost c and sales price p, plus estimates of the uncertain future demand for the product. The newsvendor problem has a simple mathematical solution. The correct amount of product to order is the (p - c)/p quantile of the demand for the product. This optimal order quantity is analogous mathematically to the number of hours of OR time for which staffing should be planned. We performed a systematic review of the behavioral operations experimental literature on newsvendor problems relevant to OR management. Student volunteers participating in experimental studies have great difficulty knowing how much product to order, given c, p, and the demand distribution. Decision making is only modestly improved by more frequent feedback. Even scores of rounds of ordering are insufficient for much learning to occur. Suboptimal decisions result from innate psychological biases. Students anchor on mean demand, make insufficient adjustments, and rely disproportionately on the most recent demand values. The behavior of OR managers who plan staffing for the OR is analogous to that of students participating in a newsvendor experiment. Month after month, an OR manager will plan too little staffing for the surgeon who consistently ends the day late and too much staffing for the surgeon who consistently does not fill an OR. Experimental studies of the newsvendor problem provide mechanistic insights into the reasons that OR managers make poor decisions when planning OR staffing. The students face no organizational factors or personality issues

  13. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: a systematic review of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.H. Peters; G. Kok; G.T.M. ten Dam; G.J. Buijs; T.G.W.M. Paulussen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements o

  14. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: A systematic review of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.W.H.; Kok, G.; Ten Dam, G.T.M.; Buijs, G.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements o

  15. The Wealth of Nations and the Poverty of Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Irving Louis

    2012-01-01

    Now that Colonel Muammar Gaddafi is dead and his forty-two years as despotic ruler of Libya and fomenter of international disorder has come to a permanent halt, it is a good time for governments--both in and beyond the NATO alliance--to review accommodations and agreements made with his regime. It is also time for the academic social policy…

  16. Fetal Behavior and Heart Rate in Twin Pregnancy : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendais, Iva; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Figueiredo, Barbara; Montenegro, Nuno; Mulder, Eduard J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal movements and fetal heart rate (FHR) are well-established markers of fetal well-being and maturation of the fetal central nervous system. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the available knowledge on fetal movements and heart rate patterns in twin pregnancies. There is some evi

  17. Review of rapid eye movement behavior sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

    2004-03-01

    The spectrum of rapid eye movement behavior disorders (RBD) spans various age groups, with the greatest prevalence in elderly men. Major diagnostic features include harmful or potentially harmful sleep behaviors that disrupt sleep continuity and dream enactment during rapid eye movement sleep. In RBD patients, the polysomnogram during rapid eye movement sleep demonstrates excessive augmentation of chin electromyogram or excessive chin or limb phasic electromyogram twitching. RBD may be associated with various neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Other co-morbid conditions may include narcolepsy, agrypnia excitata, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors. RBD is hypothesized to be caused by primary dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus or other key brainstem structures associated with basal ganglia pathology or, alternatively, from abnormal afferent signals in the basal ganglia leading to dysfunction in the midbrain extrapyramidal area/ pedunculo-pontine nucleus regions. PMID:14984689

  18. Predictors of Self-Medication Behavior: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolreza Shaghaghi; Marzieh Asadi; Hamid Allahverdipour

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-medication with over the counter (OTC) and non OTC drugs may provoke serious consequences for users and societies. Recognition of its predictors therefore, is pivotal in plans to hinder the aggregating behavior. This study aimed to identify possibly all predictors of self-medication and the range of its prevalence among different populations. Methods Medline, Amed, Scopus, Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct, and super searcher of Google Scholar were scrutinized usin...

  19. Determinants of risky driving behavior: a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarpour, Saba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) account for great mortality and morbidity rates worldwide, resulting in substantial global burden. Factors contributing to RTC generally fall into three categories: environmental, vehicle, and human, with the human factor being by far the leading determinant. Obtaining an in-depth exploration of driving behavior and factors underpinning risky driving could be of particular importance to facilitate the establishment of effective policies. The present article provide...

  20. Adherence to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Ellyn E.; Arnedt, J. Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S.; Cuddihy, Leisha J.; Aloia, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role o...

  1. Treatment of child abuse: a review of the behavioral interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, C D

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse....

  2. Impact of Sense of Coherence on Oral Health Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyasi, Maryam; Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Badri, Parvaneh; Saltaji, Humam; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Amin, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review was to critically analyze the empirical evidence on the association between Sense of Coherence (SOC) and oral health behaviors through a systematic approach. Methods A systematic search up to April 2015 was carried out using the following electronic bibliographic databases: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE; ISI Web of Science; and Ovid PsychInfo. Studies were included if they evaluated the relationship between SOC and oral health behaviors including tooth cleaning, fluoride usage, dietary habits, dental attendance, and smoking. We excluded studies that only assessed the relationship between oral health status and SOC without evaluating oral health behaviors. The New Castle Ottawa (NOS) quality assessment checklist was employed to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. Results Thirty-nine potential papers met the preliminary selection criteria and following a full-text review, 9 papers were finally selected for this systematic review. Results provided by the included studies indicated different levels of association between SOC and oral health behaviors. The most frequent behaviors investigated were tooth brushing and dental attendance pattern. The impact of SOC on performing positive oral health behaviors, to some extent, was related to demographic and socio-economic factors. In addition, mothers’ SOC influenced children’s oral health practices. Conclusions A more favorable oral health behavior was observed among those with a stronger SOC suggesting that the SOC can be a determinant of oral health-related behaviors including tooth brushing frequency, daily smoking, and dental attendance. PMID:26275064

  3. Family influences on adolescent gambling behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Jennifer L; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2010-12-01

    Gambling, and gambling related problems, are recognized as an emerging health issue among adolescents. Adolescent gambling is associated with numerous individual, social, and family characteristics. This paper provides a review of 21 empirical studies published between 1997 and 2008 that examine family influences on adolescent gambling behavior. Family influences on gambling behavior are conceptualized in the following five domains: (1) family sociodemographic factors, (2) general family climate, (3) family members' attitudes and behaviors, (4) parenting practices, and (5) family relationship characteristics. Based on the review of extant literature, there is empirical evidence that family characteristics are associated with adolescent gambling and further examination of family system influences on gambling behavior is needed. Gaps in the current literature and recommendations for future research are discussed to help inform the study of family influences on adolescent gambling behavior.

  4. Evaluating the results of a site-specific PSHA from the perspective of a risk analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Jens-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    From 1998 till 2015 Swiss Nuclear Power Plants sponsored a set of comprehensive site-specific PSHA-studies (PEGASOS, PEGASOS Refinement Project) to obtain the requested input for their plant specific probabilistic risk assessments following the US SSHAC procedures at their most elaborated level 4. The studies were performed by well-known earth scientists working completely independent from sponsors under participatory review of the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate. Risk analysts of Swiss Nuclear Power Plants recently have been mandated to implement the final results of the studies in their risk assessment studies. This triggered an in depth assessment of the results focussed on their practical applicability for risk studies. This assessment resulted in some important insights that are of interest for future PSHA studies performed for new nuclear power plants. The assessment included a review of the completeness of results with respect to risk applications as well as plausibility checks of hazard results based on Black Swan Theory and known historical events. The key lessons and recommendations for more detailed project output specifications for future projects are presented in the paper. It was established that future PSHA projects shall provide the joint probability distribution of ground motion hazard and the associated strong motion duration as the output to allow for a technically meaningful risk assessment. The recommendation of WENRA (West European Nuclear Regulators) published in their reference levels to perform natural hazard assessment preferably based on physical grounds (deterministic method) is also rationalized by recommending an holistic approach to hazard analysis comparing PSHA insights with the results of modelling deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis.

  5. Dynamic mechanical behavior magnetorheological nanocomposites containing CNTs: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Rozaina; Ibrahim, Azmi; Hamid, Hanizah Ab.; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Adnan, Azlan

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based polymer composites have variety of engineering applications due to their excellent mechanical, electrical, chemical, magnetic, etc. properties. This paper is an attempt to present a coherent yet concise review of as many of these publications as possible on the mechanical aspect of the Magnetorheological Elastomer (MRE) composites with the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The dynamic mechanical response of the MR nanocomposites to applied magnetic fields has been investigated through dynamic mechanical analysis. It is found that a small amount of carbon nanotubes can effectively improve the mechanical performance of conventional MR elastomers. In summary, multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced magnetorheological composite has been developed to take advantage of both the smart MR technology and outstanding properties of carbon nanotubes. Furthermore review is also carried out on the capability of carbon nanotubes to impart the stiffness and damping performance encountered with the properties of CNT based Natural Rubber.

  6. Book review: The ecology and behavior of amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    This state‐of‐the‐art book has made its timely emergence amid a crisis of global magnitude: that of population declines, range reductions, and extinctions of numerous species of amphibians. A clear understanding of the fundamental concepts in amphibian biology is crucial to the success of any conservation effort. This volume compiles the information necessary to acquire that basic understanding. It is a comprehensive synthesis of both traditional and contemporary facets of amphibian biology, spanning a breadth of topics ranging from phylogeny, physiology, behavior, population and community ecology, and conservation. As such, it undoubtedly takes its place among contemporary volumes as the single, authoritative source for basic topics relevant to amphibian life.

  7. Hydrocarbons in soils: Origin, composition, and behavior (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Tsibart, A. S.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    It has been shown that a large body of evidence on the sources, transformation, and migration of hydrocarbons in soils has been acquired by different researchers. Available data about the origin and behavior of hydrocarbon gases, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, and other compounds have been considered successively. A wide range of natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the transformation and migration of hydrocarbons in soils have been analyzed. The indicative value of these compounds has been explained. At the same time, many problems related to hydrocarbons in soils are still insufficiently understood. Sparse and fragmentary data are available in the literature on the interaction of different hydrocarbon groups in the soil. Few data refer to the features of hydrocarbons in background zonal soils; there are almost no interzonal comparisons. The behavior of hydrocarbons in soils of different landscape-geographical positions is characterized in isolated publications. The hydrocarbon status of soils as an integral complex of interrelated hydrocarbons is almost not analyzed. Hydrocarbons of a single class (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon gases, n-alkanes, etc.) are usually characterized in each publication.

  8. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB, obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case-control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases.

  9. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case-control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases. PMID:26170586

  10. Review of Low-Level Bioacoustic Behavior in Wild Cetaceans: Conservation Implications of Possible Sleeping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew J; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard; Sveegaard, Signe; Dietz, Rune; Teilmann, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Shallow, low-activity, low-biosonar parabolic-shaped dives were observed in biologging data from tagged harbor porpoises in Danish waters and identified as potential sleeping behavior. This behavioral state merits consideration in assessing the context for noise exposure and passive acoustic monitoring studies. Similar dives have also been reported for other cetacean species. The existence of low-level bioacoustic dives that may represent that sleeping has implications for the mitigation of not only noise exposure but also of bycatch as well as legal repercussions given the protected status of sleeping, as a part of resting, under many legislative regimes. PMID:26611094

  11. Predictors of Self-Medication Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAGHAGHI, Abdolreza; ASADI, Marzieh; ALLAHVERDIPOUR, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-medication with over the counter (OTC) and non OTC drugs may provoke serious consequences for users and societies. Recognition of its predictors therefore, is pivotal in plans to hinder the aggregating behavior. This study aimed to identify possibly all predictors of self-medication and the range of its prevalence among different populations. Methods Medline, Amed, Scopus, Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct, and super searcher of Google Scholar were scrutinized using “self-medication”, “self-prescription” and “self-treatment” key words without a time limit with special focus on Iranian studies. Authors independently assessed the title, abstract and full text of identified articles for inclusion and any disagreement was resolved with consensus. Results The range of reported self-medication in the 70 included publications was 8.5-98.0%. Having a minor illness (15 studies), health care costs (9 studies), lack of adequate time to visit a physician (11 studies), prior experience (7 studies) in using a drug and long waiting time to visit a qualified practitioner (5 studies) were most frequently reported reasons of self-medication. Conclusion The observed diversity in the reported prevalence and reasons of self-medication among different sub-groups of populations (e.g. males vs. females) and between developed and developing countries highlights the importance of explanatory behavioral chain analysis of self-medication in different population groups and countries. Even within a single country, predictors of this harmful practice could be inconsistent. Lack of sufficient quality re-search to identify precipitating factors of self-medication in developing countries is paramount. PMID:26060736

  12. Accuracy and Consistency of Grass Pollen Identification by Human Analysts Using Electron Micrographs of Surface Ornamentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Mander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. Methods: We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. Results: Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. Discussion: The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.

  13. Subcellular object quantification with Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Aurélien; Mansouri, Maysam; Ballmer-Hofer, Kurt; Berger, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative image analysis plays an important role in contemporary biomedical research. Squassh is a method for automatic detection, segmentation, and quantification of subcellular structures and analysis of their colocalization. Here we present the applications Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst. Squassh3C extends the functionality of Squassh to three fluorescence channels and live-cell movie analysis. SquasshAnalyst is an interactive web interface for the analysis of Squassh3C object data. It provides segmentation image overview and data exploration, figure generation, object and image filtering, and a statistical significance test in an easy-to-use interface. The overall procedure combines the Squassh3C plug-in for the free biological image processing program ImageJ and a web application working in conjunction with the free statistical environment R, and it is compatible with Linux, MacOS X, or Microsoft Windows. Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst are available for download at www.psi.ch/lbr/SquasshAnalystEN/SquasshAnalyst.zip. PMID:26554508

  14. Nothing but the truth: self-disclosure, self-revelation, and the persona of the analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Susan S

    2007-01-01

    The question of the analyst's self-disclosure and self-revelation inhabits every moment of every psychoanalytic treatment. All self-disclosures and revelations, however, are not equivalent, and differentiating among them allows us to define a construct that can be called the analytic persona. Analysts already rely on an unarticulated concept of an analytic persona that guides them, for instance, as they decide what constitutes appropriate boundaries. Clinical examples illustrate how self-disclosures and revelations from within and without the analytic persona feel different, for both patient and analyst. The analyst plays a specific role for each patient and is both purposefully and unconsciously different in this context than in other settings. To a great degree, the self is a relational phenomenon. Our ethics call for us to tell nothing but the truth and simultaneously for us not to tell the whole truth. The unarticulated working concept of an analytic persona that many analysts have refers to the self we step out of at the close of each session and the self we step into as the patient enters the room. Attitudes toward self-disclosure and self-revelation can be considered reflections of how we conceptualize this persona.

  15. HOW HEALTHY IS THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG ATHLETES? A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Diehl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the frequency of selected risk behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, use of illicit drugs, unhealthy nutrition, and doping in adolescent athletes. Two independent reviewers selected articles following the PRISMA Statement. Behavior frequency was assessed as was comparability of study design and methods. When possible, meta- analyses were performed using data from subgroups of studies in which operational indicators were comparable. Seventy-eight articles met eligibility criteria. Although report of risky behaviors varied across studies, we observed overall, that studies tend to report higher alcohol use, less smoking, less recreational drug use, and more smokeless tobacco use in (high-involved athletes. Considerable heterogeneity was noted in study design, definition of target groups and use of operational indicators (I² ranged from 93.2% to 100%. Especially the higher prevalence of using alcohol and smokeless tobacco needs more attention in interventions targeted to this group. Overall, greater consensus on methods used to assess risky behaviors in adolescent athletes

  16. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.

  17. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future.

  18. Psychosis, Mood and Behavioral Disorders in Usher Syndrome: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Domanico, Daniela; Fragiotta, Serena; Cutini, Alessandro; Grenga, Pier Luigi; Vingolo, Enzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus the current knowledge about mental and behavioral disorders in Usher syndrome. Previous studies described the presence of various mental disorders associated with Usher syndrome, suggesting possible mechanisms of association between these disorders. The most common manifestations are schizophrenia-like disorder and psychotic symptoms. Mood and behavioral disorders are rarely described, and often are associated with more complex cases in co-occurrence with ot...

  19. A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, Klazine; Oenema, Anke; Ferreira, Isabel; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Giskes, Katrina; van Lenthe, Frank; Brug, Hans

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThere is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational studies on environmental correlates of energy, fat, fruit/vegetable, snack/fast food and soft drink intakes in children (4-12 years) and ad...

  20. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfac...

  1. Successful behavior change in obesity interventions in adults: a systematic review of self-regulation mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Texeira, Pedro J; Carraça, Eliana V; Marques, Marta M; Rutter, Harry; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Relapse is high in lifestyle obesity interventions involving behavior and weight change. Identifying mediators of successful outcomes in these interventions is critical to improve effectiveness and to guide approaches to obesity treatment, including resource allocation. This article reviews the most consistent self-regulation mediators of medium- and long-term weight control, physical activity, and dietary intake in clinical and community behavior change interventions targeting ove...

  2. Pollutants and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Judith S. WEIS, Allison CANDELMO

    2012-01-01

    Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants. There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays, with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance. However, there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminated environments. Therefore, we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites. The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus, is a non-migratory fish; those from...

  3. Behavioral treatments for children and adults who stutter: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomgren M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Blomgren Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of stuttering followed by a synopsis of current approaches to treat stuttering in children and adults. Treatment is discussed in terms of multifactorial, operant, speech restructuring, and anxiolytic approaches. Multifactorial and operant treatments are designed for young children who stutter. Both of these approaches involve parent training and differ primarily in their focus on reducing demands on the child (multifactorial or in their use of response contingent stimulation (operant conditioning. Speech restructuring and anxiolytic approaches are used with adults who stutter. Speech restructuring approaches focus on the mechanics of speech production, and anxiolytic treatments tend to focus on the symptoms and social and vocational challenges of stuttering. The evidence base for these different approaches is outlined. Response contingent therapy (for children and speech restructuring therapy (for adults have the most robust empirical evidence base. Multifactorial treatments for children and stuttering management approaches for adults are popular but are based on theoretical models of stuttering; the evidence base is not robust and tends to be inferred from work in areas such as cognitive behavior therapy and desensitization. Comprehensive, or holistic, approaches to treating stuttering are also discussed. Comprehensive approaches for treating stuttering in adults address both improved speech fluency and stuttering management. Keywords: stuttering, treatment, stuttering management, speech restructuring, cognitive restructuring

  4. Behavioral treatments for children and adults who stutter: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of stuttering followed by a synopsis of current approaches to treat stuttering in children and adults. Treatment is discussed in terms of multifactorial, operant, speech restructuring, and anxiolytic approaches. Multifactorial and operant treatments are designed for young children who stutter. Both of these approaches involve parent training and differ primarily in their focus on reducing demands on the child (multifactorial) or in their use of response contingent stimulation (operant conditioning). Speech restructuring and anxiolytic approaches are used with adults who stutter. Speech restructuring approaches focus on the mechanics of speech production, and anxiolytic treatments tend to focus on the symptoms and social and vocational challenges of stuttering. The evidence base for these different approaches is outlined. Response contingent therapy (for children) and speech restructuring therapy (for adults) have the most robust empirical evidence base. Multifactorial treatments for children and stuttering management approaches for adults are popular but are based on theoretical models of stuttering; the evidence base is not robust and tends to be inferred from work in areas such as cognitive behavior therapy and desensitization. Comprehensive, or holistic, approaches to treating stuttering are also discussed. Comprehensive approaches for treating stuttering in adults address both improved speech fluency and stuttering management. PMID:23785248

  5. A review of family and environmental correlates of health behaviors in high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawman, Hannah G; Wilson, Dawn K

    2012-06-01

    Disparities in the prevalence of obesity in youth place minority and low socioeconomic status youth at increased risk for the development of chronic disease, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Contributing factors to the increases in obesity include a decline in positive health behaviors, such as making healthy dietary choices, engaging in physical activity, and limiting sedentary behaviors. Family and physical environmental contextual factors related to health behaviors are increasingly the focus of health behavior interventions in line with the bioecological model that encourages a system-focused perspective on understanding health behavior influences. Physical environmental characteristics, such as home and neighborhood characteristics and resources, provide the tangible means to support health behaviors and are important contextual variables to consider that may increase intervention effectiveness. Therefore, the current review seeks to highlight the importance of investigating influences of behavior beyond individual characteristics in understanding factors related to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in youth at high risk for developing chronic disease. The current study reviews the non-intervention literature on family and physical environmental factors related to health behaviors (i.e., diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) in youth who are considered to be at-risk for developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Results on 38 published articles of diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors showed support for the role of parenting and physical environmental factors, particularly parental monitoring and neighborhood context, such as social cohesion, as they relate to health behaviors in high-risk youth. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  6. Multi-Instance Learning Models for Automated Support of Analysts in Simulated Surveillance Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birisan, Mihnea; Beling, Peter

    2011-01-01

    New generations of surveillance drones are being outfitted with numerous high definition cameras. The rapid proliferation of fielded sensors and supporting capacity for processing and displaying data will translate into ever more capable platforms, but with increased capability comes increased complexity and scale that may diminish the usefulness of such platforms to human operators. We investigate methods for alleviating strain on analysts by automatically retrieving content specific to their current task using a machine learning technique known as Multi-Instance Learning (MIL). We use MIL to create a real time model of the analysts' task and subsequently use the model to dynamically retrieve relevant content. This paper presents results from a pilot experiment in which a computer agent is assigned analyst tasks such as identifying caravanning vehicles in a simulated vehicle traffic environment. We compare agent performance between MIL aided trials and unaided trials.

  7. Quenching behavior of molten pool with different strategies - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikant, Pandel, U.; Duchaniya, R. K.; Nayak, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    After the major severe accident in nuclear reactor, there has been lot of concerns regarding long term core melt stabilization following a severe accident in nuclear reactors. Numerous strategies have been though for quenching and stabilization of core melt like top flooding, bottom flooding, indirect cooling, etc. However, the effectiveness of these schemes is yet to be determined properly, for which, lot of experiments are needed. Several experiments have been performed for coolability of melt pool under bottom flooding as well as for indirect cooling. Besides these tests are very scattered because they involve different simulants material initial temperatures and masses of melt, which makes it very complex to judge the effectiveness of a particular technique and advantage over the other. In this review paper, a study has been carried on different cooling techniques of simulant materials with same mass. Three techniques have been compared here and the results are discussed. Under top flooding technique it took several hours to cool the melt under without decay heat condition. In bottom flooding technique was found to be the best technique among in indirect cooling technique, top flooded technique, and bottom flooded technique.

  8. The social and behavioral impacts of information systems in the automated office: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, Joseph P.

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis attempts to bring about a clearer understanding of the social and behavioral impacts of information systems in the automated office. The methodology used was a literature review of articles written on the subject of information systems in the office environment. The articles were published in a variety of academic and non-academic journals. All of the articles reviewed were published between 1975 and 1990. The articles ...

  9. A Systematic Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Nightmares: Toward a Well-Established Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lancee, Jaap; Victor I Spoormaker; Krakow, Barry; van den Bout, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on nightmare frequency and to determine which kind of CBT is the most effective treatment. A systematic literature search was carried out in PsychInfo and PubMed articles published on or before May 1, 2008. The inclusion criteria were: nightmare treatment study, use of nonpharmacological treatment, not a qualitative case study, randomized-controlled trial (RCT). After selection, 12 peer-reviewed stud...

  10. Critical realism: distinguishing the psychological subjectivity of the analyst from epistemological subjectivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, C; Hanly, M A

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the concepts of critical realism, subjectivity, and subjectivism, distinctions are drawn among ontological subjectivism, moral subjectivity, psychological subjectivity, and epistemological subjectivism. Psychological subjectivity, including the ongoing affective life of the analyst, is an essential aspect of the analyst's response to the patient, and may either facilitate or distort an adequate observation of transference and countertransference dynamics and of the psychic reality of the patient. Subjectivism in current psychoanalytic literature involves an argument that there is an "irreducible" subjectivity in the analyst, who is bound to see things from an incorrigibly personal point of view, such that there is no substantial subject-object differentiation between analyst and patient. Issues of authoritarianism in the analyst, or of pathological certainty, should not be confused with the issues of epistemological objectivism. The concept of critical realism or scientific objectivism includes the essential idea that there is no pure knowledge, no complete knowledge, that often evidence is insufficient for knowledge of some aspect of nature, and that care must be to taken understand what is sufficient knowledge in a given area, in this case clinical psychoanalysis. The question is raised whether "projective identification" makes the sorting out of "what comes from whom" impossible. It is argued that when free association is sufficiently facilitated, when there are enough corrections of the distortions wrought by transference and countertransference, when defenses are analyzed, and when sufficient subject-object differentiation is recovered, the analyst can get to know enough of the patient's psychic reality for the therapeutic and scientific purposes of psychoanalysis. PMID:11508375

  11. A systematic review of social factors and suicidal behavior in older adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; van Orden, Kimberly A; Duberstein, Paul;

    2012-01-01

    Suicide in later life is a global public health problem. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic analysis of studies with comparison groups that examined the associations between social factors and suicidal behavior (including ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, or deaths) among...... indicated that at least in industrialized countries, limited social connectedness is associated with suicidal ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, and suicide in later life. Primary prevention programs designed to enhance social connections as well as a sense of community could potentially decrease...... suicide risk, especially among men....

  12. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-05-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV. PMID:25844941

  13. Financial Analysts' Forecast Accuracy : Before and After the Introduction of AIFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Seng Cheong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether financial analysts’ forecast accuracy differs between the pre- and post- adoption ofAustralian Equivalents to the International Financial Reporting Standards (AIFRS. We find that forecastaccuracy has improved after Australia adopted AIFRS. As a secondary objective, this paper also investigatesthe role of financial analysts in reducing information asymmetry in today’s Australian capital market. We findweak evidence that more analysts following a stock do not help to improve forecast accuracy by bringingmore firm-specific information to the market.

