WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior analysts review

  1. Analyst Forecasts and Herding Behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Trueman, Brett

    1994-01-01

    The use of analyst forecasts as proxies for investors' earnings expectations is commonplace in empirical research. An implicit assumption behind their use is that they reflect analysts' private information in an unbiased manner. As demonstrated here, this assumption is not necessarily valid. There is shown to be a tendency for analysts to release forecasts closer to prior earnings expectations than is appropriate, given their information. Further, analysts exhibit herding behavior, whereby th...

  2. A Review of Domestic Dogs' (Canis Familiaris) Human-Like Behaviors: Or Why Behavior Analysts Should Stop Worrying and Love Their Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Udell, Monique A.R; Wynne, C. D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs likely were the first animals to be domesticated and as such have shared a common environment with humans for over ten thousand years. Only recently, however, has this species' behavior been subject to scientific scrutiny. Most of this work has been inspired by research in human cognitive psychology and suggests that in many ways dogs are more human-like than any other species, including nonhuman primates. Behavior analysts should add their expertise to the study of dog behavior, both to...

  3. The Case for Licensure of Applied Behavior Analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Michael F.; Weinberg, Michael; Zane, Thomas; Guidi, Megan M

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the field of applied behavior analysis to a practice-oriented profession has created the need to ensure that the consumers of these services are adequately protected. We review the limitations of the current board certification process and present a rationale for the establishment of licensing standards for applied behavior analysts on a state-by-state basis. Recommendations for securing the passage of a licensure bill also are discussed.

  4. Behavioral Economics: A Tutorial for Behavior Analysts in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research i...

  5. Developing the Cultural Awareness Skills of Behavior Analysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth Hughes; Catagnus, Robyn M; Brodhead, Matthew T; Quigley, Shawn; Field, Sean

    2016-03-01

    All individuals are a part of at least one culture. These cultural contingencies shape behavior, behavior that may or may not be acceptable or familiar to behavior analysts from another culture. To better serve individuals, assessments and interventions should be selected with a consideration of cultural factors, including cultural preferences and norms. The purpose of this paper is to provide suggestions to serve as a starting point for developing behavior analysts' cultural awareness skills. We present strategies for understanding behavior analysts' personal cultural values and contingencies and those of their clients, integrating cultural awareness practices into service delivery, supervision, and professional development, and becoming culturally aware in everyday practice. PMID:27606242

  6. Determining essential content for applied behavior analyst practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Shook, Gerald L.; James M. Johnston; Mellichamp, Fae H.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the procedures and findings of a job-analysis study recently conducted by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board, Inc. (BACB) and considers some implications of the survey data collected during this process. The job analysis focused on the applied sector of the field of behavior analysis and limited its inquiry into matters of professional competencies and training. The results represent a unique sample of demographic information and valuable collection of opinions rega...

  7. An Invitation to Behavior Analysts: Review of in Search of Memory: The Emergence of A New Science of Mind by Eric R. Kandel

    OpenAIRE

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-01-01

    This fascinating autobiography and multifaceted case history in neuroscience research is accessible to laymen and potentially instructive to working scientists. Kandel takes the reader through his thought processes as he describes experiments that led to some of the past decades' major neuroscience discoveries (some highlights of which are summarized in the review's Appendix), and eventually to his Nobel Prize. The review analyzes some of the terminological and conceptual issues that have oft...

  8. The Behavior Analyst Certification Board and the Profession of Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shook, Gerald L.; Favell, Judith E.

    2008-01-01

    As applied behavior analysis has matured as a field, matters regarding credentialing have followed. Such issues surround how to identify quality behavior analytic services and to ensure that they are delivered to consumers. The Behavior Analyst Certification Board was developed to address such concerns. In this paper, we discussed the current status and impact of the BACB, along with several challenges that are facing the profession. Suggested solutions for managing these challenges are provi...

  9. Accounting standard changes and foreign analyst behavior:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao Wang; Yu Hou; Xiaolin Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates changes in foreign analyst behavior before and after Chinese New Accounting Standards was implemented during 2007.The empirical results show that after the new accounting standards were implemented,forecast error among foreign analysts decreased in both absolute and relative terms in comparison with domestic analysts,and foreign analysts forecast earnings more frequently than they did before the new accounting standards.These results imply that the implementation of new accounting standards in the Chinese capital market helped mitigate both information asymmetry between listed firms in China and foreign investors,and the "home bias" of foreign analysts.It also increased the attractiveness of listed firms and facilitated international communication and cooperation.This study also has significant implications for how resource allocation efficiency in the Chinese capital market can be raised and how the "introducing in" policy should be assessed.

  10. Evolution of Research on Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Behavior Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary success of behavior-analytic interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has fueled the rapid growth of behavior analysis as a profession. One reason for this success is that for many years behavior analysts were virtually alone in conducting programmatic ASD intervention research. However, that era has…

  11. Determinants of Herding Behavior among Financial Analysts: A Study of French Listed Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Mouna Youssef; Mohamed Taher Rajhi

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 262 French firms over the period 1996-2000, we show that analysts who tend to move away from consensus and issue bold forecasts are more experienced, work for large brokerage houses, follow more firms. Bold analysts provide more precise forecasts than those who tend to herd. Thus, investors should use bold forecasts since they are more accurate and reflect more relevant information than herding forecasts. 

  12. Corporate Governance, Manager Behavior, and Analyst Behavior as Determinants of Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bhimani; Mthuli Ncube

    2004-01-01

    The literature on Mergers and Acquisitions activity has espoused various explanations for M&A activity. Some of this captures the nature of defence mechanisms again takeovers. In all the expositions the agency conflicts and degrees of collusion among the claimants to the firm’s cash-flows, are apparent. In this paper we add to the literature by presenting an integrated framework that classifies manager behavior and corporate governance, and show how a manager can use M&A bids as a vehicle f...

  13. Neurotechnology for intelligence analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Amy A.; Boyd, Karen C.; Schulman, Joshua J.

    2006-05-01

    Geospatial Intelligence Analysts are currently faced with an enormous volume of imagery, only a fraction of which can be processed or reviewed in a timely operational manner. Computer-based target detection efforts have failed to yield the speed, flexibility and accuracy of the human visual system. Rather than focus solely on artificial systems, we hypothesize that the human visual system is still the best target detection apparatus currently in use, and with the addition of neuroscience-based measurement capabilities it can surpass the throughput of the unaided human severalfold. Using electroencephalography (EEG), Thorpe et al1 described a fast signal in the brain associated with the early detection of targets in static imagery using a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) paradigm. This finding suggests that it may be possible to extract target detection signals from complex imagery in real time utilizing non-invasive neurophysiological assessment tools. To transform this phenomenon into a capability for defense applications, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) currently is sponsoring an effort titled Neurotechnology for Intelligence Analysts (NIA). The vision of the NIA program is to revolutionize the way that analysts handle intelligence imagery, increasing both the throughput of imagery to the analyst and overall accuracy of the assessments. Successful development of a neurobiologically-based image triage system will enable image analysts to train more effectively and process imagery with greater speed and precision.

  14. Career Concerns of Banking Analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Joanne; Serafeim, Georgios; Wu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    We study how career concerns influence banking analysts’ forecasts and how their forecasting behavior benefits both them and bank managers. We show that banking analysts issue early in the year relatively more optimistic and later in the year more pessimistic forecasts for banks that could be their future employers. This pattern is not observed when the same analysts forecast earnings of companies that are not likely to be their future employers. Moreover, we use the Global Settlement as an e...

  15. IMPROVED GROUND TRUTH IN SOUTHERN ASIA USING IN-COUNTRY DATA, ANALYST WAVEFORM REVIEW, AND ADVANCED ALGORITHMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engdahl, Eric, R.; Bergman, Eric, A.; Myers, Stephen, C.; Ryall, Floriana

    2009-06-19

    A new catalog of seismicity at magnitudes above 2.5 for the period 1923-2008 in the Iran region is assembled from arrival times reported by global, regional, and local seismic networks. Using in-country data we have formed new events, mostly at lower magnitudes that were not previously included in standard global earthquake catalogs. The magnitude completeness of the catalog varies strongly through time, complete to about magnitude 4.2 prior to 1998 and reaching a minimum of about 3.6 during the period 1998-2005. Of the 25,722 events in the catalog, most of the larger events have been carefully reviewed for proper phase association, especially for depth phases and to eliminate outlier readings, and relocated. To better understand the quality of the data set of arrival times reported by Iranian networks that are central to this study, many waveforms for events in Iran have been re-picked by an experienced seismic analyst. Waveforms at regional distances in this region are often complex. For many events this makes arrival time picks difficult to make, especially for smaller magnitude events, resulting in reported times that can be substantially improved by an experienced analyst. Even when the signal/noise ratio is large, re-picking can lead to significant differences. Picks made by our analyst are compared with original picks made by the regional networks. In spite of the obvious outliers, the median (-0.06 s) and spread (0.51 s) are small, suggesting that reasonable confidence can be placed in the picks reported by regional networks in Iran. This new catalog has been used to assess focal depth distributions throughout Iran. A principal result of this study is that the geographic pattern of depth distributions revealed by the relatively small number of earthquakes (~167) with depths constrained by waveform modeling (+/- 4 km) are now in agreement with the much larger number of depths (~1229) determined using reanalysis of ISC arrival-times (+/-10 km), within their

  16. Do Analysts Understand Conservatism?

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Ouyang; Huishan Wan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether analysts understand accounting conservatism.  It is well documented that financial reporting system exhibits conservatism, that is, bad news are recognized in earnings in a more timely manner than good news.  We find that analysts’ short-term earnings forecasts exhibit similar conservatism as the accounting earnings.  We further find that as the forecast horizon increases the conservatism becomes weaker.  On the contrary, the analysts’ long-term forecasts are n...

  17. Editorial behaviors in peer review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Jun ZHANG; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respe...

  18. Editorial behaviors in peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respectively. We apply this model to analyze a number of editorial behaviors such as decision strategy, number of reviewers and editorial bias on peer review. We find out that peer review outcomes are significantly sensitive to different editorial behaviors. With a small fraction (10 %) of biased editors, the quality of accepted papers declines 11 %, which indicates that effects of editorial biased behavior is worse than that of biased reviewers (7 %). While several peer review models exist, this is the first account for the study of editorial behaviors that is validated on the basis of simulation analysis. PMID:27386349

  19. Brain and Behavior: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Urbina, Guadalupe N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of many scientific disciplines allows us to know surprising aspects of the relationship between the brain and its functions. Current technology and the convergence of these disciplines are essential to understand the complex brain mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper will be described some scientific disciplines whose studies help to understand the biological substrates of normal and altered behavior. We will describe some pathologies or neuropsychological disorders and, in addition, we will review some of the known neurobiological mechanisms that control our brain functions. This allows us to conclude that the behavior and brain functions depend on complex biological mechanisms, many of which are still to be elucidated.

  20. Herd Behavior and Cascading in Capital Markets: A Review and Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hirshleifer, David; Teoh, Siew Hong

    2001-01-01

    We review theory and evidence relating to herd behaviour, payoff and reputational interactions, social learning, and informational cascades in capital markets. We offer a simple taxonomy of effects, and evaluate how alternative theories may help explain evidence on the behavior of investors, firms, and analysts. We consider both incentives for parties to engage in herding or cascading, and the incentives for parties to protect against or take advantage of herding or cascading by others.

  1. "Unavoidable Satisfactions": The Analyst's Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Analysts have often described their work as depriving, painful, and hard to endure, while its pleasures have been the subject of little commentary. The real history and ongoing temptations of boundary violation long ago made the gratifications of psychoanalytic work a matter of anxiety. Analysts' pleasure in their work was problematized. Some of this problematizing is necessary because of real risk, but much of it is not only unnecessary but misleading and destructive. Psychoanalysts pursue achievement of a unique form of human intimacy, yet acquired habits of professional modesty and humility have encouraged the illusion that analyzing can occur without desire or ambition on the analyst's part. These habits have made it difficult for analysts to openly discuss what they get from the intimacy of analyzing that yields its pleasures. Our field demands that analysts deny that the work provides much more than pain (at least until the conclusion of an analysis), but psychoanalysis both misunderstands and misrepresents itself if we cannot speak of the distinctly broad range of pleasures available in analyzing. PMID:27609074

  2. Creative productivity in women analysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuker, E

    1985-01-01

    A pilot study of female analyst creative productivity finds that women authors are well represented in numbers in two leading analytic journals, The Journal of The American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, for 1980-81. However, women analyst members of the journals' parent organizations are very poorly represented compared with male analyst members. This has led to an exploration of factors affecting female analyst productivity, encompassing a broad sweep from the sociological to the personal, dynamic level. Differential opportunities for women analysts may be inherent in the educational processes. There is evidence for an "accumulation of disadvantage" for women in the field of psychiatry, as well as the impression of gender bias and feelings of stigmatization in psychoanalysis. The question of whether academic research career paths for women are adequately encouraged is raised. Mentorship patterns are also discussed. Whether gender bias affects journal publications and the nature of psychoanalytic thinking is questioned. Women's lessened productivity is sometimes ascribed to practical aspects of feminine role. This myth is debunked for women in science, where married women with children are equally productive. The author suggests that women analysts, however, may be a select group and may be more subject to role conformity pressures. Feminine role conflicts and their effects are discussed. Dynamic issues related to creative productivity are explored in two major areas. The author suggests that female preoedipal object relations may play a part in females devaluing of their own creative efforts in a competitive arena. The oedipal situation is also discussed, especially with regard to very high-achieving women. It is suggested that though competition with the maternal-nurturant rival may be worked through, often there is incomplete resolution of the surpassing and separation from the protective, loving, but dominant

  3. Three Essays on Analyst Target Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Noor

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on analyst target prices. The essays contribute to the major debate on the value of analyst target prices in the capital market by addressing the following three questions: Does a bull-bear valuation analysis increase the accuracy of analysts’ target prices? Does analyst ranking affect how informative target prices are to institutional investors? And, do analysts use their cash flow forecasts when setting target prices?In the first essay, I explore whether co...

  4. Do Analysts Tell the Truth? Do Shareholders Listen? An Experimental Study of Analysts' Forecasts and Shareholder Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Shields

    2010-01-01

    This work experimentally examines forecasting and trading behavior. Subjects play the role of both analyst and shareholder over the course of experiments consisting of a series of repeated games with or absent con icts of interest. In a stylized trading setting, I test whether standard equilibrium, normative behavior, or limited strategic reasoning best predicts behavior. In the presence of con icts of interest a substantial proportion of subjects' behavior appears non-skeptical in the role o...

  5. Improving the information environment for analysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    computed from financial statements, while analyst following data was retrieved from I/B/E/S. Findings: The results show that analysts are more likely to follow firms with high intellectual capital disclosure. This finding is consistent with the fact that analysts wish to follow those firms for which they...... the information content of intellectual capital disclosure. Analysts, probably, deduce intellectual capital of a firm from interaction with management rather than financial statements. Practical implications: Firms in biotechnology sector can improve their information environment by disclosing more...... information regarding their intellectual capital in financial statements. Originality/value: Our findings shed light on the importance of intellectual capital in biotechnology sector for analysts....

  6. Do Investors Learn About Analyst Accuracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Charles; Daouk, Hazem; Wang, Albert

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of analyst forecasts on prices to determine whether investors learn about analyst accuracy. Our test market is the crude oil futures market. Prices rise when analysts forecast a decrease (increase) in crude supplies. In the 15 minutes following supply realizations, prices rise (fall) when forecasts have been too high (low). In both the initial price action relative to forecasts and in the subsequent reaction relative to realized forecast errors, the price response is stron...

  7. Can analyst predict stock market crashes?

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Terence T. L.; Xiaolei Wang

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of financial market turmoil has been rising over the past two decades. While the incidence of market turmoil has increased, the performance of analysts during tumultuous times has not received much attention in the literature. This paper examines whether the accuracy of analyst forecasts on stock returns varies during tumultuous times. Our results indicate that analysts' forecast performance during stock market crashes drops significantly.

  8. Building MultiView Analyst Profile From Multidimensional Query Logs: From Consensual to Conflicting Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Eya Ben; Gargouri, Faïez

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide suitable results to the analyst needs, user preferences summarization is widely used in several domains. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for user profile construction from OLAP query logs. The key idea is to learn the user's preferences by drawing the evidence from OLAP logs. In fact, the analyst preferences are clustered into three main pools : (i) consensual or non conflicting preferences referring to same preferences for all analysts; (ii) semi-conflicting preferences corresponding to similar preferences for some analysts; (iii) conflicting preferences related to disjoint preferences for all analysts. To build generic and global model accurately describing the analyst, we enrich the obtained characteristics through including several views, namely the personal view, the professional view and the behavioral view. After that, the multiview profile extracted from multidimensional database can be annotated.

  9. Securities Analysts as Information-Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Nancy Sadler; Rice, Ronald E.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 100 securities analysts at investment banking firms in the United States and United Kingdom showed that individual characteristics have little influence on the information sources and communication channels used by analysts, but institutional resources significantly influence the information and communication channels used, and also…

  10. Perspectives on Vocational Behavior, 1986: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaney, Robert B.; Russell, Joyce E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Based on perspectives of counseling psychology and industrial/organizational psychology, this article reviews publications relevant to vocational behavior that appeared during 1986. Of the over 700 articles and 70 books or book chapters located, slightly less than one-half are reviewed. (Author/NB)

  11. Do Analysts Underestimate Future Benefits of R&D?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ciftci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether future excess returns to R&D-intensive firms documented in prior literature is due to mispricing or compensation for additional risk. Prior research provides evidence consistent with the explanation that the positive association is compensation for additional risk associated with R&D (Chambers et al. 2002. I investigate another possibility: The future excess returns to R&D are correction for undervaluation in the prior periods. I first investigate financial analysts’ behavior about future benefits of R&D-intensive firms because financial analysts are one of the most important information intermediaries between investors and managers. Moreover, investor dependence on analyst information is greater in R&D-intensive firms (Barth et al., 2001. I find that analysts underestimate earnings long term growth in R&D-intensive firms and correct their underestimation in following years. I also find that investors are not aware of analysts’ underestimation of future benefits of R&D suggesting that investors are mislead by analysts long term forecasts.

  12. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  13. Social and environmental narrative reporting : analysts' perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, David; Slack, Richard

    2008-01-01

    An ACCA research report, Narrative Reporting: Analysts' Perceptions of its Value and Relevance was published in November 2008. The research considered analysts' views on five key elements of narrative reporting, including social and environmental disclosures. Due to the significant interests ACCA has in corporate transparency with regards to sustainability, this specific part of the research has been highlighted in this paper. The other parts of the research have been summarised only.

  14. Can we be both women and analysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S; Peebles-Kleiger, M J; Buchele, B; Bartlett, A B; Nathan, S; Benalcazar-Schmid, R; Mintzer, M; Everhart, D

    1996-01-01

    The authors, candidates at a psychoanalytic institute that has not had a woman training analyst for more than 20 years, have a unique vantage point from which to examine the woman's development as an adult female and as a psychoanalyst. Our group has engaged in a series of discussions asking: Can we be both women and analysts? Comparing and contrasting our experiences with feedback from colleagues across the United States and abroad, we had to accept that our unique situation could not be a foil for the training dilemmas facing women. Our insights into the challenges involved with training, expression of sexuality, family ties, formation of an analytic identity, creative contributions to the field, and career progression have caused us to arrive at some sobering observations and hard-hitting questions which we present here. We hope that as we describe our discussions about the woman analyst's experience an active dialogue will arise within the reader's mind, and subsequently with colleagues. PMID:9170077

  15. Paired analyst recommendations and internet IPOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Goot; N. van Giersbergen

    2008-01-01

    The paper investigates analyst recommendations for internet firms that went public during 1997-2000. Our contribution to the literature is that we match recommendations for the same firm issued by different investment banks that have published the recommendations in an interval around the same date.

  16. Perceptions of performance: the reactions of analysts and institutional investors to FRS 3

    OpenAIRE

    O hOgartaigh, Ciaran; Reilly, Eilish

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the reactions of analysts and institutional investors to FRS 3 Reporting Financial Performance. Such reactions were elicited through an analysis of submissions to the Accounting Standards Board concerning FRED 1 (on which FRS 3 is based), a review of published reactions to FRS 3 and by way of a series of inverviews with analysts and institutional investors. Those interviewed were generally supportive of FRS 3. The research finds little support amont those interviewed fo...

  17. Through the Eyes of Analysts: A Content Analysis of Analyst Report Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    information as relevant to their analyses and recommendations. The paper shows that background information about the company, i.e. about products, markets and the industry, along with the analysts' own analysis of financial and operating data account for nearly 55% of the total disclosure in fundamental......This paper contributes to the ongoing debate of developing corporate reporting practices by analyzing the information content of fundamental analyst reports and comparing this with annual reporting practices. As there has been much critique of the lacking relevance of disclosures through corporate...... analyst reports, and the amount of financial data supplied is not related to the other disclosures in the reports. In comparison to business reporting practices, the fundamental analyst reports put relatively less weight on social and sustainability information, intellectual capital and corporate...