  14. Treatment of child abuse: a review of the behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, C D

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse. Burgess (1978) believes that conceptual problems exist because abuse falls along a continuum of parent-child relationships--a continuum that at one end might include verbal punishment (e.g., threats, ridicule) or milder forms of physical punishment (e.g., slap on the hand, spanking), and at the other end include extreme forms of physical punishment that exceed community mores (for example, hitting a child with a closed fist, scalding a child in hot water, torturing or killing a child). Thus, the question-- where does discipline stop and abuse begin?-- faces every researcher who must operationally define abuse. Identifying the consequences of abuse in a child's development is another area of inquiry that remains untreated. Most of the literature is filled with the subjective impressions of professionals speculating that abused children become the juvenile delinquents and the child abusers of the future; however, as yet no longitudinal studies have been conducted that compare the developmental outcomes of abused and non-abused children from early childhood to later adulthood. What if there were no differences? How might this influence our approaches to the treatment of abuse? Answers to these and other questions will take years of study. Increased awareness of the problem of child abuse has led to greater efforts to remediate the problem. Treatment efforts with abusive families are still in the initial stages, but, undoubtedly, information from these early programs can be the

  15. The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy. A review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, G P; Schaap, C P; Hoogduin, C A

    2000-04-01

    Empirical studies are reviewed, the aim being to investigate characteristics of the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and to identify therapist or patient interpersonal behavior that affects treatment outcome. CBT is characterized by a more active and directive stance on the part of the therapists and higher levels of emotional support than are found in insight-oriented psychotherapies. Therapists express high levels of empathy and unconditional positive regard, similar to those expressed by insight-oriented psychotherapists. Two clusters of interpersonal behavior have been identified that are clearly associated with CBT outcome: (a) the Rogerian therapist variables--empathy, nonpossessive warmth, positive regard, and genuineness; and (b) therapeutic alliance. There is some evidence for the impact on outcome of three additional clusters of patient behavior: (a) the patients' perception of the therapist as being self-confident, skillful, and active; (b) the patients' openness to discuss their problems; and (c) the patients' pretreatment predisposition to change and to accept psychological treatment as a means of achieving this. It is further concluded that relationship factors in general have a consistent but moderate impact on CBT outcome.

  16. The Information Needs and Behavior of Mature Community College Students: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeit, Krystina

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a review of literature devoted to the unique information needs and information-seeking behavior of the growing nontraditional or mature community college student population. This underserved user group faces distinctive challenges that librarians, researchers, and administrators must recognize and address. Much of the existing…

  17. Social problem solving in adolescents with suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckens, A.E.M.; Hawton, K.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on deficiencies in problem solving as a vulnerability factor for suicidal behavior in general and hence a target for treatment in suicide attempters. In view of the uncertainty of evidence for this in adolescents we conducted a systematic review of the international rese

  18. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Behavior Change: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…

  19. Train the Trainer Effectiveness Trials of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals with Autism: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…

  20. Determinants of dietary behavior and physical activity among Canadian Inuit: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akande, V.O.; Hendriks, A.M.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased dependence on Western diets and low physical activity have largely contributed to weight gain and associated chronic diseases in the Canadian Inuit population. The purpose of this study was to systematically review factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviors to

  1. Contemporary Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Review of Theory, History, and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed.

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Development in Children Following Maternal Postpartum Depression: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Hamid; Moosavipoor, Seyed Ahmad; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Sara; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdian-anari, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Mothers’ constitute is a very important part of infants’ social environment and mediate their experience with the surrounding world. Postpartum depression, which is considered one of the most common and important psychiatric disorders, affects 10–15% of mothers, its causes are different. By investigating various sources, some effects of this disorder have been observed on the cognitive development of children, particularly among boys, such as language, intelligence quotient (IQ), and behavioral problems. Thus, it is imperative to study the effects of postpartum depression on children’s growth and development and to identify methods of reducing these effects. This review indicates that postpartum depression in mothers reduces children’s cognitive performance. The adverse effects of postpartum depression on children’s development seem to be mediated by the mother’s interpersonal behavior and the infant gender. The review of previous studies shows that postpartum depression reduces children’s cognitive performance by impairing maternal mental and behavioral care. PMID:26816593

  3. What Every Behavior Analyst Should Know About the “MMR Causes Autism” Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahearn, William H.

    2010-01-01

    In 1998, the English physician Andrew Wakefield suggested that the MMR vaccine insults the guts of children who then regress developmentally and become autistic. Although his research did not provide firm evidence for this hypothesis, many believe that (a) the MMR vaccine can cause autism; (b) children with autism typically have gastrointestinal problems; and, (c) a necessary component of treating autism is “treating the gut” through dietary restrictions. Research has subsequently shown that ...

  4. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Anna; Rao, Sanjay; McGrath, Patrick J; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  5. A Scoping Review of Behavioral Weight Management Interventions in Overweight/Obese African American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Suzanne M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Jenkins, Carolyn H; Nemeth, Lynne S

    2016-08-01

    African American females are adversely affected by overweight and obesity and accompanying physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences. Behavioral weight management interventions are less effective in addressing the needs of overweight and obese African American females. The objective of this scoping review was to explore weight management research in this population to identify key concepts, gaps in the literature, and implications for future research. Analyses revealed a broad array in purpose, theoretical frameworks, settings, study designs, interventions, intervention strategies, and outcome variables, making comparison difficult. Many of the articles included in this review did not provide a rich description of methods, which hinder their use in the development of future studies. Consistent application of a combined theory may address the gaps identified in this review by providing a reliable method for assessing needs, developing interventions, and evaluating the effectiveness and fidelity of behavioral weight management interventions in overweight and obese African American females. PMID:26927607

  6. Changes in Routine Health Behaviors Following Late-life Bereavement: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between late-life spousal bereavement and changes in routine health behaviors. We review six behavioral domains/modifiable risk factors that are important for maintaining health among elderly populations: physical activity, nutrition, sleep quality, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and body weight status. Thirty-four articles were identified, derived from 32 studies. We found strong evidence for a relationship between bereavement and nutritional risk and involuntary weight loss, and moderate evidence for impaired sleep quality and increased alcohol consumption. There was mixed evidence for a relationship between bereavement and physical activity. We identify several methodological shortcomings, and describe the clinical implications of this review for the development of preventive intervention strategies. PMID:23881308

  7. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prazeres AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review

  8. 78 FR 14359 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analysts-Order Management, Voice Over Internet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Management, Voice Over Internet Protocol, Small And Medium Business, Tampa, Florida; Verizon Business... Analysts-Order Management, Voice Over Internet Protocol, Small and Medium Business, Tampa, Florida. The workers supplied order management services to small and medium business customers relating to the...

  9. The Variability of Crater Identification Among Expert and Community Crater Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S. J.; Antonenko, I.; Kirchoff, M. R.; Chapman, C. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Herrick, R. R.; Singer, K.; Zanetti, M.; Lehan, C.; Huang, D.; Gay, P. L.

    2015-05-01

    We all know it in the back of our minds, but we tend to ignore the fact that crater identification and measurement is not an exact science. This work was to start to quantify the variation in how independent analysts identify and measure impacts.

  10. Innovative Interventions to Promote Behavioral Change in Overweight or Obese Individuals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades placing significant burdens on healthcare in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data shows promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions. PMID:25011006

  11. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-03-24

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  12. Comparison of air-coupled GPR data analysis results determined by multiple analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Nicole; Maser, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Current bridge deck condition assessments using ground penetrating radar (GPR) requires a trained analyst to manually interpret substructure layering information from B-scan images in order to proceed with an intended analysis (pavement thickness, concrete cover, effects of rebar corrosion, etc.) For example, a recently developed method to rapidly and accurately analyze air-coupled GPR data based on the effects of rebar corrosion, requires that a user "picks" a layer of rebar reflections in each B-scan image collected along the length of the deck. These "picks" have information like signal amplitude and two way travel time. When a deck is new, or has little rebar corrosion, the resulting layer of rebar reflections is readily evident and there is little room for subjectivity. However, when a deck is severely deteriorated, the rebar layer may be difficult to identify, and different analysts may make different interpretations of the appropriate layer to analyze. One highly corroded bridge deck, was assessed with a number of nondestructive evaluation techniques including 2GHz air-coupled GPR. Two trained analysts separately selected the rebar layer in each B-scan image, choosing as much information as possible, even in areas of significant deterioration. The post processing of the selected data points was then completed and the results from each analyst were contour plotted to observe any discrepancies. The paper describes the differences between ground coupled and air-coupled GPR systems, the data collection and analysis methods used by two different analysts for one case study, and the results of the two different analyses.

  13. Medical marijuana: review of the science and implications for developmental-behavioral pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E; Knight, John R; Harris, Sion K

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana policy is rapidly evolving in the United States and elsewhere, with cannabis sales fully legalized and regulated in some jurisdictions and use of the drug for medicinal purposes permitted in many others. Amidst this political change, patients and families are increasingly asking whether cannabis and its derivatives may have therapeutic utility for a number of conditions, including developmental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. This review examines the epidemiology of cannabis use among children and adolescents, including those with developmental and behavioral diagnoses. It then outlines the increasingly well-recognized neurocognitive changes shown to occur in adolescents who use cannabis regularly, highlighting the unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain and describing the role of the endocannabinoid system in normal neurodevelopment. The review then discusses some of the proposed uses of cannabis in developmental and behavioral conditions, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Throughout, the review outlines gaps in current knowledge and highlights directions for future research, especially in light of a dearth of studies specifically examining neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes among children and adolescents with developmental and behavioral concerns exposed to cannabis.

  14. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  15. Social Capital Role in Managing High Risk Behavior: a Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Mansoure; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzeghardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social capital as a social context based concept is a new component in addition to the previous factors including the biologic–environmental, the genetic and the individual behavior factors that influence health and society. Social capital refers to the information that makes people believe being interesting & being paid attention to, & respected, valued, and belonging to a network of bilateral relations. Health issue is greatly affected by the existence of social capital. High risk behaviors refer to the ones enhancing the probability of negative and devastating physical, psychological and social consequences for an individual. Negative & overwhelming results mean keeping one’s distance from social norms as a result rejection and labeling (social stigma) and finally, to distance oneself from the benefits of social life in the individuals with high risk behaviors. The present study reviews social capital in the groups having high risk behaviors. Methods: The present study is a narrative review in which researchers conducted their computer search in public databases like Google Scholar, and more specifically in Pubmed, Magiran, SID, Springer, Science Direct, and ProQuest using the keywords: social capital, social support, risk behaviors, addicts, HIV, AIDS, and selected the articles related to the study subject from 2004 to 2014. Overall 96 articles have been searched. Researchers reviewed the summary of all articles searched, & ultimately, they applied the data from 20 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Article review results led to organizing the subjects into 6 general categories: Social capital and its role in health; Social capital in groups with high risk behaviors (Including: substance abusers, AIDS patients, the homeless and multi-partner women); Social capital in different social groups; measurement tools for social capital and risk behaviors; the role of health in helping people with risky behaviors with the focus on

  16. 78 FR 47778 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Birmingham...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Impletmentation (SA-SI) Birmingham, Alabama; Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Service Program Delivery Division San Francisco, California; Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc.Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Alpharetta, Georgia: Amended...

  17. The Investigation of the Relationship among Analyst Following, Managerial Ownership and Firm Valuation: From the Perspective of Agency Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship among analyst following, managerial ownership and firm valuation is investigated from the perspective of agency theory by using a nonlinear simultaneous equation model. The data from the Taiwan stock market verify the proposed hypotheses with a nonlinear three-stage least-square procedure. The empirical results show that managerial ownership (serving an internal monitoring function and number of analysts following (serving an external monitoring function are respectively nonlinear and linear increasing functions of firm valuation, while managerial ownership and analyst following are substitutes in the monitoring of the firm. The results generated from this study support an alignment effect and an entrenchment effect in the relationship between managerial ownership and firm valuation after controlling for the effect of analyst following. Evidence also shows that analyst coverage serves to enhance firm valuation after controlling for the effect of managerial ownership. In addition, a substitution effect between number of analysts following and managerial ownership is found to exist as well as a decreasing marginal value for managerial ownership. It is indicated that both security analysts and managerial ownership serve as monitoring forces in the firm and higher level of monitoring forces, whether internal or external, will enhance firm valuation. The results reveal that the security analysts serve the external monitoring function by reducing the agency cost associated with the separation of ownership and control in the Taiwan stock market.

  18. Team Collaboration: The Use of Behavior Principles for Serving Students with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Amy L.; Stahmer, Aubyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and behavior analysts are key members of school-based teams that serve children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Behavior analysts approach assessment and intervention through the lens of applied behavior analysis (ABA). ABA-based interventions have been found effective for targeting skills across…

  19. General parenting, childhood overweight and obesity-inducing behaviors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2011-06-01

    Despite emerging efforts to investigate the influence parents have on their children's weight status and related dietary and activity behaviors, reviews regarding the role of general parenting are lacking. We performed a systematic review regarding the relationship between general parenting and these weight-related outcomes to guide observational research. In total, 36 studies were included. Discrepancies across studies were found, which may be explained by differences in conceptualization of parenting constructs. Overall, however, results suggest that children raised in authoritative homes ate more healthy, were more physically active and had lower BMI levels, compared to children who were raised with other styles (authoritarian, permissive/indulgent, uninvolved/neglectful). Findings of some moderation studies indicate that general parenting has a differential impact on children's weight-related outcomes, depending on child and parental characteristics. These findings underline the importance of acknowledging interactions between general parenting and both child and parent characteristics, as well as behavior-specific parenting practices.

  20. Health Promotion and Health Behaviors of Diverse Ethnic/Racial Women Cosmetologists: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelusma, Naomi; Ralston, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists' involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices. PMID:27199580

  1. A Review of Empirical Studies Investigating Antecedents and Consequences of Collective Learning Behaviors in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina D. Spânu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a systematic review of the field research conducted in medical settings investigating collective learning behaviors. The review was driven by several research foci. Our main interest was in identifying antecedents and consequences of collective learning in hospitals. We also report results on the types of research questions addressed, research designs used, and types of medical teams investigated. Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. Our findings revealed that highly contextualized studies that use different ways of measuring learning, different ways of conceptualizing medical teams, and different research methodologies, discuss similar antecedents. Variables like leadership behaviors, unit interpersonal climate, and hierarchical position were found to play a role in explaining organizational learning in hospitals across studies. We also found that despite an intense public discourse on the link between collective learning processes and patients’ safety and medical organizations’ performance, few studies actually report empirical data supporting this relationship.

  2. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to promote intake of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Ravia, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in the United States remains below recommended levels despite evidence of the health benefits of regular consumption. Efforts to increase F/V intake include behavior-based interventions. A systematic review of MEDLINE PubMed and PsycINFO databases (2005-2010) was conducted to identify behavior-based intervention trials designed to promote F/V intake. Using predetermined limits and selection criteria, 34 studies were identified for inclusion. Behavior-based interventions resulted in an average increase in F/V intake of +1.13 and +0.39 servings per day in adults and children, respectively. Interventions involving minority adults or low-income participants demonstrated average increases in daily F/V consumption of +0.97 servings/day, whereas worksite interventions averaged +0.8 servings/day. Achieving and sustaining F/V intake at recommended levels of intake across the population cannot be achieved through behavior-based interventions alone. Thus, efforts to combine these interventions with other approaches including social marketing, behavioral economics approaches, and technology-based behavior change models should be tested to ensure goals are met and sustained.

  3. Does temporal discounting explain unhealthy behavior? A systematic review and reinforcement learning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles eStory

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to make unhealthy choices is hypothesized to be related to an individual's temporal discount rate, the theoretical rate at which they devalue delayed rewards. Furthermore, a particular form of temporal discounting, hyperbolic discounting, has been proposed to explain why unhealthy behavior can occur despite healthy intentions. We examine these two hypotheses in turn. We first systematically review studies which investigate whether discount rates can predict unhealthy behavior. These studies reveal that high discount rates for money (and in some instances food or drug rewards are associated with several unhealthy behaviors and markers of health status, establishing discounting as a promising predictive measure. We secondly examine whether intention-incongruent unhealthy actions are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. We conclude that intention-incongruent actions are often triggered by environmental cues or changes in motivational state, whose effects are not parameterized by hyperbolic discounting. We propose a framework for understanding these state-based effects in terms of the interplay of two distinct reinforcement learning mechanisms: a model-based (or goal-directed system and a model-free (or habitual system. Under this framework, while discounting of delayed health may contribute to the initiation of unhealthy behavior, with repetition, many unhealthy behaviors become habitual; if health goals then change, habitual behavior can still arise in response to environmental cues. We propose that the burgeoning development of computational models of these processes will permit further identification of health decision-making phenotypes.

  4. Identifying Organizational Identification as a Basis for Attitudes and Behaviors: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Suk; Park, Tae-Youn; Koo, Bonjin

    2015-09-01

    Organizational identification has been argued to have a unique value in explaining individual attitudes and behaviors in organizations, as it involves the essential definition of entities (i.e., individual and organizational identities). This review seeks meta-analytic evidence of the argument by examining how this identity-relevant construct functions in the nexus of attitudinal/behavioral constructs. The findings show that, first, organizational identification is significantly associated with key attitudes (job involvement, job satisfaction, and affective organizational commitment) and behaviors (in-role performance and extra-role performance) in organizations. Second, in the classic psychological model of attitude-behavior relations (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), organizational identification is positioned as a basis from which general sets of those attitudes and behaviors are engendered; organizational identification has a direct effect on general behavior above and beyond the effect of general attitude. Third, the effects of organizational identification are moderated by national culture, a higher-level social context wherein the organization is embedded, such that the effects are stronger in a collectivistic culture than in an individualistic culture. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25984729

  5. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    OpenAIRE

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effec...

  6. Internet-administered cognitive behavior therapy for health problems: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van, FE; Andersson, G

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral interventions are the most extensively researched form of psychological treatment and are increasingly offered through the Internet. Internet-based interventions may save therapist time, reduce waiting-lists, cut traveling time, and reach populations with health problems who can not easily access other more traditional forms of treatments. We conducted a systematic review of twelve randomized controlled or comparative trials. Studies were identified through systematic sea...

  7. The dopaminergic basis of human behaviors: a review of molecular imaging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Egerton, Alice; Mehta, Mitul A; Montgomery, Andrew J; Lappin, Julia M.; Howes, Oliver D; Reeves, Suzanne J.; Cunningham, Vincent J; Grasby, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review describes human molecular imaging studies which have investigated alterations in extracellular DA levels during performance of behavioral tasks. Whilst heterogeneity in experimental methods limits meta-analysis, we describe the advantages and limitations of different methodological approaches. Interpretation of experimental results may be limited by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes, head movement and choice of control conditions. We revisit our original study...

  8. Health Promotion and Health Behaviors of Diverse Ethnic/Racial Women Cosmetologists: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Thelusma; Penny Ralston

    2016-01-01

    Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists’ involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies...

  9. Social Work Research on African Americans and Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic 25-year Review

    OpenAIRE

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work’s empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on Af...

  10. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Apter; Maya Amitai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk fa...

  11. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies.

  12. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies. PMID:25084562

  13. Multiple health behavior change: a synopsis and comment on “A review of multiple health behavior change interventions for primary prevention”

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Winter; Buscemi, Joanna; Coons, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The ninth column on Evidence-Based Behavioral Medicine is a synthesis of a recent systematic meta-review of multiple health behavior change (MHBC) interventions published by Prochaska and Prochaska in the American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine (Am J Life Med 5:208–221, 2011). Health risk behaviors are highly prevalent and increase the risk of developing and exacerbating chronic disease. The purpose of the meta-review was to examine the efficacy of MHBC interventions in a variety of population...

  14. Social work research on African Americans and suicidal behavior: a systematic 25-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M

    2008-11-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed.

  15. Sexuality education and young people's sexual behavior: a review of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunseit, A; Kippax, S; Aggleton, P; Baldo, M; Slutkin, G

    1997-10-01

    Sexuality education for children and young adults is one of the most heavily debated issues facing policy-makers, national AIDS program planners, and educators, provoking arguments over how explicit education materials should be, how much of it there should be, how often it should be given, and at what age instruction should commence. In this context, the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS' Office of Intervention Development and Support commissioned a comprehensive literature review to assess the effects of HIV/AIDS and sexuality education upon young people's sexual behavior. 52 reports culled from a search of 12 literature databases were reviewed. The main purpose of the review is to inform policy-makers, program planners, and educators about the impact of HIV and/or sexuality education upon the sexual behavior of youth as described in the published literature. Of 47 studies which evaluated interventions, 25 reported that HIV/AIDS and sexuality education neither increased nor decreased sexual activity and attendant rates of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 17 reported that HIV and/or sexuality education delayed the onset of sexual activity, reduced the number of sex partners, or reduced unplanned pregnancy and STD rates Only 3 studies found increases in sexual behavior associated with sexuality education. Inadequacies in study design, analytic techniques, outcome indicators, and the reporting of statistics are discussed. PMID:12348560

  16. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  17. Numerical Analysis of Cold Spray Particles Impacting Behavior by the Eulerian Method: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. Y.; Yang, K.; Yin, S.; Guo, X. P.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical simulations have been widely used to study particles impacting behavior in cold spraying. Among the used simulation methods, the Eulerian frame becomes increasingly attractive for its absence of mesh distortion which happens in the Lagrangian frame. It has been proved that particle deformation behaviors upon impacting calculated by the Eulerian method are well comparable to the experimental observations. In this review article, the literature on modeling particle impacting by the Eulerian method was summarized. In the second part, the Eulerian method was detailedly introduced. In the third part, the particle/substrate impacting behavior, and its influencing factors, i.e., mesh resolution, particle impacting velocity, preheating (particle or/and substrate) and oxide film, were summarized. Additionally, the prediction of critical velocity and residual stresses by using the Eulerian method was also discussed in detail. Finally, the current issues, problems and prospects existing in the Eulerian simulations of particle impacting were explored.

  18. Effect of grain boundary on the mechanical behaviors of irradiated metals: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, XiaZi; Chu, HaiJian; Duan, HuiLing

    2016-06-01

    The design of high irradiation-resistant materials is very important for the development of next-generation nuclear reactors. Grain boundaries acting as effective defect sinks are thought to be able to moderate the deterioration of mechanical behaviors of irradiated materials, and have drawn increasing attention in recent years. The study of the effect of grain boundaries on the mechanical behaviors of irradiated materials is a multi-scale problem. At the atomic level, grain boundaries can effectively affect the production and formation of irradiation-induced point defects in grain interiors, which leads to the change of density, size distribution and evolution of defect clusters at grain level. The change of microstructure would influence the macroscopic mechanical properties of the irradiated polycrystal. Here we give a brief review about the effect of grain boundaries on the mechanical behaviors of irradiated metals from three scales: microscopic scale, mesoscopic scale and macroscopic scale.

  19. Efficacy of the third wave of behavioral therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Lars-Göran

    2008-03-01

    During the last two decades a number of therapies, under the name of the third wave of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been developed: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), and integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT). The purposes of this review article of third wave treatment RCTs were: (1) to describe and review them methodologically, (2) to meta-analytically assess their efficacy, and (3) to evaluate if they currently fulfil the criteria for empirically supported treatments. There are 13 RCTs both in ACT and DBT, 1 in CBASP, 2 in IBCT, and none in FAP. The conclusions that can be drawn are that the third wave treatment RCTs used a research methodology that was significantly less stringent than CBT studies; that the mean effect size was moderate for both ACT and DBT, and that none of the third wave therapies fulfilled the criteria for empirically supported treatments. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve future RCTs to increase the possibility of them becoming empirically supported treatments.

  20. Social support and HIV-related risk behaviors: a systematic review of the global literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-02-01

    Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction. PMID:23921582

  1. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Salem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance.

  2. Association between pornography use and sexual risk behaviors in adult consumers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Emily L; Mullan, Barbara; Mullan, Barbara M; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether an association exists between sexual risk behaviors and pornography consumption. Consumption of pornography is common, yet research examining its link with sexual risk behaviors is in its infancy. Indicators of sexual risk behavior, including unsafe sex practices and a higher number of sexual partners, have been linked to poor health outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, and CINAHL. Studies were included if they assessed the association between pornography use and indicators of sexual risk behaviors in an adult population. A total of 17 were included in the review, and all were assessed for research standards using the Quality Index Scale. For both Internet pornography and general pornography, links with greater unsafe sex practices and number of sexual partners were identified. Limitations of the literature, including low external validity and poor study design, restrict the generalizability of the findings. Accordingly, replication and more rigorous methods are recommended for future research. PMID:25587721

  3. Storing and managing information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William A; Riensche, Roderick M; Best, Daniel M; Roberts, Ian E; Whyatt, Marie V; Hart, Michelle L; Carr, Norman J; Thomas, James J

    2012-09-18

    Systems and computer-implemented processes for storage and management of information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device. The processes and systems can capture a sequence of interactive operation elements that are performed by the information analyst, who is collecting an information artifact from at least one of the plurality of software applications. The information artifact can then be stored together with the interactive operation elements as a snippet on a memory device, which is operably connected to the processor. The snippet comprises a view from an analysis application, data contained in the view, and the sequence of interactive operation elements stored as a provenance representation comprising operation element class, timestamp, and data object attributes for each interactive operation element in the sequence.

  4. The use of intellectual capital information by sell-side analysts in company valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Abhayawansa, Subhash; Aleksanyan, Mark; Bahtsevangolou, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of intellectual capital information (ICI) in sell-side analysts’ fundamental analysis and valuation of companies. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, it penetrates the black box of analysts’ valuation decision-making by identifying and conceptualising the mechanisms and rationales by which ICI is integrated within their valuation decision processes. We find that capital market participants are not ambivalent to ICI, and ICI is used: (1) to form analysts...

  5. Dividend Policy: A Survey of Malaysian Public Listed Companies and Security Analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, David Voon Chee

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation revisits the dividend puzzle and attempts to answer the fundamental question of “why do companies pay dividends?” by using a simple regression model incorporating the major theories on dividend relevance. In addition, this research investigates if the opinions of companies (both dividend and non-dividend paying) and security analysts differ with respect to the various explanations for paying dividends. Finally, this research also explores the views and opinions of corporate ...

  6. Review of IT/IS Adoption and Decision-Making Behavior in Small Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoping; FU Jing

    2008-01-01

    The increased use of information technologies has led to more research on information technology/information system (IT/IS) adoption and decision-making behavior in small businesses to improve information utilization. This paper presents an extensive review of the literature on IT/IS adoption to identify the key factors affecting small businesses based on comparison analysis. The review identifies the current interest in the adoption of Internet based IT and points out that the factors affecting different stages of the business lifecycle and research variables should be selected in terms of the different technology types. Especially, the review emphasizes the characteristics of external openings on the network in the research on e-commerce adoption. Future studies should focus on IT/IS adoption and implementation in small and medium-sized businesses during the development of small and medium-sized industrial clusters and specialty towns.

  7. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity.

  8. Will Financial Analysts Mistake Stocks of Good Companies for Good Stocks? Evidence from Taiwan Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the individual or institutional investors rely on the information provided by the financial analysts. A good stock recommended by financial experts is expected to make profit to the investors. However, due to the cognitive biases, the financial analysts or investors are probably confused in the firm characteristics between the good stocks and the stocks of good companies. Good companies are normally inferred to the company that have good managing and operating systems, however, it is usually though to have good returns as good stocks. The future earning forecasts of these good companies may be thus overestimated as compared with the others. Such cognitive biases probably results in improper investment and investment loss. In this study, the reputation survey results for the companies in Taiwan and the corresponding financial data are used to verify the proposed cognitive biases hypothesis. The empirical evidence in this study shows that financial analysts mistake stocks of good companies for good stocks. However, it is also shown that the average one-year buy-and-hold return of these sample firms (including good companies and good stocks is still higher than that of the chosen matching firms.