  18. Understanding the health care business model: the financial analysts' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Nielsen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on how financial analysts understand the strategy of a health care company and which elements, from such a strategy perspective, they perceive as constituting the cornerstone of a health care company's business model. The empirical part of this study is based on semi-structured interviews with analysts following a large health care company listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. The authors analyse how the financial analysts view strategy and value creation within the framework of a business model. Further, the authors analyze whether the characteristics emerging from a comprehensive literature review are reflected in the financial analysts' perceptions of which information is decision-relevant and important to communicate to the financial markets. Among the conclusions of the study is the importance of distinguishing between the health care companies' business model and the model by which the payment of revenues are allocated between end users and reimbursing organizations. PMID:21294436

  19. Contingency and behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of contingency is central to theoretical discussions of learned behavior and in the application of learning research to problems of social significance. This paper reviews three aspects of the contingency concept as it has been developed by behavior analysts. The first is the empirical analysis of contingency through experimental studies of both human and nonhuman behavior. The second is the synthesis of experimental studies in theoretical and conceptual frameworks to yield a more...

  20. The relevance of security analyst opinions for investment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Security analysts analyze information regarding publicly traded companies after which they publish their opinion regarding these companies’ stocks. In this dissertation the published opinions of two different types of analysts are analyzed. Technical analysts derive a recommendation to buy, hold, or

  1. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. E. Hochhalter

    2000-04-28

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  2. Implementation of the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhalter, E Eugene

    2000-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  3. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed

  4. A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy A. Steeves; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R.; Eugene C. Fitzhugh; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior mo...

  5. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors. PMID:21811678

  6. Is customer satisfaction a relevant metric for financial analysts?

    OpenAIRE

    Ngobo, Paul-Valentin; Casta, Jean-François; Ramond, Olivier,

    2012-01-01

    published on line : 2011/01/08 International audience This study examines the effects of customer satisfaction on analysts' earnings forecast errors. Based on a sample of analysts following companies measured by the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), we find that customer satisfaction reduces earnings forecast errors. However, analysts respond to changes in customer satisfaction but not to the ACSI metric per se. Furthermore, the effects of customer satisfaction are asymmetric...

  7. Competing for Securities Underwriting Mandates: Banking Relationships and Analyst Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Ljungqvist, Alexander P.; Marston, Felicia; Wilhelm Jr, William J

    2003-01-01

    We investigate directly whether analyst behaviour influenced the likelihood of banks winning underwriting mandates for a sample of 16,625 US debt and equity offerings sold between December 1993 and June 2002. We control for the strength of the issuer’s investment-banking relationships with potential competitors for the mandate, prior lending relationships, and the endogeneity of analyst behaviour and the bank’s decision to provide analyst coverage. Contrary to recent allegations, we find no e...

  8. The Behavioral Treatment of School Phobia: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, David

    1984-01-01

    Presents a critical review of the studies that have applied behavioral techniques in the treatment of school phobia. Notes the conspicuous absences of any studies designed to assess either the relative efficacy of behavior therapy in comparison to other types of therapy or the different effects of various behavioral treatments. (JAC)

  9. The Role of Neuropeptides in Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluca Serafini; Maurizio Pompili; Daniel Lindqvist; Yogesh Dwivedi; Paolo Girardi

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neurope...

  10. Chemistry and containing: the analyst's use of unavoidable failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Steven H; Grusky, Zenobia

    2013-01-01

    Certain patients overwhelm the analyst's capacity to contain both the patient and the analyst's own unbearable feelings. Though some such failures of containing may lead fairly quickly to self-correction and others to clinical impasse, our focus is on an in-between state in which the analyst's ability to tolerate his inevitable failures and gradually to (re)establish his containing capacities through difficult self-analytic work can lead to significant change that might not otherwise be possible. The authors argue that this internal psychological work on the analyst's part, which may require considerable time, effort, and suffering, is an important aspect of "good enough" containing. The unique chemistry generated between patient and analyst plays an important role in both establishing and maintaining this kind of productive analytic process. PMID:23457110

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Suicide Behavior: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Taylor, Katherine; Gooding, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Suicide behavior is a serious clinical problem worldwide, and understanding ways of reducing it is a priority. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to investigate whether Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) would reduce suicide behavior. From 123 potential articles, 28 studies met the entry criteria. Overall, there was a highly…

  12. A Review of Behavioral Interventions for Psychotic Verbal Behavior in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Robert; Sturmey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities who exhibit psychotic verbal behavior are at increased risk for hospitalization and dependence on external support. Traditionally, medication is the clinical treatment of choice for this behavior. This article selectively reviews the existing literature within the field of behavior analysis on reducing…

  13. Procurement and execution of PCB analyses: Customer-analyst interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.D.

    1993-03-01

    The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ``did what he/she was told.`` The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician`s office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface.

  14. Procurement and execution of PCB analyses: Customer-analyst interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ''did what he/she was told.'' The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician's office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface

  15. BEHAVIORAL TOXICITY OF TRIALKYLTIN COMPOUNDS: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triethyltin (TET) and trimethyltin (TMT) are neurotoxic organotin compounds which produce different patterns of toxicity in adult animals. Exposure to TET produces behavioral toxicity (decreased motor activity, grip strength, operant response rate and startle response amplitude) ...

  16. City Size and Human Behavior: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    George H. Conklin

    2003-01-01

    Humans are influenced by their environments, whether we realize it or not in daily life. B. F. Skinner, for example, states we control human behavior the same way we control animal behavior: by manipulating the environment, similar in concept to Louis Wirth's notion of urban size and density. In this review, a signficant article on urban size and civic participation is reviewed as part of Sociation Today's effort to bring to light important articles which should receive further reading

  17. Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Evidence review and recommendations for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, David C.; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health, charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs is the comprehensive term used to refer to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and ...

  18. Behavioral Therapies for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, K; Martyn-St James, M.; Kaltenthaler, E.; Dickinson, K; Cantrell, A.; Wylie, K.; Frodhsam, L.; Hood, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined by short ejaculatory latency and inability to delay ejaculation causing distress. Management may involve behavioral and/or pharmacological approaches. Aim To systematically review the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence for behavioral therapies in the management of PE. Methods Nine databases including MEDLINE were searched up to August 2014. Included RCTs compared behavioral therapy against waitlist control or another therapy, or behav...

  19. The multifactorial nature of human homosexual behavior: A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Barona, Daniel; Aponte, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non here...

  20. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Devnani; Racheal Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, ...

  1. Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1983: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Heesacker, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature related to vocational behavior and career development published during 1983, including 445 articles in 42 journals. The review is organized around issues pertinent to the counseling psychology perspective (career development, vocational choice, assessment, intervention) and the industrial/organizational psychology…

  2. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  3. Sedentary behavior and health outcomes: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende

    Full Text Available 1 To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2 To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found.Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase; PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers.This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted.

  4. The Role of Neuropeptides in Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Serafini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY, which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper.

  5. The multifactorial nature of human homosexual behavior: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barona, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non hereditary factors determine homosexual behavior, explaining its persistence despite its apparent disadvantages in relation to reproductive fitness.

  6. The analyst's authenticity: "if you see something, say something".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, George; Suzuki, Jessica Y

    2015-05-01

    The history of authenticity in psychoanalysis is as old as analysis itself, but the analyst's authenticity in particular has become an increasingly important area of focus in recent decades. This article traces the development of conceptions of analytic authenticity and proposes that the analyst's spontaneous verbalization of his or her unformulated experience in session can be a potent force in the course of an analysis. We acknowledge that although analytic authenticity can be a challenging ideal for the analyst to strive for, it contains the power to transform the experience of the patient and the analyst, as well as the meaning of their work together. Whether it comes in the form of an insight-oriented comment or a simple acknowledgment of things as they seem to be, a therapist's willingness to speak aloud something that has lost its language is a powerful clinical phenomenon that transcends theoretical orientation and modality. PMID:25788152

  7. How do Analyst Recommendations Respond to Major News?

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Jennifer S.; Cornell, Brad; Landsman, Wayne R.; Rountree, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This study examines how analysts respond to public information when setting their stock recommendations. Specifically, for a sample of stocks that experience large stock price movements, we model the determinants of analysts’ recommendation changes. Using an ordered probit model based on all available IBES stock recommendations from 1993 to 1999, we find evidence of an asymmetry following large positive and negative returns. Large stock price changes are associated with more frequent change...

  8. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  9. A New Frontier: Integrating Behavioral and Digital Technology to Promote Health Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Allison; Erb, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Modifiable behavioral risk factors such as cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity contribute to over 40 % of premature deaths in the USA. Advances in digital and information technology are creating unprecedented opportunities for behavior analysts to assess and modify these risk factors. Technological advances include mobile devices, wearable sensors, biomarker detectors, and real-time access to therapeutic support via information technology. Integrating these advances with behavioral technology in the form of conceptually systematic principles and procedures could usher in a new generation of effective and scalable behavioral interventions targeting health behavior. In this selective review of the literature, we discuss how technological tools can assess and modify a range of antecedents and consequences of healthy and unhealthy behavior. We also describe practical, methodological, and conceptual advantages for behavior analysts that stem from the use of technology to assess and treat health behavior.

  10. A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-07-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand on previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based on the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with 11 finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of the studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors, even as policy makers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity. PMID:24836967

  11. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  12. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  13. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: a systematic review of reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Louk WH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements of school health education are similar across three particular behavioral domains. Methods A systematic review of reviews of the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs was conducted for the domains of substance abuse, sexual behavior, and nutrition. The literature search spanned the time period between 1995 and October 2006 and included three databases, websites of review centers and backward search. Fifty-five reviews and meta-analyses met predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. A standardized data extraction form was used, with detailed attention to effective elements pertaining to program goals, development, content, methods, facilitator, components and intensity. Two assessors rated the quality of reviews as strong, moderate or weak. We included only strong and moderate reviews in two types of analysis: one based on interpretation of conflicting results, the other on a specific vote-counting rule. Results Thirty six reviews were rated strong, 6 moderate, and 13 weak. A multitude of effective elements was identified in the included reviews and many elements were similar for two or more domains. In both types of analysis, five elements with evidence from strong reviews were found to be similar for all three domains: use of theory; addressing social influences, especially social norms; addressing cognitive-behavioral skills; training of facilitators; and multiple components. Two additional elements had positive results in all domains with the rule-based method of analysis, but had inconclusive results in at least one domain with

  14. Weight stigma and eating behavior: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Porter, Alexis M

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is a pervasive social problem, and this paper reviews the evidence linking weight stigma to eating behavior. Correlational studies consistently find that experiences with weight stigma are associated with unhealthy eating behaviors and eating pathology (such as binge eating, skipping meals), although results vary somewhat depending on the sample being studied and the specific stigma/eating constructs being assessed. Experimental studies consistently find that manipulations such as priming overweight stereotypes, exposure to stigmatizing content, and social exclusion all lead to increased food intake, but whether or not those manipulations capture the impact of weight stigma experiences per se is less clear. Finally, studies of stigma experiences in daily life show that more frequent stigma experiences are associated with decreased motivation to diet and with less healthy eating behaviors. Overall, this research highlights the potential for weight stigma to negatively impact individuals' eating behavior, which in turn could have consequences for their overall health and well-being. PMID:26829371

  15. A scoping review of observational studies examining relationships between environmental behaviors and health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne Hutchinson; Prady, Stephanie L; Smith, Michaela A.; White, Piran C.L; Hilary M. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavio...

  16. Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A.; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T.

    2015-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that a key component of successful infection control efforts is understanding the complex, two-way interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. Human behavior such as contact precautions and social distancing clearly influence disease prevalence, but disease prevalence can in turn alter human behavior, forming a coupled, nonlinear system. Moreover, in many cases, the spatial structure of the population cannot be ignored, such that social and behavioral processes and/or transmission of infection must be represented with complex networks. Research on studying coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks in particular is growing rapidly, and frequently makes use of analysis methods and concepts from statistical physics. Here, we review some of the growing literature in this area. We contrast network-based approaches to homogeneous-mixing approaches, point out how their predictions differ, and describe the rich and often surprising behavior of disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks, and compare them to processes in statistical physics. We discuss how these models can capture the dynamics that characterize many real-world scenarios, thereby suggesting ways that policy makers can better design effective prevention strategies. We also describe the growing sources of digital data that are facilitating research in this area. Finally, we suggest pitfalls which might be faced by researchers in the field, and we suggest several ways in which the field could move forward in the coming years.

  17. REDUCING THE COGNITIVE LOAD ON ANALYSTS THROUGH HAMMING DISTANCE BASED ALERT AGGREGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous work introduced the idea of grouping alert s at a Hamming distance of 1 to achieve lossless al ert aggregation; such aggregated meta-alerts were shown to increase alert interpretability. However, a mea n of 84023 daily Snort alerts were reduced to a still formidable 14099 meta-alerts. In this work, we add ress this limitation by investigating several approaches that all contribute towards reducing the burden on the analyst and providing timely analysis. We explore m inimizing the number of both alerts and data elemen ts by aggregating at Hamming distances greater than 1. We show how increasing bin sizes can improve aggregation rates. And we provide a new aggregation algorithm that operates up to an order of magnitud e faster at Hamming distance 1. Lastly, we demonstrat e the broad applicability of this approach through empirical analysis of Windows security alerts, Snor t alerts, netflow records, and DNS logs. The result is a reduction in the cognitive load on analysts by mini mizing the overall number of alerts and the number of data elements that need to be reviewed in order for an analyst to evaluate the set of original alerts.

  18. Meta-Analyst: software for meta-analysis of binary, continuous and diagnostic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Christopher H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new and challenging problems. In practice, most meta-analyses are performed in general statistical packages or dedicated meta-analysis programs. Results Herein, we introduce Meta-Analyst, a novel, powerful, intuitive, and free meta-analysis program for the meta-analysis of a variety of problems. Meta-Analyst is implemented in C# atop of the Microsoft .NET framework, and features a graphical user interface. The software performs several meta-analysis and meta-regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, as well as analyses for diagnostic and prognostic test studies in the frequentist and Bayesian frameworks. Moreover, Meta-Analyst includes a flexible tool to edit and customize generated meta-analysis graphs (e.g., forest plots and provides output in many formats (images, Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word-ready RTF. The software architecture employed allows for rapid changes to be made to either the Graphical User Interface (GUI or to the analytic modules. We verified the numerical precision of Meta-Analyst by comparing its output with that from standard meta-analysis routines in Stata over a large database of 11,803 meta-analyses of binary outcome data, and 6,881 meta-analyses of continuous outcome data from the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. Results from analyses of diagnostic and prognostic test studies have been verified in a limited number of meta-analyses versus MetaDisc and MetaTest. Bayesian statistical analyses use the OpenBUGS calculation engine (and are thus as accurate as the standalone OpenBUGS software. Conclusion We have developed and validated a new program for conducting meta-analyses that combines the advantages of existing software for this task.

  19. Stocks’ pricing dynamics and behavioral finance: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh Chandra Sinha

    2015-01-01

    In a brief review of the literature on stocks’ pricing, the study shows that information vis-à-vis noise serves critical roles in the equilibrium process. It is dynamic in nature and there are different infiltrating aspects from the standard finance to behavioral finance points of views. The aspects of market efficiency, fundamental risk, noise traders’ risk, and implementation costs make the stock markets noisy and thereby, limit the arbitrage opportunity of informed traders. Investors’ psyc...

  20. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnani, Preeti; Fernandes, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG) while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:25745301

  1. Sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; Farias Júnior, José Cazuza de; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the methodological characteristics of the studies selected and assess variables associated with sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS For this systematic review, we searched four electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, LILACS, SciELO. Also, electronic searches were applied in Google Scholar. A supplementary search was conducted in the references lists of the included articles and in non-indexed journals. We included observational studies with children and adolescents aged from three to 19 years developed in Brazil, presenting analyses of associations based on regression methods and published until September 30, 2014. RESULTS Of the 255 potential references retrieved by the searches, 49 met the inclusion criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. In this set, we identified a great number of cross-sectional studies (n = 43; 88.0%) and high methodological variability on the types of sedentary behavior assessed, measurement tools and cut-off points used. The variables most often associated with sedentary behavior were "high levels of body weight" (in 15 out of 27 studies; 55.0%) and "lower level of physical activity" (in eight out of 16 studies; 50.0%). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this review raise the following demands to the Brazilian agenda of sedentary behavior research geared to children and adolescents: development of longitudinal studies, validation of measuring tools, establishment of risk cut-offs, measurement of sedentary behavior beyond screen time and use of objective measures in addition to questionnaires. In the articles available, the associations between sedentary behavior with "high levels of body weight" and "low levels of physical activity" were observed in different regions of Brazil. PMID:27007685

  2. Sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; de Farias, José Cazuza; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the methodological characteristics of the studies selected and assess variables associated with sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS For this systematic review, we searched four electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, LILACS, SciELO. Also, electronic searches were applied in Google Scholar. A supplementary search was conducted in the references lists of the included articles and in non-indexed journals. We included observational studies with children and adolescents aged from three to 19 years developed in Brazil, presenting analyses of associations based on regression methods and published until September 30, 2014. RESULTS Of the 255 potential references retrieved by the searches, 49 met the inclusion criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. In this set, we identified a great number of cross-sectional studies (n = 43; 88.0%) and high methodological variability on the types of sedentary behavior assessed, measurement tools and cut-off points used. The variables most often associated with sedentary behavior were “high levels of body weight” (in 15 out of 27 studies; 55.0%) and “lower level of physical activity” (in eight out of 16 studies; 50.0%). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this review raise the following demands to the Brazilian agenda of sedentary behavior research geared to children and adolescents: development of longitudinal studies, validation of measuring tools, establishment of risk cut-offs, measurement of sedentary behavior beyond screen time and use of objective measures in addition to questionnaires. In the articles available, the associations between sedentary behavior with “high levels of body weight” and “low levels of physical activity” were observed in different regions of Brazil. PMID:27007685

  3. Special Nuclear Material Gamma-Ray Signatures for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-29

    These are slides on special nuclear material gamma-ray signatures for reachback analysts for an LSS Spectroscopy course. The closing thoughts for this presentation are the following: SNM materials have definite spectral signatures that should be readily recognizable to analysts in both bare and shielded configurations. One can estimate burnup of plutonium using certain pairs of peaks that are a few keV apart. In most cases, one cannot reliably estimate uranium enrichment in an analogous way to the estimation of plutonium burnup. The origin of the most intense peaks from some SNM items may be indirect and from ‘associated nuclides.' Indirect SNM signatures sometimes have commonalities with the natural gamma-ray background.

  4. Teaching Bayesian Statistics To Intelligence Analysts: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemangni Deshmukh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Community must develop and integrate into regular use new tools that can assist analysts in filtering and correlating the vast quantities of information that threaten to overwhelm the analytic process…—Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States.Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (The WMD Report1Unlike the other social sciences and, particularly, the physical sciences, where scientists get to choose the questions they wish to answer and experiments are carefully designed to confirm or negate hypotheses, intelligence analysis requires analysts to deal with the demands of decision makers and estimate the intentions of foreign actors, criminals or business competitors in an environment filled with uncertainty and even deliberate deception.

  5. Ownership, Analyst Coverage, and Stock Synchronicity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xunan; Hu, Na; Johansson, Anders C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how ownership structure affects the information environment of publicly traded firms in China. We hypothesize that concentrated ownership and the associated separation of ultimate control and ownership rights create agency conflicts between controlling shareholders and minority investors leading controlling owners to withhold firm-specific information from the market. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of ultimate ownership structure and analyst coverage on st...

  6. breedR: Statistical methods for forest genetic resources analysts

    OpenAIRE

    MUNOZ, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    This package provides frequentist and Bayesian statistical tools to build predictive models useful for the breeders, quantitative genetists and forest genetic resources analysts communities. It aims to assess the genetic value of individuals under a number of situations, including spatial autocorrelation, genetic/environment interaction and competition. It is under active development as part of the Trees4Future project, particularly developed having forest genetic trials in mind. But can be u...