  9. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.

  10. Psychosocial correlates of eating behavior in children and adolescents: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroch Amy L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the correlates of dietary intake is necessary in order to effectively promote healthy dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A literature review was conducted on the correlates of the following categories of dietary intake in children and adolescents: Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary Consumption in children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective studies were identified from PubMed, PsycINFO and PsycArticles by using a combination of search terms. Quantitative research examining determinants of dietary intake among children and adolescents aged 3–18 years were included. The selection and review process yielded information on country, study design, population, instrument used for measuring intake, and quality of research study. Results Seventy-seven articles were included. Many potential correlates have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many hypothesized correlates substantial evidence is lacking due to a dearth of research. The correlates best supported by the literature are: perceived modeling, dietary intentions, norms, liking and preferences. Perceived modeling and dietary intentions have the most consistent and positive associations with eating behavior. Norms, liking, and preferences were also consistently and positively related to eating behavior in children and adolescents. Availability, knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and social support did not show consistent relationships across dietary outcomes. Conclusion This review examined the correlates of various dietary intake; Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary

  11. Nonabusive physical punishment and child behavior among African-American children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ivor Braden; Joseph, Jill G.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of nonabusive physical punishment as a form of discipline has been greatly debated in the scientific and popular literature. Impact on child behavioral outcomes has frequently been found; however, the effects of its use are not clear, particularly for African-American children. This systematic review of the literature examined the impact of exposure to nonabusive physical punishment on the behavior of African-American children. METHODS: A search was conducted of PubMed and Psyclnfo from 1970 to 2000 using the key terms: corporal punishment, physical punishment, disciplinary practices, and discipline and parenting. Studies that described ethnicity of the population and included a majority of a well-described African-American population were included. Each study was required to include measurable data on child behavioral outcomes and at least one measure of discipline that assessed use of nonabusive physical punishment in children 0-14 years of age. RESULTS: All seven included studies used lower socioeconomic status (SES) and/or urban African-American populations. Study design and rural versus urban populations differentiated beneficial and detrimental outcomes. In all longitudinal studies, African-American children had beneficial or neutral outcomes. DISCUSSION: This review suggests that it is possible that there are benefits to nonabusive physical punishment for African-American children. However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence. PMID:15481744

  12. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.

  13. A systematic review of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among police officers, firefighters, EMTs, and paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    First responders-police officers, firefighters, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and paramedics-experience significant job-related stressors and exposures that may confer increased risk for mental health morbidities (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], suicidal thoughts and behaviors) and hastened mortality (e.g., death by suicide). Inherent in these occupations, however, are also factors (e.g., camaraderie, pre-enlistment screening) that may inoculate against the development or maintenance of psychiatric conditions. Several reviews of the literature have documented the prevalence and potency of PTSD among first responders; the value of these extant reviews is considerable. Nonetheless, the literature has not been systematically described with regard to suicidality. In this systematic review, we present 63 quantitative studies examining suicidal thoughts, behaviors, and/or fatalities among first responders; identify population-specific risk and protective factors; and pinpoint strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature. Findings reveal elevated risk for suicide among first responders; however, studies utilizing more rigorous methodologies (e.g., longitudinal designs, probability sampling strategies) are sorely needed. First responders have an armamentarium of resources to take care of others; it is the duty of researchers, clinicians, and the public to aid in taking care of their health as well, in part by reducing suicide risk. PMID:26719976

  14. Effectiveness of therapeutic behavioral interventions for parents of low birth weight premature infants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Carrie; Shaw, Richard J; Horwitz, Sarah M; John, Nicholas H St

    2012-11-01

    Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24532861

  15. T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal and human behavior: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S

    2015-01-15

    A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior.

  16. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandclerc, Salome; De Labrouhe, Diane; Spodenkiewicz, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11–25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care. PMID:27089157

  17. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Grandclerc

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.

  18. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Apter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.

  19. A review of modeling techniques for advanced effects in shape memory alloy behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Cheikh; Zaki, Wael; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2016-10-01

    micro, micro-macro and macro scales focusing pseudoelastic and shape memory effects. The paper reviews and discusses various techniques used in the literature for modeling complex behaviors observed in shape memory alloys (SMAs) that go beyond the core pseudoelastic and shape memory effects. These behaviors, which will be collectively referred to herein as ‘secondary effects’, include mismatch between austenite and martensite moduli, martensite reorientation under nonproportional multiaxial loading, slip and transformation-induced plasticity and their influence on martensite transformation, strong thermomechanical coupling and the influence of loading rate, tensile-compressive asymmetry, and the formation of internal loops due to incomplete phase transformation. In addition, because of their importance for practical design considerations, the paper discusses functional and structural fatigue, and fracture mechanics of SMAs.

  20. Topical Review: ADHD and Health-Risk Behaviors: Toward Prevention and Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Kollins, Scott H

    2016-08-01

    Across the lifespan, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased health risk behaviors including substance abuse, binge eating and obesity, and unsafe sexual behavior. These risks are directly linked to the neurocognitive deficits associated with ADHD, and are also mediated by the cascade of psychosocial impairments and stressors caused by ADHD across development. However, little is known about optimal approaches to improve health outcomes in this high-risk population. This topical review provides an overview of health risks associated with ADHD and the limited existing research relevant to health promotion for children and adolescents with ADHD. Future research questions and implications for clinicians are also addressed-especially how psychologists and medical practitioners may improve child health through early screenings, increasing medication adherence, and treating psychosocial impairments. PMID:26717959

  1. The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: a critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepine, Jeffrey A; Erez, Amir; Johnson, Diane E

    2002-02-01

    This article reviews the literature on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and its dimensions as proposed by D. W. Organ (1988) and other scholars. Although it is assumed that the behavioral dimensions of OCB are distinct from one another, past research has not assessed this assumption beyond factor analysis. Using meta-analysis, the authors demonstrate that there are strong relationships among most of the dimensions and that the dimensions have equivalent relationships with the predictors (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, fairness, trait conscientiousness, and leader support) most often considered by OCB scholars. Implications of these results are discussed with respect to how the OCB construct should be conceptualized and measured in the future. PMID:11916216

  2. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-11

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.

  3. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  4. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings. PMID:27139208

  5. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings.

  6. Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Sugai, George

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature related to culture and student behavior reveals a number of interesting observations that are not surprising. First, culture is a difficult construct to define and has been defined variably over the years. Second, schools are becoming increasingly diverse, and evidence-based behavior management practices have been…

  7. Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Eastern and Western Countries: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…

  8. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effective strategy is to prevent disordered eating attitudes in early childhood. Restriction and pressure are not effective strategies in developing healthy eating.

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Prazeres AM; Nascimento AL; Fontenelle LF

    2013-01-01

    Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to tr...

  10. Radiation-Induced Dislocation and Growth Behavior of Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys - A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium and zirconium alloys are widely used as nuclear reactor core materials such as fuel cladding and guide tubes because they have excellent corrosion- and radiation-resistant properties. In the reactor core, zirconium alloys are subjected to high-energy neutron fluence, causing radiation-induced dislocation and growth. To discern a possible correlation between radiation-induced dislocation and growth, characteristics of dislocation and growth in zirconium and its alloys are examined. The radiation-induced dislocation including and dislocation loops is reviewed in various temperature and fluence ranges, and their growth behavior is examined in the same way. To further a fundamental understanding, radiation-induced growth prediction models are briefly reviewed. This research will assist in the design of zirconium based components as well as the safety analysis of various reactor conditions, in both research and commercial reactors

  11. Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This review covers experimental approaches to sound-symbolism-from infants to adults, and from Sapir's foundational studies to twenty-first century product naming. It synthesizes recent behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging work into a systematic overview of the cross-modal correspondences that underpin iconic links between form and meaning. It also identifies open questions and opportunities, showing how the future course of experimental iconicity research can benefit from an integrated interdisciplinary perspective. Combining insights from psychology and neuroscience with evidence from natural languages provides us with opportunities for the experimental investigation of the role of sound-symbolism in language learning, language processing, and communication. The review finishes by describing how hypothesis-testing and model-building will help contribute to a cumulative science of sound-symbolism in human language. PMID:26379581

  12. Information environment,market-wide sentiment and IPO initial returns:Evidence from analyst forecasts before listing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjun; Zhu; Cheng; Zhang; He; Li; Shimin; Chen

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the information environment of firms using analyst(price)forecast bias and forecast dispersion before listing,we empirically examine the interactive influence of the information environment and market-wide sentiment on the initial returns of initial public offerings(IPOs).We find the smaller the analyst forecast bias/dispersion,the lower the effect market-wide sentiment has on IPO initial returns.This finding indicates that information asymmetry is a basic reason for noise trading occurs and demonstrates the positive effect of financial analysts during IPOs.In addition,the effect of analyst forecasts is more pronounced during periods of rising markets and when IPO prices are not regulated.

  13. Computer-tailored physical activity behavior change interventions targeting adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Leonie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity is important in the promotion of better health. Computer-tailored behavior change programs have shown promise in changing lifestyle risk factors. Purpose To provide a narrative systematic review describing the range of evidence on 'second' and 'third' generation computer-tailored primary prevention interventions for physical activity, to determine their effectiveness and key characteristics of success. Unlike previous reviews, this review used specific criteria to measure the external validity of studies, was exclusive to primary prevention interventions in which tailoring was generated through an expert system, and excluded first generation computer-tailored interventions. Methods Computer-tailored intervention studies published from January 1996–2008 were identified through a search of five databases: Medline; Embase; PsycINFO; CINAHL; and All EBM Reviews and by examining reference lists of relevant articles. Results Seventeen articles were included, describing the evaluation of 16 interventions, ten of which found significant positive effects of the computer-tailored interventions on physical activity or weight reduction outcomes. Conclusion The evidence of effectiveness for computer-tailored physical activity interventions is inconclusive. They have potential to reach large groups of people however there is uncertainty whether reported effects are generalizable and sustained.

  14. Sexual risk behaviors and HIV risk among Americans aged 50 years or older: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilowsky DJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Pilowsky,1,2 Li-Tzy Wu3,41Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health New York City, NY, USA; 2Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Although HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have been studied extensively in adolescents and young adults, there is limited information about these behaviors among older Americans, which make up a growing segment of the US population and an understudied population. This review of the literature dealing with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV-infected found a low prevalence of condom use among older adults, even when not in a long-term relationship with a single partner. A seminal study by Schick et al published in 2010 reported that the prevalence of condom use at last intercourse was highest among those aged 50–59 years (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 15.6–35.8 and declined with age, with a 17.1% prevalence among those aged 60–69 years (17.1%; 95% confidence interval, 7.3–34.2. Studies have shown that older Americans may underestimate their risk of becoming HIV-infected. Substance use also increases the risk for sexual risk behaviors, and studies have indicated that the prevalence of substance use among older adults has increased in the past decade. As is the case with younger adults, the prevalence of HIV infections is elevated among ethnic minorities, drug users (eg, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men. When infected, older adults are likely to be diagnosed with HIV-related medical disorders later in the course of illness compared with their younger counterparts. Physicians are less likely to discuss sexual risk behaviors with older adults and to test them for HIV compared with younger adults. Thus, it is

  15. The Investigation of the Relationship among Analyst Following, Managerial Ownership and Firm Valuation: From the Perspective of Agency Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, I. J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the relationship among analyst following, managerial ownership and firm valuation is investigated from the perspective of agency theory by using a nonlinear simultaneous equation model. The data from the Taiwan stock market verify the proposed hypotheses with a nonlinear three-stage least-square procedure. The empirical results show that managerial ownership (serving an internal monitoring function) and number of analysts following (serving an external monitoring function) are ...

  16. Evidence-Based Interventions for Immigrant Students Experiencing Behavioral and Academic Problems: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Aydin; Perzigian, Aaron B. T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present research review is to identify effective, high quality school-based interventions for immigrant students with disabilities or academic and behavioral problems. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to synthesize international research studies. Initial and criteria-based selection processes yielded six…

  17. Alcohol Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Collegiate Women: A Review of Research on Alcohol Myopia Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jessica A.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2010-01-01

    A review of current English literature in the areas of high-risk alcohol use and sexual behavior was conducted from September 2007 to December 2008. Objective: The purpose was to specifically review studies that used alcohol myopia theory (AMT) as the theoretical perspective from which they were evaluated and analyzed. Participants: Collegiate…

  18. The Publication History of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management": An Objective Review and Analysis--1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStelle, Sarah E.; Vicars, Sara M.; Harr, Victoria; Miguel, Caio F.; Koerber, Jeana L.; Kazbour, Richard; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend into a third decade previous reviews conducted by Balcazar, Shupert, Daniels, Mawhinney, and Hopkins (1989) and Nolan, Jarema, and Austin (1999) of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" ("JOBM"). Every article published in "JOBM" between 1998 and 2009 was objectively reviewed and analyzed for…

  19. Parent Implementation of Function-Based Intervention to Reduce Children's Challenging Behavior: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Angel; Barton, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the research on parent-implemented functional assessment (FA)-based interventions for reducing children's challenging behaviors. Thirteen studies met the review inclusion criteria. These studies were analyzed across independent variables, types of parent coaching and support provided,…

  20. THE EFFECTS OF AMBIENT SCENT ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLAHUT Meda Roxana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present an extended literature review of relevant empirical studies which examine the effect of ambient scent on consumers' perception, consumers' emotions and consumers' behavioral responses in the context of retailing. Compared with other atmospheric stimuli (such as background music, ambient scent has received little attention from researchers. This paper is also concentrated on identifying de principal dimensions of ambient scent (presence versus absence; congruity versus incongruity and pleasantness versus unpleasantness and examined how these dimensions of ambient scent have an impact on evaluation of a product, of a store or of a shopping mall and their impact on shopping behavior within a store. The paper also presented the Gulas and Bloch (1995 model, a complex conceptual framework on the influence of ambient scent on consumer responses, in their model the authors introduced the influence of mediating factors on behavioral responses to scent. Their model is a first step on the understanding the role of ambient scent in influencing consumer behavior. Davis, Kooijman and Ward (2003 extending and elaborating the Gulas and Bloch (1995 model by introducing concepts from cognate disciplines and examines mediating factors that help shape the emotional and behavioural responses that are stimulated to encompass current research on human olfaction and brings another specific points for future research. Based on the results of the relevant studies the authors of the present paper concludes by identifying gaps in the literature and suggest future research to explore how the use of scent help to create an overall store atmosphere which influence shopping behavior in the context of retailing.

  1. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  2. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  3. Public health impact of disease-behavior dynamics. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Chad R.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2015-12-01

    In a loop of dynamic feedback, behavior such as the decision to vaccinate, hand washing, or avoidance influences the progression of the epidemic, yet behavior is driven by the individual's and population's perceived risk of infection during an outbreak. In what we believe will become a seminal paper that stimulates future research as well as an informative teaching aid, Wang et. al. comprehensively review methodological advances that have been used to incorporate human behavior into epidemiological models on the effects of coupling disease transmission and behavior on complex social networks [1]. As illustrated by the recent outbreaks of measles and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), here we highlight the importance of coupling behavior and disease transmission that Wang et al. address.

  4. Emergence of Relations and the Essence of Learning: A Review of Sidman's Equivalence Relations and Behavior: A Research Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1995-01-01

    Sidman addresses two very important questions in Equivalence Relations and Behavior: A Research Story: What are the bases of behavioral competence? And how do units of learning become related? The book recounts the story of how an understanding of emergent relations and competencies was achieved through studies in his teaching-research program with mentally retarded subjects. Although children normally accrue vast networks of relations between stimuli and events, those with mental retardation typically do not. Consequently, by learning how to establish those networks, Sidman and his students contribute richly both to the cultivation of competencies by their subjects and, more generally, to an understanding of real-world human behavior. The basic equivalence paradigm affords the subject feedback and reinforcement for very specific choices during training, but the test is not for those choices! Rather, tests for equivalence look for new choices, ones seemingly quite foreign to the training regimen. The tests for equivalence relations entail presentations of stimuli that were the options for conditional choice during reinforced training. In tests of equivalence, correct choices are novel; hence, they have never been reinforced during training. The study of equivalence relations can encourage the emergence of new perspectives that are more symbiotic than competitive. In full acknowledgment of the important role and contributions made by those who identify themselves as experimental analysts of behavior, it is timely that rapprochements be worked toward, as indeed they are, to meld that perspective with others of our time. Both our research methods and our expectations about the nature of the learning process and the abilities of our subjects can delimit what they might learn and what we, in turn, learn about their learning. The text will be of great value for instruction at the upper-division and graduate levels. Its impact will be substantial, for it defines an

  5. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Individuals with Disabilities: A Behavior Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events in Challenging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Contreras, Bethany P; Clay, Casey J; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior. In such cases, it may be beneficial for behavior analysts to consider additional philosophically aligned treatments for private events. One such treatment, acceptance and commitment therapy, may be a useful tool for behavior analysts to incorporate into their toolbox in order to help clients. The purpose of this paper is to introduce behavior analysts to a potential solution to the problem of effectively addressing private events in behavior analytic services. We then propose a model for thinking about private events in relation to clients with disabilities and present a guide for taking steps to address private events in the clinical setting. We conclude this paper with a call for research and present a possible research agenda for behavior analysts. PMID:27606236

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Individuals with Disabilities: A Behavior Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events in Challenging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Contreras, Bethany P; Clay, Casey J; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior. In such cases, it may be beneficial for behavior analysts to consider additional philosophically aligned treatments for private events. One such treatment, acceptance and commitment therapy, may be a useful tool for behavior analysts to incorporate into their toolbox in order to help clients. The purpose of this paper is to introduce behavior analysts to a potential solution to the problem of effectively addressing private events in behavior analytic services. We then propose a model for thinking about private events in relation to clients with disabilities and present a guide for taking steps to address private events in the clinical setting. We conclude this paper with a call for research and present a possible research agenda for behavior analysts.

  7. Emotional and behavioral problems in migrant children and adolescents in Europe: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Based on findings of Stevens and Vollebergh [69], who analyzed cross-cultural topics, this review considers the current prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems of native children and adolescents in comparison with children with a migration background in European countries. 36 studies published from 2007 up to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included and analyzed in their perspective design in detail. Previous studies showed great differences in their results: Especially in Germany, many studies compare the heterogeneous group of immigrant children with native children to analyze an ethnic minority or migration process effect. Only a British and Turkish study demonstrates the selection effect in migration. Most Dutch or British studies examined different ethnic groups, e.g. Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Pakistani, Indian or Black migrant children and adolescents. Migrant childhood in Europe could be declared a risk in increasing internalizing problem behavior while the prevalent rate in externalizing problem behavior was comparable between native and migrant children. A migration status itself can often be postulated as a risk factor for children's mental condition, in particular migration in first generation. Furthermore, several major influence factors in migrant children's mental health could be pointed out, such as a low socio-economic status, a Non-European origin, an uncertain cultural identity of the parents, maternal harsh parenting or inadequate parental occupation, a minority status, the younger age, gender effects or a specific culture declaration in diseases. PMID:24132833

  8. Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Sheila N; Johnson, Jillian A; Savard, Josee; Gehrman, Philip; Perlis, Michael; Carlson, Linda; Campbell, Tavis

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with cancer are disproportionately affected by sleep disturbance and insomnia relative to the general population. These problems can be a consequence of the psychological, behavioral, and physical effects of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia often persists for years and, when combined with already high levels of cancer-related distress, may place cancer survivors at a higher risk of future physical and mental health problems and poorer quality of life. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), a non-pharmacological treatment that incorporates cognitive and behavior-change techniques and targets dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs, and habits involving sleep. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the efficacy of CBT-I on sleep and psychological outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. The search revealed 12 studies (four uncontrolled, eight controlled) that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in cancer patients or survivors. Results suggest that CBT-I is associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in subjective sleep outcomes in patients with cancer. CBT-I may also improve mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life, and can be successfully delivered through a variety of treatment modalities, making it possible to reach a broader range of patients who may not have access to more traditional programs. Future research in this area should focus on the translation of evidence into clinical practice in order to increase awareness and access to effective insomnia treatment in cancer care.

  9. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in Infertility: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Gocek Yorulmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to make a systematic review the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy which is designed to decrease psychological distress of individuals with infertility problem. The articles published between 2000 and 2015 (February were screened in the certain national and international scientific databases. Eleven studies that met the research criteria of inclusion and exclusion were evaluated in terms of the method, psychotherapeutic techniques and results. The findings of the current studies revealed that the cognitive behavioral group therapy designed for psychological distress in individuals with infertility is effective to reduce stress, anxiety, depression and relevant psychological problems. Moreover, this approach seems to be lead an increase in use of more adaptive ways of coping, optimism and resilience. In sum, it can be concluded that cognitive behavioral group therapy for infertile individuals has a positive impact on psychological well-being of those people. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 144-156

  10. Risky behavior in gambling tasks in individuals with ADHD--a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Groen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks

  11. A survey of tools and resources for the next generation analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David L.; Graham, Jake; Catherman, Emily

    2015-05-01

    We have previously argued that a combination of trends in information technology (IT) and changing habits of people using IT provide opportunities for the emergence of a new generation of analysts that can perform effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) on a "do it yourself" (DIY) or "armchair" approach (see D.L. Hall and J. Llinas (2014)). Key technology advances include: i) new sensing capabilities including the use of micro-scale sensors and ad hoc deployment platforms such as commercial drones, ii) advanced computing capabilities in mobile devices that allow advanced signal and image processing and modeling, iii) intelligent interconnections due to advances in "web N" capabilities, and iv) global interconnectivity and increasing bandwidth. In addition, the changing habits of the digital natives reflect new ways of collecting and reporting information, sharing information, and collaborating in dynamic teams. This paper provides a survey and assessment of tools and resources to support this emerging analysis approach. The tools range from large-scale commercial tools such as IBM i2 Analyst Notebook, Palantir, and GeoSuite to emerging open source tools such as GeoViz and DECIDE from university research centers. The tools include geospatial visualization tools, social network analysis tools and decision aids. A summary of tools is provided along with links to web sites for tool access.

  12. Lecturer and Employee Performance Analysis in Department of Health Analyst, Health Polytechnic, Ministry of Health Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance is a concept that is often used in an organization to discuss about discussion and talks about the success of the organization or human resources. Moreover, this time an organization faced with the challenge of competition is high. Global market competition era, advances in information technology, as well as the community demands more and more critical. Performance becomes a very important issue in the organization as the organization and performance is a key statement of the effectiveness or success of an organization. The research is descriptive qualitative to describe the performance of teachers and employees of the Department of Health Analyst Polytechnic Makassar Ministry of Health of Health. The study population is all faculty and staff and selected as a sample of 10 respondents with the following conditions: 4 lecturers, 3 instructors and 3 administrative staff with data collection are interviews, observation, and documentation. Data were analyzed by descriptive qualitative and narrated. The results showed that the performance lecturers, instructors and employees at the Department of Health Analyst Health Polytechnic Makassar Ministry of Health has been good, however, are still in need of many efforts to make a better improve.

  13. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  14. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design

  15. Sources and environmental behaviors of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Haidong; Wang, Thanh; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Li, Yingming; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-03-01

    Although Dechlorane Plus (DP) has been used as a polychlorinated flame retardant for almost half a century, its detection in the environment was not reported until 2006. The subsequent intensive research has confirmed its global ubiquity. A few reviews have presented the properties, analytical methods and environmental occurrence of DP and related compounds in the past several years. The present review emphasizes on the environmental behavior of DP isomers which is assessed by the variation of the isomer ratio of DP in various matrices. Other aspects including the analytical methods, emission sources, general environmental occurrence and bioaccumulation of DP are also summarized. In this review, three typical emission sources in the environment are categorized after introducing the measurement method of DP. The temporal-spatial distribution is then evaluated at the global scale, which provides an integrated representation of the environmental occurrence of DP and potential impact on the human health and ecosystems. The variations of DP isomer ratio in various matrices reinforce its source related distribution and their stereoselective bioaccumulation. Thereafter, DP related compounds and dechlorinated analogs are briefly summarized in regards to their occurrence in various matrices, suggesting their ubiquity in the environment and bioavailability. Further studies are required to better assess the exposures and toxicological effects of DP and its analogs. A special concern is the serious contamination in e-waste recycling areas in developing countries, where long-term monitoring data on the association of DP exposure and adverse effects to human health and ecosystems is urgently needed.

  16. Engagement in Behavioral Parent Training: Review of the Literature and Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Jensen, Scott A; Lowry, Lynda S; Cornwell, Melinda; Chimklis, Alyssa; Chan, Elizabeth; Lee, Daniel; Pulgarin, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Engagement in behavioral parent training (BPT), including enrollment, attrition, attendance, within-session engagement, and homework completion, has long been a critical issue in the literature. Several estimates of various aspects of engagement have been suggested in the literature, but a systematic review of the available literature has never been accomplished. This review examines engagement data across 262 studies of BPT. Recruitment attrition, program attrition, attendance, and within-session engagement are examined across studies, with particular emphasis on the impact that SES, study purpose (efficacy vs. effectiveness), treatment format (individual vs. group), and age of child may have on those rates. Results of this review suggest that the significant amount of attrition occurs prior to enrollment in BPT, with at least 25 % of those identified as appropriate for BPT not enrolling in such programs. An additional 26 % begin, but drop out before completing treatment. Still the combined dropout rate of at least 51 % leaves at best half of identified parents completing treatment. While SES status had a small effect on attrition, other variables were not found to meaningfully impact engagement. Information on within-session engagement (homework and ratings of participation) was not often reported in studies. Key issues in this literature (e.g., varying definitions of engagement, limited attention to reporting key aspects of engagement) are discussed, and recommendations are made to further improve this important area of research and clinical practice.