  7. HELPLESSNESS AND THE ANALYST'S WAR AGAINST FEELING IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Axel; Buie, Dan H

    2016-03-01

    In our view helplessness is a primal, often intolerable feeling. It underlies and intensifies other feelings that are also hard to bear. Both analyst and patients face helplessness, and both resort to defenses, often intensely, in order to avoid it. The intensity of this battle can merit calling it a war. The analyst's war is conducted using distancing, anger, blaming and disparaging as well as by intellectualizing the patient's struggles. Patients then find themselves abandoned and helplessly alone. We analysts, of course, want not to fall into the trap of war, and we try to free ourselves from waging it. A major way we accomplish this is through continuously working, often with the help of analysis and self-analysis, to increase our capacity to maintain our emotional stability in the face of these intensities. We learn to find new forms of awareness, beyond words and ideas. It requires a new understanding of what is threatening to us, which fosters a deeper capacity to empathize with the patient. This helps us to find the psychic, physical and emotional space within ourselves in which to hold our helplessness and other profound affective experiences. In this way we become an increasingly steady resource for our patients as well as for ourselves. PMID:26912242

  8. Information seeking and use behaviour of economists and business analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Thivant

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this paper is to deal with the information seeking and use problem in a professional context and understand how activity can influence practices, by taking as examples, the research undertaken by economic analysts. We analyse the relationship between the situational approach, described by Cheuk, the work environment complexity (with social, technological and personal aspects, and the information seeking and use strategies, which relied on Ellis and Wilson's model, with Bates's comments. Method. We interviewed eight economists, using a questionnaire and the SICIA (Situation, Complexity and Information Activity method. The SICAI method is a qualitative approach, which underlines the relationship between situations, professional contexts and strategies. Both methods allow better understanding of how investment analysts find out what they need for their job. We can clarify their information sources and practices of information seeking, which are very particular because of their activities. We complete our analysis by interviewing analysts from financial institutions. Analysis. A qualitative mode of analysis was used to interpret the interviewees' comments, within the research framework adopted. Results. We find similarity in information seeking and use strategies used by these two groups and environmental levels meet in most situations. But some differences can be also found, explained by the activity frameworks and goals. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that the activity and also the professional context (here the financial context can directly influence practices.

  9. Environmental behavior of engineered nanomaterials in porous media: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Min; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Jang, Min; Son, Ahjeong; Yoon, Yeomin

    2016-05-15

    A pronounced increase in the use of nanotechnology has resulted in nanomaterials being released into the environment. Environmental exposure to the most common engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), such as carbon-based and metal-based nanomaterials, can occur directly via intentional injection for remediation purposes, release during the use of nanomaterial-containing consumer goods, or indirectly via different routes. Recent reviews have outlined potential risks assessments, toxicity, and life cycle analyses regarding ENM emission. In this review, inevitable release of ENMs and their environmental behaviors in aqueous porous media are discussed with an emphasis on influencing factors, including the physicochemical properties of ENMs, solution chemistry, soil hydraulic properties, and soil matrices. Major findings of laboratory column studies and numerical approaches for the transport of ENMs are addressed, and studies on the interaction between ENMs and heavy metal ions in aqueous soil environments are examined. Future research is also presented with specific research directions and outlooks. PMID:26882524

  10. Chronic Pain and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoerl, Robert; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M; Weisberg, James

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is often used to treat chronic pain; however, more information is needed about what are the most efficacious dose and delivery methods. The aims of this review were to determine (a) which CBT doses, delivery methods, strategies, and follow-up periods have been explored in recent intervention studies of individuals with chronic pain and (b) whether the outcomes described in the selected studies were consistent with recommendations by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials. The CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published from 2009 to 2015 testing CBT for adults with chronic pain. Thirty-five studies were included in this review. Results revealed that CBT reduced pain intensity in 43% of trials, the efficacy of online and in-person formats were comparable, and military veterans and individuals with cancer-related chronic pain were understudied. PMID:26604219

  11. Stocks’ pricing dynamics and behavioral finance: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritosh Chandra Sinha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In a brief review of the literature on stocks’ pricing, the study shows that information vis-à-vis noise serves critical roles in the equilibrium process. It is dynamic in nature and there are different infiltrating aspects from the standard finance to behavioral finance points of views. The aspects of market efficiency, fundamental risk, noise traders’ risk, and implementation costs make the stock markets noisy and thereby, limit the arbitrage opportunity of informed traders. Investors’ psychological bases viz., belief and preferences contribute more in the equilibrium process. Beliefs include representativeness, conservativeness, and anchoring, availability biases, optimism and wishful thinking, overconfidence, and herd behavior tendency on the part of the investors. On the preferences, investors are influenced by disposition effect, prospects based on reference points, mental accounting, ambiguity aversion, and self control.The study explores the empirical literature also and reviews the six puzzles in the standard finance. Finally, the work identifies a few research gaps to be addressed in the literature.

  12. Countertransference and the myth of the perfectly analyzed analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M A

    1985-04-01

    Countertransference is an inevitable feature of every psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysts are (and need to be) only human; psychoanalytic work is arduous and replete with stresses, strains, and deprivations; analysands tend to probe for vulnerabilities in their analysts that can be exploited in the interest of acting out neurotic wishes instead of analyzing them; and a training analysis cannot completely immunize a psychoanalyst against countertransferential reactions that impede analytic progress. Psychoanalysts must be vigilant to the emergence of countertransference reactions so that they can analyze and overcome them. Two illustrative clinical examples are provided. PMID:4001237

  13. How Analysts Cognitively “Connect the Dots”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradel, Lauren; Self, Jessica S.; Endert, Alexander; Hossain, Shahriar M.; North, Chris; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2013-06-04

    As analysts attempt to make sense of a collection of documents, such as intelligence analysis reports, they may wish to “connect the dots” between pieces of information that may initially seem unrelated. This process of synthesizing information between information requires users to make connections between pairs of documents, creating a conceptual story. We conducted a user study to analyze the process by which users connect pairs of documents and how they spatially arrange information. Users created conceptual stories that connected the dots using organizational strategies that ranged in complexity. We propose taxonomies for cognitive connections and physical structures used when trying to “connect the dots” between two documents. We compared the user-created stories with a data-mining algorithm that constructs chains of documents using co-occurrence metrics. Using the insight gained into the storytelling process, we offer design considerations for the existing data mining algorithm and corresponding tools to combine the power of data mining and the complex cognitive processing of analysts.

  14. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célino, Amandine; Fréour, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Frédéric; Casari, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibers are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibers for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties, and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fiber a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibers are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior). The choice of natural fibers rather than glass fibers as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fiber is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibers are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibers have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behavior of such reinforcing fibers leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibers and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibers and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper. PMID:24790971

  15. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbala

  16. Review of The Principles and Applications of Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research

    OpenAIRE

    Breese, Jack

    1988-01-01

    This review examines two important works in decision analysis: Howard and Matheson's The Principles and Applications of Decision Analysis, and Winterfeldt and Edwards's "Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research.

  17. User's guide for the thermal analyst's help desk expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Rachel A.

    1994-01-01

    A guide for users of the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk is provided. Help Desk is an expert system that runs on a DOS based personal computer and operates within the EXSYS expert system shell. Help Desk is an analysis tool designed to provide users having various degrees of experience with the capability to determine first approximations of thermal capacity for spacecraft and instruments. The five analyses supported in Help Desk are: surface area required for a radiating surface, equilibrium temperature of a surface, enclosure temperature and heat loads for a defined position in orbit, enclosure temperature and heat loads over a complete orbit, and selection of appropriate surface properties. The two geometries supported by Help Desk are a single flat plate and a rectangular box enclosure.

  18. Automatic theory generation from analyst text files using coherence networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Steven C.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a three-phase process of extracting knowledge from analyst textual reports. Phase 1 involves performing natural language processing on the source text to extract subject-predicate-object triples. In phase 2, these triples are then fed into a coherence network analysis process, using a genetic algorithm optimization. Finally, the highest-value sub networks are processed into a semantic network graph for display. Initial work on a well- known data set (a Wikipedia article on Abraham Lincoln) has shown excellent results without any specific tuning. Next, we ran the process on the SYNthetic Counter-INsurgency (SYNCOIN) data set, developed at Penn State, yielding interesting and potentially useful results.

  19. Advanced Behavioral Applications in Schools: A Review of R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies: An Applied Behavior Analysis Systems Approach"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies" is an important book directed to advanced students in applied behavior analysis for classrooms. This review presents some of the striking features of the Comprehensive Applied Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS[R]) program and the individualized instruction that the book advances. These include…

  20. CT-Analyst: fast and accurate CBR emergency assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Jay; Fulton, Jack E., Jr.; Obenschain, Keith; Patnaik, Gopal; Young, Theodore, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    An urban-oriented emergency assessment system for airborne Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) threats, called CT-Analyst and based on new principles, gives greater accuracy and much greater speed than possible with current alternatives. This paper explains how this has been done. The increased accuracy derives from detailed, three-dimensional CFD computations including, solar heating, buoyancy, complete building geometry specification, trees, wind fluctuations, and particle and droplet distributions (as appropriate). This paper shows how a very finite number of such computations for a given area can be extended to all wind directions and speeds, and all likely sources and source locations using a new data structure called Dispersion Nomographs. Finally, we demonstrate a portable, entirely graphical software tool called CT-Analyst that embodies this entirely new, high-resolution technology and runs effectively on small personal computers. Real-time users don't have to wait for results because accurate answers are available with near zero-latency (that is 10 - 20 scenarios per second). Entire sequences of cases (e.g. a continuously changing source location or wind direction) can be computed and displayed as continuous-action movies. Since the underlying database has been precomputed, the door is wide open for important new real-time, zero-latency functions such as sensor data fusion, backtracking to an unknown source location, and even evacuation route planning. Extensions of the technology to sensor location optimization, buildings, tunnels, and integration with other advanced technologies, e.g. micrometeorology or detailed wind field measurements, will be discussed briefly here.

  1. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eCélino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior. The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  2. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célino, Amandine; Freour, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Frederic; Casari, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior). The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  3. The making of an analyst: from 'ideal' to 'good-enough'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tom

    2007-04-01

    This paper addresses the issue of variances in training modalities and how this is linked to one's personal experience of training and to one's analytic lineage. The author, who bases his reflections on discussions held during the yearly directors of training meeting of the North American Jungian Societies, suggests that, while each institute aims to provide an 'ideal' training programme for its candidates, the philosophy underlying how this ideal is defined depends, in large part, on the theoretical and philosophical orientation of the founding fathers and mothers. This results in a form of analytic lineage that necessarily impacts on the form and content of the 'ideal' programme. Shadow issues related to analytic lineage in the admissions procedures, case consultation, exam committees and review committees are presented. Motivation for why we choose to train and reflections on what makes an analyst 'Jungian' are explored. PMID:17403212

  4. Personality and Aggressive Behavior under Provoking and Neutral Conditions: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Ann B.; Talley, Amelia; Benjamin, Arlin James; Valentine, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a comprehensive review to understand the relation between personality and aggressive behavior, under provoking and nonprovoking conditions. The qualitative review revealed that some personality variables influenced aggressive behavior under both neutral and provocation conditions, whereas others influenced aggressive…

  5. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  6. Human Rights Review of Intrusive Behavioral Treatments for Students with Severe Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, George S.; Irvin, Larry K.

    1987-01-01

    A rationale for the establishment of human rights review procedures within local education agencies is presented, focusing on students who have severe behavior problems with or without mental retardation, for whom intrusive behavioral treatments are considered. Topics discussed include informed consent, committee review, due process, and least…

  7. Social gradients in child and adolescent antisocial behavior: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Patrycja J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between social position and physical health is well-established across a range of studies. The evidence base regarding social position and mental health is less well developed, particularly regarding the development of antisocial behavior. Some evidence demonstrates a social gradient in behavioral problems, with children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds experiencing more behavioral difficulties than children from high-socioeconomic families. Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous concept that encompasses behaviors as diverse as physical fighting, vandalism, stealing, status violation and disobedience to adults. Whether all forms of antisocial behavior show identical social gradients is unclear from previous published research. The mechanisms underlying social gradients in antisocial behavior, such as neighborhood characteristics and family processes, have not been fully elucidated. This review will synthesize findings on the social gradient in antisocial behavior, considering variation across the range of antisocial behaviors and evidence regarding the mechanisms that might underlie the identified gradients. Methods In this review, an extensive manual and electronic literature search will be conducted for papers published from 1960 to 2011. The review will include empirical and quantitative studies of children and adolescents ( Discussion This systematic review has been proposed in order to synthesize cross-disciplinary evidence of the social gradient in antisocial behavior and mechanisms underlying this effect. The results of the review will inform social policies aiming to reduce social inequalities and levels of antisocial behavior, and identify gaps in the present literature to guide further research.

  8. Does analyst ranking affect how informative target prices are to institutional investors?

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Noor

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that market participants value analysts’ target prices. There is limited evidence, however, on how target price revisions influence investors’ decisions. I examine whether analyst ranking status affects institutional investors’ decisions to incorporate target price information into their investment strategies. This examination is relevant to the economic question: Does analyst reputation mitigate or exacerbate the conflicts of interest that analysts face? Consistent with instit...

  9. How analysts process information: technical and financial disclosures in the microprocessor industry

    OpenAIRE

    Beccalli, Elena; Miller, Peter; O'Leary, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Following Bradshaw (‘Analyst information processing, financial regulation, and academic research’ [2009], and Analysts' forecasts: What do we know after decades of work? [2011]), this paper examines how analysts process information, particularly in an information environment characterised by multiple and potentially complementary information sources. The setting is the microprocessor industry, one in which technical information is particularly significant and complex to digest. Based on 3837 ...

  10. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, F; Shafigh, F; Roohi, E

    2016-01-01

    In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents' libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans. PMID:27424551

  11. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hashemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  12. Mechanical Behavior of Non-Textbook Soils (Literature Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, J. Antonio H.; Salgado, Rodrigo

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, soil mechanics has focused on the behavior of two distinct types of geomaterials: clean sands and pure clays. Under the application of external loads, these two types of geomaterials represent and are conveniently associated with two extreme types of soil responses: drained and undrained behavior. The drained behavior of clean sands and the undrained behavior of pure clays have been covered extensively in most soil mechanics textbooks. In order to provide some insight into the ...

  13. Establishing Communicative Alternatives to the Emission of Socially Motivated Excess Behavior: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Scott; Reichle, Joe

    1989-01-01

    Literature is reviewed documenting the relationship between implementation of communication intervention and decreases in excess behavior in persons with severe disabilities. Operant conditioning and pragmatics are discussed in terms of their joint application to excess behavior, and a list of possible pragmatic intents of excess behavior is…

  14. An analyst-based method for selecting comparable firms and studying corporate peer effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, Ville

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The main objective of this thesis is to develop and test a method for selecting comparable firms on the basis of common analysts. The method is based on a Monte Carlo simulation on analyst choices, and it produces firm- and time-specific analyst-defined peer groups for sample firms. The analyst-defined peer groups are based entirely on analysts’ choices, and they are independent of conventional industry classifications. As part of the thesis, I also use the analys...

  15. Girls’ Disruptive Behavior and its Relationship to Family Functioning: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kroneman, L.M.; Loeber, R.; Hipwell, A. E.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework. Clarifying the heterogeneity of development in girls is important for developing and optimizing gender-specific prevention and treatment programs. In the current review, we describe the unique aspects of...

  16. Science, Skepticism, and Applied Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoscientific claims concerning medical and psychological treatments of all varieties are commonplace. As behavior analysts, a sound skeptical approach to our science and practice is essential. The present paper offers an overview of science and skepticism and discusses the relationship of skepticism to behavior analysis, with an emphasis on the types of issues concerning behavior analysts in practice.

  17. The Visual Causality Analyst: An Interactive Interface for Causal Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Mueller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the causal relations that exist among variables in multivariate datasets is one of the ultimate goals in data analytics. Causation is related to correlation but correlation does not imply causation. While a number of casual discovery algorithms have been devised that eliminate spurious correlations from a network, there are no guarantees that all of the inferred causations are indeed true. Hence, bringing a domain expert into the casual reasoning loop can be of great benefit in identifying erroneous casual relationships suggested by the discovery algorithm. To address this need we present the Visual Causal Analyst-a novel visual causal reasoning framework that allows users to apply their expertise, verify and edit causal links, and collaborate with the causal discovery algorithm to identify a valid causal network. Its interface consists of both an interactive 2D graph view and a numerical presentation of salient statistical parameters, such as regression coefficients, p-values, and others. Both help users in gaining a good understanding of the landscape of causal structures particularly when the number of variables is large. Our framework is also novel in that it can handle both numerical and categorical variables within one unified model and return plausible results. We demonstrate its use via a set of case studies using multiple practical datasets. PMID:26529703

  18. Reference manual for the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Rachel A.

    1994-07-01

    This document provides technical information and programming guidance for the maintenance and future development of the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk. Help Desk is an expert system that operates within the EXSYSTM expert system shell, and is used to determine first approximations of thermal capacity for spacecraft and instruments. The five analyses supported in Help Desk are: (1) surface area required for a radiating surface, (2) equilibrium temperature of a surface, (3) enclosure temperature and heat loads for a defined position in orbit, (4) enclosure temperature and heat loads over a complete orbit and, (5) selection of appropriate surface properties. The two geometries supported by Help Desk are a single flat plate and a rectangular box enclosure. The technical information includes the mathematical approach and analytical derivations used in the analyses such as: radiation heat balance, view factor calculation, and orbit determination with coordinate transformation. The programming guide for developers describes techniques for enhancement of Help Desk. Examples are provided showing the addition of new features, user interface development and enhancement, and external program interfaces.

  19. HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF METALS: A PRIMER FOR THE FAILURE ANALYST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louthan, M

    2008-01-31

    Hydrogen reduces the service life of many metallic components. Such reductions may be manifested as blisters, as a decrease in fatigue resistance, as enhanced creep, as the precipitation of a hydride phase and, most commonly, as unexpected, macroscopically brittle failure. This unexpected, brittle fracture is commonly termed hydrogen embrittlement. Frequently, hydrogen embrittlement occurs after the component has been is service for a period of time and much of the resulting fracture surface is distinctly intergranular. Many failures, particularly of high strength steels, are attributed to hydrogen embrittlement simply because the failure analyst sees intergranular fracture in a component that served adequately for a significant period of time. Unfortunately, simply determining that a failure is due to hydrogen embrittlement or some other form of hydrogen induced damage is of no particular help to the customer unless that determination is coupled with recommendations that provide pathways to avoid such damage in future applications. This paper presents qualitative and phenomenological descriptions of the hydrogen damage processes and outlines several metallurgical recommendations that may help reduce the susceptibility of a particular component or system to the various forms of hydrogen damage.

  20. Practitioner versus analyst methods: a nuclear decommissioning case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Cooper, Mhairi; Thompson, Pauline; Jenkins, Dan

    2014-11-01

    A requirement arose during decommissioning work at a UK Magnox Nuclear Power Station to identify the hazards involved in removing High Dose Rate Items from a Cartridge Cooling Pond. Removing objects from the cooling pond under normal situations is a routine event with well understood risks but the situation described in this paper is not a routine event. The power station has shifted from an operational phase in its life-cycle to a decommissioning phase, and as such the risks, and procedures to deal with them, have become more novel and uncertain. This raises an important question. Are the hazard identification methods that have proven useful in one phase of the system lifecycle just as useful in another, and if not, what methods should be used? An opportunity arose at this site to put the issue to a direct test. Two methods were used, one practitioner focussed and in widespread use during the plant's operational phase (the Structured What-If method), the other was an analyst method (Cognitive Work Analysis). The former is proven on this site but might not be best suited to the novelty and uncertainty brought about by a shift in context from operations to decommissioning. The latter is not proven on this site but it is designed for novelty and uncertainty. The paper presents the outcomes of applying both methods to a real-world hazard identification task. PMID:24947001

  1. How to Turn a Recession into a Depression: The Role of the Media, of the Politicians, and of the Political Analysts

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    By modifying slightly a standard neoclassical-synthesis macroeconomic model, this paper investigates the effects of an adverse supply or demand shock on output, employment, investment, prices, interest rates, and the exchange rate. The paper focuses on the possibility of the magnification of these effects by the media, the politicians, and the political analysts, who induce herd-behavior by overstating the size of the shock. I find that such behavior destabilizes the economy by magnifying the...

  2. Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, Bruce Eric

    This document reviews research concerning the factors affecting premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. Trends in the literature prior to 1980 are discussed briefly together with summaries of literature reviews from the decades of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Studies from 1980 to the present are reviewed in some…

  3. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review

    OpenAIRE

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Hawe, Penelope; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today’s youth. Friend’s health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks...

  4. USING VIDEO TECHNOLOGY TO DISSEMINATE BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES: A REVIEW OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS: A GUIDE FOR UNDERSTANDING CHALLENGING BEHAVIOR (DVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, James E.; Fox, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Although applied behavior analysis has generated many highly effective behavior-change procedures, the procedures have not always been effectively disseminated. One solution to this problem is the use of video technology, which has been facilitated by the ready availability of video production equipment and software and multiple distribution methods (e.g., DVD, online streaming). We review a recent DVD that was produced to disseminate the successful experimental functional analysis procedure....

  5. Advanced behavioral applications in schools: A review of R. Douglas Greer's designing teaching strategies: An applied behavior analysis systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    R. Douglas Greer1s Designing Teaching Strategies is an important book directed to advanced students in applied behavior analysis for classrooms. This review presents some of the striking features of the Comprehensive Applied Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS®) program and the individualized instruction that the book advances. These include its instruction in literacy, its use of graphing, and its flexibility in systematic organization. Although its readability could be improved, this book...

  6. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  7. A Meta-Analytic Review of Behavior Modeling Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Chan, Daniel W. L.