  17. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. PMID:24001395

  18. Engagement in Behavioral Parent Training: Review of the Literature and Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Jensen, Scott A; Lowry, Lynda S; Cornwell, Melinda; Chimklis, Alyssa; Chan, Elizabeth; Lee, Daniel; Pulgarin, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Engagement in behavioral parent training (BPT), including enrollment, attrition, attendance, within-session engagement, and homework completion, has long been a critical issue in the literature. Several estimates of various aspects of engagement have been suggested in the literature, but a systematic review of the available literature has never been accomplished. This review examines engagement data across 262 studies of BPT. Recruitment attrition, program attrition, attendance, and within-session engagement are examined across studies, with particular emphasis on the impact that SES, study purpose (efficacy vs. effectiveness), treatment format (individual vs. group), and age of child may have on those rates. Results of this review suggest that the significant amount of attrition occurs prior to enrollment in BPT, with at least 25 % of those identified as appropriate for BPT not enrolling in such programs. An additional 26 % begin, but drop out before completing treatment. Still the combined dropout rate of at least 51 % leaves at best half of identified parents completing treatment. While SES status had a small effect on attrition, other variables were not found to meaningfully impact engagement. Information on within-session engagement (homework and ratings of participation) was not often reported in studies. Key issues in this literature (e.g., varying definitions of engagement, limited attention to reporting key aspects of engagement) are discussed, and recommendations are made to further improve this important area of research and clinical practice. PMID:27311693

  19. A systematic review of cognitive-behavioral treatment for nightmares: toward a well-established treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancee, Jaap; Spoormaker, Victor I; Krakow, Barry; van den Bout, Jan

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on nightmare frequency and to determine which kind of CBT is the most effective treatment. A systematic literature search was carried out in PsychInfo and PubMed articles published on or before May 1, 2008. The inclusion criteria were: nightmare treatment study, use of nonpharmacological treatment, not a qualitative case study, randomized-controlled trial (RCT). After selection, 12 peer-reviewed studies about 9 RCTs remained (2 follow-up studies and one displaying preliminary results). Several interventions have been reviewed including, recording one's nightmares, relaxation, exposure, and techniques of cognitive restructuring. The 12 evaluated articles varied in quality, and none fulfilled CONSORT guidelines. All articles used nightmare frequency as the primary dependent variable, and all found significant in-group differences (pre vs. post) for intervention or placebo (range d = 0.7-2.9). Five studies were able to find a significant group effect for the intervention compared to a waiting list control group. Only one study found significant differences between 2 intervention groups. Nightmare-focused CBT (exposure and imagery rehearsal therapy [IRT]) revealed better treatment outcomes than indirect CBT (relaxation, recording). IRT and exposure showed no meaningful differences, but only one RCT directly compared both techniques. Three different research groups demonstrated the effects of exposure, but only one group showed the effect of IRT. Thus, RCTs that compare IRT with exposure by independent research groups are much needed. PMID:18853707

  20. Review on Behavior of Female Tourists%女性旅游者行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳昆; 付华

    2011-01-01

    With economic development and social progress, women are increasingly concerned, women study has grown into a new subject. In the tourism activities, women also occupied the market, which sparked a series of research on female tourists and female tourist activities , review on behavior of female tourists is one of important research direction, not only find out the rules of tourists' behaviors and the influence mechanisms of behaviors, but also enrich the contents of tourism researches. From the home or foreign tourists to conduct and sum up research on women , and puts forward the future development of the researches on the basis of understanding the present situation of the researches on tourism behavior.%随着经济的发展社会的进步,女性越来越被关注,女性学已成长为一门崭新的学科.在旅游活动中女性旅游者也占据了越大的市场空间,从而引发了一系列的关于女性旅游及女性旅游者的研究,旅游者行为是其中重要的研究方向,不仅可以发现游客行为规律,找出行为发生的影响机制,而且可以丰富旅游学的研究内容.本文从国内国外两方面对女性旅游者行为研究进行了梳理总结,并对今后的女性旅游者行为研究进行展望.

  1. A systematic review of the use of financial incentives and penalties to encourage uptake of healthy behaviors: protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Jean

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of financial incentives and penalties to encourage uptake of healthy behaviors is increasingly seen as a viable intervention in developed countries. Previous reviews of the effectiveness of financial incentives and penalties for encouraging the uptake of healthy behaviors have focused on individual behaviors making it difficult to draw overall conclusions about the effectiveness of such interventions. This systematic review will explore the effectiveness of financial incentives and penalties for encouraging a wide range of behaviors, including: smoking cessation, increased physical activity, healthier dietary intake, sensible patterns of alcohol consumption, safe sun, safe sex, and primary preventive clinical behaviors. Methods Systematic methods will be used to search existing literature and screen studies for inclusion. All studies that meet the following inclusion criteria will be included in the review: participants were 18 years old or older and living in high-income countries; interventions included cash or cash-like incentives to promote the uptake of healthy behaviors, or cash or cash-like penalties to discourage unhealthy behaviors; the comparator was usual care or no intervention; study design was randomized controlled trial, cluster randomized controlled trial, controlled before and after study, or interrupted time series analysis. Two reviewers will independently screen the publications to ensure they meet the inclusion criteria. Quality will be assessed by two researchers, working independently, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis will be conducted, if appropriate. Any studies identified as at ‘high risk of bias’ will be excluded from meta-analysis. Discussion This systematic review will provide policy-relevant recommendations for the use of financial incentives and penalties as a method of encouraging uptake of healthy behaviors.

  2. Sexuality, Antisocial Behavior, Aggressiveness, and Victimization in Juvenile Sexual Offenders: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Driemeyer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on six factors that have been addressed in the literature about juvenile sexual offenders: general delinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, aggressiveness and psychopathology, sexuality, sexual deviance, and victimization experiences. Empirical findings are characterized by great heterogeneity. Due to a lack of standardized assessment and because of different study groups they rarely facilitate direct comparisons. In an endeavor to clarify this vast heterogeneity, the purpose of this overview is to enlighten actual findings about these factors and on the role that has been assigned to them in the literature. Special attention is paid to comparison studies. A detailed description of the studies in tables2 allows for an overview of the results and an evaluation with respect to sample size, instruments, and type of study groups. The overview does not claim completeness; it is a narrative, none-systematic review3. In summary the review showed that in most cases, juvenile sexual offending cannot be understood as an expression of more general juvenile delinquency and - in contrast to other groups of juvenile delinquents - the sexual offenders report less non-sexual delinquent behavior. Alcohol and drug abuse have been reported less often as well, but they might play a more important role as situational factors. Externalizing problems apears more often in juvenile sexual offenders with peer/adult victims who are also non-sexually delinquent. Regarding sexuality, some studies indicate that juvenile sexual offenders are impaired in their sexual development, but they were rarely described as sexually isolated. Sexual deviance has been considered a risk factor for juvenile sexual offending, but the assessment of sexual deviance in juveniles has proven difficult. The prevalence of victimization experiences varies substantially and possible connections to sexual offending have proven complex. The interpretation of the results of most

  3. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.

  4. Dissemination of drinking water contamination data to consumers: a systematic review of impact on consumer behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination. Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26-72% among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0-0.46] 6-12 months post intervention suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. CONCLUSION: Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of

  5. A Systematic Review of Function-Based Replacement Behavior Interventions for Students With and At Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, John William; Flower, Andrea; Adamson, Reesha

    2016-09-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders and students considered at risk often have social deficits. Although social skills interventions are often provided to this student population, there are some concerns regarding how these interventions are conceived and provided. One possible way to improve the effectiveness of social skills interventions is to use functional behavior assessment data to tailor the interventions to a student's individual needs and the contexts in which social skills deficits and problem behaviors occur. This approach is commonly referred to as replacement behavior training. In this study, the literature on function-based replacement behavior interventions is systematically reviewed. In addition, studies are evaluated according to the What Works Clearinghouse design and evidence standards for single-case research. Although this research base does not meet the What Works Clearinghouse replication standards, function-based replacement behavior interventions appear to be a promising practice for addressing problem behaviors. Implications for practice, areas for future research, and study limitations are discussed. PMID:26702960

  6. [Evidence for the Efficacy of Behavioral Activation against Depressive Disorder: A Literature Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Toshihide; Ishibashi, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests the significant efficacy of behavioral activation therapy (BA) for the treatment of depression, although BA had formerly been regarded as only a part of the techniques for cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT). The aim of this article is to review the effectiveness, indications, and limitations of BA for the psychosocial treatment of depression. The research group of Washington University in St. Louis, who previously suggested the marked efficacy of BA based on component analysis of CBT, performed a large-scale study to compare the effect of BA and cognitive therapy (CT) or antidepressant medication on the acute phase of depression. As the results, BA was superior to CT and comparable to antidepressant medication in acute-phase treatment for a subgroup of patients with relatively severe depression. Moreover, a long-term follow-up study revealed a benefit of BA compared to pharmacological treatment in regard to the persistence of the effect and cost-effectiveness. More recently, a number of meta-analyses have indicated no significant difference among BA and other psychotherapies regarding their efficacy for the treatment of depression. Because BA does not require patients or therapists to learn complex skills and is also time-efficient, it is recommended as the first-line treatment for mild or moderate depression. However, further studies are needed to consider indications, the timing of induction, and variation in BA techniques if it is applied for the treatment of depression in a general clinical setting in Japan.

  7. Personality disorders, violence, and antisocial behavior: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Geddes, John R; Fazel, Seena

    2012-10-01

    The risk of antisocial outcomes in individuals with personality disorder (PD) remains uncertain. The authors synthesize the current evidence on the risks of antisocial behavior, violence, and repeat offending in PD, and they explore sources of heterogeneity in risk estimates through a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of observational studies comparing antisocial outcomes in personality disordered individuals with controls groups. Fourteen studies examined risk of antisocial and violent behavior in 10,007 individuals with PD, compared with over 12 million general population controls. There was a substantially increased risk of violent outcomes in studies with all PDs (random-effects pooled odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.5). Meta-regression revealed that antisocial PD and gender were associated with higher risks (p = .01 and .07, respectively). The odds of all antisocial outcomes were also elevated. Twenty-five studies reported the risk of repeat offending in PD compared with other offenders. The risk of a repeat offense was also increased (fixed-effects pooled OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.2 to 2.7) in offenders with PD. The authors conclude that although PD is associated with antisocial outcomes and repeat offending, the risk appears to differ by PD category, gender, and whether individuals are offenders or not.

  8. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Empirical review and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Martin E; Kratz, Hilary E; Freeman, Jennifer B; Ivarsson, Tord; Heyman, Isobel; Sookman, Debbie; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A; March, John

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of much study over the past fifteen years. Building on a foundation of case studies and open clinical trials, the literature now contains many methodologically sound studies that have compared full CBT protocols to waitlist controls, pill placebo, psychosocial comparison conditions, active medication, combined treatments, and brief CBT. This review is part of a series commissioned by The Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (CIOCD) in an effort to publish in one place what is known about the efficacy of treatments for OCD. A total of fourteen studies were identified; collectively their findings support the efficacy of CBT for youth with OCD. CBT protocols that emphasized either strictly behavioral or cognitive conceptualizations have each been found efficacious relative to waitlist controls. Efforts to enhance CBT׳s efficacy and reach have been undertaken. These trials provide guidance regarding next steps to be taken to maximize efficacy and treatment availability. Findings from studies in community clinics suggest that significant treatment benefits can be realized and are not reported only from within academic contexts. These findings bode well for broader dissemination efforts. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.

  9. Physics of microswimmers--single particle motion and collective behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgeti, J; Winkler, R G; Gompper, G

    2015-05-01

    Locomotion and transport of microorganisms in fluids is an essential aspect of life. Search for food, orientation toward light, spreading of off-spring, and the formation of colonies are only possible due to locomotion. Swimming at the microscale occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where fluid friction and viscosity dominates over inertia. Here, evolution achieved propulsion mechanisms, which overcome and even exploit drag. Prominent propulsion mechanisms are rotating helical flagella, exploited by many bacteria, and snake-like or whip-like motion of eukaryotic flagella, utilized by sperm and algae. For artificial microswimmers, alternative concepts to convert chemical energy or heat into directed motion can be employed, which are potentially more efficient. The dynamics of microswimmers comprises many facets, which are all required to achieve locomotion. In this article, we review the physics of locomotion of biological and synthetic microswimmers, and the collective behavior of their assemblies. Starting from individual microswimmers, we describe the various propulsion mechanism of biological and synthetic systems and address the hydrodynamic aspects of swimming. This comprises synchronization and the concerted beating of flagella and cilia. In addition, the swimming behavior next to surfaces is examined. Finally, collective and cooperate phenomena of various types of isotropic and anisotropic swimmers with and without hydrodynamic interactions are discussed.

  10. The impact of family behaviors and communication patterns on chronic illness outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D

    2012-04-01

    In general, social support from family members affects chronic illness outcomes, but evidence on which specific family behaviors are most important to adult patient outcomes has not been summarized. We systematically reviewed studies examining the effect of specific family member behaviors and communication patterns on adult chronic illness self-management and clinical outcomes. Thirty studies meeting inclusion criteria were identified, representing 22 participant cohorts, and including adults with arthritis, chronic cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and/or end stage renal disease. Family emphasis on self-reliance and personal achievement, family cohesion, and attentive responses to symptoms were associated with better patient outcomes. Critical, overprotective, controlling, and distracting family responses to illness management were associated with negative patient outcomes. Study limitations included cross-sectional designs (11 cohorts); however results from longitudinal studies were similar. Findings suggest that future interventions aiming to improve chronic illness outcomes should emphasize increased family use of attentive coping techniques and family support for the patient's autonomous motivation. PMID:21691845

  11. Physics of microswimmers—single particle motion and collective behavior: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgeti, J.; Winkler, R. G.; Gompper, G.

    2015-05-01

    Locomotion and transport of microorganisms in fluids is an essential aspect of life. Search for food, orientation toward light, spreading of off-spring, and the formation of colonies are only possible due to locomotion. Swimming at the microscale occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where fluid friction and viscosity dominates over inertia. Here, evolution achieved propulsion mechanisms, which overcome and even exploit drag. Prominent propulsion mechanisms are rotating helical flagella, exploited by many bacteria, and snake-like or whip-like motion of eukaryotic flagella, utilized by sperm and algae. For artificial microswimmers, alternative concepts to convert chemical energy or heat into directed motion can be employed, which are potentially more efficient. The dynamics of microswimmers comprises many facets, which are all required to achieve locomotion. In this article, we review the physics of locomotion of biological and synthetic microswimmers, and the collective behavior of their assemblies. Starting from individual microswimmers, we describe the various propulsion mechanism of biological and synthetic systems and address the hydrodynamic aspects of swimming. This comprises synchronization and the concerted beating of flagella and cilia. In addition, the swimming behavior next to surfaces is examined. Finally, collective and cooperate phenomena of various types of isotropic and anisotropic swimmers with and without hydrodynamic interactions are discussed.

  12. Weight loss maintenance in African American women: a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2013-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.

  13. The Stewardship Role of Analyst Forecasts, and Discretionary Versus Non-Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin

    2013-01-01

    timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation......, as opposed to leaving firms more choice over non-discretionary accrual policies, may lead firms to rationally respond by inducing costly earnings management. More generally, regulating both earnings persistence and the tightness of admissible auditing policies may not result in less equilibrium earnings...... regulation aimed at increasing earnings quality from a valuation perspective (earnings persistence) may have a significant impact on how firms rationally respond in terms of allowing accrual discretion in order to alleviate the impact on the stewardship role of earnings. Increasing the precision of more...

  14. The Stewardship Role of Analyst Forecasts, and Discretionary Versus Non-Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin

    timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation......, as opposed to leaving firms more choice over non-discretionary accrual policies, may lead firms to rationally respond by inducing costly earnings management. More generally, regulating both earnings persistence and the tightness of admissible auditing policies may not result in less equilibrium earnings...... regulation aimed at increasing earnings quality from a valuation perspective (earnings persistence) may have a significant impact on how firms rationally respond in terms of allowing accrual discretion in order to alleviate the impact on the stewardship role of earnings. Increasing the precision of more...

  15. The variability of crater identification among expert and community crater analysts

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Stuart J; Kirchoff, Michelle R; Chapman, Clark R; Fassett, Caleb I; Herrick, Robert R; Singer, Kelsi; Zanetti, Michael; Lehan, Cory; Huang, Di; Gay, Pamela L

    2014-01-01

    The identification of impact craters on planetary surfaces provides important information about their geological history. Most studies have relied on individual analysts who map and identify craters and interpret crater statistics. However, little work has been done to determine how the counts vary as a function of technique, terrain, or between researchers. Furthermore, several novel internet-based projects ask volunteers with little to no training to identify craters, and it was unclear how their results compare against the typical professional researcher. To better understand the variation among experts and to compare with volunteers, eight professional researchers have identified impact features in two separate regions of the moon. Small craters (diameters ranging from 10 m to 500 m) were measured on a lunar mare region and larger craters (100s m to a few km in diameter) were measured on both lunar highlands and maria. Volunteer data were collected for the small craters on the mare. Our comparison shows t...

  16. Pollutants and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. WEIS, Allison CANDELMO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants. There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays, with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance. However, there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminated environments. Therefore, we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites. The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus, is a non-migratory fish; those from more contaminated areas are poor predators and slower to capture active prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In the field, they consume much detritus and sediment, which is not nutritious. They are less active than fish from cleaner sites and more vulnerable to predation. They have altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels, which may underlie altered behaviors. Fish from the reference site kept in tanks with sediment and food from the polluted site showed bioaccumulation and reduced prey capture after two months, although fish from the polluted site did not show significant improvement when maintained in a clean environment. Poor nutrition and predator avoidance may be responsible for their being smaller and having a shorter life span than reference fish. Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, are a marine species in which the young-of-the-year spend their first summer in estuaries. We found bioaccumulation of contaminants and reduced activity, schooling, and feeding in young-of-the-year bluefish from a relatively unpolluted site that were fed prey fish from a contaminated site. They also had altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels. Many field-caught specimens had empty stomachs, which is rare in this species. In the fall, when they migrate back out to the ocean, they are smaller, slower, and more likely to starve or to be eaten than those that spent their summer in cleaner estuaries [Current Zoology 58 (1: 9-20, 2012].

  17. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the

  18. Pollutants and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judith S. WEIS; Allison CANDELMO

    2012-01-01

    Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants.There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays,with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance.However,there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminatel environments.Therefore,we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites.The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus,is a non-migratory fish; those from more contaminated areas are poor predators and slower to capture active prey (grass shrimp,Palaemonetes pugio).In the field,they consume much detritus and sediment,which is not nutritious.They are less active than fish from cleaner sites and more vulnerable to predation.They have altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels,which may underlie altered behaviors.Fish from the reference site kept in tanks with sediment and food from the polluted site showed bioaccumulation and reduced prey capture after two months,although fish from the polluted site did not show significant improvement when maintained in a clean environment.Poor nutrition and predator avoidance may be responsible for their being smaller and having a shorter life span than reference fish.Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix,are a marine species in which the young-of-the-year spend their first summer in estuaries.We found bioaccumulation of contaminants and reduced activity,schooling,and feeding in young-of-the-year bluefish from a relatively unpolluted site that were fed prey fish from a contaminated site.They also had altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels.Many field-caught specimens had empty stomachs,which is rare in this species.In the fall,when they migrate back out to the ocean,they are smaller,slower,and more likely to starve or to be eaten than those that spent their summer in cleaner estuaries [Current Zoology 58 (1):9-20,2012].

  19. Interfacing a biosurveillance portal and an international network of institutional analysts to detect biological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo, Flavia; Shigematsu, Mika; Chow, Catherine; McKnight, C Jason; Linge, Jens; Doherty, Brian; Dente, Maria Grazia; Declich, Silvia; Barker, Mike; Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Donachie, Alastair; Mawudeku, Abla; Blench, Michael; Arthur, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project, launched in 2008, is aimed at improving global early alerting and risk assessment and evaluating the feasibility and opportunity of integrating the analysis of biological, chemical, radionuclear (CBRN), and pandemic influenza threats. At a time when no international collaborations existed in the field of event-based surveillance, EAR's innovative approach involved both epidemic intelligence experts and internet-based biosurveillance system providers in the framework of an international collaboration called the Global Health Security Initiative, which involved the ministries of health of the G7 countries and Mexico, the World Health Organization, and the European Commission. The EAR project pooled data from 7 major internet-based biosurveillance systems onto a common portal that was progressively optimized for biological threat detection under the guidance of epidemic intelligence experts from public health institutions in Canada, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The group became the first end users of the EAR portal, constituting a network of analysts working with a common standard operating procedure and risk assessment tools on a rotation basis to constantly screen and assess public information on the web for events that could suggest an intentional release of biological agents. Following the first 2-year pilot phase, the EAR project was tested in its capacity to monitor biological threats, proving that its working model was feasible and demonstrating the high commitment of the countries and international institutions involved. During the testing period, analysts using the EAR platform did not miss intentional events of a biological nature and did not issue false alarms. Through the findings of this initial assessment, this article provides insights into how the field of epidemic intelligence can advance through an

  20. Interfacing a biosurveillance portal and an international network of institutional analysts to detect biological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo, Flavia; Shigematsu, Mika; Chow, Catherine; McKnight, C Jason; Linge, Jens; Doherty, Brian; Dente, Maria Grazia; Declich, Silvia; Barker, Mike; Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Donachie, Alastair; Mawudeku, Abla; Blench, Michael; Arthur, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project, launched in 2008, is aimed at improving global early alerting and risk assessment and evaluating the feasibility and opportunity of integrating the analysis of biological, chemical, radionuclear (CBRN), and pandemic influenza threats. At a time when no international collaborations existed in the field of event-based surveillance, EAR's innovative approach involved both epidemic intelligence experts and internet-based biosurveillance system providers in the framework of an international collaboration called the Global Health Security Initiative, which involved the ministries of health of the G7 countries and Mexico, the World Health Organization, and the European Commission. The EAR project pooled data from 7 major internet-based biosurveillance systems onto a common portal that was progressively optimized for biological threat detection under the guidance of epidemic intelligence experts from public health institutions in Canada, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The group became the first end users of the EAR portal, constituting a network of analysts working with a common standard operating procedure and risk assessment tools on a rotation basis to constantly screen and assess public information on the web for events that could suggest an intentional release of biological agents. Following the first 2-year pilot phase, the EAR project was tested in its capacity to monitor biological threats, proving that its working model was feasible and demonstrating the high commitment of the countries and international institutions involved. During the testing period, analysts using the EAR platform did not miss intentional events of a biological nature and did not issue false alarms. Through the findings of this initial assessment, this article provides insights into how the field of epidemic intelligence can advance through an

  1. A systematic review of interventions in primary care to improve health literacy for chronic disease behavioral risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Taggart, Jane; Williams, Anna; Dennis, Sarah; Newall, Anthony; Shortus, Tim; Zwar, Nicholas; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW). Methods A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings. We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australasian M...

  2. A systematic review of interventions in primary care to improve health literacy for chronic disease behavioral risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Taggart Jane; Williams Anna; Dennis Sarah; Newall Anthony; Shortus Tim; Zwar Nicholas; Denney-Wilson Elizabeth; Harris Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW). Methods A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings. We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Austr...

  3. Adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy for religious individuals with mental disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Caroline; Sim, Kang; Renjan, Vidhya; Sam, Hui Fang; Quah, Soo Li

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an evidence-based psychological intervention for various mental disorders. However, mental health clinicians should be cognizant of the population that was used to validate the intervention and assess its acceptability to a target group that is culturally different. We systematically reviewed published empirical studies of CBT adapted for religious individuals with mental disorder to determine the extent to which religiously modified CBT can be considered an empirically supported treatment following the criteria delineated by the American Psychological Association Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Overall, nine randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study were included that compared the effectiveness of religiously modified CBT to standard CBT or other treatment modalities for the treatment of depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. The majority of these studies either found no difference in effectiveness between religiously modified CBT compared to standard CBT or other treatment modalities, or early effects that were not sustained. Considering the methodological limitations of the reviewed studies, religiously modified CBT cannot be considered a well-established psychological intervention for the treatment of the foregoing mental disorders following the a priori set criteria at this juncture. Nevertheless, melding religious content with CBT may be an acceptable treatment modality for individuals with strong religious convictions. PMID:24813028

  4. Aqueous Corrosion Behavior of Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO)-Coated Magnesium Alloys: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Krishna, L.; Sundararajan, G.

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, in the current era of persistently growing engineering demands, have become the most promising materials finding widespread industrial applications. Numerous processes are available for surface protection of Mg and its alloys to potentially minimize corrosion damage. The micro arc oxidation (MAO), a fairly recent and eco-friendly coating process, emerged as a novel means to provide an adherent, hard, scratch-resistant, wear-resistant, and corrosion-resistant coatings on Mg alloys. However, the successful utilization of such coatings demands a thorough understanding of the influence of a relatively large number of process parameters such as electrolytic composition, presence of insoluble additives in the electrolyte, electrical parameters employed, and the composition of the Mg alloy substrate on the corrosion resistance. The detailed influence of all the above parameters on the corrosion behavior of Mg alloys is critically reviewed and presented in this article. In addition, this article also reviews the recent trends in terms of duplexing the MAO process using different techniques/processes such that the composite coatings are produced with enhanced corrosion resistance.

  5. Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheila N Garland,1 Jillian A Johnson,2 Josee Savard,3 Philip Gehrman,4 Michael Perlis,4 Linda Carlson,5 Tavis Campbell2 1Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3School of Psychology, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Individuals with cancer are disproportionately affected by sleep disturbance and insomnia relative to the general population. These problems can be a consequence of the psychological, behavioral, and physical effects of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia often persists for years and, when combined with already high levels of cancer-related distress, may place cancer survivors at a higher risk of future physical and mental health problems and poorer quality of life. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I, a non-pharmacological treatment that incorporates cognitive and behavior-change techniques and targets dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs, and habits involving sleep. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the efficacy of CBT-I on sleep and psychological outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. The search revealed 12 studies (four uncontrolled, eight controlled that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in cancer patients or survivors. Results suggest that CBT-I is associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in subjective sleep outcomes in patients with cancer. CBT-I may also improve mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life, and can be successfully delivered through a variety of treatment modalities, making it possible to reach a broader range of patients who may not have access to more traditional programs. Future

  6. Internet-based behavioral interventions for obesity: an updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Corti, Stefania; Molinari, Enrico; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2011-03-04

    The objective of this systematic review is to update a previous systematic review on the effectiveness of internet-based interventions for weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese people with new or additional studies. A literature search from 2008 to March 2010 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: participants were adults with a body mass index ≤ 25, at least one study arm involved an internet-based intervention and the primary aims were weight loss or maintenance. Eight additional studies over the eighteen included in the previous review met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on sample characteristics, attrition, weight loss, duration of treatment and maintenance of weight loss. Effect sizes (Hedges g) and relative 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all two-way comparisons within each study. No attempt was made to pool the data in a meta-analysis because of the great heterogeneity of designs among studies. An examination of effect sizes show that the higher significant effects pertain studies that found a superiority of behavioral internet-based programs enhanced by features such as tailored feedback on self-monitoring of weight, eating and activity over education only internet-based interventions. However, control groups are very different among studies and this heterogeneity probably accounts for much of the variance in effect sizes. Hence, questions still remain as to the effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss or maintenance. Implications for further research include using a "real" control group in order to make meta-analysis possible and developing multi-factorial design in order to separate components of interventions and identify which of them or patterns of them are keys to success.