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 117 studies evaluated the effects of behavior modeling training (BMT) on 6 training outcomes, across characteristics of training design. BMT effects were largest for learning outcomes, smaller for job behavior, and smaller still for results outcomes. Although BMT effects on declarative knowledge decayed over time, training…

  8. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Use Among Patients with Hepatitis C: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Omar T; Maynard, Quentin R; Melton, Pam A

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol use is a barrier to pharmacologic treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is advantageous for medical and clinical social workers engaged in HCV care to be knowledgeable of behavioral interventions that can be used to reduce alcohol use among patients with HCV. This article identifies and describes studies that designed and implemented behavioral interventions to reduce alcohol use among patients with HCV in clinical settings. To achieve this goal, this article conducts a rigorous systematic review to identify peer-reviewed articles, describes each behavioral intervention, and reports primary outcomes of each study included in the review. PMID:27295132

  9. IMPACT OF NATIONAL CULTURE ON ONLINE CONSUMER REVIEW BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwei Lai; Peng He; Hsien-Ming Chou; Lina Zhou

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate culture impact on the content of helpful online consumer reviews. Two distinct cultures, American and Chinese, were selected for comparison. The hypothesized culture effects were empirically examined with online customer reviews data collected from both amazon.com and amazon.cn. The data was first analyzed with a qualitative method to encode the content of online reviews, and then the encoded data were analyzed with a quantitative method to test the hypothese...

  10. A behavioral prescription for promoting applied behavior analysis within pediatrics.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, K D; Barone, V J; Kuhn, B R

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades, pediatric medicine has undergone a shift in focus from infectious diseases to the effects of behavior on the health and development of children. At the same time, behavior analysts have increasingly evaluated the direct application of their technology to the development and maintenance of child health behavior. Unfortunately, applied behavior analysts have developed their technology parallel to, rather than collaboratively with, pediatricians and, as a result, are not recog...

  11. The Role of Analysts as Gatekeepers: Enhancing Transparency and Curbing Earnings Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of analysts’ coverage, forecasting errors and earnings management. It corroborates the role of analysts as gatekeepers by finding that analysts enhance transparency and reduce the scope of earnings management. To identify analysts’ coverage we used the I/B/E/S, from where we also obtained information on the consensus projections of analysts for listed Brazilian companies. The results indicated a negative correlation between the number of analysts covering firms and the magnitude of their discretionary accruals in absolute terms, indicating that more scrutiny inhibits earnings management. We also found a negative correlation between analysts’ coverage and forecasting errors. Multivariate regressions showed statistically significant results in the same sense. Therefore, market analysts, despite the severe criticism they receive from the specialized press, actually have a beneficial effect on corporate governance by monitoring managers and inhibiting earnings management.

  12. Online Social Behavior in Twitter : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, O.A.J.; Maanen, P.P. van; Ouboter, T.; Schraagen, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review is aimed at examining state of the art research in the field of online social networks. The goal is to identify the current challenges within this area of research, given the questions raised in society. In this review we pay attention to three aspects of social networks: acto

  13. Review of AIDS Health Education and Behavioral Interventions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yumao(蔡于茂); ZENG Xuchun(曾序春); DONG Shifu(董时富)

    2002-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) isan infectious disease caused by HIV. It has been epidemic formore than 20 years, but there is no cure of it. Health educationand behavioral interventions are some of the most effectiveapproaches in the control and prevention of AIDS. China isone of the countries with the fastest growing HIVseroprevalence rate, and is facing a widespread epidemic ofAIDS. Currently, high-risk populations such as individualswith multiple sexual partners and intravenous drug users arethe main foci of health education and behavioral interventionsin China. Encouraging results have been observed in manyforms of health education and behavioral intervention. Theapplication of health education and behavioral interventionsmust emerge from scientific evidence, follow a series ofstrategies, be carried out from various perspectives, andrequire the participation of all societal communities.

  14. Gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis: a critical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R S; McCaughey, R E

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing controversy surrounding gentle teaching. This paper explores the nature of this controversy with particular reference to the relationship between gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed, and it is suggested that gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis need not be regarded as mutually exclusive approaches to working with persons with mental retardation.

  15. Equine stereotypic behavior as related to horse welfare: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sarrafchi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    There are strong suggestions that equine stereotypies are being connected to poor welfare and a sub-optimal management and/or stabling environment. Until today different forms of equine stereotypic behaviors have been described. Crib-biting, weaving, and box-walking are considered the most prevalent. Several studies have been conducted to establish links between the underlying causes and potential function of such behaviors. Both experimental and epidemiological studies have indicated managem...

  16. Changes in Routine Health Behaviors Following Late-life Bereavement: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between late-life spousal bereavement and changes in routine health behaviors. We review six behavioral domains/modifiable risk factors that are important for maintaining health among elderly populations: physical activity, nutrition, sleep quality, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and body weight status. Thirty-four articles were identified, derived from 32 studies. We found strong evidence for a relationship between bereavement and nutrition...

  17. Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    French, Simone A; Epstein, Leonard H.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E; Wardle, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed indepen...

  18. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describ...

  19. A Systematic Review of Environmental Correlates of Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, A.; Ferreira, I.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Giskes, K.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational…

  20. A Quantitative Review of the Relationship between Person-Organization Fit and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Brian J.; Woehr, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the meta-analysis of Verquer, Beehr, and Wagner by providing a meta-analytic review of the relationship between person-organization fit (PO fit) and behavioral criteria (job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, and turnover). Results indicate that PO fit is weakly to moderately related to each of these outcome…

  1. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  2. Ethical Decision Making in Academic Dishonesty with Application of Modified Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper studies the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) in academic dishonesty with the mediating variable of ethical ideologies. The study reviews literature on the Theory of Planned Behavior and past studies pertaining to academic dishonesty. The paper analyses the relationship of the variables of TPB on academic…

  3. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira; Marcia Radanovic; Patrícia Cotting Homem de Mello; Patrícia Cardoso Buchain; Adriana Dias Barbosa Vizzotto; Celestino, Diego L.; Florindo Stella; Piersol, Catherine V.; Orestes V. Forlenza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systemat...

  4. Systematic Review of School-based Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior: Does Intervention Intensity Impact Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…

  5. Behavioral Functionality of Mobile Apps in Health Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Josh; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior in...

  6. BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH ASD IN INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS : A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased and more and more children with ASD are educated in inclusive classrooms. Although their inclusion can have several benefits, teachers face some challenges. The main reason is these students’ problem behavior or lack of a desirable behavior. The aim of this systematic literature review was to analyze interventions for behavior management of students with ASD, since the ratification of S...

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Theories Used to Explain Injection Risk Behavior among Injection Drug Users: A Review and Suggestions for the Integration of Cognitive and Environmental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla Dawn; Unger, Jennifer B.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and viral hepatitis, and risky injection behavior persists despite decades of intervention. Cognitive behavioral theories (CBTs) are commonly used to help understand risky injection behavior. The authors review findings from CBT-based studies of injection risk behavior among IDUs. An extensive…

  8. The analyst and the patient's object world: notes on an aspect of countertransference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, T J

    1983-01-01

    I have discussed an aspect of the problem of countertransference that has received little comment--the relation of the analyst to objects in his patient's world. Emotional reactions stimulated in the analyst by his perception of such objects can have a profound effect on the course and outcome of his analytic work. Such responses are a product of complex interactions between the impulses, affects, fantasies, and defenses evoked in the therapist by the mental representations he has formed of these objects. Such objects, in fact, can have a variety of meanings for the analyst. Not only are they related to self-and object representations past and present, but they may, in his imagination, be part of a network of interactions involving the patient, his family, and other of his objects as the result of the reawakening in the analyst of fantasies, memories, and expectations derived from his sibling and family relations. Emotional responses aroused in the therapist by the patient may also be displaced onto objects in the patient's world and not be recognized as countertransference phenomena. Finally, I have commented on the way that reconstructions can be influenced by the analyst's perceptions of his patients' objects, and I have made some note of the special situation when an object in the patient's life is also known to the analyst. While awareness of his conscious attitudes and feelings toward such objects can serve a useful function for the analyst, too complacent an attitude regarding the protective value of such self-awareness may make difficult his recognition of the link between the image of the object known to both patient and analyst and the reawakened self- and object images of the analyst's childhood--a link that, in fact, constitutes the deepest source of countertransference difficulties. PMID:6681430

  9. Using the living laboratory framework as a basis for understanding next-generation analyst work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeese, Michael D.; Mancuso, Vincent; McNeese, Nathan; Endsley, Tristan; Forster, Pete

    2013-05-01

    The preparation of next generation analyst work requires alternative levels of understanding and new methodological departures from the way current work transpires. Current work practices typically do not provide a comprehensive approach that emphasizes the role of and interplay between (a) cognition, (b) emergent activities in a shared situated context, and (c) collaborative teamwork. In turn, effective and efficient problem solving fails to take place, and practice is often composed of piecemeal, techno-centric tools that isolate analysts by providing rigid, limited levels of understanding of situation awareness. This coupled with the fact that many analyst activities are classified produces a challenging situation for researching such phenomena and designing and evaluating systems to support analyst cognition and teamwork. Through our work with cyber, image, and intelligence analysts we have realized that there is more required of researchers to study human-centered designs to provide for analyst's needs in a timely fashion. This paper identifies and describes how The Living Laboratory Framework can be utilized as a means to develop a comprehensive, human-centric, and problem-focused approach to next generation analyst work, design, and training. We explain how the framework is utilized for specific cases in various applied settings (e.g., crisis management analysis, image analysis, and cyber analysis) to demonstrate its value and power in addressing an area of utmost importance to our national security. Attributes of analyst work settings are delineated to suggest potential design affordances that could help improve cognitive activities and awareness. Finally, the paper puts forth a research agenda for the use of the framework for future work that will move the analyst profession in a viable manner to address the concerns identified.

  10. A Systematic Review of Factors Utilized in Preconception Health Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delissaint, Dieula; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review critically synthesizes the literature focusing on factors related to preconception health behaviors (PCHBs) among childbearing age women in the United States, developed countries, and developing countries. Ovid Medline and CINAHL databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2008 relating to…

  11. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  12. A brief review of cephalopod behavioral responses to sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Julia E.; Aran Mooney, T.; Gussekloo, Sander W.S.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2016-01-01

    Sound is a widely available cue in aquatic environments and is used by many marine animals for vital behaviors. Most research has focused on marine vertebrates. Relatively little is known about sound detection in marine invertebrates despite their abundance and importance in marine environments.

  13. Review article: review of behavioral operations experimental studies of newsvendor problems for operating room management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

    2010-06-01

    Operating room (OR) managers must plan staffing in the face of uncertain demand for OR time. Planning too much staffing results in underutilized OR time. Planning too little staffing causes overutilized time, which is approximately twice as expensive as underutilized time. Deciding how much staffing to plan for an OR is analogous to the classic newsvendor problem in operations research. A newsvendor must decide how much product to order based on its cost c and sales price p, plus estimates of the uncertain future demand for the product. The newsvendor problem has a simple mathematical solution. The correct amount of product to order is the (p - c)/p quantile of the demand for the product. This optimal order quantity is analogous mathematically to the number of hours of OR time for which staffing should be planned. We performed a systematic review of the behavioral operations experimental literature on newsvendor problems relevant to OR management. Student volunteers participating in experimental studies have great difficulty knowing how much product to order, given c, p, and the demand distribution. Decision making is only modestly improved by more frequent feedback. Even scores of rounds of ordering are insufficient for much learning to occur. Suboptimal decisions result from innate psychological biases. Students anchor on mean demand, make insufficient adjustments, and rely disproportionately on the most recent demand values. The behavior of OR managers who plan staffing for the OR is analogous to that of students participating in a newsvendor experiment. Month after month, an OR manager will plan too little staffing for the surgeon who consistently ends the day late and too much staffing for the surgeon who consistently does not fill an OR. Experimental studies of the newsvendor problem provide mechanistic insights into the reasons that OR managers make poor decisions when planning OR staffing. The students face no organizational factors or personality issues

  14. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: a systematic review of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.H. Peters; G. Kok; G.T.M. ten Dam; G.J. Buijs; T.G.W.M. Paulussen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements o

  15. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: A systematic review of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.W.H.; Kok, G.; Ten Dam, G.T.M.; Buijs, G.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements o

  16. Classification of Suicidal Behavior: A Review and Step toward Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that the many forms of suicidal phenomena (contemplated, attempted, and completed suicide) present significant problems to researchers and practitioners. Reviews theoretical and empirical efforts to define types of suicidal individuals and attempts to integrate them by means of higher-order categories of variables: (1) descriptive; (2)…

  17. Fetal Behavior and Heart Rate in Twin Pregnancy : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendais, Iva; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Figueiredo, Barbara; Montenegro, Nuno; Mulder, Eduard J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal movements and fetal heart rate (FHR) are well-established markers of fetal well-being and maturation of the fetal central nervous system. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the available knowledge on fetal movements and heart rate patterns in twin pregnancies. There is some evi

  18. Review of rapid eye movement behavior sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

    2004-03-01

    The spectrum of rapid eye movement behavior disorders (RBD) spans various age groups, with the greatest prevalence in elderly men. Major diagnostic features include harmful or potentially harmful sleep behaviors that disrupt sleep continuity and dream enactment during rapid eye movement sleep. In RBD patients, the polysomnogram during rapid eye movement sleep demonstrates excessive augmentation of chin electromyogram or excessive chin or limb phasic electromyogram twitching. RBD may be associated with various neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Other co-morbid conditions may include narcolepsy, agrypnia excitata, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors. RBD is hypothesized to be caused by primary dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus or other key brainstem structures associated with basal ganglia pathology or, alternatively, from abnormal afferent signals in the basal ganglia leading to dysfunction in the midbrain extrapyramidal area/ pedunculo-pontine nucleus regions. PMID:14984689

  19. Predictors of Self-Medication Behavior: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolreza Shaghaghi; Marzieh Asadi; Hamid Allahverdipour

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-medication with over the counter (OTC) and non OTC drugs may provoke serious consequences for users and societies. Recognition of its predictors therefore, is pivotal in plans to hinder the aggregating behavior. This study aimed to identify possibly all predictors of self-medication and the range of its prevalence among different populations. Methods Medline, Amed, Scopus, Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct, and super searcher of Google Scholar were scrutinized usin...

  20. Determinants of risky driving behavior: a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarpour, Saba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) account for great mortality and morbidity rates worldwide, resulting in substantial global burden. Factors contributing to RTC generally fall into three categories: environmental, vehicle, and human, with the human factor being by far the leading determinant. Obtaining an in-depth exploration of driving behavior and factors underpinning risky driving could be of particular importance to facilitate the establishment of effective policies. The present article provide...

  1. Adherence to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Ellyn E.; Arnedt, J. Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S.; Cuddihy, Leisha J.; Aloia, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role o...

  2. Treatment of child abuse: a review of the behavioral interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, C D

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse....

  3. Impact of Sense of Coherence on Oral Health Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyasi, Maryam; Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Badri, Parvaneh; Saltaji, Humam; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Amin, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review was to critically analyze the empirical evidence on the association between Sense of Coherence (SOC) and oral health behaviors through a systematic approach. Methods A systematic search up to April 2015 was carried out using the following electronic bibliographic databases: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE; ISI Web of Science; and Ovid PsychInfo. Studies were included if they evaluated the relationship between SOC and oral health behaviors including tooth cleaning, fluoride usage, dietary habits, dental attendance, and smoking. We excluded studies that only assessed the relationship between oral health status and SOC without evaluating oral health behaviors. The New Castle Ottawa (NOS) quality assessment checklist was employed to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. Results Thirty-nine potential papers met the preliminary selection criteria and following a full-text review, 9 papers were finally selected for this systematic review. Results provided by the included studies indicated different levels of association between SOC and oral health behaviors. The most frequent behaviors investigated were tooth brushing and dental attendance pattern. The impact of SOC on performing positive oral health behaviors, to some extent, was related to demographic and socio-economic factors. In addition, mothers’ SOC influenced children’s oral health practices. Conclusions A more favorable oral health behavior was observed among those with a stronger SOC suggesting that the SOC can be a determinant of oral health-related behaviors including tooth brushing frequency, daily smoking, and dental attendance. PMID:26275064

  4. Management earnings forecasts and analyst forecasts:Evidence from mandatory disclosure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao; Wang; Yunsen; Chen; Juxian; Wang

    2015-01-01

    Distinct from the literature on the effects that management earnings forecasts(MEFs) properties, such as point, range and qualitative estimations, have on analyst forecasts, this study explores the effects of selective disclosure of MEFs.Under China’s mandatory disclosure system, this study proposes that managers issue frequent forecasts to take advantage of opportune changes in predicted earnings. The argument herein is that this selective disclosure of MEFs increases information asymmetry and uncertainty, negatively influencing analyst earnings forecasts. Empirical evidence shows that firms that issue more frequent forecasts and make significant changes in MEFs are less likely to attract an analyst following, which can lead to less accurate analyst forecasts. The results imply that the selective disclosure of MEFs damages information transmission and market efficiency, which can enlighten regulators seeking to further enhance disclosure policies.

  5. A Critical Review of Online Consumer Behavior: Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Christy M.K. Cheung; Gloria W.W. Chan; Moez Limayem

    2005-01-01

    Empirical research on online consumer theory has been examined under diverse contexts over the years. Although researchers from a variety of business disciplines have made significant progress over the past few years, the scope of these studies is rather broad, the studies appear relatively fragmented and no unifying theoretical framework is found in this area. In view of this, this study attempts to provide an exhaustive review of prior theoretical literature and to provide an integrative mo...

  6. SUCCESS FACTORS FOR STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION OF CORPORATE INNOVATIVENESS FOR FINANCIAL ANALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    KERSTIN TRAUTMANN; ELLEN ENKEL

    2014-01-01

    Instead of profiting from an innovation premium at the capital market, many companies suffer from a gap between their actual innovativeness and its perception. Hence, this explorative study elaborates how to manage financial analysts' perception and valuation through strategic innovation communication. By following a holistic research design, six best practicing companies are examined by means of case studies in order to investigate how they successfully address analysts. Additionally, the pe...

  7. Key Performance Indicators and Analysts' Earnings Forecast Accuracy: An Application of Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Dorestani; Zabihollah Rezaee

    2011-01-01

    We examine the association between the extent of change in key performance indicator (KPI) disclosures and the accuracy of forecasts made by analysts. KPIs are regarded as improving both the transparency and relevancy of public financial information. The results of using linear regression models show that contrary to our prediction and the hypothesis of this paper, there is no significant association between the change in non- financial KPI disclosures and the accuracy of analysts' forecasts....

  8. CONTRIBUTION À L'ANALYSE DE LA FORMATION DU JUGEMENT DES ANALYSTES FINANCIERS SELL-SIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Chambost, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Having been hard criticized following the mishaps of « new economy », the sell-side analysts, salaried by the brokerage firms, represent necessary and inevitable actors however, both for management of firm and for investors and especially since the evolution of accounting regulation is being supposed to do answer their concerns. This research has as vocation to try to understand how the sell-side analysts achieve their judgment. The first part of this thesis shows how the structuring of the p...

  9. Beyond the illusion of numbers: A challenge for financial regulators and analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Royal; Loretta O’Donnell

    2013-01-01

    Global financial crises and potential sovereign defaults provide an opportunity for financial regulators and analysts to revise assumptions in their risk models. These conditions are also an opportunity for regulators and analysts to distinguish the ‘hyper-real’ economy, represented by derivatives, from the real economy, which requires assessment through an analysis of human as well as financial capital. Regulators are required to demonstrate that they are skilled in conducting the most t...

  10. Financial ratios used by equity analysts in Mexico and stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Omar Trejo Pech; Magdy Noguera; Susan White

    2015-01-01

    A sample of recommendation reports by equity analysts covering Mexican publicly traded firms in Mexico is studied. We propose a set of “most preferred” financial ratios from this sample. It is found that the most preferred ratios by equity analysts, a group of sophisticated users, are not those ratios typically covered in financial textbooks. Moreover, by using panel regression analysis, we test the relationship between financial ratios and leading stock returns during the 1995–2011 period. O...

  11. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB, obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case-control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases.

  12. Hydrocarbons in soils: Origin, composition, and behavior (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Tsibart, A. S.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    It has been shown that a large body of evidence on the sources, transformation, and migration of hydrocarbons in soils has been acquired by different researchers. Available data about the origin and behavior of hydrocarbon gases, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, and other compounds have been considered successively. A wide range of natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the transformation and migration of hydrocarbons in soils have been analyzed. The indicative value of these compounds has been explained. At the same time, many problems related to hydrocarbons in soils are still insufficiently understood. Sparse and fragmentary data are available in the literature on the interaction of different hydrocarbon groups in the soil. Few data refer to the features of hydrocarbons in background zonal soils; there are almost no interzonal comparisons. The behavior of hydrocarbons in soils of different landscape-geographical positions is characterized in isolated publications. The hydrocarbon status of soils as an integral complex of interrelated hydrocarbons is almost not analyzed. Hydrocarbons of a single class (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon gases, n-alkanes, etc.) are usually characterized in each publication.

  13. A review of Suicide Behavior Among Arab Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Morad; Efrat Merrick; Amir Schwarz; Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Islam prohibits the taking of one's life, because this way you will interfere with the work of G-d (Allah), which is clear from several places in the Quran. Concerning individual suicide or suicide attempts in various Arab countries the literature is sparse and the incidence low. In this paper we present a review of research from Israel showing that suicide epidemiology among the Arab population of children and adolescents display a low incidence, but an increase has been observed over the pa...

  14. Review of Low-Level Bioacoustic Behavior in Wild Cetaceans: Conservation Implications of Possible Sleeping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew J; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard; Sveegaard, Signe; Dietz, Rune; Teilmann, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Shallow, low-activity, low-biosonar parabolic-shaped dives were observed in biologging data from tagged harbor porpoises in Danish waters and identified as potential sleeping behavior. This behavioral state merits consideration in assessing the context for noise exposure and passive acoustic monitoring studies. Similar dives have also been reported for other cetacean species. The existence of low-level bioacoustic dives that may represent that sleeping has implications for the mitigation of not only noise exposure but also of bycatch as well as legal repercussions given the protected status of sleeping, as a part of resting, under many legislative regimes. PMID:26611094

  15. Valuation using multiples. How do analysts reach their conclusions?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on equity valuation using multiples. Our basic conclusion is that multiples nearly always have broad dispersion, which is why valuations performed using multiples may be highly debatable. We review the 14 most popular multiples and deal with the problem of using multiples for valuation: their dispersion. 1,200 multiples from 175 companies illustrate the dispersion of multiples of European utilities, English utilities, European construction companies, hotel companies, teleco...

  16. Evaluating the results of a site-specific PSHA from the perspective of a risk analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Jens-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    From 1998 till 2015 Swiss Nuclear Power Plants sponsored a set of comprehensive site-specific PSHA-studies (PEGASOS, PEGASOS Refinement Project) to obtain the requested input for their plant specific probabilistic risk assessments following the US SSHAC procedures at their most elaborated level 4. The studies were performed by well-known earth scientists working completely independent from sponsors under participatory review of the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate. Risk analysts of Swiss Nuclear Power Plants recently have been mandated to implement the final results of the studies in their risk assessment studies. This triggered an in depth assessment of the results focussed on their practical applicability for risk studies. This assessment resulted in some important insights that are of interest for future PSHA studies performed for new nuclear power plants. The assessment included a review of the completeness of results with respect to risk applications as well as plausibility checks of hazard results based on Black Swan Theory and known historical events. The key lessons and recommendations for more detailed project output specifications for future projects are presented in the paper. It was established that future PSHA projects shall provide the joint probability distribution of ground motion hazard and the associated strong motion duration as the output to allow for a technically meaningful risk assessment. The recommendation of WENRA (West European Nuclear Regulators) published in their reference levels to perform natural hazard assessment preferably based on physical grounds (deterministic method) is also rationalized by recommending an holistic approach to hazard analysis comparing PSHA insights with the results of modelling deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis.

  17. HOW HEALTHY IS THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG ATHLETES? A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Diehl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the frequency of selected risk behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, use of illicit drugs, unhealthy nutrition, and doping in adolescent athletes. Two independent reviewers selected articles following the PRISMA Statement. Behavior frequency was assessed as was comparability of study design and methods. When possible, meta- analyses were performed using data from subgroups of studies in which operational indicators were comparable. Seventy-eight articles met eligibility criteria. Although report of risky behaviors varied across studies, we observed overall, that studies tend to report higher alcohol use, less smoking, less recreational drug use, and more smokeless tobacco use in (high-involved athletes. Considerable heterogeneity was noted in study design, definition of target groups and use of operational indicators (I² ranged from 93.2% to 100%. Especially the higher prevalence of using alcohol and smokeless tobacco needs more attention in interventions targeted to this group. Overall, greater consensus on methods used to assess risky behaviors in adolescent athletes

  18. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions. PMID:18392544

  19. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Servet Kacar Basaran; Serap Tekinsav Sutcu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February) have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met ...

  20. A review of the corrosion and pyrophoricity behavior of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of the corrosion and pyrophoricity behavior of uranium and plutonium. For each element, the reactions with oxygen, water vapor, and aqueous solutions are described in terms of reaction rates, products, and mechanisms. Their pyrophoric tendencies in terms of measured ignition temperatures are discussed, and the effects of the important variables specific area, gas composition, and prior storage rare stated. The implications of the observed behavior for current storage issues are considered

  1. A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, Klazine; Oenema, Anke; Ferreira, Isabel; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Giskes, Katrina; van Lenthe, Frank; Brug, Hans

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThere is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational studies on environmental correlates of energy, fat, fruit/vegetable, snack/fast food and soft drink intakes in children (4-12 years) and ad...

  2. Couples-focused behavioral interventions for prevention of HIV: Systematic review of the state of evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Jennifer; Darbes, Lynae A.; Operario, Don

    2010-01-01

    HIV is frequently transmitted in the context of partners in a committed relationship, thus couples-focused HIV prevention interventions are a potentially promising modality for reducing infection. We conducted a systematic review of studies testing whether couples-focused behavioral prevention interventions reduce HIV transmission and risk behavior. We included studies using randomized controlled trial designs, quasi-randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled studies. We search...

  3. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfac...

  4. Psychosis, Mood and Behavioral Disorders in Usher Syndrome: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Domanico, Daniela; Fragiotta, Serena; Cutini, Alessandro; Grenga, Pier Luigi; Vingolo, Enzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus the current knowledge about mental and behavioral disorders in Usher syndrome. Previous studies described the presence of various mental disorders associated with Usher syndrome, suggesting possible mechanisms of association between these disorders. The most common manifestations are schizophrenia-like disorder and psychotic symptoms. Mood and behavioral disorders are rarely described, and often are associated with more complex cases in co-occurrence with ot...

  5. Successful behavior change in obesity interventions in adults: a systematic review of self-regulation mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Texeira, Pedro J; Carraça, Eliana V; Marques, Marta M; Rutter, Harry; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Relapse is high in lifestyle obesity interventions involving behavior and weight change. Identifying mediators of successful outcomes in these interventions is critical to improve effectiveness and to guide approaches to obesity treatment, including resource allocation. This article reviews the most consistent self-regulation mediators of medium- and long-term weight control, physical activity, and dietary intake in clinical and community behavior change interventions targeting ove...

  6. Trends in High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among General Population Groups in China: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than c...

  7. Behavioral treatments for children and adults who stutter: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomgren M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Blomgren Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of stuttering followed by a synopsis of current approaches to treat stuttering in children and adults. Treatment is discussed in terms of multifactorial, operant, speech restructuring, and anxiolytic approaches. Multifactorial and operant treatments are designed for young children who stutter. Both of these approaches involve parent training and differ primarily in their focus on reducing demands on the child (multifactorial or in their use of response contingent stimulation (operant conditioning. Speech restructuring and anxiolytic approaches are used with adults who stutter. Speech restructuring approaches focus on the mechanics of speech production, and anxiolytic treatments tend to focus on the symptoms and social and vocational challenges of stuttering. The evidence base for these different approaches is outlined. Response contingent therapy (for children and speech restructuring therapy (for adults have the most robust empirical evidence base. Multifactorial treatments for children and stuttering management approaches for adults are popular but are based on theoretical models of stuttering; the evidence base is not robust and tends to be inferred from work in areas such as cognitive behavior therapy and desensitization. Comprehensive, or holistic, approaches to treating stuttering are also discussed. Comprehensive approaches for treating stuttering in adults address both improved speech fluency and stuttering management. Keywords: stuttering, treatment, stuttering management, speech restructuring, cognitive restructuring

  8. Quenching behavior of molten pool with different strategies - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikant, Pandel, U.; Duchaniya, R. K.; Nayak, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    After the major severe accident in nuclear reactor, there has been lot of concerns regarding long term core melt stabilization following a severe accident in nuclear reactors. Numerous strategies have been though for quenching and stabilization of core melt like top flooding, bottom flooding, indirect cooling, etc. However, the effectiveness of these schemes is yet to be determined properly, for which, lot of experiments are needed. Several experiments have been performed for coolability of melt pool under bottom flooding as well as for indirect cooling. Besides these tests are very scattered because they involve different simulants material initial temperatures and masses of melt, which makes it very complex to judge the effectiveness of a particular technique and advantage over the other. In this review paper, a study has been carried on different cooling techniques of simulant materials with same mass. Three techniques have been compared here and the results are discussed. Under top flooding technique it took several hours to cool the melt under without decay heat condition. In bottom flooding technique was found to be the best technique among in indirect cooling technique, top flooded technique, and bottom flooded technique.

  9. A Review of Empirical Studies Investigating Antecedents and Consequences of Collective Learning Behaviors in Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Florina D. Spânu; Adriana S. Băban

    2013-01-01

    This study is a systematic review of the field research conducted in medical settings investigating collective learning behaviors. The review was driven by several research foci. Our main interest was in identifying antecedents and consequences of collective learning in hospitals. We also report results on the types of research questions addressed, research designs used, and types of medical teams investigated. Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. Our findings revealed that highly conte...

  10. Child Pedestrian Injury: A Review of Behavioral Risks and Preventive Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among ...

  11. The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, a...

  12. A Systematic Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Nightmares: Toward a Well-Established Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lancee, Jaap; Victor I Spoormaker; Krakow, Barry; van den Bout, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on nightmare frequency and to determine which kind of CBT is the most effective treatment. A systematic literature search was carried out in PsychInfo and PubMed articles published on or before May 1, 2008. The inclusion criteria were: nightmare treatment study, use of nonpharmacological treatment, not a qualitative case study, randomized-controlled trial (RCT). After selection, 12 peer-reviewed stud...

  13. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-05-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV. PMID:25844941

  14. A systematic review of social factors and suicidal behavior in older adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; van Orden, Kimberly A; Duberstein, Paul; Erlangsen, Annette; Lapierre, Sylvie; Bodner, Ehud; Canetto, Silvia Sara; De Leo, Diego; Szanto, Katalin; Waern, Margda

    2012-01-01

    indicated that at least in industrialized countries, limited social connectedness is associated with suicidal ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, and suicide in later life. Primary prevention programs designed to enhance social connections as well as a sense of community could potentially decrease......Suicide in later life is a global public health problem. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic analysis of studies with comparison groups that examined the associations between social factors and suicidal behavior (including ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, or deaths) among...... suicide risk, especially among men....

  15. Patterns of disordered eating behavior in women by sexual orientation: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; Pantalone, David W

    2014-01-01

    Most disordered eating research has focused on White, heterosexual women. More empirical work is needed to better understand disordered eating among women of diverse backgrounds. Given evidence of disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) women in other health behaviors (e.g., tobacco use) and outcomes (e.g., cardiovascular disease), it appears important to study disordered eating behaviors among sexual minority women. In this article, we review the extant literature on disordered eating behaviors in women across sexual orientations, with a focus on research examining potential mechanisms of disparities in disordered eating, including awareness and internalization of sociocultural norms. PMID:24617312

  16. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kacar Basaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94

  17. Treatment of child abuse: a review of the behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, C D

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse. Burgess (1978) believes that conceptual problems exist because abuse falls along a continuum of parent-child relationships--a continuum that at one end might include verbal punishment (e.g., threats, ridicule) or milder forms of physical punishment (e.g., slap on the hand, spanking), and at the other end include extreme forms of physical punishment that exceed community mores (for example, hitting a child with a closed fist, scalding a child in hot water, torturing or killing a child). Thus, the question-- where does discipline stop and abuse begin?-- faces every researcher who must operationally define abuse. Identifying the consequences of abuse in a child's development is another area of inquiry that remains untreated. Most of the literature is filled with the subjective impressions of professionals speculating that abused children become the juvenile delinquents and the child abusers of the future; however, as yet no longitudinal studies have been conducted that compare the developmental outcomes of abused and non-abused children from early childhood to later adulthood. What if there were no differences? How might this influence our approaches to the treatment of abuse? Answers to these and other questions will take years of study. Increased awareness of the problem of child abuse has led to greater efforts to remediate the problem. Treatment efforts with abusive families are still in the initial stages, but, undoubtedly, information from these early programs can be the

  18. Subcellular object quantification with Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Aurélien; Mansouri, Maysam; Ballmer-Hofer, Kurt; Berger, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative image analysis plays an important role in contemporary biomedical research. Squassh is a method for automatic detection, segmentation, and quantification of subcellular structures and analysis of their colocalization. Here we present the applications Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst. Squassh3C extends the functionality of Squassh to three fluorescence channels and live-cell movie analysis. SquasshAnalyst is an interactive web interface for the analysis of Squassh3C object data. It provides segmentation image overview and data exploration, figure generation, object and image filtering, and a statistical significance test in an easy-to-use interface. The overall procedure combines the Squassh3C plug-in for the free biological image processing program ImageJ and a web application working in conjunction with the free statistical environment R, and it is compatible with Linux, MacOS X, or Microsoft Windows. Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst are available for download at www.psi.ch/lbr/SquasshAnalystEN/SquasshAnalyst.zip. PMID:26554508

  19. Accuracy and Consistency of Grass Pollen Identification by Human Analysts Using Electron Micrographs of Surface Ornamentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Mander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. Methods: We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. Results: Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. Discussion: The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.

  20. Train the Trainer Effectiveness Trials of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals with Autism: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…

  1. The Information Needs and Behavior of Mature Community College Students: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeit, Krystina

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a review of literature devoted to the unique information needs and information-seeking behavior of the growing nontraditional or mature community college student population. This underserved user group faces distinctive challenges that librarians, researchers, and administrators must recognize and address. Much of the existing…

  2. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  3. Contemporary Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Review of Theory, History, and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed. PMID:26301761

  4. Awareness, knowledge and healthy lifestyle behaviors related to coronary heart disease among women: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Hadassah Joann; Wu, Vivien Xi; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Wang, Wenru

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine recent literature on the awareness, knowledge, and healthy lifestyle behaviors related to Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) among women. Literature published in the English language from 2004 to 2015 was reviewed. Of the 684 articles retrieved, 21 were deemed relevant. Being aware that CHD is the leading cause of death in women and knowledge of the risk factors of CHD were found to be generally suboptimal in the women studied. Awareness was seen to be positively associated with healthy lifestyle behaviors, though findings on the predictive relationship of knowledge of risk factors on healthy lifestyle behaviors in women seem to be divided. Diabetes was the prominent risk factor that most women did not associate with CHD. Translating these findings into clinical practice can help health care providers be more attuned when discussing CHD with their female patients so as to provide targeted education on CHD prevention. PMID:26961078

  5. Cognitive Behavioral Development in Children Following Maternal Postpartum Depression: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Hamid; Moosavipoor, Seyed Ahmad; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Sara; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdian-anari, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Mothers’ constitute is a very important part of infants’ social environment and mediate their experience with the surrounding world. Postpartum depression, which is considered one of the most common and important psychiatric disorders, affects 10–15% of mothers, its causes are different. By investigating various sources, some effects of this disorder have been observed on the cognitive development of children, particularly among boys, such as language, intelligence quotient (IQ), and behavioral problems. Thus, it is imperative to study the effects of postpartum depression on children’s growth and development and to identify methods of reducing these effects. This review indicates that postpartum depression in mothers reduces children’s cognitive performance. The adverse effects of postpartum depression on children’s development seem to be mediated by the mother’s interpersonal behavior and the infant gender. The review of previous studies shows that postpartum depression reduces children’s cognitive performance by impairing maternal mental and behavioral care. PMID:26816593

  6. Multi-Instance Learning Models for Automated Support of Analysts in Simulated Surveillance Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birisan, Mihnea; Beling, Peter

    2011-01-01

    New generations of surveillance drones are being outfitted with numerous high definition cameras. The rapid proliferation of fielded sensors and supporting capacity for processing and displaying data will translate into ever more capable platforms, but with increased capability comes increased complexity and scale that may diminish the usefulness of such platforms to human operators. We investigate methods for alleviating strain on analysts by automatically retrieving content specific to their current task using a machine learning technique known as Multi-Instance Learning (MIL). We use MIL to create a real time model of the analysts' task and subsequently use the model to dynamically retrieve relevant content. This paper presents results from a pilot experiment in which a computer agent is assigned analyst tasks such as identifying caravanning vehicles in a simulated vehicle traffic environment. We compare agent performance between MIL aided trials and unaided trials.

  7. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Patrick J.; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  8. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Anna; Rao, Sanjay; McGrath, Patrick J; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  9. Changes in Routine Health Behaviors Following Late-life Bereavement: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between late-life spousal bereavement and changes in routine health behaviors. We review six behavioral domains/modifiable risk factors that are important for maintaining health among elderly populations: physical activity, nutrition, sleep quality, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and body weight status. Thirty-four articles were identified, derived from 32 studies. We found strong evidence for a relationship between bereavement and nutritional risk and involuntary weight loss, and moderate evidence for impaired sleep quality and increased alcohol consumption. There was mixed evidence for a relationship between bereavement and physical activity. We identify several methodological shortcomings, and describe the clinical implications of this review for the development of preventive intervention strategies. PMID:23881308

  10. A Scoping Review of Behavioral Weight Management Interventions in Overweight/Obese African American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Suzanne M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Jenkins, Carolyn H; Nemeth, Lynne S

    2016-08-01

    African American females are adversely affected by overweight and obesity and accompanying physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences. Behavioral weight management interventions are less effective in addressing the needs of overweight and obese African American females. The objective of this scoping review was to explore weight management research in this population to identify key concepts, gaps in the literature, and implications for future research. Analyses revealed a broad array in purpose, theoretical frameworks, settings, study designs, interventions, intervention strategies, and outcome variables, making comparison difficult. Many of the articles included in this review did not provide a rich description of methods, which hinder their use in the development of future studies. Consistent application of a combined theory may address the gaps identified in this review by providing a reliable method for assessing needs, developing interventions, and evaluating the effectiveness and fidelity of behavioral weight management interventions in overweight and obese African American females. PMID:26927607

  11. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prazeres AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review

  12. Critical realism: distinguishing the psychological subjectivity of the analyst from epistemological subjectivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, C; Hanly, M A

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the concepts of critical realism, subjectivity, and subjectivism, distinctions are drawn among ontological subjectivism, moral subjectivity, psychological subjectivity, and epistemological subjectivism. Psychological subjectivity, including the ongoing affective life of the analyst, is an essential aspect of the analyst's response to the patient, and may either facilitate or distort an adequate observation of transference and countertransference dynamics and of the psychic reality of the patient. Subjectivism in current psychoanalytic literature involves an argument that there is an "irreducible" subjectivity in the analyst, who is bound to see things from an incorrigibly personal point of view, such that there is no substantial subject-object differentiation between analyst and patient. Issues of authoritarianism in the analyst, or of pathological certainty, should not be confused with the issues of epistemological objectivism. The concept of critical realism or scientific objectivism includes the essential idea that there is no pure knowledge, no complete knowledge, that often evidence is insufficient for knowledge of some aspect of nature, and that care must be to taken understand what is sufficient knowledge in a given area, in this case clinical psychoanalysis. The question is raised whether "projective identification" makes the sorting out of "what comes from whom" impossible. It is argued that when free association is sufficiently facilitated, when there are enough corrections of the distortions wrought by transference and countertransference, when defenses are analyzed, and when sufficient subject-object differentiation is recovered, the analyst can get to know enough of the patient's psychic reality for the therapeutic and scientific purposes of psychoanalysis. PMID:11508375

  13. Financial Analysts' Forecast Accuracy : Before and After the Introduction of AIFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Seng Cheong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether financial analysts’ forecast accuracy differs between the pre- and post- adoption ofAustralian Equivalents to the International Financial Reporting Standards (AIFRS. We find that forecastaccuracy has improved after Australia adopted AIFRS. As a secondary objective, this paper also investigatesthe role of financial analysts in reducing information asymmetry in today’s Australian capital market. We findweak evidence that more analysts following a stock do not help to improve forecast accuracy by bringingmore firm-specific information to the market.

  14. On the relation between forecast precision and trading profitability of financial analysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Carlo; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between earnings forecast accuracy and the expected profitability of financial analysts. Modeling forecast errors with a multivariate normal distribution, a complete characterization of the payoff of each analyst is provided. In particular, closed-form expressions for the...... probability density function, for the expectation, and, more generally, for moments of all orders are obtained. Our analysis shows that the relationship between forecast precision and trading profitability needs not be monotonic, and that the impact of the correlation between the forecasts on the expected...

  15. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-03-24

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  16. Innovative Interventions to Promote Behavioral Change in Overweight or Obese Individuals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades placing significant burdens on healthcare in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data shows promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions. PMID:25011006

  17. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  18. The Variability of Crater Identification Among Expert and Community Crater Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S. J.; Antonenko, I.; Kirchoff, M. R.; Chapman, C. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Herrick, R. R.; Singer, K.; Zanetti, M.; Lehan, C.; Huang, D.; Gay, P. L.