  7. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buades-Rotger M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. Keywords: behavioral genetics, antisocial behaviors, monoamine oxidase A

  8. A Review of Intervention Programs to Prevent and Treat Behavioral Problems in Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L M

    2013-12-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at higher risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems than children in the general population. Effective prevention and treatment programs are necessary to reduce the burden of behavioral problems in this population. The current review identified 17 controlled trials of nine intervention programs for young children with developmental disabilities, with parent training the most common type of intervention in this population. Nearly all studies demonstrated medium to large intervention effects on child behavior post-intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests interventions developed for the general population can be effective for children with developmental disabilities and their families. A greater emphasis on the prevention of behavior problems in young children with developmental disabilities prior to the onset of significant symptoms or clinical disorders is needed. Multi-component interventions may be more efficacious for child behavior problems and yield greater benefits for parent and family adjustment. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.

  9. US market risk premium used in 2011 by professors, analysts and companies: A survey with 5.731 answers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo; Aguirreamalloa, Javier; Corres, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The average Market Risk Premium (MRP) used in 2011 by professors for the USA (5.7%) is higher than the one used by analysts (5.0%) and companies (5.6%). The standard deviation of the MRP used in 2011 by analysts (1.1%) is lower than the ones of companies (2.0%) and professors (1.6%). Most previous surveys have been interested in the Expected MRP, but this survey asks about the Required MRP. The paper also contains the references used to justify the MRP, comments from 58 persons that do not us...

  10. Using Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Clinical Work with African American Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Courtney J.; Cottone, R. Rocco

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature on clinical work with African American youth with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presented. The strengths and limitations of CBT in relation to this population are outlined. Although CBT shows promise in helping, research on the efficacy and effectiveness of CBT in this group is lacking. (Contains 3…

  11. Behavior Analysis and Ecological Psychology: Past, Present, and Future. A Review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edward K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a ...

  12. Basic Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia: Systematic Review of the Behavioral and Event-Related Potential/Field Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Salminen, Hanne K.; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    A review of research that uses behavioral, electroencephalographic, and/or magnetoencephalographic methods to investigate auditory processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia is presented. Findings show that measures of frequency, rise time, and duration discrimination as well as amplitude modulation and frequency modulation detection were…

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Inhibition: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator effects on BI processes--assessed by the stop-signal paradigm--in children with ADHD…

  14. Measuring Homework Compliance in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression. Review, Preliminary Findings, and Implications for Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Scott T.; Lawrence, P. Scott; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the importance placed on completion of extra-session homework in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a review of the available literature suggests there is much about the nature of homework compliance that remains to be empirically evaluated. This is especially true among youth receiving CBT. The present study begins to address how best to…

  15. The effects of psychosocial methods on depressed, aggressive and apathetic behaviors of people with dementia: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, R.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Francke, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review seeks to establish the extent of scientific evidence for the effectiveness of 13 psychosocial methods for reducing depressed, aggressive or apathetic behaviors in people with dementia. METHODS: The guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration were followed. Using a pre

  16. Are We There Yet? A Review of Gender Comparisons in Three Behavioral Journals through the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Sandra T.; Pells, Jennifer J.; Edenfield, Teresa M.; Hermann, Barbara A.; Schartel, Janell G.; LaMattina, Stephanie M.; Boulard, Nina E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite overwhelming evidence that gender plays a significant role in the course of numerous psychological disorders, researchers have historically neglected to address gender similarities and differences in their research. Previous reviews of the psychological literature have indicated that personality, psychotherapy, and behavioral psychology…

  17. Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nilamadhab KarDepartment of Psychiatry, Wolverhampton City Primary Care Trust, Wolverhampton, UKBackground: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric sequel to a stressful event or situation of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT has been used in the management of PTSD for many years. This paper reviews the effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of PTSD following various types of trauma, its potential to prevent PTSD, methods used in CBT, and reflects on the mechanisms of action of CBT in PTSD.Methods: Electronic databases, including PubMed, were searched for articles on CBT and PTSD. Manual searches were conducted for cross-references in the relevant journal sites.Results: The current literature reveals robust evidence that CBT is a safe and effective intervention for both acute and chronic PTSD following a range of traumatic experiences in adults, children, and adolescents. However, nonresponse to CBT by PTSD can be as high as 50%, contributed to by various factors, including comorbidity and the nature of the study population. CBT has been validated and used across many cultures, and has been used successfully by community therapists following brief training in individual and group settings. There has been effective use of Internet-based CBT in PTSD. CBT has been found to have a preventive role in some studies, but evidence for definitive recommendations is inadequate. The effect of CBT has been mediated mostly by the change in maladaptive cognitive distortions associated with PTSD. Many studies also report physiological, functional neuroimaging, and electroencephalographic changes correlating with response to CBT.Conclusion: There is scope for further research on implementation of CBT following major disasters, its preventive potential following various traumas, and the neuropsychological mechanisms of action.Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, cognitive behavioral therapy

  18. Regulation of brain reward by the endocannabinoid system: a critical review of behavioral studies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, S; Panagis, G

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes, including a crucial involvement in brain reward systems and the regulation of motivational processes. Behavioral studies have shown that cannabinoid reward may involve the same brain circuits and similar brain mechanisms with other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, alcohol and heroin, as well as natural rewards, such as food, water and sucrose, although the conditions under which cannabinoids exert their rewarding effects may be more limited. The purpose of the present review is to briefly describe and evaluate the behavioral and pharmacological research concerning the major components of the endocannabinoid system and reward processes. Special emphasis is placed on data received from four procedures used to test the effects of the endocannabinoid system on brain reward in animals; namely, the intracranial self-stimulation paradigm, the self-administration procedure, the conditioned place preference procedure and the drug-discrimination procedure. The effects of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor agonists, antagonists and endocannabinoid modulators in these procedures are examined. Further, the involvement of CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well the fatty acid amid hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme in reward processes is investigated through presentation of respective genetic ablation studies in mice. We suggest that the endocannabinoid system plays a major role in modulating motivation and reward processes. Further research will provide us with a better understanding of these processes and, thus, could lead to the development of potential therapeutic compounds for the treatment of reward-related disorders. PMID:23829366

  19. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2012-12-04

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  20. Multimodal secondary prevention behavioral interventions for TIA and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Lawrence

    Full Text Available Guidelines recommend implementation of multimodal interventions to help prevent recurrent TIA/stroke. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of behavioral secondary prevention interventions.Searches were conducted in 14 databases, including MEDLINE (1980-January 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs testing multimodal interventions against usual care/modified usual care. All review processes were conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines.Twenty-three papers reporting 20 RCTs (6,373 participants of a range of multimodal behavioral interventions were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Meta-analyses were possible for physiological, lifestyle, psychosocial and mortality/recurrence outcomes. Note: all reported confidence intervals are 95%. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 4.21 mmHg (mean (-6.24 to -2.18, P = 0.01 I2 = 58%, 1,407 participants; diastolic blood pressure by 2.03 mmHg (mean (-3.19 to -0.87, P = 0.004, I2 = 52%, 1,407 participants. No significant changes were found for HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity-CR, BMI, weight or waist:hip ratio, although there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (-6.69 cm, -11.44 to -1.93, P = 0.006, I2 = 0%, 96 participants. There was no significant difference in smoking continuance, or improved fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a significant difference in compliance with antithrombotic medication (OR 1.45, 1.21 to 1.75, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%, 2,792 participants and with statins (OR 2.53, 2.15 to 2.97, P< 0.00001, I2 = 0%, 2,636 participants; however, there was no significant difference in compliance with antihypertensives. There was a significant reduction in anxiety (-1.20, -1.77 to -0.63, P<0.0001, I2 = 85%, 143 participants. Although there was no significant difference in odds of death or recurrent TIA/stroke, there was a significant reduction in the odds of cardiac events (OR 0.38, 0

  1. The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst: geographic information systems software for modeling hazard evacuation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Ng, Peter; Wood, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami; the 2013 Colorado floods; and the 2014 Oso, Washington, mudslide have raised awareness of catastrophic, sudden-onset hazards that arrive within minutes of the events that trigger them, such as local earthquakes or landslides. Due to the limited amount of time between generation and arrival of sudden-onset hazards, evacuations are typically self-initiated, on foot, and across the landscape (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Although evacuation to naturally occurring high ground may be feasible in some vulnerable communities, evacuation modeling has demonstrated that other communities may require vertical-evacuation structures within a hazard zone, such as berms or buildings, if at-risk individuals are to survive some types of sudden-onset hazards (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2013). Researchers use both static least-cost-distance (LCD) and dynamic agent-based models to assess the pedestrian evacuation potential of vulnerable communities. Although both types of models help to understand the evacuation landscape, LCD models provide a more general overview that is independent of population distributions, which may be difficult to quantify given the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of populations (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Recent LCD efforts related to local tsunami threats have focused on an anisotropic (directionally dependent) path distance modeling approach that incorporates travel directionality, multiple travel speed assumptions, and cost surfaces that reflect variations in slope and land cover (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012, 2013). The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software implements this anisotropic path-distance approach for pedestrian evacuation from sudden-onset hazards, with a particular focus at this time on local tsunami threats. The model estimates evacuation potential based on elevation, direction of movement, land cover, and travel speed and creates a map showing travel times to safety (a

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Debora; Raggi, Alberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with breast cancer and to assess the effect of CBT-I on their psychosocial functioning, sleep, quality of life, and mood. Methods: Empirical articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the earliest reports available until August 2015 were considered. The research on PubMed generated 18 papers, three of which did not meet the inclusion criteria. Another paper was retrieved by screening the reference list of the previously selected papers. Results: A total of 16 studies were found that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in breast cancer patients. CBT-I appears to be an effective therapy for insomnia in BCS, improving mood, general and physical fatigue, and global and cognitive dimensions of quality of life. CBT-I may also reduce menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweat problems, frequency of medicated nights, level of depression, and anxiety. Conclusions: CBT-I seems to be an eligible intervention for improving sleep in BCS. Improvements concerning insomnia and sleep quality are durable (usually up to 12 months) and statistically significant. PMID:27536265

  3. The Epidemiology of Suicide Behaviors among the Countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO: a Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Malakouti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review aimed to help better to understand the epidemiology of suicidal behaviors among Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR countries. The PubMed, EMR medex, Scopus, PsychInfo, ISI, and IMEMR were searched with no language limitation for papers on the epidemiology of suicidal behaviors in the general population, published up to August 2013. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. The incidence (per 100.000 of committed suicide ranged from 0.55 to 5.4. The lifelong prevalence of attempted suicide, suicidal plan and thoughts were 0.72-4.2%, 6.2-6.7%, and 2.9-14.1%, respectively. The figures for suicide are higher than those officially reported. Suicide behaviors' statistics is susceptible to underestimation presumably due to the socio-cultural, religious and legal barriers, not to mention the lack of well-organized registries and methodologically sound community-based surveys.

  4. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Zimmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.

  5. Biochar: A review of its impact on pesticide behavior in soil environments and its potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Khorram, Mahdi; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Dunli; Zheng, Yuan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is produced from the pyrolysis of carbon-rich plant- and animal-residues under low oxygen and high temperature conditions and has been increasingly used for its positive role in soil compartmentalization through activities such as carbon sequestration and improving soil quality. Biochar is also considered a unique adsorbent due to its high specific surface area and highly carbonaceous nature. Therefore, soil amendments with small amounts of biochar could result in higher adsorption and, consequently, decrease the bioavailability of contaminants to microbial communities, plants, earthworms, and other organisms in the soil. However, the mechanisms affecting the environmental fate and behavior of organic contaminants, especially pesticides in biochar-amended soil, are not well understood. The purpose of this work is to review the role of biochar in primary processes, such as adsorption-desorption and leaching of pesticides. Biochar has demonstrable effects on the fate and effects of pesticides and has been shown to affect the degradation and bioavailability of pesticides for living organisms. Moreover, some key aspects of agricultural and environmental applications of biochar are highlighted. PMID:27266324

  6. Review of the social and environmental factors affecting the behavior and welfare of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, J; Watanabe, T T N; Ferrante, V; Estevez, I

    2013-06-01

    In modern rearing systems, turkey producers often face economic losses due to increased aggression, feather pecking, cannibalism, leg disorders, or injuries among birds, which are also significant welfare issues. The main underlying causes appear to relate to rapid growth, flock size, density, poor environmental complexity, or lighting, which may be deficient in providing the birds with an adequate physical or social environment. To date, there is little information regarding the effect of these factors on turkey welfare. This knowledge is, however, essential to ensure the welfare of turkeys and to improve their quality of life, but may also be beneficial to industry, allowing better bird performance, improved carcass quality, and reduced mortality and condemnations. This paper reviews the available scientific literature related to the behavior of turkeys as influenced by the physical and social environment that may be relevant to advances toward turkey production systems that take welfare into consideration. We addressed the effects that factors such as density, group size, space availability, maturation, lightning, feeding, and transport may have over parameters that may be relevant to ensure welfare of turkeys. Available scientific studies were based in experimental environments and identified individual factors corresponding to particular welfare problems. Most of the studies aimed at finding optimal levels of rearing conditions that allow avoiding or decreasing most severe welfare issues. This paper discusses the importance of these factors for development of production environments that would be better suited from a welfare and economic point of view.

  7. Face recognition in schizophrenia disorder: A comprehensive review of behavioral, neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Raffard, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Facial emotion processing has been extensively studied in schizophrenia patients while general face processing has received less attention. The already published reviews do not address the current scientific literature in a complete manner. Therefore, here we tried to answer some questions that remain to be clarified, particularly: are the non-emotional aspects of facial processing in fact impaired in schizophrenia patients? At the behavioral level, our key conclusions are that visual perception deficit in schizophrenia patients: are not specific to faces; are most often present when the cognitive (e.g. attention) and perceptual demands of the tasks are important; and seems to worsen with the illness chronification. Although, currently evidence suggests impaired second order configural processing, more studies are necessary to determine whether or not holistic processing is impaired in schizophrenia patients. Neural and neurophysiological evidence suggests impaired earlier levels of visual processing, which might involve the deficits in interaction of the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways impacting on further processing. These deficits seem to be present even before the disorder out-set. Although evidence suggests that this deficit may be not specific to faces, further evidence on this question is necessary, in particularly more ecological studies including context and body processing. PMID:25800172

  8. The definition and epidemiology of clusters of suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire; Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Platt, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Suicide clusters are a rare and underresearched phenomenon which attract wide media attention and result in heightened concern in the communities where they occur. We conducted a systematic literature review covering the definition and epidemiology of the time-space clustering of suicidal behavior. Of the 890 articles identified by electronic searching, 82 were selected for inclusion and the extracted data were analyzed by narrative synthesis. Less than a third of studies included a definition of a suicide cluster, and definitions varied considerably. Clusters occurred in various settings, including psychiatric hospitals, schools, prisons, indigenous communities, and among the general population. Most clusters involved young people. The proportion of all episodes that occurred in clusters varied considerably between studies and partly depended on study methodology (e.g., a larger proportion was found in studies of specific clusters compared with general population studies). Future studies should aim to combine the statistical analysis of time-space clustering with a case study of events, which examines potential links between individuals and the wider environmental context. PMID:24702173

  9. Between chaos and petrification: a summary of the Fifth IPA Conference of Training Analysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, R S

    1993-02-01

    The Fifth IPA Conference of Training Analysts was devoted to the problems in the integration of different theoretical and clinical perspectives in the formation of psychoanalysts, the dialectical tensions between rigidity and stultification on the one hand, and a chaotic 'anything goes' on the other. Seven presentations, from the three major geographical regions and representing a range of theoretical perspectives, though drawing upon common and shared clinical and training experiences, were widely divergent in both their descriptions and their prescriptions. The presentations by Janice de Saussure of Geneva, by Charles Kligerman of Chicago, by Marcio de Freitas Giovanetti of São Paulo, Raquel Zak de Goldstein of Buenos Aires, André Green of Paris, José Infante of Chile and André Lussier of Montreal, are arrayed along a spectrum from the most conservative to the most sweepingly radical critique of our organisations and our practices; what is shared by these seven quite disparate presentations from so many ideologically and geographically diverse quarters is a widespread dissatisfaction with so many aspects of, and so many consequences of, the operation or our extant tripartite training structure bequeathed to us by Eitingon and his colleagues almost 75 years ago and hardly changed at all ever since.

  10. Human Analysts at Superhuman Scales: What Has Friendly Software To Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godzaridis, Élénie; Boisvert, Sébastien; Xia, Fangfang; Kandel, Mikhail; Behling, Steve; Long, Bill; Sosa, Carlos P; Laviolette, François; Corbeil, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    As analysts are expected to process a greater amount of information in a shorter amount of time, creators of big data software are challenged with the need for improved efficiency. Ray, our group's usable, scalable genome assembler, addresses big data problems by using optimal resources and producing one, correct and conservative, timely solution. Only by abstracting the size of the data from both the computers and the humans can the real scientific question, often complex in itself, eventually be solved. To draw a curtain over the specific computational machinery of big data, we developed RayPlatform, a programming framework that allows users to concentrate on their domain-specific problems. RayPlatform is a parallel message-passing software framework that runs on clouds, supercomputers, and desktops alike. Using established technologies such as C++ and MPI (message-passing interface), we handle the genomes of hundreds of species, from viruses to plants, using machines ranging from desktop computers to supercomputers. From this experience, we present insights on making computer time more useful-and user time much more valuable. PMID:27447255

  11. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Sean; Hughes, Gary

    2008-07-31

    Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed web-based data analysis and visualization tools such as the interactive plotting program NCVweb, various diagnostic plot browsers, and a datastream processing status application. These tools allow even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers. We have also embarked on a system to comprehensively generate long time-series plots, frequency distributions, and other relevant statistics for scientific and engineering data in most high-level, publicly available ARM data streams. Furthermore, frequency distributions categorized by month or by season are made available to help define valid data ranges specific to those time domains. These statistics can be used to set limits that when checked, will improve upon the reporting of suspicious data and the early detection of instrument malfunction. The statistics and proposed limits are stored in a database for easy reporting, refining, and for use by other processes. Web-based applications to view the results are also available.

  12. Neuroscientific Measures of Covert Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ortu, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In radical behaviorism, the difference between overt and covert responses does not depend on properties of the behavior but on the sensitivity of the measurement tools employed by the experimenter. Current neuroscientific research utilizes technologies that allow measurement of variables that are undetected by the tools typically used by behavior analysts. Data from a specific neuroscientific technique, event-related potential (ERP), suggest that emission of otherwise covert responses can be ...

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Couple Therapies: Review of the Evidence for the Treatment of Relationship Distress, Psychopathology, and Chronic Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melanie S; Baucom, Donald H; Cohen, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioral couple therapy (CBCT) is an approach to assisting couples that has strong empirical support for alleviating relationship distress. This paper provides a review of the empirical status of CBCT along with behavioral couple therapy (BCT), as well as the evidence for recent applications of CBCT principles to couple-based interventions for individual psychopathology and medical conditions. Several meta-analyses and major reviews have confirmed the efficacy of BCT and CBCT across trials in the United States, Europe, and Australia, and there is little evidence to support differential effectiveness of various forms of couple therapy derived from behavioral principles. A much smaller number of effectiveness studies have shown that successful implementation in community settings is possible, although effect sizes tend to be somewhat lower than those evidenced in randomized controlled trials. Adapted for individual problems, cognitive-behavioral couple-based interventions appear to be at least as effective as individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) across a variety of psychological disorders, and often more effective, especially when partners are substantially involved in treatment. In addition, couple-based interventions tend to have the unique added benefit of improving relationship functioning. Findings on couple-based interventions for medical conditions are more varied and more complex to interpret given the greater range of target outcomes (psychological, relational, and medical variables).

  14. Current Methods in Health Behavior Research Among U.S. Community College Students: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Little, Melissa A; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-01

    The majority of health behavior research involving college students in the United States has focused on 4-year college students. Two-year or community college students have been less studied, although a significant proportion of U.S. undergraduates, primarily those from disadvantaged socioeconomic and/or racial/ethnic background, are enrolled in community colleges. Thus, there is a need to enhance health behavior and health promotion research among community college students. This study systematically reviewed 42 published, peer-reviewed health behavior studies conducted among U.S. community college students in order to determine the current state of research in the area with regard to behaviors studied, research designs used, recruitment and data collection strategies practiced, rates of student participation, and characteristics of the participants represented. Findings identified the methodological limitations of current research and suggested optimal recruitment and data collection methods suitable for various research needs. Findings are discussed in the context of enhancing health behavior research among U.S. community college students.

  15. A Behavioral Look at the Training of Alex: A Review of Pepperberg's "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bruce E.; Potter, Bill

    2004-01-01

    "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots" by Irene Pepperberg is reviewed from a behavior analytic orientation. The results of the majority of her experiments are discussed in terms drawn from the general literature of behavior analysis and Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. We conclude that she has provided…

  16. Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

  17. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  18. Goal-Setting Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison L.; McDaniel, Sara C.; Fernando, Josephine; Troughton, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Students with persistent behavior problems, including those with or at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders, often struggle to be self-regulated learners. To improve self-regulation skills, numerous strategies have been suggested, including goal setting. Whereas goal setting has focused mostly on academic and life skills, behavioral goal…

  19. A 20 year review of punishment and alternative methods to treat problem behaviors in developmentally delayed persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, J L; Taras, M E

    1989-01-01

    Relevant journals were reviewed (n = 23) for a 20 year period (1967 to 1987) to assess the status of treatments for severe behavior problems of developmentally delayed persons. A hand search of journals was made; 382 studies were identified. Procedures were analyzed by problem behaviors treated, side effects reported, whether the procedure involved painful stimuli, nonpainful stimuli, food satiation, positive procedures, extinction or combinations of methods. The number of studies reported yearly was also plotted. The implication of these data for federal and state policy makers and for treatment programs dealing with difficult to treat clients is discussed. PMID:2648505

  20. Identifying the Education Needs of the Business Analyst: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Richards

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Business Analyst (BA plays a key role in ensuring that technology is appropriately used to achieve the organisation’s goals. This important mediating role is currently in high (unmet demand in many English-speaking countries and thus more people need to be trained for this role. To determine the educational and/or training needs of a BA we conducted a survey in the Information and Communication Technology industry in Australia. The survey items are based on prior studies of information systems educational requirements and the internationally-developed Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA that has been endorsed by the Australian Computer Society. From the literature we identified three types of skills: soft, business and technical. With the increasing importance of GreenIT and the pivotal role that the BA could play in green decision making, we added a fourth type of skill: green. The survey considers 85 skills, their importance, the level of attainment of that skill, skill gaps and types of skills. Results show that all soft skills were considered to be important with the smallest knowledge gaps. Selected business skills and green skills were seen to be important. Technical skills were considered less important, but also where the largest knowledge gaps existed. Further we asked respondents whether each skill should be acquired via an undergraduate or postgraduate degree and/or industry training and experience. We found that the workplace was considered the most appropriate place to acquire and/or develop all skills, except the ability to innovate. While we found that softskills should be taught almost equally at the undergraduate and postgraduate level, business and green skills were more appropriate in a postgraduate degree. In contrast, technical skills were best acquired in an undergraduate program of study.

  1. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lima-Serrano

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed.

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescent: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesibe Olgun Kaval

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to review the articles on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In this systematic review, articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (March have been searched in the national and international databases. 20 studies that were met the search criteria were examined in terms of research method, therapy characteristics and results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive behavioral group therapy is effective for symptoms of social anxiety and the problems that accompany social anxiety (depression, anxiety, etc. in children and adolescents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 3-22

  3. Influence of size effects on material properties and springback behavior of metal foils in micro bending: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With product miniaturization, the requirement on good forming quality and high dimensional accuracy of micro parts is increasing dramatically. In micro bending process, the springback, a critical factor for the accuracy of micro-bent parts, is significantly affected by size effects. In view of the strong influence of material properties on springback behavior, this paper first reviews the influences of three size-dependent factors on material properties, including foil thickness, grain size and thickness to grain size ratio. Afterwards, the review on the influences of these factors on springback behavior are presented, aiming at enhancing the understanding of relevant size effects and proposing a quantitative analysis approach to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of micro-bent parts.

  4. The Use of Behavior Change Theory in Internet-Based Asthma Self-Management Interventions: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Durra, Mustafa; Torio, Monika-Bianca; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence rate of asthma represents a major societal burden. Advancements in information technology continue to affect the delivery of patient care in all areas of medicine. Internet-based solutions, social media, and mobile technology could address some of the problems associated with increasing asthma prevalence. Objective This review evaluates Internet-based asthma interventions that were published between 2004 and October 2014 with respect to the use of behavioral cha...

  5. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Current Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J., Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Controversy remains about the empirical status of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its presumably different characteristics relative to traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The current study aims to shed some light in this respect by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies that have empirically compared ACT versus CBT. Sixteen studies comparing differential outcomes (N= 954) of ACT versus CBT in diverse problems were identified following several s...

  6. A behavioral look at the training of Alex: A review of Pepperberg's the Alex studies: Cognitive and communicative abilities of grey parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Bruce E.; Potter, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots by Irene Pepperberg is reviewed from a behavior analytic orientation. The results of the majority of her experiments are discussed in terms drawn from the general literature of behavior analysis and Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. We conclude that she has provided evidence of the complex control of vocal behavior that illustrates a functional verbal repertoire of tacts and mands. This book suggests several areas fo...

  7. Long Term Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Gokdag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to conduct systematic review the articles on long term effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for treatment of major depressive disorder. Articles in English and Turkish published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (January were searched in national and international databases. The articles that did not include follow-up studies were excluded. Although the main aim of this study is to evaluate permanent effect of the cognitive behavioral group therapy, 21 articles that met the criteria were examined also in terms of some other variables such as research method, therapy characteristics and post test results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is effective for major depressive disorder and post therapy gains are maintained for a long time. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 23-38

  8. Melatonin Therapy for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Critical Review of Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    McGrane, Ian R.; Leung, Jonathan G.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2014-01-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia associated with dream enactment often involving violent or potentially injurious behaviors during REM sleep that is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. Clonazepam has long been suggested as the first-line treatment option for RBD. However, evidence supporting melatonin therapy is expanding. Melatonin appears to be beneficial for the management of RBD with reductions in clinical behavioral outcomes and decrease in muscle...