    2015-05-01

    We all know it in the back of our minds, but we tend to ignore the fact that crater identification and measurement is not an exact science. This work was to start to quantify the variation in how independent analysts identify and measure impacts.

  19. Analysing the Environmental Content of Financial Analyst Reports by developing an ESG Framework that incorporates Business Opportunities and the Product Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Cerin, Pontus

    2010-01-01

    Unlike most previous research that merely looks at the perceptions of analysts, this report examines the environmental information financial analysts actually use in their analyst reports. Out of almost 4,500 analyst reports about 36 percent contain environmental information, varying between 3 to 79 percent depending on industry sector where, in general, analyst reports in sectors with more severe environmental aspects to a larger degree contain environmental information. The type of environm...

  20. Comparison of air-coupled GPR data analysis results determined by multiple analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Nicole; Maser, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Current bridge deck condition assessments using ground penetrating radar (GPR) requires a trained analyst to manually interpret substructure layering information from B-scan images in order to proceed with an intended analysis (pavement thickness, concrete cover, effects of rebar corrosion, etc.) For example, a recently developed method to rapidly and accurately analyze air-coupled GPR data based on the effects of rebar corrosion, requires that a user "picks" a layer of rebar reflections in each B-scan image collected along the length of the deck. These "picks" have information like signal amplitude and two way travel time. When a deck is new, or has little rebar corrosion, the resulting layer of rebar reflections is readily evident and there is little room for subjectivity. However, when a deck is severely deteriorated, the rebar layer may be difficult to identify, and different analysts may make different interpretations of the appropriate layer to analyze. One highly corroded bridge deck, was assessed with a number of nondestructive evaluation techniques including 2GHz air-coupled GPR. Two trained analysts separately selected the rebar layer in each B-scan image, choosing as much information as possible, even in areas of significant deterioration. The post processing of the selected data points was then completed and the results from each analyst were contour plotted to observe any discrepancies. The paper describes the differences between ground coupled and air-coupled GPR systems, the data collection and analysis methods used by two different analysts for one case study, and the results of the two different analyses.

  1. A Review of Empirical Studies Investigating Antecedents and Consequences of Collective Learning Behaviors in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina D. Spânu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a systematic review of the field research conducted in medical settings investigating collective learning behaviors. The review was driven by several research foci. Our main interest was in identifying antecedents and consequences of collective learning in hospitals. We also report results on the types of research questions addressed, research designs used, and types of medical teams investigated. Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. Our findings revealed that highly contextualized studies that use different ways of measuring learning, different ways of conceptualizing medical teams, and different research methodologies, discuss similar antecedents. Variables like leadership behaviors, unit interpersonal climate, and hierarchical position were found to play a role in explaining organizational learning in hospitals across studies. We also found that despite an intense public discourse on the link between collective learning processes and patients’ safety and medical organizations’ performance, few studies actually report empirical data supporting this relationship.

  2. General parenting, childhood overweight and obesity-inducing behaviors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2011-06-01

    Despite emerging efforts to investigate the influence parents have on their children's weight status and related dietary and activity behaviors, reviews regarding the role of general parenting are lacking. We performed a systematic review regarding the relationship between general parenting and these weight-related outcomes to guide observational research. In total, 36 studies were included. Discrepancies across studies were found, which may be explained by differences in conceptualization of parenting constructs. Overall, however, results suggest that children raised in authoritative homes ate more healthy, were more physically active and had lower BMI levels, compared to children who were raised with other styles (authoritarian, permissive/indulgent, uninvolved/neglectful). Findings of some moderation studies indicate that general parenting has a differential impact on children's weight-related outcomes, depending on child and parental characteristics. These findings underline the importance of acknowledging interactions between general parenting and both child and parent characteristics, as well as behavior-specific parenting practices. PMID:21657834

  3. Systematic Review of Health Promotion Programs Focused on Behavioral Changes for People With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Haleigh M; Havercamp, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) experience high rates of chronic health problems and poor overall health compared to people without disabilities. Recent attention to health risk behaviors such as poor diet, lack of physical activity, and underuse of health care has led to the development of several programs intended to reduce disparities in this population through health promotion programs. A review of the literature was conducted focusing on programs developed to target behavioral changes in the person with ID. Thirteen studies, evaluating 10 different health promotion programs, were found. Programs varied significantly in design, targeted health change, and demonstrated effectiveness. Components of each program are systematically reviewed and recommendations made for future programs based upon the current evidence. PMID:26824134

  4. Identifying Organizational Identification as a Basis for Attitudes and Behaviors: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Suk; Park, Tae-Youn; Koo, Bonjin

    2015-09-01

    Organizational identification has been argued to have a unique value in explaining individual attitudes and behaviors in organizations, as it involves the essential definition of entities (i.e., individual and organizational identities). This review seeks meta-analytic evidence of the argument by examining how this identity-relevant construct functions in the nexus of attitudinal/behavioral constructs. The findings show that, first, organizational identification is significantly associated with key attitudes (job involvement, job satisfaction, and affective organizational commitment) and behaviors (in-role performance and extra-role performance) in organizations. Second, in the classic psychological model of attitude-behavior relations (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), organizational identification is positioned as a basis from which general sets of those attitudes and behaviors are engendered; organizational identification has a direct effect on general behavior above and beyond the effect of general attitude. Third, the effects of organizational identification are moderated by national culture, a higher-level social context wherein the organization is embedded, such that the effects are stronger in a collectivistic culture than in an individualistic culture. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25984729

  5. Does temporal discounting explain unhealthy behavior? A systematic review and reinforcement learning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles eStory

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to make unhealthy choices is hypothesized to be related to an individual's temporal discount rate, the theoretical rate at which they devalue delayed rewards. Furthermore, a particular form of temporal discounting, hyperbolic discounting, has been proposed to explain why unhealthy behavior can occur despite healthy intentions. We examine these two hypotheses in turn. We first systematically review studies which investigate whether discount rates can predict unhealthy behavior. These studies reveal that high discount rates for money (and in some instances food or drug rewards are associated with several unhealthy behaviors and markers of health status, establishing discounting as a promising predictive measure. We secondly examine whether intention-incongruent unhealthy actions are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. We conclude that intention-incongruent actions are often triggered by environmental cues or changes in motivational state, whose effects are not parameterized by hyperbolic discounting. We propose a framework for understanding these state-based effects in terms of the interplay of two distinct reinforcement learning mechanisms: a model-based (or goal-directed system and a model-free (or habitual system. Under this framework, while discounting of delayed health may contribute to the initiation of unhealthy behavior, with repetition, many unhealthy behaviors become habitual; if health goals then change, habitual behavior can still arise in response to environmental cues. We propose that the burgeoning development of computational models of these processes will permit further identification of health decision-making phenotypes.

  6. Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mélissa Prud'homme; Romulus Cata; Didier Jutras-Aswad

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by the compulsive desire to use drugs and a loss of control over consumption. Cannabidiol (CBD), the second most abundant component of cannabis, is thought to modulate various neuronal circuits involved in drug addiction. The goal of this systematic review is to summarize the available preclinical and clinical data on the impact of CBD on addictive behaviors. MEDLINE and PubMed were searched for English and French language artic...

  7. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Daniel A. Galvao; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian(Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, München, 80805, Germany)

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results f...

  8. The dopaminergic basis of human behaviors: a review of molecular imaging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Egerton, Alice; Mehta, Mitul A; Montgomery, Andrew J; Lappin, Julia M.; Howes, Oliver D; Reeves, Suzanne J.; Cunningham, Vincent J; Grasby, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review describes human molecular imaging studies which have investigated alterations in extracellular DA levels during performance of behavioral tasks. Whilst heterogeneity in experimental methods limits meta-analysis, we describe the advantages and limitations of different methodological approaches. Interpretation of experimental results may be limited by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes, head movement and choice of control conditions. We revisit our original study...

  9. Health Promotion and Health Behaviors of Diverse Ethnic/Racial Women Cosmetologists: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Thelusma; Penny Ralston

    2016-01-01

    Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists’ involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies...

  10. Internet-administered cognitive behavior therapy for health problems: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van, FE; Andersson, G

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral interventions are the most extensively researched form of psychological treatment and are increasingly offered through the Internet. Internet-based interventions may save therapist time, reduce waiting-lists, cut traveling time, and reach populations with health problems who can not easily access other more traditional forms of treatments. We conducted a systematic review of twelve randomized controlled or comparative trials. Studies were identified through systematic sea...

  11. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Apter; Maya Amitai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk fa...

  12. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    OpenAIRE

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effec...

  13. Social Work Research on African Americans and Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic 25-year Review

    OpenAIRE

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work’s empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on Af...

  14. Antisocial personality disorder in adolescents with delinquent behavior (a review of foreign literature)

    OpenAIRE

    K.V.Syrokvashina

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews the international experience of antisocial personality disorder assessment in adolescents with delinquent behavior. We discuss concepts such as antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. We provide the basic clinical and clinical-psychological concepts of foreign researchers in this area, including discussion questions. Within the concepts, we outlined the basic characteristics of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. We discuss the basic diagnostic techni...

  15. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan W. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple wor...

  16. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies. PMID:25084562

  17. Multiple health behavior change: a synopsis and comment on “A review of multiple health behavior change interventions for primary prevention”

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Winter; Buscemi, Joanna; Coons, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The ninth column on Evidence-Based Behavioral Medicine is a synthesis of a recent systematic meta-review of multiple health behavior change (MHBC) interventions published by Prochaska and Prochaska in the American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine (Am J Life Med 5:208–221, 2011). Health risk behaviors are highly prevalent and increase the risk of developing and exacerbating chronic disease. The purpose of the meta-review was to examine the efficacy of MHBC interventions in a variety of population...

  18. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  19. Effect of grain boundary on the mechanical behaviors of irradiated metals: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, XiaZi; Chu, HaiJian; Duan, HuiLing

    2016-06-01

    The design of high irradiation-resistant materials is very important for the development of next-generation nuclear reactors. Grain boundaries acting as effective defect sinks are thought to be able to moderate the deterioration of mechanical behaviors of irradiated materials, and have drawn increasing attention in recent years. The study of the effect of grain boundaries on the mechanical behaviors of irradiated materials is a multi-scale problem. At the atomic level, grain boundaries can effectively affect the production and formation of irradiation-induced point defects in grain interiors, which leads to the change of density, size distribution and evolution of defect clusters at grain level. The change of microstructure would influence the macroscopic mechanical properties of the irradiated polycrystal. Here we give a brief review about the effect of grain boundaries on the mechanical behaviors of irradiated metals from three scales: microscopic scale, mesoscopic scale and macroscopic scale.

  20. Association between pornography use and sexual risk behaviors in adult consumers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Emily L; Mullan, Barbara; Mullan, Barbara M; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether an association exists between sexual risk behaviors and pornography consumption. Consumption of pornography is common, yet research examining its link with sexual risk behaviors is in its infancy. Indicators of sexual risk behavior, including unsafe sex practices and a higher number of sexual partners, have been linked to poor health outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, and CINAHL. Studies were included if they assessed the association between pornography use and indicators of sexual risk behaviors in an adult population. A total of 17 were included in the review, and all were assessed for research standards using the Quality Index Scale. For both Internet pornography and general pornography, links with greater unsafe sex practices and number of sexual partners were identified. Limitations of the literature, including low external validity and poor study design, restrict the generalizability of the findings. Accordingly, replication and more rigorous methods are recommended for future research. PMID:25587721

  1. Team Collaboration: The Use of Behavior Principles for Serving Students with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Amy L.; Stahmer, Aubyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and behavior analysts are key members of school-based teams that serve children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Behavior analysts approach assessment and intervention through the lens of applied behavior analysis (ABA). ABA-based interventions have been found effective for targeting skills across…

  2. Review of IT/IS Adoption and Decision-Making Behavior in Small Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoping; FU Jing

    2008-01-01

    The increased use of information technologies has led to more research on information technology/information system (IT/IS) adoption and decision-making behavior in small businesses to improve information utilization. This paper presents an extensive review of the literature on IT/IS adoption to identify the key factors affecting small businesses based on comparison analysis. The review identifies the current interest in the adoption of Internet based IT and points out that the factors affecting different stages of the business lifecycle and research variables should be selected in terms of the different technology types. Especially, the review emphasizes the characteristics of external openings on the network in the research on e-commerce adoption. Future studies should focus on IT/IS adoption and implementation in small and medium-sized businesses during the development of small and medium-sized industrial clusters and specialty towns.

  3. The Investigation of the Relationship among Analyst Following, Managerial Ownership and Firm Valuation: From the Perspective of Agency Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship among analyst following, managerial ownership and firm valuation is investigated from the perspective of agency theory by using a nonlinear simultaneous equation model. The data from the Taiwan stock market verify the proposed hypotheses with a nonlinear three-stage least-square procedure. The empirical results show that managerial ownership (serving an internal monitoring function and number of analysts following (serving an external monitoring function are respectively nonlinear and linear increasing functions of firm valuation, while managerial ownership and analyst following are substitutes in the monitoring of the firm. The results generated from this study support an alignment effect and an entrenchment effect in the relationship between managerial ownership and firm valuation after controlling for the effect of analyst following. Evidence also shows that analyst coverage serves to enhance firm valuation after controlling for the effect of managerial ownership. In addition, a substitution effect between number of analysts following and managerial ownership is found to exist as well as a decreasing marginal value for managerial ownership. It is indicated that both security analysts and managerial ownership serve as monitoring forces in the firm and higher level of monitoring forces, whether internal or external, will enhance firm valuation. The results reveal that the security analysts serve the external monitoring function by reducing the agency cost associated with the separation of ownership and control in the Taiwan stock market.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of User Perception and Behavioral Intention for Different Review Types: Customers and Designers Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Atika Qazi; Ram Gopal Raj; Muhammad Tahir; Mahwish Waheed; Saif Ur Rehman Khan; Ajith Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Existing opinion mining studies have focused on and explored only two types of reviews, that is, regular and comparative. There is a visible gap in determining the useful review types from customers and designers perspective. Based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and statistical measures we examine users’ perception about different review types and its effects in terms of behavioral intention towards using online review system. By using sample of users (N=400) and designers (N=106), curr...

  5. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  6. Storing and managing information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William A; Riensche, Roderick M; Best, Daniel M; Roberts, Ian E; Whyatt, Marie V; Hart, Michelle L; Carr, Norman J; Thomas, James J

    2012-09-18

    Systems and computer-implemented processes for storage and management of information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device. The processes and systems can capture a sequence of interactive operation elements that are performed by the information analyst, who is collecting an information artifact from at least one of the plurality of software applications. The information artifact can then be stored together with the interactive operation elements as a snippet on a memory device, which is operably connected to the processor. The snippet comprises a view from an analysis application, data contained in the view, and the sequence of interactive operation elements stored as a provenance representation comprising operation element class, timestamp, and data object attributes for each interactive operation element in the sequence.

  7. Nonabusive physical punishment and child behavior among African-American children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ivor Braden; Joseph, Jill G.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of nonabusive physical punishment as a form of discipline has been greatly debated in the scientific and popular literature. Impact on child behavioral outcomes has frequently been found; however, the effects of its use are not clear, particularly for African-American children. This systematic review of the literature examined the impact of exposure to nonabusive physical punishment on the behavior of African-American children. METHODS: A search was conducted of PubMed and Psyclnfo from 1970 to 2000 using the key terms: corporal punishment, physical punishment, disciplinary practices, and discipline and parenting. Studies that described ethnicity of the population and included a majority of a well-described African-American population were included. Each study was required to include measurable data on child behavioral outcomes and at least one measure of discipline that assessed use of nonabusive physical punishment in children 0-14 years of age. RESULTS: All seven included studies used lower socioeconomic status (SES) and/or urban African-American populations. Study design and rural versus urban populations differentiated beneficial and detrimental outcomes. In all longitudinal studies, African-American children had beneficial or neutral outcomes. DISCUSSION: This review suggests that it is possible that there are benefits to nonabusive physical punishment for African-American children. However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence. PMID:15481744

  8. A Systematic Review of Social Factors and Suicidal Behavior in Older Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Szanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide in later life is a global public health problem. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic analysis of studies with comparison groups that examined the associations between social factors and suicidal behavior (including ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, or deaths among individuals aged 65 and older. Our search identified only 16 articles (across 14 independent samples that met inclusion criteria. The limited number of studies points to the need for further research. Included studies were conducted in Canada (n = 2, Germany (n = 1, Hong Kong (n = 1, Japan (n = 1, Singapore (n = 1, Sweden (n = 2, Taiwan (n = 1, the U.K. (n = 2, and the U.S. (n = 3. The majority of the social factors examined in this review can be conceptualized as indices of positive social connectedness—the degree of positive involvement with family, friends, and social groups. Findings indicated that at least in industrialized countries, limited social connectedness is associated with suicidal ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, and suicide in later life. Primary prevention programs designed to enhance social connections as well as a sense of community could potentially decrease suicide risk, especially among men.

  9. High-level politically connected firms, corruption, and analyst forecast accuracy around the world

    OpenAIRE

    Charles JP Chen; Yuan Ding; Chansog (Francis) Kim

    2010-01-01

    The international business (IB) literature has widely recognized political forces as major factors that complicate the strategic decisions of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Analyses by financial intermediaries can help to reduce the risk of information asymmetry caused by such factors. Using firm-level data from 17 jurisdictions between 1997 and 2001, this study investigates the association between a firm's high-level political connections and earnings forecasts made by financial analysts,...

  10. Equity Issues and Changes in Expectations of Earnings by Financial Analysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Prem C

    1992-01-01

    Evidence is provided on an implication of models by Myers and Majluf (1984) and Miller and Rock (1985), which predict that equity issues convey information about firms' future earnings. Consistent with the prediction, the results show that earnings forecast revisions by financial analysts subsequent to the announcement of equity issues are significantly related to announcement period abnormal returns. Article published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Financial Studies ...

  11. The Nexus between Analyst Forecast Dispersion and Expected Returns Surrounding Stock Market Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Tai-Leung Chong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of analysts’ forecasts has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, as yet, no empirical study has investigated the nexus between the analyst forecast dispersion (AFD and excess returns surrounding stock market crashes in any depth. This paper attempts to fill this void by estimating a Fama-French model regression with AFD as a factor. Instead of an expected linear relationship, a nonlinear U-shape relationship between the AFD and excess returns is found.

  12. The use of intellectual capital information by sell-side analysts in company valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Abhayawansa, Subhash; Aleksanyan, Mark; Bahtsevangolou, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of intellectual capital information (ICI) in sell-side analysts’ fundamental analysis and valuation of companies. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, it penetrates the black box of analysts’ valuation decision-making by identifying and conceptualising the mechanisms and rationales by which ICI is integrated within their valuation decision processes. We find that capital market participants are not ambivalent to ICI, and ICI is used: (1) to form analysts...

  13. Dividend Policy: A Survey of Malaysian Public Listed Companies and Security Analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, David Voon Chee

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation revisits the dividend puzzle and attempts to answer the fundamental question of “why do companies pay dividends?” by using a simple regression model incorporating the major theories on dividend relevance. In addition, this research investigates if the opinions of companies (both dividend and non-dividend paying) and security analysts differ with respect to the various explanations for paying dividends. Finally, this research also explores the views and opinions of corporate ...

  14. Accounting for and valuation of pensions in Norway : earnings management and whether analysts detect it

    OpenAIRE

    Kinserdal, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions and summary of “Accounting for and valuation of pensions in Norway; earnings management and whether analysts detect it” “Pension accounting is a magnificent example of all that is right and wrong with accounting” (Henriksen and van Breda 1992, p. 757). In my research I have discussed pension accounting and how the rules relate to the IASB Frameworks, the FASB Concepts Statements, the basic accounting principles in Norway and asset pricing theories in general. I have then, ...

  15. Invited review: Effects of group housing of dairy calves on behavior, cognition, performance, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2016-04-01

    Standard practice in the dairy industry is to separate the calf and dam immediately after birth and raise calves in individual pens during the milk-feeding period. In nature and in extensive beef systems, the young calf lives in a complex social environment. Social isolation during infancy has been associated with negative effects, including abnormal behavior and developmental problems, in a range of species. Here, we review empirical work on the social development of calves and the effects of social isolation in calves and other species; this evidence indicates that calves reared in isolation have deficient social skills, difficulties in coping with novel situations, as well as specific cognitive deficits. We also review the practices associated with group housing of dairy calves, and discuss problems and suggested solutions, especially related to cross-sucking, competition, aggression, and disease. The studies reviewed indicate that social housing improves solid feed intakes and calf weight gains before and after calves are weaned from milk to solid feed. Evidence regarding the effects of social housing on calf health is mixed, with some studies showing increased risk of disease and other studies showing no difference or even improved health outcomes for grouped calves. We conclude that there is strong and consistent evidence of behavioral and developmental harm associated with individual housing in dairy calves, that social housing improves intakes and weight gains, and that health risks associated with grouping can be mitigated with appropriate management. PMID:26874423

  16. A systematic review of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among police officers, firefighters, EMTs, and paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    First responders-police officers, firefighters, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and paramedics-experience significant job-related stressors and exposures that may confer increased risk for mental health morbidities (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], suicidal thoughts and behaviors) and hastened mortality (e.g., death by suicide). Inherent in these occupations, however, are also factors (e.g., camaraderie, pre-enlistment screening) that may inoculate against the development or maintenance of psychiatric conditions. Several reviews of the literature have documented the prevalence and potency of PTSD among first responders; the value of these extant reviews is considerable. Nonetheless, the literature has not been systematically described with regard to suicidality. In this systematic review, we present 63 quantitative studies examining suicidal thoughts, behaviors, and/or fatalities among first responders; identify population-specific risk and protective factors; and pinpoint strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature. Findings reveal elevated risk for suicide among first responders; however, studies utilizing more rigorous methodologies (e.g., longitudinal designs, probability sampling strategies) are sorely needed. First responders have an armamentarium of resources to take care of others; it is the duty of researchers, clinicians, and the public to aid in taking care of their health as well, in part by reducing suicide risk. PMID:26719976

  17. Is enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy an effective intervention in eating disorders? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Sara E

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author reviews the current empirical research regarding Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT-E) in the treatment of the full range of eating disorders (EDs): anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. All peer-reviewed outcome studies identified through electronic bibliographic databases and manual searches of article reference lists are reviewed. A total of six studies (n = 6) were found. The author reports the results of these studies consisting of open-trials of CBT-E applied to different ED diagnoses, comparing two forms of CBT-E (focused and broad) to waitlist, and comparing CBT-E plus Motivation Focused Therapy. There is evidence to support the use of CBT-E for the treatment of EDs; however, this evidence is tentative as CBT-E is still in its early phases of empirical testing. No trials found CBT-E to be ineffective. Although these research designs are not randomized control trials, these results are promising for ED research. There are few efficacious treatments for EDs, especially for those with "chronic" EDs and adults with anorexia nervosa. CBT-E is one of the first interventions that focuses on particular symptomatic behaviors of EDs manifested in individual clients rather than treating ED diagnoses generically. PMID:25661898

  18. Effectiveness of therapeutic behavioral interventions for parents of low birth weight premature infants: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Carrie; Shaw, Richard J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; John, Nicholas H. St.

    2014-01-01

    Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24532861

  19. Effectiveness of therapeutic behavioral interventions for parents of low birth weight premature infants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Carrie; Shaw, Richard J; Horwitz, Sarah M; John, Nicholas H St

    2012-11-01

    Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24532861

  20. Will Financial Analysts Mistake Stocks of Good Companies for Good Stocks? Evidence from Taiwan Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the individual or institutional investors rely on the information provided by the financial analysts. A good stock recommended by financial experts is expected to make profit to the investors. However, due to the cognitive biases, the financial analysts or investors are probably confused in the firm characteristics between the good stocks and the stocks of good companies. Good companies are normally inferred to the company that have good managing and operating systems, however, it is usually though to have good returns as good stocks. The future earning forecasts of these good companies may be thus overestimated as compared with the others. Such cognitive biases probably results in improper investment and investment loss. In this study, the reputation survey results for the companies in Taiwan and the corresponding financial data are used to verify the proposed cognitive biases hypothesis. The empirical evidence in this study shows that financial analysts mistake stocks of good companies for good stocks. However, it is also shown that the average one-year buy-and-hold return of these sample firms (including good companies and good stocks is still higher than that of the chosen matching firms.

  1. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Grandclerc

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.

  2. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandclerc, Salome; De Labrouhe, Diane; Spodenkiewicz, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11–25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care. PMID:27089157

  3. Systematic Review of Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments for Skin Picking Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Bartley, Christine A; Bloch, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) is a newly recognized psychiatric disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. A systematic review was conducted to assess the efficacy of pharmacological and behavioral interventions for SPD. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or uncontrolled trials involving at least 10 subjects that examined the efficacy of pharmacological and behavioral interventions for SPD. We examined the improvement associated with interventions compared with inactive control conditions in RCTs and improvement over time in uncontrolled trials and within the treatment arms of RCTs. We stratified studies on the basis of intervention type. Meta-analysis included 11 studies. All interventions (including inactive control conditions) demonstrated significant improvement over the course of short-term clinical trials in SPD. Only behavioral treatments demonstrated significant benefits compared with inactive control conditions. There was no evidence from RCTs that pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or lamotrigine were more effective at treating SPD than placebo. Our meta-analysis suggests that subjects with SPD show significant improvement during short-term trials, regardless of the efficacy of the underlying intervention. This finding suggests that uncontrolled trials are of particularly limited utility for assessing efficacy of treatments in SPD. Future research should concentrate on developing larger placebo-controlled RCTs to examine efficacy of novel pharmacological agents. In addition, research should focus on improving accessibility of behavioral treatments with demonstrated efficacy for SPD. PMID:26872117

  4. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Apter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.

  5. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  6. Topical Review: ADHD and Health-Risk Behaviors: Toward Prevention and Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Kollins, Scott H

    2016-08-01

    Across the lifespan, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased health risk behaviors including substance abuse, binge eating and obesity, and unsafe sexual behavior. These risks are directly linked to the neurocognitive deficits associated with ADHD, and are also mediated by the cascade of psychosocial impairments and stressors caused by ADHD across development. However, little is known about optimal approaches to improve health outcomes in this high-risk population. This topical review provides an overview of health risks associated with ADHD and the limited existing research relevant to health promotion for children and adolescents with ADHD. Future research questions and implications for clinicians are also addressed-especially how psychologists and medical practitioners may improve child health through early screenings, increasing medication adherence, and treating psychosocial impairments. PMID:26717959

  7. The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: a critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepine, Jeffrey A; Erez, Amir; Johnson, Diane E

    2002-02-01

    This article reviews the literature on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and its dimensions as proposed by D. W. Organ (1988) and other scholars. Although it is assumed that the behavioral dimensions of OCB are distinct from one another, past research has not assessed this assumption beyond factor analysis. Using meta-analysis, the authors demonstrate that there are strong relationships among most of the dimensions and that the dimensions have equivalent relationships with the predictors (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, fairness, trait conscientiousness, and leader support) most often considered by OCB scholars. Implications of these results are discussed with respect to how the OCB construct should be conceptualized and measured in the future. PMID:11916216

  8. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Migrant Children and Adolescents in American Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2015-08-01

    The present review postulates the current mental health status in migrant children and adolescents in the North American continent. 35 studies published from 2009 to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included. Almost all studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. From the perspective of selection effect, migration as a risk factor was not proven. The migration process perspective could have underestimated a higher danger of problem behavior in second-generation migrant children. Comparing native and migrant children, balanced results in problem behavior were reported, but the Asian migrant group was at higher risk of developing mental disorders. Family-based risk factors were offered: high acculturation stress, low English language competence, language brokering, discrepancies in children's and parent's cultural orientation, the non-Western cultural orientation, e.g., collectivistic, acceptance feelings of parents, or harsh parenting. However, the importance to support migrant families in the acculturation process becomes apparent. PMID:24851820

  9. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings. PMID:27139208

  10. Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Eastern and Western Countries: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…

  11. Behavioral Self-Monitoring of Safety and Productivity in the Workplace: A Methodological Primer and Quantitative Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ryan; Winchester, Jamey

    2008-01-01

    Workplace applications of behavioral self-monitoring (BSM) methods have been studied periodically for over 35 years, yet the literature has never been systematically reviewed. Recent occupational safety interventions including BSM resulted in relatively large behavior changes. Moreover, BSM methods are functional for addressing a broad range of…

  12. A Group-Oriented Contingency Management Program: A Review of Research on the Good Behavior Game and Implications for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Melody

    1995-01-01

    Research on a team game designed to reinforce positive target behaviors is reviewed. Classroom organization, reinforcement criteria, when and how long to play the game, and reinforcement for winning teams are discussed, as are two variants on the original game. The game is found to be highly effective in reducing talking and out-of-seat behavior.…

  13. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effective strategy is to prevent disordered eating attitudes in early childhood. Restriction and pressure are not effective strategies in developing healthy eating.

  14. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Prazeres AM; Nascimento AL; Fontenelle LF

    2013-01-01

    Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to tr...

  15. Radiation-Induced Dislocation and Growth Behavior of Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys - A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium and zirconium alloys are widely used as nuclear reactor core materials such as fuel cladding and guide tubes because they have excellent corrosion- and radiation-resistant properties. In the reactor core, zirconium alloys are subjected to high-energy neutron fluence, causing radiation-induced dislocation and growth. To discern a possible correlation between radiation-induced dislocation and growth, characteristics of dislocation and growth in zirconium and its alloys are examined. The radiation-induced dislocation including and dislocation loops is reviewed in various temperature and fluence ranges, and their growth behavior is examined in the same way. To further a fundamental understanding, radiation-induced growth prediction models are briefly reviewed. This research will assist in the design of zirconium based components as well as the safety analysis of various reactor conditions, in both research and commercial reactors

  16. Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This review covers experimental approaches to sound-symbolism-from infants to adults, and from Sapir's foundational studies to twenty-first century product naming. It synthesizes recent behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging work into a systematic overview of the cross-modal correspondences that underpin iconic links between form and meaning. It also identifies open questions and opportunities, showing how the future course of experimental iconicity research can benefit from an integrated interdisciplinary perspective. Combining insights from psychology and neuroscience with evidence from natural languages provides us with opportunities for the experimental investigation of the role of sound-symbolism in language learning, language processing, and communication. The review finishes by describing how hypothesis-testing and model-building will help contribute to a cumulative science of sound-symbolism in human language. PMID:26379581

  17. Drosophila, a genetic model system to study cocaine-related behaviors: A review with focus on LIM-only proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Heberlein, Ulrike; Tsai, Linus T.–Y.; Kapfhamer, David; Lasek, Amy W.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, highly accessible to genetic, behavioral and molecular analyses, has been introduced as a novel model organism to help decipher the complex genetic, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical underpinnings of behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Here we review these data, focusing specifically on cocaine-related behaviors. Several of cocaine's most characteristic properties have been recapitulated in Drosophila. First, cocaine induces motor b...

  18. Sexual risk behaviors and HIV risk among Americans aged 50 years or older: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilowsky DJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Pilowsky,1,2 Li-Tzy Wu3,41Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health New York City, NY, USA; 2Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Although HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have been studied extensively in adolescents and young adults, there is limited information about these behaviors among older Americans, which make up a growing segment of the US population and an understudied population. This review of the literature dealing with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV-infected found a low prevalence of condom use among older adults, even when not in a long-term relationship with a single partner. A seminal study by Schick et al published in 2010 reported that the prevalence of condom use at last intercourse was highest among those aged 50–59 years (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 15.6–35.8 and declined with age, with a 17.1% prevalence among those aged 60–69 years (17.1%; 95% confidence interval, 7.3–34.2. Studies have shown that older Americans may underestimate their risk of becoming HIV-infected. Substance use also increases the risk for sexual risk behaviors, and studies have indicated that the prevalence of substance use among older adults has increased in the past decade. As is the case with younger adults, the prevalence of HIV infections is elevated among ethnic minorities, drug users (eg, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men. When infected, older adults are likely to be diagnosed with HIV-related medical disorders later in the course of illness compared with their younger counterparts. Physicians are less likely to discuss sexual risk behaviors with older adults and to test them for HIV compared with younger adults. Thus, it is

  19. Alcohol Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Collegiate Women: A Review of Research on Alcohol Myopia Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jessica A.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2010-01-01

    A review of current English literature in the areas of high-risk alcohol use and sexual behavior was conducted from September 2007 to December 2008. Objective: The purpose was to specifically review studies that used alcohol myopia theory (AMT) as the theoretical perspective from which they were evaluated and analyzed. Participants: Collegiate…

  20. The Publication History of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management": An Objective Review and Analysis--1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStelle, Sarah E.; Vicars, Sara M.; Harr, Victoria; Miguel, Caio F.; Koerber, Jeana L.; Kazbour, Richard; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend into a third decade previous reviews conducted by Balcazar, Shupert, Daniels, Mawhinney, and Hopkins (1989) and Nolan, Jarema, and Austin (1999) of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" ("JOBM"). Every article published in "JOBM" between 1998 and 2009 was objectively reviewed and analyzed for…

  1. THE EFFECTS OF AMBIENT SCENT ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLAHUT Meda Roxana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present an extended literature review of relevant empirical studies which examine the effect of ambient scent on consumers' perception, consumers' emotions and consumers' behavioral responses in the context of retailing. Compared with other atmospheric stimuli (such as background music, ambient scent has received little attention from researchers. This paper is also concentrated on identifying de principal dimensions of ambient scent (presence versus absence; congruity versus incongruity and pleasantness versus unpleasantness and examined how these dimensions of ambient scent have an impact on evaluation of a product, of a store or of a shopping mall and their impact on shopping behavior within a store. The paper also presented the Gulas and Bloch (1995 model, a complex conceptual framework on the influence of ambient scent on consumer responses, in their model the authors introduced the influence of mediating factors on behavioral responses to scent. Their model is a first step on the understanding the role of ambient scent in influencing consumer behavior. Davis, Kooijman and Ward (2003 extending and elaborating the Gulas and Bloch (1995 model by introducing concepts from cognate disciplines and examines mediating factors that help shape the emotional and behavioural responses that are stimulated to encompass current research on human olfaction and brings another specific points for future research. Based on the results of the relevant studies the authors of the present paper concludes by identifying gaps in the literature and suggest future research to explore how the use of scent help to create an overall store atmosphere which influence shopping behavior in the context of retailing.

  2. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  3. Public health impact of disease-behavior dynamics. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Chad R.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2015-12-01

    In a loop of dynamic feedback, behavior such as the decision to vaccinate, hand washing, or avoidance influences the progression of the epidemic, yet behavior is driven by the individual's and population's perceived risk of infection during an outbreak. In what we believe will become a seminal paper that stimulates future research as well as an informative teaching aid, Wang et. al. comprehensively review methodological advances that have been used to incorporate human behavior into epidemiological models on the effects of coupling disease transmission and behavior on complex social networks [1]. As illustrated by the recent outbreaks of measles and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), here we highlight the importance of coupling behavior and disease transmission that Wang et al. address.

  4. Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Freeman, Kurt A.

    2000-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) is an approach to providing services to individuals who exhibit challenging behavior. Since its inception in the early 1990s, PBS has received increasing attention from the behavior-analytic community. Some behavior analysts have embraced this approach, but others have voiced questions and concerns. In this paper we describe the framework of PBS and show that it is consistent with the tenets of behavior analysis. Also, we illustrate how the framework of PBS mig...

  5. Emotional and behavioral problems in migrant children and adolescents in Europe: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Based on findings of Stevens and Vollebergh [69], who analyzed cross-cultural topics, this review considers the current prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems of native children and adolescents in comparison with children with a migration background in European countries. 36 studies published from 2007 up to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included and analyzed in their perspective design in detail. Previous studies showed great differences in their results: Especially in Germany, many studies compare the heterogeneous group of immigrant children with native children to analyze an ethnic minority or migration process effect. Only a British and Turkish study demonstrates the selection effect in migration. Most Dutch or British studies examined different ethnic groups, e.g. Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Pakistani, Indian or Black migrant children and adolescents. Migrant childhood in Europe could be declared a risk in increasing internalizing problem behavior while the prevalent rate in externalizing problem behavior was comparable between native and migrant children. A migration status itself can often be postulated as a risk factor for children's mental condition, in particular migration in first generation. Furthermore, several major influence factors in migrant children's mental health could be pointed out, such as a low socio-economic status, a Non-European origin, an uncertain cultural identity of the parents, maternal harsh parenting or inadequate parental occupation, a minority status, the younger age, gender effects or a specific culture declaration in diseases. PMID:24132833

  6. Risky behavior in gambling tasks in individuals with ADHD--a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Groen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks

  7. Information environment,market-wide sentiment and IPO initial returns:Evidence from analyst forecasts before listing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjun; Zhu; Cheng; Zhang; He; Li; Shimin; Chen

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the information environment of firms using analyst(price)forecast bias and forecast dispersion before listing,we empirically examine the interactive influence of the information environment and market-wide sentiment on the initial returns of initial public offerings(IPOs).We find the smaller the analyst forecast bias/dispersion,the lower the effect market-wide sentiment has on IPO initial returns.This finding indicates that information asymmetry is a basic reason for noise trading occurs and demonstrates the positive effect of financial analysts during IPOs.In addition,the effect of analyst forecasts is more pronounced during periods of rising markets and when IPO prices are not regulated.

  8. Engagement in Behavioral Parent Training: Review of the Literature and Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Jensen, Scott A; Lowry, Lynda S; Cornwell, Melinda; Chimklis, Alyssa; Chan, Elizabeth; Lee, Daniel; Pulgarin, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Engagement in behavioral parent training (BPT), including enrollment, attrition, attendance, within-session engagement, and homework completion, has long been a critical issue in the literature. Several estimates of various aspects of engagement have been suggested in the literature, but a systematic review of the available literature has never been accomplished. This review examines engagement data across 262 studies of BPT. Recruitment attrition, program attrition, attendance, and within-session engagement are examined across studies, with particular emphasis on the impact that SES, study purpose (efficacy vs. effectiveness), treatment format (individual vs. group), and age of child may have on those rates. Results of this review suggest that the significant amount of attrition occurs prior to enrollment in BPT, with at least 25 % of those identified as appropriate for BPT not enrolling in such programs. An additional 26 % begin, but drop out before completing treatment. Still the combined dropout rate of at least 51 % leaves at best half of identified parents completing treatment. While SES status had a small effect on attrition, other variables were not found to meaningfully impact engagement. Information on within-session engagement (homework and ratings of participation) was not often reported in studies. Key issues in this literature (e.g., varying definitions of engagement, limited attention to reporting key aspects of engagement) are discussed, and recommendations are made to further improve this important area of research and clinical practice. PMID:27311693

  9. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. PMID:24001395

  10. A systematic review of cognitive-behavioral treatment for nightmares: toward a well-established treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancee, Jaap; Spoormaker, Victor I; Krakow, Barry; van den Bout, Jan

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on nightmare frequency and to determine which kind of CBT is the most effective treatment. A systematic literature search was carried out in PsychInfo and PubMed articles published on or before May 1, 2008. The inclusion criteria were: nightmare treatment study, use of nonpharmacological treatment, not a qualitative case study, randomized-controlled trial (RCT). After selection, 12 peer-reviewed studies about 9 RCTs remained (2 follow-up studies and one displaying preliminary results). Several interventions have been reviewed including, recording one's nightmares, relaxation, exposure, and techniques of cognitive restructuring. The 12 evaluated articles varied in quality, and none fulfilled CONSORT guidelines. All articles used nightmare frequency as the primary dependent variable, and all found significant in-group differences (pre vs. post) for intervention or placebo (range d = 0.7-2.9). Five studies were able to find a significant group effect for the intervention compared to a waiting list control group. Only one study found significant differences between 2 intervention groups. Nightmare-focused CBT (exposure and imagery rehearsal therapy [IRT]) revealed better treatment outcomes than indirect CBT (relaxation, recording). IRT and exposure showed no meaningful differences, but only one RCT directly compared both techniques. Three different research groups demonstrated the effects of exposure, but only one group showed the effect of IRT. Thus, RCTs that compare IRT with exposure by independent research groups are much needed. PMID:18853707

  11. The Investigation of the Relationship among Analyst Following, Managerial Ownership and Firm Valuation: From the Perspective of Agency Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, I. J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the relationship among analyst following, managerial ownership and firm valuation is investigated from the perspective of agency theory by using a nonlinear simultaneous equation model. The data from the Taiwan stock market verify the proposed hypotheses with a nonlinear three-stage least-square procedure. The empirical results show that managerial ownership (serving an internal monitoring function) and number of analysts following (serving an external monitoring function) are ...

  12. Identifying the Education Needs of the Business Analyst: An Australian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Richards; Mauricio Marrone

    2014-01-01

    The Business Analyst (BA) plays a key role in ensuring that technology is appropriately used to achieve the organisation’s goals. This important mediating role is currently in high (unmet) demand in many English-speaking countries and thus more people need to be trained for this role. To determine the educational and/or training needs of a BA we conducted a survey in the Information and Communication Technology industry in Australia. The survey items are based on prior studies of information...

  13. Launch Processing System operations with a future look to Operations Analyst (OPERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1987-01-01

    The Launch Processing System architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle System engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter are described. The described ground operations are the culmination of eleven years of experience and redesign. Some of the 'lessons learned' are examined, and problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and Launch Processing Systems continue to grow in complexity are discussed. The Operational Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for the Launch Processing System Operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the Launch Processing System.

  14. Emerging Opportunities in Higher Education : Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ala í- Rosales, Shahla; Roll-Pettersson, Lise; Pinkelman, Sarah

    2010-01-01

      The growing number of children diagnosed with autism and the recognized importance of evidence-based interventions has substantially increased the need for well-trained applied behavior analysts. Relative to public/consumer demand, there are very few higher education programs that are equipped to train behavior analysts specializing in autism. Worldwide, there are only a few programs accredited by Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI), that have course sequences approved by...