  9. The impact of education on sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Jukes, Matthew C H

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to determine the relationship between education and HIV status. However, a complete and causal understanding of this relationship requires analysis of its mediating pathways, focusing on sexual behaviors. We developed a series of hypotheses based on the differential effect of educational attainment on three sexual behaviors. We tested our predictions in a systematic literature review including 65 articles reporting associations between three specific sexual behaviors -- sexual initiation, number of partners, and condom use -- and educational attainment or school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa. The patterns of associations varied by behavior. The findings for condom use were particularly convergent; none of the 44 studies using educational attainment as a predictor reviewed found that more educated people were significantly less likely to use condoms. Findings for sexual initiation and number of partners were more complex. The contrast between findings for condom use on the one hand and sexual initiation and number of partners on the other supports predictions based on our theoretical framework.

  10. 78 FR 45592 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...: Small Business Lending Companies. Responses: 215. Annual Burden: 107.50. Curtis Rich, Management Analyst... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business...

  11. 78 FR 39820 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Business concerns. Responses: 4926. Annual Burden: 2463. Curtis Rich, Management Analyst. BILLING CODE 8025... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business...

  12. Emergence of relations and the essence of learning: a review of Sidman's Equivalence relations and behavior: a research story. Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    The author reviews and comments on the book Equivalence relations and behavior: a research story by Murray Sidman. Sidman's book reports his research about equivalence relations and competencies in children with mental retardation and how it relates to behavior. Sidman used the idea of stimulus-stimulus relations among features of the environment to develop his theories about equivalence relations. Experimental work with children and animals demonstrated their ability to use equivalence relations to learn new tasks. The subject received feedback and reinforcement for specific choices made during training, then was presented with new choices during testing. Results of the tests indicate that subjects were able to establish relations and retrieve them in different situations.

  13. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on psychological and behavioral outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heather Ann Hausenblas; Kacey Heekin; Heather Lee Mutchie; Stephen Anton

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Throughout the past three decades, increased scientiifc attention has been given to examining saffron’s (Crocus sativusL.) use as a potential therapeutic or preventive agent for a number of health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and depression. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to examine and categorize the current state of scientiifc evidence from randomized controled trials (RCTs) regarding the efifcacy of saffron on psychological/behavioral outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic and non-electronic systematic searches were conducted to identify al relevant human clinical research on saffron. The search strategy was extensive and was designed according to the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).” Reference lists of articles that met the inclusion criteria were searched. Only English language studies were reviewed. INCLUSION CRITERIA:Saffron trials in combination with other substances and saffron safety studies were considered, in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Included studies must have a control group. Included studies must measure a physiological and/or a behavioral outcome. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS:The methodological quality of al included studies was independently evaluated by two reviewers using the Jadad score. Mean scores andP-values of measures were compared both inter- and intra-study for each parameter (i.e., depression). RESULTS:Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies examined the effects of saffron on psychological/behavioral outcomes of: major depressive disorder (n = 6), premenstrual syndrome (n = 1), sexual dysfunction and infertility (n = 4), and weight loss/snacking behaviors (n = 1). The data from these studies support the efifcacy of saffron as compared to placebo in improving the folowing conditions:depressive symptoms (compared to anti-depressants and placebo), premenstrual symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. In addition

  14. Information Behavior and Information Practice: Reviewing the "Umbrella Concepts" of Information-Seeking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2007-01-01

    Information behavior and information practice, two major concepts denoting the general ways in which people deal with information, are analyzed. Because of their general nature, they may be conceived of as umbrella concepts drawing on "umbrella discourses" with similar names. Information behavior is currently the dominating umbrella concept, while…

  15. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Rhodes; G.J. de Bruijn

    2013-01-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that in

  16. Coaching Teachers' Use of Social Behavior Interventions to Improve Children's Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy M.; Newcomer, Lori; Marchese, Dana; Lewis, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Children with social behavior problems need teachers who are prepared to use evidence-based interventions to increase their likelihood of success. However, it is clear that teachers do not feel prepared to support children in this area. One approach for supporting teachers in using more effective interventions for children with behavior needs is…

  17. Review of Video Modeling with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sonia D.; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often engage in behavior that is disruptive in the classroom, impedes educational progress, and inhibits peer relationships. Video modeling has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for other challenging populations (e.g., autism) and has been identified as a feasible intervention…

  18. Behavioral Nutrition Interventions Using e- and m-Health Communication Technologies: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-17

    e- and m-Health communication technologies are now common approaches to improving population health. The efficacy of behavioral nutrition interventions using e-health technologies to decrease fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake was demonstrated in studies conducted from 2005 to 2009, with approximately 75% of trials showing positive effects. By 2010, an increasing number of behavioral nutrition interventions were focusing on body weight. The early emphasis on interventions that were highly computer tailored shifted to personalized electronic interventions that included weight and behavioral self-monitoring as key features. More diverse target audiences began to participate, and mobile components were added to interventions. Little progress has been made on using objective measures rather than self-reported measures of dietary behavior. A challenge for nutritionists is to link with the private sector in the design, use, and evaluation of the many electronic devices that are now available in the marketplace for nutrition monitoring and behavioral change. PMID:27022772

  19. Hofstede’s cultural Dimensions and tourist behaviors: A review and conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita A. Manrai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a conceptual framework for analyzing tourist behaviors and identifies three categories of behaviors based on the applications of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the processes underlying these influences. Our findings indicate that tourist behaviors in the Before-Travel, During-Travel, and After-Travel stages differ significantly in terms of the applicability and process through which Hofstede’s cultural dimensions operate. The results of our analysis suggest three categories of behavioral patterns, namely, "Social Interaction Driven Travel Behaviors," (SID, "Risk Tendencies Driven Travel Behaviors," (RTD, and "Collectivity Orientation Driven Travel Behaviors," (COD. SID relates to the evaluation of travel experiences in the after-travel stage. The dominant cultural values associated with SID are Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity, and Power Distance. These three values act either independently or in pairs or all three together. RTD relates to the consumption of travel products in the during-travel stage, and COD relates to the formation of travel preferences in the before-travel stage. Individualism/Collectivism and Uncertainty Avoidance are associated with both RTD and COD. However, the underlying processes differ for these two categories of travel behaviors. In addition to their independent influences on travel behaviors, these two values associated with RTD and COD also have an interactive effect. For RTD, the Uncertainty Avoidance motive determines the Individualism/Collectivism outcome, whereas, for COD, the opposite is true: the Individualism/Collectivism determines the Uncertainty Avoidance outcome. The paper also discusses the application of a fifth cultural dimension, Confucian Dynamism (short-term versus long-term orientation, for the study of tourists’ behaviors.

  20. Children's antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P; Sekol, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p < .01), corresponding to about 10% increased risk for antisocial behavior among children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children.

  1. A Review of Approaches for Sensing, Understanding, and Improving Occupancy-Related Energy-Use Behaviors in Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Nabizadeh Rafsanjani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings currently account for 30–40 percent of total global energy consumption. In particular, commercial buildings are responsible for about 12 percent of global energy use and 21 percent of the United States’ energy use, and the energy demand of this sector continues to grow faster than other sectors. This increasing rate therefore raises a critical concern about improving the energy performance of commercial buildings. Recently, researchers have investigated ways in which understanding and improving occupants’ energy-consuming behaviors could function as a cost-effective approach to decreasing commercial buildings’ energy demands. The objective of this paper is to present a detailed, up-to-date review of various algorithms, models, and techniques employed in the pursuit of understanding and improving occupants’ energy-use behaviors in commercial buildings. Previous related studies are introduced and three main approaches are identified: (1 monitoring occupant-specific energy consumption; (2 Simulating occupant energy consumption behavior; and (3 improving occupant energy consumption behavior. The first approach employs intrusive and non-intrusive load-monitoring techniques to estimate the energy use of individual occupants. The second approach models diverse characteristics related to occupants’ energy-consuming behaviors in order to assess and predict such characteristics’ impacts on the energy performance of commercial buildings; this approach mostly utilizes agent-based modeling techniques to simulate actions and interactions between occupants and their built environment. The third approach employs occupancy-focused interventions to change occupants’ energy-use characteristics. Based on the detailed review of each approach, critical issues and current gaps in knowledge in the existing literature are discussed, and directions for future research opportunities in this field are provided.

  2. "That word, cancer": breast care behavior of Hispanic women in new Mexico background and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; De Vargas, Felicia; Sanchez, Christina; Oetzel, John

    2010-01-01

    Despite international efforts, national and ethnic disparities in utilization of breast cancer (BC) screenings prevail. In the United States, Hispanic women have one of the lowest BC screening rates. The purpose of our study was to examine how Hispanic women in New Mexico described their breast care behavior (BCB; BC screening practices, motivation to act, and breast care information behavior). Analysis of focus groups revealed five types of approaches to BCB. These findings have global implications for health care practitioners in directing attention toward the complexity of BC preventive behavior. Implications for other ethnic groups are discussed.

  3. Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.

  4. An Affective Events Model of Charismatic Leadership Behavior : A Review, Theoretical Integration, and Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Bruch, Heike

    2009-01-01

    Although research has long focused on the consequences of leaders' charismatic behavior, the antecedents of such leadership are increasingly gaining scholarly attention. Nevertheless, the antecedent-oriented literature on charismatic leadership has been fragmented to date and lacks theoretical integ

  5. Teacher Behaviors--Do They Make a Difference? A Review of the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William R.

    1979-01-01

    The author highlights research findings on the behaviors and personal characteristics of teachers which raise student achievement. These include warmth, interpersonal communication skill, orderliness, flexibility, acceptance of students, and sincerity. (SJL)

  6. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics-A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence. PMID:26835016

  7. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics—A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization’s culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence. PMID:26835016

  8. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics-A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence.

  9. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Bariş O; Derksen, Jan J L

    2012-12-30

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially studies that use the 2D:4D ratio as a proxy for fetal testosterone. However, circulating testosterone consistently shows positive associations with antisocial behaviors throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, particularly in males. It is suggested that high fetal/circulating testosterone interactively influence the maturation and functionality of mesolimbic dopaminergic circuitry, right orbitofrontal cortex, and cortico-subcortical connectivity, resulting in a strong reward motivation, low social sensitivity, and dampened regulation of strong motivational/emotional processes. The link between these testosterone induced endophenotypes and actual display of antisocial behavior is strongly modulated by different social (e.g., social rejection, low SES) and genetic (e.g., MAOA, 5HTT) risk factors that can disturb socio-, psycho-, and biological development and interact with testosterone in shaping behavior. When these additional risk factors are present, the testosterone induced endophenotypes may increase the risk for a chronic antisocial lifestyle. However, behavioral endophenotypes induced by testosterone can also predispose towards socially adaptive traits such as a strong achievement motivation, leadership, fair bargaining behaviors, and social assertiveness. These adaptive traits are more likely to emerge when the high testosterone individual has positive social experiences that promote prosocial behaviors such as strong and secure attachments with his caregivers, affiliation with prosocial peers, and sufficient socioeconomic resources. A theoretical model is presented, various hypotheses are examined, and future venues for research are discussed.

  10. Control of stress and violent behavior: mid-course review of the 1990 health objectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, M M; Lalley, T L; Rosenberg, M L; Smith, J. C.; Parron, D; Jacobs, J.

    1988-01-01

    Control of stress and violent behavior is 1 of the 15 priority areas addressed in the 1990 health objectives for the nation. For control of stress, improved awareness of appropriate community service agencies and increased scientific knowledge of stress effects are the main objectives. For control of violent behavior, the objectives focus on three major problems: (a) deaths from homicide among young black males, (b) adolescent suicide, and (c) child abuse. Since the last progress report, publ...

  11. Behavioral Competence as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hing Keung Ma

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral competence is delineated in terms of four parameters: (a) Moral and Social Knowledge, (b) Social Skills, (c) Positive Characters and Positive Attributes, and (d) Behavioral Decision Process and Action Taking. Since Ma's other papers in this special issue have already discussed the moral and social knowledge as well as the social skills associated in detail, this paper focuses on the last two parameters. It is hypothesized that the following twelve positive characters are highly rel...

  12. Credibility and Consumer Behavior of Islamic Bank in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Naufal BACHRI; Abdul RAHMAN LUBIS; NURDASILA; M. Shabri Abd. Majid

    2016-01-01

    The concept “credibility” has become significant attention from academics and practitioners because it played an important role in creating and maintaining consumer behavior. This study uses twenty- seven references relates to credibility, customer value, satisfaction, and loyalty. Several studies have discussed the relationship between credibility and consumer behavior and also elaborated dimensions of credibility. It also presented the shortcomings of current research and the trends for fut...

  13. Active Assistance Technology for Health-Related Behavior Change: An Interdisciplinary Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H.; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Background Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user exper...

  14. State of the art review of degradation processes in LMFBR materials. Volume II. Corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of materials exposed to Na in LMFBR service is reviewed. The degradation processes are discussed in sections on corrosion and mass transfer, erosion, wear and self welding, sodium--water reactions, and external corrosion. (JRD)

  15. A Review of Mating Behavior in Ladybeetles%瓢虫交配行为的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪; 申智慧; 张帆; 廖启荣

    2012-01-01

    Many species of Coccinellidae are important predatory enemies for many pest insects. In this paper, the authors reviewed the advances on mating behavior of ladybeetles, and shed light on partner recog-nization, partner selection,process of mating,post-copulatory guardingetc. Furthermore, some problems and prospects on mating behavior in ladybeetles were also dicussed herein.%瓢虫科多数种类是许多重要害虫的捕食性天敌.本文综述了瓢虫科昆虫的交配行为,重点就瓢虫的交配识别、交配选择、交配过程和多次交配等方面进行总结,并对存在的问题以及研究展望进行探讨.

  16. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seyffert

    Full Text Available Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings.We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials.Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis.We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001 with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017 compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004. The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013 in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to 48 weeks after post

  17. Behavioral Competence as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral competence is delineated in terms of four parameters: (a Moral and Social Knowledge, (b Social Skills, (c Positive Characters and Positive Attributes, and (d Behavioral Decision Process and Action Taking. Since Ma’s other papers in this special issue have already discussed the moral and social knowledge as well as the social skills associated in detail, this paper focuses on the last two parameters. It is hypothesized that the following twelve positive characters are highly related to behavioral competence: humanity, intelligence, courage, conscience, autonomy, respect, responsibility, naturalness, loyalty, humility, assertiveness, and perseverance. Large-scale empirical future studies should be conducted to substantiate the predictive validity of the complete set of these positive characters. The whole judgment and behavioral decision process is constructed based on the information processing approach. The direction of future studies should focus more on the complex input, central control, and output subprocesses and the interactions among these sub-processes. The understanding of the formation of behavior is crucial to whole-person education and positive youth development.

  18. The relationship between sleep and behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Simonne; Conduit, Russell; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw; Cornish, Kim M

    2014-01-01

    Although there is evidence that significant sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that poor sleep exacerbates problematic daytime behavior, such relationships have received very little attention in both research and clinical practice. Treatment guidelines to help manage challenging behaviors in ASD fail to mention sleep at all, or they present a very limited account. Moreover, limited attention is given to children with low-functioning autism, those individuals who often experience the most severe sleep disruption and behavioral problems. This paper describes the nature of sleep difficulties in ASD and highlights the complexities of sleep disruption in individuals with low-functioning autism. It is proposed that profiling ASD children based on the nature of their sleep disruption might help to understand symptom and behavioral profiles (or vice versa) and therefore lead to better-targeted interventions. This paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current knowledge and proposes areas that are important for future research. Treating disordered sleep in ASD has great potential to improve daytime behavior and family functioning in this vulnerable population.

  19. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients’ lifestyle behavior. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  20. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  1. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hackman CL; Knowlden AP

    2014-01-01

    Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interven...

  2. Socially Desirable Fast Moving Consumer Goods - A Literature Review on How To Decrease the Gap Between Intention & Purchase Behavior Through Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Mikael; Löfvenberg, Sara-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Authors: Mikael Forsberg and Sara-Maria Löfvenberg Tutor: Susanne Åberg Title: Socially Desirable Fast Moving Consumer Goods – A Literature Review on How To Decrease the Gap Between Intention & Purchase Behavior Through Marketing Keywords Branding, Consumer Behavior, Consumer Value Creation, Decision-making, Differentiation, Eco, Ecological, Environmentally Conscious Behavior, Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), Green Consumer, Green Marketing, In-store marketing, Marketing, Organ...

  3. Testimony of David Yardas, water resources analyst Environmental Defense Fund on the contemporary needs and management of the Newlands Reclamation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the testimony of David Yardas, water resource analyst for the Environmental Defense Fund, concerning the contemporary needs and management of federal...

  4. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN INVESTORS' DECISION: STUDIES REVIEW FROM 2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Antônio Cabral de Ávila

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents a survey of researches that, through the employment of theoretical precepts, laboratory tests or empiric studies, in the period from 2006 to 2015, related themselves to the examination of anomalies' incidences or irrational effects which affect people's choices on investment decisions. Despite the temporal delimitation, it was set about the seminal study of Kahneman and Tversky, published in 1979, which brings considerations about Perspective Theory, in opposite to Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH. The used methodology is exploratory and bibliographic, employing a sample composed by international journals of Finances area, besides journals in Accounting and Management in Brazil. A subdivision in the format of findings presentation was carried out, separating those which treat theoretical precepts and laboratory tests, nevertheless linked to possible practical effects - depicted as studies of behavioral incidences, evidences and tendencies - from those which seek empirical evidences greatly related to market operations, identified as studies of behavioral precepts applied to market. In conclusion, it was possible to identify that international researches are more focused on the understanding of behavioral phenomena and their impacts in stock market, while Brazilian studies concentrate on replications of seminal study or identification of biases and specific samples, presenting low possibilities for results' generalization. This occurs due to the lack of deepening and narrow scope of the investigations. Therefore, it's open a great variety of possibilities for studies, notably in fields such as domestic finances, behavioral effects among Latin American countries, standardization of behavior inside organizations, correlation among several biases, identification of other behavioral effects which interfere financial and economic scenery, mainly if the researches involve real market data.

  5. Suicide Behaviors in Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Update for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Weisler, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    Suicide behaviors (ideation, attempts, and completions) are unfortunately common in patients with bipolar disorder. It is estimated that 25 to 50% attempt suicide at least once during their lifetime, and 6% to 19% complete suicide. Risk factors include a family history of suicide, previous suicide attempts, younger age of onset, comorbid psychiatric illnesses, and psychological constructs like hopelessness. Pharmacologic treatment may impact suicidal behaviors, either increasing vulnerability or resilience. Clinicians need to be particularly sensitive to their patient's thoughts and beliefs about death, particularly during stressful times of life or when in a depressive/mixed episode of bipolar disorder.

  6. Analyst Independence and Earnings Management%分析师独立性与盈余管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江轩宇; 于上尧

    2012-01-01

    Using A-share listed companies from 2003 to 2010 as the sample,this paper analyzes the influence of analyst independence to corporate governance from the perspective from earnings management.The authors find that firms followed by more analysts manage their earnings less.Further,the existence of independent analysts and increase of their proportion can lead corporation to reduce earnings management more likely.However,these above effects are just significant in observations with positive discretionary accruals.The empirical results are broadly consistent with the argument.This paper has important implications for the policy-making of regulators in China.%以2003~2010年的A股上市公司为样本,从盈余管理的视角考察了分析师独立性对公司治理效应的影响。研究发现:分析师跟踪与盈余管理水平显著负相关;与投行分析师相比,独立分析师抑制盈余管理的作用更明显;在区分盈余管理方向后,分析师跟踪及其独立性对盈余管理的抑制作用在正向盈余管理样本中更为显著。这些研究结论对于加强证券分析师队伍建设,强化其市场信息中介职能,提高上市公司的治理水平,具有一定的理论价值和现实启示。

  7. Conserving analyst attention units: use of multi-agent software and CEP methods to assist information analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey; McNeese, Michael; Hall, David

    2013-05-01

    Although the capability of computer-based artificial intelligence techniques for decision-making and situational awareness has seen notable improvement over the last several decades, the current state-of-the-art still falls short of creating computer systems capable of autonomously making complex decisions and judgments in many domains where data is nuanced and accountability is high. However, there is a great deal of potential for hybrid systems in which software applications augment human capabilities by focusing the analyst's attention to relevant information elements based on both a priori knowledge of the analyst's goals and the processing/correlation of a series of data streams too numerous and heterogeneous for the analyst to digest without assistance. Researchers at Penn State University are exploring ways in which an information framework influenced by Klein's (Recognition Primed Decision) RPD model, Endsley's model of situational awareness, and the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model can be implemented through a novel combination of Complex Event Processing (CEP) and Multi-Agent Software (MAS). Though originally designed for stock market and financial applications, the high performance data-driven nature of CEP techniques provide a natural compliment to the proven capabilities of MAS systems for modeling naturalistic decision-making, performing process adjudication, and optimizing networked processing and cognition via the use of "mobile agents." This paper addresses the challenges and opportunities of such a framework for augmenting human observational capability as well as enabling the ability to perform collaborative context-aware reasoning in both human teams and hybrid human / software agent teams.

  8. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

  9. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  10. ON THE ANALYST'S IDENTIFICATION WITH THE PATIENT: THE CASE OF J.-B. PONTALIS AND G. PEREC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Henry P

    2016-01-01

    The writer Georges Perec was in psychoanalysis with Jean-Bertrand Pontalis for four years in the early 1970s. In this essay, the author presents the exceptional interest this analyst took in this patient and the ways in which that interest manifested itself in his work, psychoanalytic and otherwise. Many correlative factors suggest that identificatory processes persisted beyond the treatment and were maintained into Pontalis's later life. While this paper is primarily intended to provide evidence to support this view of a specific case, the author closes by reflecting that this may be a more general phenomenon and the reasons for this. PMID:26784718

  11. A Review of Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Aggression in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Julie; Healy, Olive

    2011-01-01

    Aggression can present as a significant problem behavior in individuals with a diagnosis of developmental disability. Much research has focused on the prevalence of aggression in individuals with varying degrees of severity of intellectual disability (AD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and co-morbidity of ID and ASD. Research has also focused on…

  12. A review of similarities between domain-specific determinants of four health behaviors among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.H. Peters; C.H. Wiefferink; F. Hoekstra; G.J. Buijs; G.T.M. ten Dam; T.G.W.M. Paulussen

    2009-01-01

    Schools are overloaded with health promotion programs that, altogether, focus on a broad array of behavioral domains, including substance abuse, sexuality and nutrition. Although the specific content of programs varies according to the domain focus, programs usually address similar concepts: knowled

  13. The Concept of Employee Engagement: A Comprehensive Review from a Positive Organizational Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Chang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Employee engagement has been understood from various academic and practical perspectives, mainly due to its recent popularity. This study explores not only positive movements--positive psychology, positive organizational scholarship (POS), and positive organizational behavior (POB)--as a background of engagement but also the conceptualization,…

  14. Universals of Nonverbal Behavior: A Review of Literature and Statement of Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Patrick H.

    Universals in nonverbal behavior represent an important issue in the study of the cross-cultural communication. Perhaps the most well-known research in nonverbal universals was conducted by Paul Ekman, who examined literate and preliterate cultures from various language groups and identified six universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness,…

  15. Review of the Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum: Supervisory and Direct Support Editions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Don; George, Heather Peshak; Childs, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In the past several years, the values and practices of positive behavior support (PBS) have had a significant impact on services provided to adults and children with disabilities. Evidence of this impact can be seen in federal grants and laws such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA, 1997), a professional…

  16. Behavioral Interventions to Address Sleep Disturbances in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kylan S.; Johnson, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the adverse effects that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, these sleep problems also present significant challenges for the entire family. This article outlines the results of a…

  17. Internet-administered cognitive behavior therapy for health problems: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Andersson, G.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral interventions are the most extensively researched form of psychological treatment and are increasingly offered through the Internet. Internet-based interventions may save therapist time, reduce waiting-lists, cut traveling time, and reach populations with health problems who can

  18. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy…

  19. The Association between Adolescent Sexting, Psychosocial Difficulties, and Risk Behavior: Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-01-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…

  20. Behavioral treatment of chronic skin-picking in individuals with developmental disabilities: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.; Didden, H.C.M.; Machalicek, W.A.; Rispoli, M.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Mulloy, A.; Regester, A.; Pierce, N.; Kang, S.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in indiv

  1. Children and Aerobic Exercise: A Review of Cognitive and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, M. Cay; Labbe, Elise E.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes and critiques 16 studies involving the cognitive and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise on children in both schools and clinical settings. Concludes that few studies concurrently measure physical and psychological changes that may accompany exercise in children and suggests methods for further investigation. (SW)

  2. In-Service Training of Teachers as Behavior Modifiers: Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eachus, Herbert Todd

    The basic principles of operant and classical conditioning are presented, and their applications for the in-service training of teachers are discussed. Certain classroom behaviors are analyzed and applied to the classic stimulus-response paradigm. Activities are generically classified as positive or negative reinforcers and these reinforcers, in…

  3. A Review on Breathing Behaviors of Metal-Organic-Frameworks (MOFs for Gas Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mays Alhamami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs are a new class of microporous materials that possess framework flexibility, large surface areas, “tailor-made” framework functionalities, and tunable pore sizes. These features empower MOFs superior performances and broader application spectra than those of zeolites and phosphine-based molecular sieves. In parallel with designing new structures and new chemistry of MOFs, the observation of unique breathing behaviors upon adsorption of gases or solvents stimulates their potential applications as host materials in gas storage for renewable energy. This has attracted intense research energy to understand the causes at the atomic level, using in situ X-ray diffraction, calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. This article is developed in the following order: first to introduce the definition of MOFs and the observation of their framework flexibility. Second, synthesis routes of MOFs are summarized with the emphasis on the hydrothermal synthesis, owing to the environmental-benign and economically availability of water. Third, MOFs exhibiting breathing behaviors are summarized, followed by rationales from thermodynamic viewpoint. Subsequently, effects of various functionalities on breathing behaviors are appraised, including using post-synthetic modification routes. Finally, possible framework spatial requirements of MOFs for yielding breathing behaviors are highlighted as the design strategies for new syntheses.

  4. The Impact of Ranking Information on Students’ Behavior and Performance in Peer Review Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the potential of usage and ranking information in increasing student engagement in a double-blinded peer review setting, where students are allowed to select freely which/how many peer works to review. The study employed 56 volunteering sophomore students majoring in Informatics...... attitude towards ranking were more engaged and outperformed their fellow students in their group....... and Telecommunications Engineering. We performed a controlled experiment, grouping students into 3 study conditions: control, usage data, usage and ranking data. Students in the control condition did not receive additional information. Students in the next two conditions were able to see their usage data (logins, peer...

  5. ABA and PBS: The Dangers in Creating Artificial Dichotomies in Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary Jane; DelPizzo-Cheng, Eliza; LaRue, Robert H.; Sloman, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and independence of Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) within the context of behavioral intervention. Specifically, behavior analysts have argued over whether PBS is subsumed within Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) or whether it can be considered a separate…

  6. Contingency Analysis of Caregiver Behavior: Implications for Parent Training and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    Parent training is often a required component of effective treatment for a variety of common childhood problems. Although behavior analysts have developed several effective parent-training technologies, we know little about the contingencies that affect parent behavior. Child behavior is one source of control for parent behavior that likely…

  7. Exercise training for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in people with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Philipe de Souto; Demougeot, Laurent; Pillard, Fabien; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Rolland, Yves

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessed the effects of exercise on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, including depression) in people with dementia (PWD). Secondary outcomes for the effects of exercise were mortality and antipsychotic use. Twenty studies were included in this review (n=18 in the meta-analysis). Most studies used a multicomponent exercise training (n=13) as intervention; the control group was often a usual care (n=10) or a socially-active (n=8) group. Exercise did not reduce global levels of BPSD (n=4. Weighted mean difference -3.884; 95% CI -8.969-1.201; I(2)=69.4%). Exercise significantly reduced depression levels in PWD (n=7). Standardized mean difference -0.306; 95% CI -0.571 to -0.041; I(2)=46.8%); similar patterns were obtained in sensitivity analysis performed among studies with: institutionalized people (p=0.038), multicomponent training (p=0.056), social control group (p=0.08), and low risk of attrition bias (p=0.11). Exploratory analysis showed that the principal BPSD (other than depression) positively affected by exercise was aberrant motor behavior. Exercise had no effect on mortality. Data on antipsychotics were scarce. In conclusion, exercise reduces depression levels in PWD. Future studies should examine whether exercise reduces the use (and doses) of antipsychotics and other drugs often used to manage BPSD.

  8. [Speech behavior and neurotic personality structure (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeppert, S

    1976-02-27

    Speech behavior of the patient and the analyst is considered with regard to the psychoanalytic situation and its regulating factors such as transference and countertransference. If the psychoanalytic situation is regarded as a means to investigate the patient and his symptoms, his verbal behavior seems to depend on the unconscious motives forming his neurotic personality structure. On the other hand, if the psychoanalytic situation is regarded as a communicative situation, the verbal behavior of the patient as well as of the analyst depends rather on their "here-and-now" transference relationship in certain phase of the psychoanalytic process.

  9. A literature review on how need-supportive behavior influences motivation in students with sensory loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haakma, Ineke; Janssen, Marleen; Minnaert, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the literature on the effects of need-supportive teaching on motivation, engagement, and educational outcomes of students with visual or hearing impairments or deafblindness. We searched literature for evidence relating to dimensions of need-supportive teaching, namely providing

  10. Assessment of Consultation and Intervention Implementation: A Review of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Reviews of treatment outcome literature indicate treatment integrity is not regularly assessed. In consultation, two levels of treatment integrity (i.e., consultant procedural integrity [CPI] and intervention treatment integrity [ITI]) provide relevant implementation data. Specifically, assessment of CPI and ITI are necessary to conclude (a)…

  11. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-08-15

    Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  12. Dysregulation of the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Review of Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Urošević, Snez̆ana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a call for increased research on bipolar disorder has been answered with methodologically diverse studies exploring goal striving, life events, cognitive style, decision-making, and neurobiological abnormalities in bipolar disorder. In order to further this spurt of research and to systematize our understanding of bipolar disorder, an integrative perspective is warranted. The behavioral approach system (BAS) dysregulation theory, proposed by Richard Depue and colleagues, prov...

  13. Fish behavior in relation to modeling fish passage through hydropower turbines: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Whitney, R.R.

    1997-06-01

    We evaluated the literature on fish behavior as it relates to passage of fish near or through hydropower turbines. The goal was to foster compatibility of engineered systems with the normal behavior patterns of fish species and life stages such that entrainment into turbines and injury in passage are minimized. We focused on aspects of fish behavior that could be used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of fish trajectories through turbine systems. Downstream-migrating salmon smolts are generally surface oriented and follow flow. Smolts orient to the ceilings of turbine intakes but are horizontally distributed more evenly, except as affected by intake-specific turbulence and vortices. Smolts often enter intakes oriented head-upstream. Non-salmonids are entrained episodically, suggesting accidental capture of schools (often of juveniles or in cold water) and little behavioral control during turbine passage. Models of fish trajectories should not assume neutral buoyancy throughout the time a fish passes through a turbine, largely because of pressure effects on swim bladders. Fish use their lateral line system to sense obstacles and change their orientation, but this sensory-response system may not be effective in the rapid passage times of turbine systems. A Effects of pre-existing stress levels on fish performance in turbine passage are not well known but may be important. There are practical limits of observation and measurement of fish and flows in the proximity of turbine runners that may inhibit development of information germane to developing a more fish-friendly turbine. We provide recommendations for CFD modelers of fish passage and for additional research. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  15. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of basic learning processes in sexual behavior, research on classical conditioning of the sexual response in humans is scarce. In the present paper, animal studies and studies in humans on the role of pavlovian conditioning on sexual responses are reviewed. Animal research shows robust, direct effects of conditioning processes on partner- and place preference. On the contrast, the empirical research with humans in this area is limited and earlier studies within this field are plagued by methodological confounds. Although recent experimental demonstrations of human sexual conditioning are neither numerous nor robust, sexual arousal showed to be conditionable in both men and women. The present paper serves to highlight the major empirical findings and to renew the insight in how stimuli can acquire sexually arousing value. Hereby also related neurobiological processes in reward learning are discussed. Finally, the connections between animal and human research on the conditionability of sexual responses are discussed, and suggestions for future directions in human research are given.

  16. Special Care Units and Traditional Care in Dementia: Relationship with Behavior, Cognition, Functional Status and Quality of Life - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen S. Kok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Special care facilities for patients with dementia gain increasing attention. However, an overview of studies examining the differences between care facilities with respect to their effects on behavior, cognition, functional status and quality of life is lacking. Results: Our literature search resulted in 32 studies published until October 2012. Overall, patients with dementia who lived at special care units (SCUs showed a significantly more challenging behavior, more agitation/aggression, more depression and anxiety, more cases of global cognitive impairment and a better psychosocial functioning. There was a tendency towards a better functional status in specialized care facilities, and a better quality of life was found in favor of the SCU group compared to the traditional nursing home (n-SCU group. Longitudinal studies showed an increased number of neuropsychiatric cases, more patients displaying deteriorating behavior and resistance to care as well as less decline in activities of daily living (ADL in the SCU group compared to the n-SCU group. Patients in small-scale, homelike SCUs showed more agitation and less ADL decline compared to SCU patients. Conclusion: This review shows that the patient characteristics in SCU and n-SCU settings and, to a minor extent, in SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU settings are different. Over time, there are differences between n-SCU, SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU facilities for some variables.

  17. 301 research topics from Skinner's book verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    1991-01-01

    Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior addresses some of the most important issues in human behavior. However, relatively few of the analyses presented by Skinner in Verbal Behavior have been subjected to an experimental analysis. The current list of topics was assembled in an effort to stimulate empirical research on verbal behavior. The list contains thirty research areas with ten topics suggested for each area. A final topic, education, is presented as a challenge to behavior analysts.

  18. Behavior Analysis: Thriving, But How About Its Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Fantino, Edmund

    2008-01-01

    Behavior analysis has been thriving by continuing to make important theoretical and empirical contributions to a wide array of problems, as well as by contributing to interdisciplinary research. Applied research in behavior analysis is flourishing. Despite these positive signs there may be an erosion of support for basic research in animal learning and behavior, including behavior analysis. Increased attention by behavior analysts to fundamental problems in areas of cognition, including decis...

  19. Antígona: palavra oracular (pura e palavra do analista Antigone: oracular word (pure and word of the analyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Marcon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Tenta-se aproximar a palavra oracular ou pura do adivinho Tirésias na tragédia Antígona de Sófocles da palavra do analista numa psicanálise. Faz-se tal aproximação por meio da apresentação das características comuns as duas palavras em questão (do analista e do adivinho: potência de suspensão do sentido e abertura a outros sentidos - enunciação - presentes num enunciado ou discurso racional ou argumentativo.The present article makes the oracular or pure word of the soothsayer Tiresias in the Sophocles Antigone close to the word of the analyst in psychoanalysis. It makes such approximation through the presentation of the common characteristics of both words (the one of the analyst and the one of the soothsayer: power of suspension of the sense and opening to other senses - enunciation - present in a declaration or in a rational or argumentative discourse.

  20. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C.O. Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words “anxiety”, “depression”, “implantable cardioverter”, “cognitive behavioral therapy” and “psychotherapy” was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011, and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  1. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  2. A REVIEW OF HUMAN ACTIVITY RECONGNITION AND BEHAVIOR UNDERSTANDING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.Revathi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey of activity recognition and understanding the behaviour of human activity in video sequence. The major goal of this paper is to provide a general review on the overall process of a surveillance system used in the current trend. Visual surveillance system is directed on automatic identification of events of interest, especially on tracking and classification of moving objects. The processing step of the video surveillance system includes the following stages: Surrounding model, object representation, object tracking, activity recognition and behaviour understanding. It describes techniques that use to define a general set of activities that are applicable to a wide range of scenes and environments in video sequence. The review methods used for real-time surveillance through a set of events for further analysis triggering, including virtual fencing, speed profiling, behaviour classification, anomaly detection, and object interaction.

  3. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Trenchard, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems including bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to ene...

  4. Parents' self-reported attachment styles: a review of links with parenting behaviors, emotions, and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-02-01

    For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents' adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review more than 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions.

  5. The Relationships between Symmetry and Attractiveness and Mating Relevant Decisions and Behavior: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    T. Joel Wade

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary theory based research shows that attractiveness is based on biological correlates that index appropriate estrogen and testosterone levels. Symmetry affects or plays a role in the perception of many of these correlates of attractiveness. Additionally, since attractiveness affects infidelity perception and reactions, sexual satisfaction, and personality perception, symmetry also affects these areas. This paper reviews the literature on symmetry showing how symmetry affects: the cor...

  6. The Relationships between Symmetry and Attractiveness and Mating Relevant Decisions and Behavior: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Joel Wade

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory based research shows that attractiveness is based on biological correlates that index appropriate estrogen and testosterone levels. Symmetry affects or plays a role in the perception of many of these correlates of attractiveness. Additionally, since attractiveness affects infidelity perception and reactions, sexual satisfaction, and personality perception, symmetry also affects these areas. This paper reviews the literature on symmetry showing how symmetry affects: the correlates of attractiveness, sexual satisfaction, personality, and infidelity perceptions and reactions.

  7. A review of the neural and behavioral consequences for unitizing emotional and neutral information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eMurray

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A special type of association, called a unitization, is formed when pieces of information are encoded as a single representation in memory (e.g., shirt and blue are encoded as a blue shirt; Graf & Schacter, 1989 and typically are later reactivated in memory as a single unit, allowing access to the features of multiple related stimuli at once (Bader et al., 2010; Diana et al., 2011. This review examines the neural processes supporting memory for unitizations and how the emotional content of the material may influence unitization. Although associative binding is typically reliant on hippocampal processes and supported by recollection, the first part of this review will present evidence to suggest that when two items are unitized into a single representation, memory for those bound items may be accomplished on the basis of familiarity and without reliance on the hippocampus. The second part of this review discusses how emotion may affect the processes that give rise to unitizations. Emotional information typically receives a mnemonic benefit over neutral information, but the literature is mixed on whether the presence of emotional information impedes or enhances the associative binding of neutral information (reviewed by Mather, 2007. It has been suggested that the way the emotional and neutral details are related together may be critical to whether the neutral details are enhanced or impeded (Mather, 2007; Mather & Sutherland, 2011. We focus on whether emotional arousal aides or inhibits the creation of a unitized representation, presenting preliminary data and future directions to test empirically the effects of forming and retrieving emotional and neutral unitizations.

  8. Effect of preterm birth on motor development, behavior, and school performance of school-age children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela S. Moreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to examine and synthesize the available knowledge in the literature about the effects of preterm birth on the development of school-age children. SOURCES: This was a systematic review of studies published in the past ten years indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, MEDLINE/BVS; LILACS/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycNET in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Observational and experimental studies that assessed motor development and/or behavior and/or academic performance and whose target-population consisted of preterm children aged 8 to 10 years were included. Article quality was assessed by the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scales; articles that did not achieve a score of 80% or more were excluded. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: the electronic search identified 3,153 articles, of which 33 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Only four studies found no effect of prematurity on the outcomes (two articles on behavior, one on motor performance and one on academic performance. Among the outcomes of interest, behavior was the most searched (20 articles, 61%, followed by academic performance (16 articles, 48% and motor impairment (11 articles, 33%. CONCLUSION: premature infants are more susceptible to motor development, behavior and academic performance impairment when compared to term infants. These types of impairments, whose effects are manifested in the long term, can be prevented through early parental guidance, monitoring by specialized professionals, and interventions.

  9. Megavitamin treatment of mental retardation in children: a review of effects on behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, B W

    1992-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many forms of vitamin supplementation have been proposed for the treatment of behavioral and cognitive disorders in children with mental retardation. Except for nutrient deficiencies and selected inborn errors of metabolism, the efficacy of these treatments has not been established. Therapeutic supplementation with vitamin B(6) in Down syndrome and folie acid in fragile X syndrome was attempted following the identification of apparent biochemical aberrations involving the nutrients. Double-blind controlled trials have revealed no evidence that B(6) treatment was effective in Down syndrome. Very limited evidence, only among prepubertal subjects, suggested that behaviors improved with folie acid treatment in fragile X syndrome. There is less clarity of the scientific rationales for various combinations of vitamins (or vitamins and minerals) that have been promoted according to the concept of orthomolecular medicine. Well-designed controlled studies, with data presented in conformity with generally accepted scientific standards, have not supported the efficacy of megadose supplementation with 1) multivitamins in cognitive disabilities or attention deficit disorders, or 2) multivitamins and minerals in Down syndrome or other forms of mental retardation. Insufficient data are available to support claims made for vitamin B(6) and magnesium supplementation in autism. Research in the larger field of nutrient-behavior research has reinforced the need for studies to be more rigorously designed and to draw on the expertise of multiple disciplines. Evidence of toxic effects of nutrients continues to accrue, reinforcing the fact that megadoses should not be used indiscriminately or without physician monitoring. For children with mental retardation generally, assuring that established nutritional needs are met warrants primary consideration. PMID:19630613

  10. Multifrequency Behavior of Microquasars in the GeV--TeV era: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch-Ramon, V

    2011-01-01

    Microquasars are X-ray binaries that present non-thermal radio jets. Efficient particle acceleration can take place in different regions of the jets of microquasars. The accelerated particles can emit gamma-rays via leptonic or hadronic processes, with a complex spectral and temporal behavior. The jet termination region can be also an efficient non-thermal emitter, as well as, in high-mass microquasars, the region of the binary system outside the jet. In this work, I briefly describe the physics behind the non-thermal emission observed in microquasars at different scales, focusing in the GeV and TeV bands.

  11. Systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy related treatments for victims of natural disasters: a worldwide problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pereira Lopes

    Full Text Available Natural disasters can have devastating consequences. Each year, about 225 million people are victims of natural disasters worldwide, and up to 13,5 million of these people can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in the first or second year following the disaster. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT is the first-choice treatment for this disorder. In order to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy for people who developed post traumatic stress disorder after natural disasters we conducted a systematic search of published studies. We used the terms reported below in the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, PILOTS and Scopus with no restrictions of language or publication date. Articles that described randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and non controlled studies on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy for individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder after exposure to a natural disaster were eligible for inclusion. The studies were required to use a standardized measure of effectiveness before and after the intervention and have a group of patients who had used cognitive-behavior therapy as the only intervention. Our search identified 820 studies, and 11 were selected for this review. These 11 studies involved 742 subjects, 10 related to earthquakes and 1 to a hurricane. The cognitive-behavior therapy techniques used were various: 7 studies used exposure therapy, 2 studies used problem solving, and the only 2 studies with adolescents used techniques including reconstructions and reprocessing of the traumatic experience. As limitations, the search involved only five electronic databases, no experts in the field were consulted, and the heterogeneity of the findings made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis. The results suggest the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy, particularly exposure techniques, for the treatment of post

  12. Angry Birds, Angry Children, and Angry Meta-Analysts: A Reanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Doi, Suhail A R

    2016-05-01

    Ferguson's (2015a) meta-analysis assessed a very important and controversial topic about children's mental health and video games. In response to the concerns raised by researchers about the appropriateness of the meta-analytical methods used by Ferguson; we decided to reanalyze the data and discuss two major misconceptions about meta-analysis. We argue that partial correlations can (and should) be meta-analyzed instead of zero-order bivariate correlations if the predictors included in the partial correlation represent a similar construct. We also discuss the fallacy by which the conventional meta-analytical model assumes that the studies' effect sizes came into being according to the same random effect construct used by the analysis. Our replication results using partial correlations, standardized (valid and reliable) outcomes, and an improved meta-analytical model (that does not assume a random effect is the mechanism of data generation) confirmed the main results of Ferguson's meta-analysis. There was a significant yet very small effect on aggressive behavior of exposure to both general, rp = 0.062, 95% CI [0.012, 0.112], and violent, rp = 0.055, 95% CI [0.019, 0.091], video games. A very small effect was seen on reduced prosocial behavior, but this was only in the general video game exposure category, rp = 0.072, 95% CI [0.045, 0.100]. PMID:27217253

  13. Angry Birds, Angry Children, and Angry Meta-Analysts: A Reanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Doi, Suhail A R

    2016-05-01

    Ferguson's (2015a) meta-analysis assessed a very important and controversial topic about children's mental health and video games. In response to the concerns raised by researchers about the appropriateness of the meta-analytical methods used by Ferguson; we decided to reanalyze the data and discuss two major misconceptions about meta-analysis. We argue that partial correlations can (and should) be meta-analyzed instead of zero-order bivariate correlations if the predictors included in the partial correlation represent a similar construct. We also discuss the fallacy by which the conventional meta-analytical model assumes that the studies' effect sizes came into being according to the same random effect construct used by the analysis. Our replication results using partial correlations, standardized (valid and reliable) outcomes, and an improved meta-analytical model (that does not assume a random effect is the mechanism of data generation) confirmed the main results of Ferguson's meta-analysis. There was a significant yet very small effect on aggressive behavior of exposure to both general, rp = 0.062, 95% CI [0.012, 0.112], and violent, rp = 0.055, 95% CI [0.019, 0.091], video games. A very small effect was seen on reduced prosocial behavior, but this was only in the general video game exposure category, rp = 0.072, 95% CI [0.045, 0.100].

  14. US adolescents’ friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chan Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents’ risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents’ engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies’ methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents’ risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample. Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO. Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS. Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1–9. Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale’s mid-point.

  15. Navigating a Managed Care Peer Review: Guidance for Clinicians Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Children on the Autism Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatola, Kathleen J; Lustig, Stuart L

    2016-06-01

    As autism rates increase, providers of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) services are more frequently engaging with managed care companies to discuss the medical necessity of treatment. In an effort to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of these reviews, we draw upon our experience as peer reviewers for a managed care company to guide ABA providers in discussions with managed care on behalf of their patients. In this article, we first provide an overview of the managed care peer review process. We then discuss the elements of medical necessity that managed care companies ask about during the review process. Finally, we review specific strategies that ABA providers can use during the process to optimize authorizations for payment for services. Throughout the paper, we provide sample dialogues between providers and peer reviewers based on our experience working for a managed care company along with specific recommendations that we hope will ensure a more collegial and effective peer review process for all involved. PMID:27606250

  16. Nonpoint-source nitrogen and phosphorus behavior and modeling in cold climate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheng-Wei; Xu, Shi-Guo; Liu, Jian-Wei; Lian, Jian-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Pollution from nonpoint-source (NPS) nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the main causes of eutrophication in lotic, lentic and coastal systems. The climate of cold regions might play an important role in disturbing environmental behavior of NPS N and P, influencing simulation of watershed scale hydrologic and nonpoint-source pollution models. The losses of NPS N and P increase in regions of cold climate. In cold seasons, accumulations of N and P are accelerated in soil with increasing fine root and aboveground biomass mortality, decreasing plant nutrient uptake, as well as freezing soil. N and P transformation is disturbed by soil frost and snow. Moreover, factors such as physical disruption of soil aggregates, pollutant accumulation in snowpack, and snow melting can all increase the NPS N and P losses to the waterbody. Therefore, NPS N and P in first flush are more serious in cold climate. All these effects, especially frozen soil and snowpack, make great challenges to watershed scale hydrologic and nonpoint-source pollution models simulation in cold climate. Model improvements of snowmelt runoff, nutrient losses in frozen soil, as well as N and P behavior have been initiated and will be continued to evaluate in terms of their performances and suitability with different scale, hydrologic and geologic conditions in the future. PMID:21076213

  17. A review: study on the behavior of 137Cs in agricultural environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, study on the behavior of137Cs in agricultural environment was begun in 1960. Many papers on the behavior of 137Cs in soil-plant system and the estimation of 137Cs radioactivity in soil and food were published. The absorption, accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in plant, the relationship between absorption of 137Cs by plant and contaminating way and form, the 137Cs radioactivity in soil and food and its transfer coefficient in soil-plant system, the effects of the characters of soil and plant as well as the living stages on the transfer are concerned. The results show that the average radioactivity of 137Cs in soil of China is 10.45 Bq/kg, and the deposition densities decrease with the latitude decreasing. The transfer coefficient of 137Cs from soil to the agricultural products is about 0.12∼8.19 x 10-3. The distribution of 137Cs in rice plant is in the order of the root>glume>leaf>stem>rice. The radioactivity of aerial part accumulates mainly in the glume. The countermeasures to alleviate the adverse effects of 137Cs contamination need further study

  18. A systematic review of interventions in primary care to improve health literacy for chronic disease behavioral risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taggart Jane

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW. Methods A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings. We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australasian Medical Index, Google Scholar, Community of Science and four targeted journals (Patient Education and Counseling, Health Education and Behaviour, American Journal of Preventive Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Study inclusion criteria: Adults over 18 years; undertaken in a primary care setting within an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD country; interventions with at least one measure of health literacy and promoting positive change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or weight; measure at least one outcome associated with health literacy and report a SNAPW outcome; and experimental and quasi-experimental studies, cohort, observational and controlled and non-controlled before and after studies. Papers were assessed and screened by two researchers (JT, AW and uncertain or excluded studies were reviewed by a third researcher (MH. Data were extracted from the included studies by two researchers (JT, AW. Effectiveness studies were quality assessed. A typology of interventions was thematically derived from the studies by grouping the SNAPW interventions into six broad categories: individual motivational interviewing and counseling; group education; multiple interventions (combination of interventions; written materials; telephone coaching or counseling; and computer or web based interventions. Interventions were classified by intensity of contact with the subjects (High ≥ 8 points of contact

  19. The role of individual differences in shame-induced behavior: a review of the literature and investigation of the contribution of attachment individual differences in predicting prosocial behavior following shame

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana de Ascensão

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Psicologia das Emoções In this article I will review research on the role of individual differences in predicting shameinduced behavior. Shame emerges essentially from a perception that one is viewed as unattractive by others and serves the important evolutionary function of warning individuals that they may be rejected and excluded by others. To help people deal with the threat of rejection, shame is postulated to motivate them to engage in socially valued behavior...

  20. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed.

  1. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed. PMID:26902519

  2. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems that include bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to energy saving mechanisms, including convective processes that can be observed in many systems over both short and long time scales, as well as high collective output processes in which a form of collective position locking occurs. PMID:27288936

  3. Changes in physiological and behavioral parameters of preterm infants undergoing body hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Patrícia de; Marques, Silvia Rezende; Alves, Taisy Bezerra; Takahashi, Juliana; Kimura, Amélia Fumiko

    2014-08-01

    Objective To verify the effect of bathing on the body temperature of preterm infants (PTI). Method Systematic review conducted in the following bibliographic electronic sources: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde/Lilacs (BVS), Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science, using a combination of search terms, keywords and free terms. The review question was adjusted to the PICO acronym (Patient/population, Intervention, Control/comparative intervention, Outcome). The selected publications were evaluated according to levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for efficacy/effectiveness studies, as established by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results Eight hundred and twenty four (824) publications were identified and four studies met the inclusion criteria, of which three analyzed the effect of sponge baths and the effect of immersion baths. Conclusion Sponge baths showed a statistically significant drop in body temperature, while in immersion baths the body temperature remained stable, although they studied late preterm infants.

  4. Management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons: systematic literature review of evidence-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Emma; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze existing literature testing the effectiveness of programs involving the management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons. For the study, 545 English-language articles published in peer reviewed journals were retrieved using the terms "suicid*," "prevent*," "prison," or "correctional facility" in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, and Web of Knowledge. In total, 12 articles were relevant, with 6 involving multi-factored suicide prevention programs, and 2 involving peer focused programs. Others included changes to the referral and care of suicidal inmates, staff training, legislation changes, and a suicide prevention program for inmates with Borderline Personality Disorder. Multi-factored suicide prevention programs appear most effective in the prison environment. Using trained inmates to provide social support to suicidal inmates is promising. Staff attitudes toward training programs were generally positive. PMID:24611725

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic therapy for depression in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cheng-Long; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Chen, Jie; Lin, Hua-Zhen; Chen, Yi-He; Pan, Jia-Lin; Wang, Wen-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Numerous practice guidelines have recommended cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy as a treatment of choice for depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, no recent meta-analysis has examined the effects of brief psychotherapy (which includes both CBT and psychodynamic therapy) for adult depression in PD. We decided to conduct such a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of brief psychotherapy compared with control groups, other support nursing, or pharmacotherapy. The quality of included studies was strictly evaluated. Twelve studies including 766 patients met all inclusion criteria. The result showed that brief psychotherapy could evidently improve the HAMD (p depression in PD patients. But one reason to undermine the validity of findings is high clinical heterogeneity and low methodological quality of the included trials.

  6. A Review on Driving Behavior Models%驾驶行为模型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段冀阳; 李志忠

    2012-01-01

    驾驶员行为模型的研究对于预测和干预驾驶员的风险行为、设计相关的道路安全设施与车内设备,以及制定交通法律法规等具有重要的意义.为了解和掌握学术界关于驾驶行为模型的研究进展,搜集、筛选和归纳了1960-2010年被SCI数据库索引的相关文章,将驾驶行为模型分类为描述性模型、信息处理模型、动机模型、计划行为理论(TPB)和躯体标识假设,并对每种模型进行评述和总结,理清这些模型间的内在联系.研究发现,现有各模型只是从某个角度研究驾驶员行为的部分特征,而不能解释驾驶员的全部行为.今后应不断完善和整合各类模型,并借鉴心理学、生理学和行为科学等相关领域的理论、知识,使驾驶行为模型变得更为实用、有效.%The research on driving behavior models could be useful for the prediction and intervention of risky behavior of drivers, the design of road facilities and in-vehicle equipment, and the improvement of traffic regulations. Relevant articles indexed by Web of Science from 1960 to 2010 were collected for the review of the development of driver behavior models, including descriptive models, information processing models, motivational models, TPB model and Somatic marker hypothesis. Summary and comments were given to those models which were widely cited, along with the internal relationships among these models. It is concluded that each of these models can only partly explain driving behaviors, thus much effort should be spent on their continuous improvement, integration, and the introduction of new findings from psychology , physiology, behavior science, and other related disciplines, so that they would become more practical and effective.

  7. 校园欺负行为研究述评%Campus Bullying Behavior Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳; 赵婷

    2015-01-01

    Campus bullying and intervention becomes urgent issue of the current researchers. Through literature review, this study describes the theoretical basis campus bullying and research methods to analyze the causes of school bullying and in-tervention strategies, discuss future research directions.%校园欺负行为及其干预日益成为当前研究者关注的迫切性问题。通过文献回顾,本研究介绍了校园欺负行为的理论依据和研究方法,分析了校园欺负行为的成因与干预策略,讨论了未来的研究方向。

  8. A Review of Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Increased Carbon Dioxide Exposure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Aleksandra; Alexander, David; Oman, Charles M.; Schneiderman, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Existing research has reliably demonstrated the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation at moderately increased levels, with documented physiological changes to heart rate, blood pressure, tissue pH, and blood solubility (for a review of the human health risks of acute elevated CO2 exposure, see Rice, 2004). Studies of indoor air quality have linked increased levels of ambient CO2 with physiological symptoms such as headache, fatigue, and sore throat (Apte et al., 2000; Seppanen et al., 1999; Wargocki et al., 2000). High levels of CO2 (35%) have reliably resulted in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and subjective anxiety responses in healthy individuals (Argyropoulos et al., 2002), as well as panic attack-like symptoms (Colasanti et al., 2008; Griez et al., 2007) and experiences of physiological stress (Consolazio & Fisher, 1947; Kaye et al., 2004). While significant neurological findings correspond to high levels of CO2 exposure, less clinically significant cognitive effects may occur at a much lower level. These cognitive changes and the exposure thresholds at which they occur are less well established than their physiological counterparts; this paper, therefore, reviews the existing literature on the cognitive, neurological, and psychomotor effects of increased CO2 exposure, with the objective of identifying research areas in which further investigation remains necessary. In particular, this investigation is motivated by the chronic exposure to elevated ambient CO2 concentrations experienced by astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS), and the CO2 exposure-related symptoms that have been reported by astronauts on orbit (James, 2007; Law & Watkins, 2009). Such exposure may negatively affect crew health and operations, including mission safety and the successful completion of scientific goals.

  9. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  10. A Review of Training Methods and Instructional Techniques: Implications for Behavioral Skills Training in U.S. Astronauts (DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J.; Galarza, Laura; Holland, Albert W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-duration space missions (LDM) place unique physical, environmental and psychological demands on crewmembers that directly affect their ability to live and work in space. A growing body of research on crews working for extended periods in isolated, confined environments reveals the existence of psychological and performance problems in varying degrees of magnitude. The research has also demonstrated that although the environment plays a cathartic role, many of these problems are due to interpersonal frictions (Wood, Lugg, Hysong, & Harm, 1999), and affect each individual differently. Consequently, crewmembers often turn to maladaptive behaviors as coping mechanisms, resulting in decreased productivity and psychological discomfort. From this body of research, critical skills have been identified that can help a crewmember better navigate the psychological challenges of long duration space flight. Although most people lack several of these skills, most of them can be learned; thus, a training program can be designed to teach crewmembers effective leadership, teamwork, and self-care strategies that will help minimize the emergence of maladaptive behaviors. Thus, it is the purpose of this report is twofold: 1) To review the training literature to help determine the optimal instructional methods to use in delivering psychological skill training to the U.S. Astronaut Expedition Corps, and 2) To detail the structure and content of the proposed Astronaut Expedition Corps Psychological Training Program.

  11. Effects of music therapy on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Tomomi; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Sato, Mai; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2013-03-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common problems for patients and caregivers. Although music therapy is considered a non-pharmacological intervention for the management of BPSD, its effectiveness remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of music therapy on BPSD, cognitive function, and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi. We selected 20 studies, including randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, cohort studies, and controlled trials, and conducted a meta-analysis using standardized mean differences (SMD). The results showed that music therapy had moderate effects on anxiety [SMD, -0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.05 - -0.24; p=0.002] and small effects on behavioral symptoms (SMD, -0.49; 95% CI, -0.82 - -0.17; p=0.003). In studies of duration >3 months, music therapy had large effects on anxiety (SMD, -0.93; 95% CI, -1.72 - -0.13; p=0.02). The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that music therapy is effective for the management of BPSD. PMID:23511664

  12. Effects of music therapy on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Tomomi; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Sato, Mai; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2013-03-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common problems for patients and caregivers. Although music therapy is considered a non-pharmacological intervention for the management of BPSD, its effectiveness remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of music therapy on BPSD, cognitive function, and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi. We selected 20 studies, including randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, cohort studies, and controlled trials, and conducted a meta-analysis using standardized mean differences (SMD). The results showed that music therapy had moderate effects on anxiety [SMD, -0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.05 - -0.24; p=0.002] and small effects on behavioral symptoms (SMD, -0.49; 95% CI, -0.82 - -0.17; p=0.003). In studies of duration >3 months, music therapy had large effects on anxiety (SMD, -0.93; 95% CI, -1.72 - -0.13; p=0.02). The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that music therapy is effective for the management of BPSD.

  13. Altered diurnal pattern of steroid hormones in relation to various behaviors, external factors and pathologies: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collomp, K; Baillot, A; Forget, H; Coquerel, A; Rieth, N; Vibarel-Rebot, N

    2016-10-01

    The adrenal and gonadal stress steroids [i.e., cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] have gathered considerable attention in the last few decades due to their very broad physiological and psychological actions. Their diurnal patterns have become a particular focus following new data implicating altered diurnal hormone patterns in various endocrine, behavioral and cardiovascular risk profiles. In this review of the current literature, we present a brief overview of the altered diurnal patterns of these hormones that may occur in relation to chronic stress, nutritional behaviors, physical exercise, drugs and sleep deprivation/shift. We also present data on the altered diurnal hormone patterns implicated in cardiometabolic and psychiatric/neurologic diseases, cancer and other complex pathologies. We consider the occasionally discrepant results of the studies, and summarize the current knowledge in this new field of interest, underlining the potential effects on both biological and psychological functioning, and assess the implications of these effects. Last, we conclude with some practical considerations and perspectives. PMID:27235338

  14. Multipacting simulation and analysis of a taper quarter wave cavity by using Analyst-PT3P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cong; HE Yuan; ZHAO Hong-Wei; ZHANG Sheng-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Since the tapered quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity is proven to have a much lower peak surface magnetic field in the short plate and a lower peak surface electric field near the beam tube compared with the straight outer conductor QWR,it has been recommended for the separated sector cyclotron linac injector system in the heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou.This paper is focused on the multipacting (MP)analysis for the tapered QWR with a frequency of 80.5 MHz and beta of 0.085.Using the Analyst program,MP bands can be simulated and analyzed with the Particle Tracking module to identify potential problems in the cavity design.This paper will present the simulation results of MP for the tapered QWR cavity.

  15. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  16. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldina F Gaastra; Yvonne Groen; Lara Tucha; Oliver Tucha

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined) that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior...

  17. The relationship between teacher responsiveness and the engagement of children with aggressive behavior in preschool : A systematic literature review from 2000-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulou, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    The importance of aggressive behavior in preschool ages can be seen from the serious impact it has later in children's lives if a suitable change will not take place. the number of children with behavioral rpoblems in preschool are increasing with a great amount of teachers admitting that they are insufficiently prepared to manage it. The aim of this systematic literature review is to examine the evidence of teacher responsiveness affecting child engagement, with specific focus on children fr...

  18. The ability of analysts' recommendations to predict optimistic and pessimistic forecasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Biglari

    Full Text Available Previous researches show that buy (growth companies conduct income increasing earnings management in order to meet forecasts and generate positive forecast Errors (FEs. This behavior however, is not inherent in sell (non-growth companies. Using the aforementioned background, this research hypothesizes that since sell companies are pressured to avoid income increasing earnings management, they are capable, and in fact more inclined, to pursue income decreasing Forecast Management (FM with the purpose of generating positive FEs. Using a sample of 6553 firm-years of companies that are listed in the NYSE between the years 2005-2010, the study determines that sell companies conduct income decreasing FM to generate positive FEs. However, the frequency of positive FEs of sell companies does not exceed that of buy companies. Using the efficiency perspective, the study suggests that even though buy and sell companies have immense motivation in avoiding negative FEs, they exploit different but efficient strategies, respectively, in order to meet forecasts. Furthermore, the findings illuminated the complexities behind informative and opportunistic forecasts that falls under the efficiency versus opportunistic theories in literature.

  19. The Ability of Analysts' Recommendations to Predict Optimistic and Pessimistic Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Vahid; Alfan, Ervina Binti; Ahmad, Rubi Binti; Hajian, Najmeh

    2013-01-01

    Previous researches show that buy (growth) companies conduct income increasing earnings management in order to meet forecasts and generate positive forecast Errors (FEs). This behavior however, is not inherent in sell (non-growth) companies. Using the aforementioned background, this research hypothesizes that since sell companies are pressured to avoid income increasing earnings management, they are capable, and in fact more inclined, to pursue income decreasing Forecast Management (FM) with the purpose of generating positive FEs. Using a sample of 6553 firm-years of companies that are listed in the NYSE between the years 2005–2010, the study determines that sell companies conduct income decreasing FM to generate positive FEs. However, the frequency of positive FEs of sell companies does not exceed that of buy companies. Using the efficiency perspective, the study suggests that even though buy and sell companies have immense motivation in avoiding negative FEs, they exploit different but efficient strategies, respectively, in order to meet forecasts. Furthermore, the findings illuminated the complexities behind informative and opportunistic forecasts that falls under the efficiency versus opportunistic theories in literature. PMID:24146741

  20. Behavioral Issues Associated With Long Duration Space Expeditions: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struster, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Personal journals maintained by NASA astronauts during six-month expeditions onboard the International Space Station were analyzed to obtain information concerning a wide range of behavioral and human factors issues. Astronauts wrote most about their work, followed by outside communications (with mission control, family, and friends), adjustment to the conditions, interactions with crew mates, recreation/leisure, equipment (installation, maintenance), events (launches, docking, hurricanes, etc.), organization/management, sleep, and food. The study found evidence of a decline in morale during the third quarters of the missions and identified key factors that contribute to sustained adjustment and optimal performance during long-duration space expeditions. Astronauts reported that they benefited personally from writing in their journals because it helped maintain perspective on their work and relations with others. Responses to questions asked before, during, and after the expeditions show that living and working onboard the ISS is not as difficult as the astronauts anticipate before starting their six-month tours of duty. Recommendations include application of study results and continuation of the experiment to obtain additional data as crew size increases and operations evolve.

  1. Non-suicidal self-injury and other self-directed violent behaviors in India: A review of definitions and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Amarendra; Luyckx, Koen; Maitra, Shubhada; Claes, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicide suggests that most forms of self-directed violent behaviors lie on a continuum, with each behavior successively increasing the capability of committing suicide. There is increasing evidence to suggest that the continuum may begin with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI). This theory can be important in developing interventions for suicide prevention. However, in India, consistent usage of definitions of various forms of self-directed violent behaviors is lacking. In the present study, we reviewed definitions of various forms of self-directed violent behaviors that have been investigated in India. Further, we compared the usage of these definitions with the usage by WHO. Additionally, we reviewed NSSI research in India. Thirty-eight publications were identified by a comprehensive electronic search undertaken in Indian psychiatry, psychology, and mental health-related databases. Inconsistent definitions of eight self-directed violent behaviors were observed in Indian literature. Agreement on consistent definitions of various forms of self-directed behaviors is essential. Based on the findings of the current review, it can be suggested that culturally relevant large-scale research on NSSI in India is required to confirm the limited evidence that suggests high prevalence of NSSI in India.

  2. Can analysts agree? The problems of consensus and the psychoanalytic mannequin: I. A proposed solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caston, J

    1993-01-01

    Psychoanalysis, plagued by lack of demonstrable consensus on clinical formulations, is as much endangered by overinflated agreement from stereotypical dynamic formulas: tests of psychoanalytic hypotheses derived from any such formulations may therefore rest on questionable foundations. The problems that give rise to artifactual overagreement or failure to reach agreement are here traced in earlier empirical psychoanalytic research. Review reveals that although new and inventive empirical strategies (applied in the last two decades) achieve adequate success in the area of agreement, they demonstrate little headway in ruling out that stereotypy may underlie such consensus. The present investigation offers a solution for testing agreement in complex clinical psychoanalytic propositions, in a way that sets up a "test of the mannequin": that is, whether stereotypical assumptions about the patient's dynamics are overridden (revised) by the specific character of a given patient's narrative. The mannequin concept introduces a new and epistemically crucial consideration in the making of psychodynamic formulations and is relevant to both empirically controlled and clinical contexts of observation and formulation. No psychoanalytic paradigm, whether classically ego-psychological, self-psychological, control-mastery, or object-relational, escapes this problem. PMID:8478519

  3. Effects of radionuclide decay on waste glass behavior: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    This paper is an extension of a chapter in an earlier report [1] that provides an updated review on the status of radiation damage problems in nuclear waste glasses. This report will focus on radiation effects on vitrified borosilicate nuclear waste glasses under conditions expected in the proposed Yucca mountain repository. Radiation effects on high-level waste glasses and their surrounding repository environment are important considerations for radionuclide immobilization because of the potential to alter the glass stability and thereby influence the radionuclide retentive properties of this waste form. The influence of radionuclide decay on vitrified nuclear waste may be manifested by several changes, including volume, stored energy, structure, microstructure, mechanical properties, and phase separation. Radiation may also affect the composition of aqueous fluids and atmospheric gases in relatively close proximity to the waste form. What is important to the radionuclide retentive properties of the repository is how these radiation effects collectively or individually influence the durability and radionuclide release from the glass in the event of liquid water contact.

  4. Treatment of behavioral sleep problems in children and adolescents – literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kaczor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To collect data on treatment of behavioural sleep disorders in children and adolescents. Materials and methods. A literature review based on the PUBMED database. Results. Based on the analysed materials three basic complementary procedures were identified – implementation of sleep hygiene, behavioural interventions and pharmacological treatment. The rules of sleep hygiene proven to be effective include: regular sleep schedule, adequately prepared place to sleep (a dark, quiet bedroom without multimedia, bedtime routine, avoiding caffeinated beverages. The following issues require further studies to confirm their effectiveness: falling asleep independently without parent’s assistance, bedtime reading, physical activity, reducing daytime multimedia use, tryptophan rich breakfasts. Behavioural interventions and pharmacological treatment may in some cases be temporarily implemented to complement the sleep hygiene. Conclusions. The implementation of sleep hygiene is a primary, fully acceptable to the child and parents, way to improve the baby sleep. In case of ineffectiveness of the proposed rules, those can be complemented with behavioural methods that are highly effective but some parents do not accept them or make mistakes in their introduction. Pharmacotherapy can be used as a temporary support for families with severe behavioural problems as an aid in the implementation of sleep hygiene and behavioural methods.

  5. Effects of radionuclide decay on waste glass behavior: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an extension of a chapter in an earlier report [1] that provides an updated review on the status of radiation damage problems in nuclear waste glasses. This report will focus on radiation effects on vitrified borosilicate nuclear waste glasses under conditions expected in the proposed Yucca mountain repository. Radiation effects on high-level waste glasses and their surrounding repository environment are important considerations for radionuclide immobilization because of the potential to alter the glass stability and thereby influence the radionuclide retentive properties of this waste form. The influence of radionuclide decay on vitrified nuclear waste may be manifested by several changes, including volume, stored energy, structure, microstructure, mechanical properties, and phase separation. Radiation may also affect the composition of aqueous fluids and atmospheric gases in relatively close proximity to the waste form. What is important to the radionuclide retentive properties of the repository is how these radiation effects collectively or individually influence the durability and radionuclide release from the glass in the event of liquid water contact

  6. A Review of Sex Differences in Peer Relationship Processes: Potential Trade-offs for the Emotional and Behavioral Development of Girls and Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Amanda J.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2006-01-01

    Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls’ and boys’ development. This paper provides a critical review of sex differences in: several peer-relationship processes, including behavioral and social-cognitive styles, stress and coping, and relationship provisions. Based on this review, a speculative peer-socialization model is presented that considers...

  7. Analysts Tracking and the IPOs Price Performance%分析师跟踪和新上市公司股价表现研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 陈晓红

    2016-01-01

    基于2006年至2008年6月之间新上市公司数据,考量分析师跟踪和新上市公司股价表现,结果表明,分析师对公司的跟踪越多,说明分析师看好该公司,对某公司进行跟踪的分析师数量传递了分析师对公司价值未来的预期。利用 Fama-Frcnch 三因素模型的截距项表征新上市公司超额收益,发现超额分析师跟踪越多的公司其新股超额收益越大。%Using a sample of newly listed companies between 2006 and June of 2008,we study the factors that affect analysts tracking on IPOs,thus isolating the excess analysts tracking on companies after controlling the size,industry and other factors.Our hypothesis proposes that more of the tracking indicates more analysts hold optimistic estimations on the company,hence the number of analysts who keep track delivers their future expectations for a company.Utilizing the intercept term in the Fama-French three-factor model to represent the excess return of IPO companies,we find that the larger the excess analysts tracking the greater the IPO excess returns a company earns.This is consistent with our hypothesis,and this finding also shows that,to a certain extent,analysts tracking can improve corporate governance.

  8. Review on Residents' Behavior in Low- carbon Life%居民低碳生活行为研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪丽; 路正南; 王健

    2011-01-01

    从居民对低碳生活行为的态度倾向、影响居民低碳生活行为的内外部因素等方面综述国内外居民低碳生活行为研究进展.%This thesis reviews the behavior of domestic and foreign residents in low - carbon lives from the following aspects; the attitude trend of the residents to the behavior in low -carbon life, and the factors which influence residents' behavior in low - carbon life.

  9. Training department's role in human factor analysis during post-trip reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provide training is a frequent corrective action specified in a post-trip review report. This corrective action is most often decided upon by technical and operational staff, not training staff, without a detailed analysis of whether training can resolve the immediate problem or enhance employees' future performance. A more specific human factor or performance problem analysis would often reveal that training cannot impact or resolve the concern to avoid future occurrences. This human factor analysis is similar to Thomas Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model (Human Competence, McGraw-Hill, 1978) or Robert Mager's/Peter Pipe's Performance Analysis (Analyzing Performance Problems, Pitman Learning, 1984). At Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, training analysts participate in post-trip reviews in order to conduct or provide input to this type of human factor and performance problem analysis. Their goal is to keep provide training out of corrective action statements unless training can in fact impact or resolve the problem. The analysts follow a plant specific logic diagram to identify human factors and to identify whether changes to the environment or to the person would best resolve the concern

  10. A Review of Tc Geochemistry: The Behavior of an Artificial Element in the Natural Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99 (99Tc) is an element of concern for the environment due to its high solubility and low sorption potential (KD 5 a = annum), large scale production during fission of uranium fuel rods (6.06%), and moderate radiotoxicity. Nearly 290 metric tonnes of 99Tc have been produced worldwide (2008), and this number is roughly quadruple of that in 1994. The oxidized form of 99Tc is the pertechnetate anion [Tc(VII)O4-], which migrates in the subsurface at nearly the same velocity as groundwater. In reducing environments (4- anion is reduced to the quadra-valent state [Tc(IV)], especially in the presence of reducing agents, such as biogenic Fe(II) sorbed onto mineral surfaces. The heterogeneous surface-mediated reduction reaction occurs much more rapidly than the homogenous one and yields the relatively insoluble Tc(IV)O2.nH2O solid ([TcO(IV)(OH)20aq] = 10-8.2 mol/L). Thus, reduction of Tc(VII) can take place either through an indirect route via bio-generated Fe(II) or through direct enzymatic reduction by certain dissimilar metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) that couple the oxidation of H2 or organic molecules to reduction of metals. However, even for solutions in equilibrium with Tc(IV) solids, the activity of 99Tc is still above the Drinking Water Standard set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of 900 pCi/L. Recent investigations have shown that 99Tc(IV) can be immobilized either as a co-precipitate or a trace element in iron sulfides, hydrous iron oxy-hydroxides, or perhaps carbonates. This review explores the potential of sequestering Tc into solid phases and addresses the data gaps that must be closed in order to enable efficient subsurface remediation schemes. (authors)

  11. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a meta-analytic literature review Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a meta-analytic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Minelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder caused by a dysfunction of central nervous system sensitization. This syndrome is characterized by widespread pain and diffuse tenderness, but often also presents fatigue, sleep disturbances, and a whole range of symptoms such as morning stiffness, decreased physical function and dyscognition. FM is usually treated with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. The non-pharmacological interventions include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, physiotherapy, acupuncture and patient education programs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of CBT and compare it with other non-pharmacological treatments, we performed a review of the meta-analytic literature. We evaluated the methodological quality of publications found by following the recommendations of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data showed that CBT does not provide better results than other non-pharmacological treatments on outcomes of pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance and quality of life, at either a short or long-term evaluation. On the contrary, CBT seems to be more effective on symptoms of depression for a short period, whereas it considerably improves the pain self-management and reduces the number of visits to the doctor. The data currently available indicate that cost-effectiveness studies could help us to understand whether the reduction in the number of visits to the doctor could balance the cost of CBT to the health public system.Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder caused by a dysfunction of central nervous system sensitization. This syndrome is characterized by widespread pain and diffuse tenderness, but often also presents fatigue, sleep disturbances, and a whole range of symptoms such as morning stiffness, decreased physical function and dyscognition. FM is usually treated with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. The nonpharmacological interventions include

  12. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  13. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  14. The role of complex networks in behavior epidemiology. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai

    2015-12-01

    Outbreaks of disease can trigger spontaneous behavioral response of individuals to consider prevention measures (mainly including medical cure and non-pharmaceutical intervention), which usually in turn influence the diffusion of epidemic, namely, forming the interplay between individual behaviors and epidemic dynamics. During the past decade, understanding such coupled disease-behavior dynamics in population has become a critical tool for predicting the disease evolution and designing effective prevention strategies [1-3].

  15. Self-Management for Primary School Students Demonstrating Problem Behavior in Regular Classrooms: Evidence Review of Single-Case Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busacca, Margherita L.; Anderson, Angelika; Moore, Dennis W.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates self-management literature targeting problem behaviors of primary school students in general education settings. Thirty-one single-case design studies met inclusion criteria, of which 16 demonstrated adequate methodological rigor, according to What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) design standards. Visual analysis and WWC…

  16. Ethics Review for Social and Behavioral Sciences Research%社会学及行为学研究伦理审查特点概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 白桦; 胡晋红; 伍蓉; 刘海涛; 奚益群; 陆麒; 陈玉根; 王思成

    2015-01-01

    The social and behavioral research in promoting human health and the impact on human social relations and structures has been confirmed .With the development of social and behavioral science , the importance of ethics review for the research is also increased .Despite its uniqueness , the basic principles of ethics in social and behavioral research are consistent with other biomedical studies .This paper introduces ethics review points of social and behavioral research from the research design , risk and benefits , informed consent , deception and debriefing , expedited review , exemption of ethics review, privacy and confidentiality .This paper also introduces the relevant experiences from Europe and America giving references for the domestic professionals .%讨论社会学及行为学的研究对人类健康的促进作用,以及对人类社会关系和结构的影响,从研究设计、风险与受益、知情同意与欺瞒及事后说明、快速审查、免除伦理审查、隐私与保密等方面介绍社会学及行为学研究伦理审查特点,并介绍欧美一些国家相关审查经验,供国内专业人士参考。

  17. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : A Meta-Analytic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, Geraldina F; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of seve

  18. Evaluating Components of Behavior-Analytic Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blydenburg, Dana M; Diller, James W

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the consistency of behavior-analytic training with the Behavior Analysis Certification Board's task list. A survey about the content of behavior-analytic training programs was sent to Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB)-approved training program directors. There were many program directors that felt particular areas do not have sufficient coverage (e.g., Behavioral Pharmacology, Biological Bases of Behavior, Organizational Behavior Management), and several program directors reported that their course sequence does not adequately prepare students in basic research. Results suggest that the evaluation of behavior-analytic training content may be warranted. PMID:27606254

  19. 一分析师关注影响信息披露的及时性吗?--基于A股上市公司的经验证据%The Timeliness of Information Disclosure Is Influenced by Analyst Coverage:Empirical Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓玲; 涂士华; 胡欢

    2014-01-01

    证券分析师作为一种非正式的外部治理机制,在公司治理过程中发挥着重要作用。以2001-2012年中国A股上市公司为样本,实证检验分析师关注对信息披露及时性的影响。研究发现:样本期间,分析师的关注使得上市公司信息披露更加及时;区分审计意见类型,相对“非标”意见公司,分析师关注使得“标准”意见公司信息披露更加及时。该研究结论有助于加深对上市公司信息披露行为的理解,为分析师的外部监督职能研究提供增量证据。%As a kind of informal external governance mechanism, securities analysts play an important role in the process of corporate governance. This paper empirically analyzes the analyst coverage influence on the timeliness of information disclosure by taking 2002 to 2012 A-share listed companies as the sample. The findings suggest that the analyst coverage will make listed companies disclose information more timely. Distinguishing the audit opinion report type, further research shows that the analyst coverage will make the company with standard audit opinion disclose information more timely. The conclusions help to deepen our understanding of the listed companies’information disclosure behavior, providing incremental evidence for the research of analysts’external oversight function.

  20. U.S. and Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors toward dietary supplements: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.