  15. A systematic review of the use of financial incentives and penalties to encourage uptake of healthy behaviors: protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Jean

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of financial incentives and penalties to encourage uptake of healthy behaviors is increasingly seen as a viable intervention in developed countries. Previous reviews of the effectiveness of financial incentives and penalties for encouraging the uptake of healthy behaviors have focused on individual behaviors making it difficult to draw overall conclusions about the effectiveness of such interventions. This systematic review will explore the effectiveness of financial incentives and penalties for encouraging a wide range of behaviors, including: smoking cessation, increased physical activity, healthier dietary intake, sensible patterns of alcohol consumption, safe sun, safe sex, and primary preventive clinical behaviors. Methods Systematic methods will be used to search existing literature and screen studies for inclusion. All studies that meet the following inclusion criteria will be included in the review: participants were 18 years old or older and living in high-income countries; interventions included cash or cash-like incentives to promote the uptake of healthy behaviors, or cash or cash-like penalties to discourage unhealthy behaviors; the comparator was usual care or no intervention; study design was randomized controlled trial, cluster randomized controlled trial, controlled before and after study, or interrupted time series analysis. Two reviewers will independently screen the publications to ensure they meet the inclusion criteria. Quality will be assessed by two researchers, working independently, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis will be conducted, if appropriate. Any studies identified as at ‘high risk of bias’ will be excluded from meta-analysis. Discussion This systematic review will provide policy-relevant recommendations for the use of financial incentives and penalties as a method of encouraging uptake of healthy behaviors.

  16. Sexuality, Antisocial Behavior, Aggressiveness, and Victimization in Juvenile Sexual Offenders: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Driemeyer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on six factors that have been addressed in the literature about juvenile sexual offenders: general delinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, aggressiveness and psychopathology, sexuality, sexual deviance, and victimization experiences. Empirical findings are characterized by great heterogeneity. Due to a lack of standardized assessment and because of different study groups they rarely facilitate direct comparisons. In an endeavor to clarify this vast heterogeneity, the purpose of this overview is to enlighten actual findings about these factors and on the role that has been assigned to them in the literature. Special attention is paid to comparison studies. A detailed description of the studies in tables2 allows for an overview of the results and an evaluation with respect to sample size, instruments, and type of study groups. The overview does not claim completeness; it is a narrative, none-systematic review3. In summary the review showed that in most cases, juvenile sexual offending cannot be understood as an expression of more general juvenile delinquency and - in contrast to other groups of juvenile delinquents - the sexual offenders report less non-sexual delinquent behavior. Alcohol and drug abuse have been reported less often as well, but they might play a more important role as situational factors. Externalizing problems apears more often in juvenile sexual offenders with peer/adult victims who are also non-sexually delinquent. Regarding sexuality, some studies indicate that juvenile sexual offenders are impaired in their sexual development, but they were rarely described as sexually isolated. Sexual deviance has been considered a risk factor for juvenile sexual offending, but the assessment of sexual deviance in juveniles has proven difficult. The prevalence of victimization experiences varies substantially and possible connections to sexual offending have proven complex. The interpretation of the results of most

  17. A review of behavioral factors involved in the development and continued performance of stereotypic behaviors in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A B; Terlouw, E M

    1993-10-01

    Environmentally induced stereotypies, commonly observed in farm and zoo animals, are behaviors that are relatively invariant, that are regularly repeated, and that serve no obvious function. However, there is as yet no accepted means of discriminating between normal and abnormal behavior, and the assumption that stereotypies are abnormal may mask the fact that they arise in part through processes that "normally" control behavior. There is growing evidence that stereotypies in sows and broiler breeders are strongly related to feeding motivation. For example, sows only develop oral stereotypies if their feed intake is restricted, and operant conditioning experiments have shown commercial levels of feed restriction to give rise to high levels of feeding motivation. Stereotypies in animals whose feed intake is restricted largely occur in the postprandial period, and ingestion of food has specifically been shown to elicit stereotypies in sows. These observations suggest that positive feedback from feeding produces a short-term increase in feeding motivation that at the end of the meal is directed toward available, alternative stimuli such as chains, the choice of stimuli reflecting the sensory feedback from the activity. Drinking behavior may also become an expression of feeding behavior after metabolic water requirements are met. In addition to these processes specific to feeding motivation, it seems likely that nonspecific processes, which operate more generally across motivational systems, contribute to the persistence of the behavior. Behavioral arousal may facilitate performance of active behaviors, and sensitization of the underlying neural elements may lead to the behavior being more easily elicited and maintained. A crucial factor in the sensitization process would seem to be the channeling of complex behavior by the environment into a few and very often repeated sequences of behavior. This approach suggests that stereotypies can be prevented by either reducing

  18. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  19. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design

  20. Lecturer and Employee Performance Analysis in Department of Health Analyst, Health Polytechnic, Ministry of Health Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance is a concept that is often used in an organization to discuss about discussion and talks about the success of the organization or human resources. Moreover, this time an organization faced with the challenge of competition is high. Global market competition era, advances in information technology, as well as the community demands more and more critical. Performance becomes a very important issue in the organization as the organization and performance is a key statement of the effectiveness or success of an organization. The research is descriptive qualitative to describe the performance of teachers and employees of the Department of Health Analyst Polytechnic Makassar Ministry of Health of Health. The study population is all faculty and staff and selected as a sample of 10 respondents with the following conditions: 4 lecturers, 3 instructors and 3 administrative staff with data collection are interviews, observation, and documentation. Data were analyzed by descriptive qualitative and narrated. The results showed that the performance lecturers, instructors and employees at the Department of Health Analyst Health Polytechnic Makassar Ministry of Health has been good, however, are still in need of many efforts to make a better improve.

  1. A survey of tools and resources for the next generation analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David L.; Graham, Jake; Catherman, Emily

    2015-05-01

    We have previously argued that a combination of trends in information technology (IT) and changing habits of people using IT provide opportunities for the emergence of a new generation of analysts that can perform effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) on a "do it yourself" (DIY) or "armchair" approach (see D.L. Hall and J. Llinas (2014)). Key technology advances include: i) new sensing capabilities including the use of micro-scale sensors and ad hoc deployment platforms such as commercial drones, ii) advanced computing capabilities in mobile devices that allow advanced signal and image processing and modeling, iii) intelligent interconnections due to advances in "web N" capabilities, and iv) global interconnectivity and increasing bandwidth. In addition, the changing habits of the digital natives reflect new ways of collecting and reporting information, sharing information, and collaborating in dynamic teams. This paper provides a survey and assessment of tools and resources to support this emerging analysis approach. The tools range from large-scale commercial tools such as IBM i2 Analyst Notebook, Palantir, and GeoSuite to emerging open source tools such as GeoViz and DECIDE from university research centers. The tools include geospatial visualization tools, social network analysis tools and decision aids. A summary of tools is provided along with links to web sites for tool access.

  2. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis. PMID:26842658

  3. Dissemination of drinking water contamination data to consumers: a systematic review of impact on consumer behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination. Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26-72% among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0-0.46] 6-12 months post intervention suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. CONCLUSION: Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of

  4. A Systematic Review of Function-Based Replacement Behavior Interventions for Students With and At Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, John William; Flower, Andrea; Adamson, Reesha

    2016-09-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders and students considered at risk often have social deficits. Although social skills interventions are often provided to this student population, there are some concerns regarding how these interventions are conceived and provided. One possible way to improve the effectiveness of social skills interventions is to use functional behavior assessment data to tailor the interventions to a student's individual needs and the contexts in which social skills deficits and problem behaviors occur. This approach is commonly referred to as replacement behavior training. In this study, the literature on function-based replacement behavior interventions is systematically reviewed. In addition, studies are evaluated according to the What Works Clearinghouse design and evidence standards for single-case research. Although this research base does not meet the What Works Clearinghouse replication standards, function-based replacement behavior interventions appear to be a promising practice for addressing problem behaviors. Implications for practice, areas for future research, and study limitations are discussed. PMID:26702960

  5. The role of olfaction in wireworms: a review on their foraging behavior and sensory apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsics, F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Integrated management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae depends upon approaches applied both above- and belowground, and over several spatial scales. While foraging, these soil pests use biotic and abiotic signals to orientate towards target plant organs. Development of efficient techniques for implementation in integrated strategies relies upon improved knowledge of this process. In particular, an important step consists of elucidating the role of volatile organic compounds (VOC, emitted by belowground plant organs, in wireworm chemical ecology. This would have a positive impact on push-pull strategies and varietal selection developed against these insects. Literature. In this work, we summarized the available data regarding wireworm foraging behavior as well as variables that should be considered when studying the potential role of plant-produced volatile semiochemicals. This includes CO2 gradients and other host-related cues, temperature, relative humidity and soil moisture, and wireworm physiological stage. We also review what is known of the sensory apparatus of wireworms, since this is involved in every step of the foraging process. Conclusion. Some baseline data for studying VOC related wireworm foraging behavior exists. Using it as a tool in applied entomology should result in discovery of the semiochemicals that underpin trophic interactions involving these pests. However, most of the key pest species are not fully described with regards to the parameters detailed here. Obtaining accurate information to fill the current knowledge gaps will be needed in order to devise new integrated management strategies.

  6. The impact of family behaviors and communication patterns on chronic illness outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D

    2012-04-01

    In general, social support from family members affects chronic illness outcomes, but evidence on which specific family behaviors are most important to adult patient outcomes has not been summarized. We systematically reviewed studies examining the effect of specific family member behaviors and communication patterns on adult chronic illness self-management and clinical outcomes. Thirty studies meeting inclusion criteria were identified, representing 22 participant cohorts, and including adults with arthritis, chronic cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and/or end stage renal disease. Family emphasis on self-reliance and personal achievement, family cohesion, and attentive responses to symptoms were associated with better patient outcomes. Critical, overprotective, controlling, and distracting family responses to illness management were associated with negative patient outcomes. Study limitations included cross-sectional designs (11 cohorts); however results from longitudinal studies were similar. Findings suggest that future interventions aiming to improve chronic illness outcomes should emphasize increased family use of attentive coping techniques and family support for the patient's autonomous motivation. PMID:21691845

  7. Behavioral pharmacology of designer cathinones: a review of the preclinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Ryan A; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-02-27

    "Bath salts" is one street name for a family of synthetic cathinones that display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and commonly abused amphetamines. Despite extensive legislation aimed at the criminalization of bath salts, several designer cathinones are gaining a foothold in the illicit drug scene; for example, in the United Kingdom, mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, MEPH) is highly popular among drug abusers whereas, in the United States, MDPV (methylenedioxypyrovalerone) and methylone are highly prevalent. To date, knowledge about the hazards of designer cathinones is based mostly on hospital reports and anecdotal evidence derived from online surveys. Despite the paucity of preclinical studies directed toward designer cathinones, a number of invaluable findings arising from those studies are enabling scientists to develop their neuropharmacological profiles. Despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce different behavioral effects, including unique effects on locomotor activity, learning, anxiety, thermoregulation, and abuse liability. The present review will discuss the behavioral effects of MEPH, MDPV, and methylone and compare those effects to established psychostimulant drugs. The rise in the use of designer cathinones in the United States and abroad justifies further investigations into these compounds, both for a greater understanding of the danger that "bath salts" pose to the public, and to provide insight into replacement cathinones as they emerge onto the market. PMID:24231450

  8. Physics of microswimmers—single particle motion and collective behavior: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgeti, J.; Winkler, R. G.; Gompper, G.

    2015-05-01

    Locomotion and transport of microorganisms in fluids is an essential aspect of life. Search for food, orientation toward light, spreading of off-spring, and the formation of colonies are only possible due to locomotion. Swimming at the microscale occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where fluid friction and viscosity dominates over inertia. Here, evolution achieved propulsion mechanisms, which overcome and even exploit drag. Prominent propulsion mechanisms are rotating helical flagella, exploited by many bacteria, and snake-like or whip-like motion of eukaryotic flagella, utilized by sperm and algae. For artificial microswimmers, alternative concepts to convert chemical energy or heat into directed motion can be employed, which are potentially more efficient. The dynamics of microswimmers comprises many facets, which are all required to achieve locomotion. In this article, we review the physics of locomotion of biological and synthetic microswimmers, and the collective behavior of their assemblies. Starting from individual microswimmers, we describe the various propulsion mechanism of biological and synthetic systems and address the hydrodynamic aspects of swimming. This comprises synchronization and the concerted beating of flagella and cilia. In addition, the swimming behavior next to surfaces is examined. Finally, collective and cooperate phenomena of various types of isotropic and anisotropic swimmers with and without hydrodynamic interactions are discussed.

  9. Pollutants and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. WEIS, Allison CANDELMO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants. There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays, with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance. However, there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminated environments. Therefore, we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites. The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus, is a non-migratory fish; those from more contaminated areas are poor predators and slower to capture active prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In the field, they consume much detritus and sediment, which is not nutritious. They are less active than fish from cleaner sites and more vulnerable to predation. They have altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels, which may underlie altered behaviors. Fish from the reference site kept in tanks with sediment and food from the polluted site showed bioaccumulation and reduced prey capture after two months, although fish from the polluted site did not show significant improvement when maintained in a clean environment. Poor nutrition and predator avoidance may be responsible for their being smaller and having a shorter life span than reference fish. Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, are a marine species in which the young-of-the-year spend their first summer in estuaries. We found bioaccumulation of contaminants and reduced activity, schooling, and feeding in young-of-the-year bluefish from a relatively unpolluted site that were fed prey fish from a contaminated site. They also had altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels. Many field-caught specimens had empty stomachs, which is rare in this species. In the fall, when they migrate back out to the ocean, they are smaller, slower, and more likely to starve or to be eaten than those that spent their summer in cleaner estuaries [Current Zoology 58 (1: 9-20, 2012].

  10. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the

  11. Pollutants and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judith S. WEIS; Allison CANDELMO

    2012-01-01

    Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants.There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays,with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance.However,there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminatel environments.Therefore,we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites.The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus,is a non-migratory fish; those from more contaminated areas are poor predators and slower to capture active prey (grass shrimp,Palaemonetes pugio).In the field,they consume much detritus and sediment,which is not nutritious.They are less active than fish from cleaner sites and more vulnerable to predation.They have altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels,which may underlie altered behaviors.Fish from the reference site kept in tanks with sediment and food from the polluted site showed bioaccumulation and reduced prey capture after two months,although fish from the polluted site did not show significant improvement when maintained in a clean environment.Poor nutrition and predator avoidance may be responsible for their being smaller and having a shorter life span than reference fish.Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix,are a marine species in which the young-of-the-year spend their first summer in estuaries.We found bioaccumulation of contaminants and reduced activity,schooling,and feeding in young-of-the-year bluefish from a relatively unpolluted site that were fed prey fish from a contaminated site.They also had altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels.Many field-caught specimens had empty stomachs,which is rare in this species.In the fall,when they migrate back out to the ocean,they are smaller,slower,and more likely to starve or to be eaten than those that spent their summer in cleaner estuaries [Current Zoology 58 (1):9-20,2012].

  12. A Review of Intervention Programs to Prevent and Treat Behavioral Problems in Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Petrenko, Christie L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at higher risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems than children in the general population. Effective prevention and treatment programs are necessary to reduce the burden of behavioral problems in this population. The current review identified 17 controlled trials of nine intervention programs for young children with developmental disabilities, with parent training the most common type of intervention in this population. Nearly ...

  13. A systematic review of interventions in primary care to improve health literacy for chronic disease behavioral risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Taggart, Jane; Williams, Anna; Dennis, Sarah; Newall, Anthony; Shortus, Tim; Zwar, Nicholas; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW). Methods A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings. We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australasian M...

  14. A systematic review of interventions in primary care to improve health literacy for chronic disease behavioral risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Taggart Jane; Williams Anna; Dennis Sarah; Newall Anthony; Shortus Tim; Zwar Nicholas; Denney-Wilson Elizabeth; Harris Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW). Methods A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings. We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Austr...

  15. Adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy for religious individuals with mental disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Caroline; Sim, Kang; Renjan, Vidhya; Sam, Hui Fang; Quah, Soo Li

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an evidence-based psychological intervention for various mental disorders. However, mental health clinicians should be cognizant of the population that was used to validate the intervention and assess its acceptability to a target group that is culturally different. We systematically reviewed published empirical studies of CBT adapted for religious individuals with mental disorder to determine the extent to which religiously modified CBT can be considered an empirically supported treatment following the criteria delineated by the American Psychological Association Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Overall, nine randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study were included that compared the effectiveness of religiously modified CBT to standard CBT or other treatment modalities for the treatment of depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. The majority of these studies either found no difference in effectiveness between religiously modified CBT compared to standard CBT or other treatment modalities, or early effects that were not sustained. Considering the methodological limitations of the reviewed studies, religiously modified CBT cannot be considered a well-established psychological intervention for the treatment of the foregoing mental disorders following the a priori set criteria at this juncture. Nevertheless, melding religious content with CBT may be an acceptable treatment modality for individuals with strong religious convictions. PMID:24813028

  16. Aqueous Corrosion Behavior of Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO)-Coated Magnesium Alloys: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Krishna, L.; Sundararajan, G.

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, in the current era of persistently growing engineering demands, have become the most promising materials finding widespread industrial applications. Numerous processes are available for surface protection of Mg and its alloys to potentially minimize corrosion damage. The micro arc oxidation (MAO), a fairly recent and eco-friendly coating process, emerged as a novel means to provide an adherent, hard, scratch-resistant, wear-resistant, and corrosion-resistant coatings on Mg alloys. However, the successful utilization of such coatings demands a thorough understanding of the influence of a relatively large number of process parameters such as electrolytic composition, presence of insoluble additives in the electrolyte, electrical parameters employed, and the composition of the Mg alloy substrate on the corrosion resistance. The detailed influence of all the above parameters on the corrosion behavior of Mg alloys is critically reviewed and presented in this article. In addition, this article also reviews the recent trends in terms of duplexing the MAO process using different techniques/processes such that the composite coatings are produced with enhanced corrosion resistance.

  17. Reduced Contact Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Adult Depression: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Wallace, Laurel M; Mcdougall, Katrina H; Waldmann, Kristina; Stea, Jonathan N

    2016-02-17

    Depression is a highly prevalent and debilitating mental health condition. Evidence suggests that there is a widening gap between the demand for and availability of effective treatments. As such, there is a vast need for the development and dissemination of accessible and affordable treatments for depression. In the past decade, there has been a proliferation of reduced client-therapist contact protocols for depression. In this article, the authors review and compare the efficacy of reduced contact cognitive-behavioral interventions for adult depression across two degrees of therapist-client contact (i.e., no therapist-client contact versus minimal therapist-client contact interventions). The authors also discuss the methodological and theoretical limitations of this research base. The present review suggests that a) reduced contact interventions for depression can be effective in remediating the symptoms of depression; b) the effect sizes of some reduced contact protocols may approximate those reported in traditional protocols involving significantly greater client-therapist contact; and c) protocols which employ some form of client-therapist contact, on average, generate higher effect sizes than those that are purely self-help in nature. A discussion of the theoretical and applied implications of such findings, as well as areas in need of further research, is provided. PMID:26606161

  18. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Health and Wellness Coaching: Defining a Key Behavioral intervention in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Sforzo, Gary A.; Dill, Diana; Kaye, Miranda; Bechard, Elizabeth M.; Southard, Mary Elaine; Kennedy, Mary; Vosloo, Justine; Yang, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Primary Objective: Review the operational definitions of health and wellness coaching as published in the peer-reviewed medical literature. Background: As global rates of preventable chronic diseases have reached epidemic proportions, there has been an increased focus on strategies to improve health behaviors and associated outcomes. One such strategy, health and wellness coaching, has been inconsistently defined and shown mixed results. Methods: A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Rev...

  19. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buades-Rotger M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. Keywords: behavioral genetics, antisocial behaviors, monoamine oxidase A

  20. Behavior Analysis and Ecological Psychology: Past, Present, and Future. A Review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K

    2009-01-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a means for understanding everyday human behavior. Although behavior analysis is excluded from this account, Heft's book warrants a review nonetheless: It describes ecological psychology in ways that are congruent and complementary with behavior analysis (e.g., nonmediational theorizing; the provinces of natural history and natural science). After introducing modern ecological psychology, I comment on (a) Heft's admirable, albeit selective, historiography; (b) his ecological psychology—past and present—as it relates to Skinner's science and system (e.g., affordances, molar behavior); (c) his misunderstandings of Skinner's behaviorism (e.g., reductionistic, mechanistic, molecular); and (d) the theoretical status of Heft's cognitive terms and talk (i.e., in ontology, epistemology, syntax). I conclude by considering the alliance and integration of ecological psychology and behavior analysis, and their implications for unifying and transforming psychology as a life science, albeit more for the future than at present. PMID:20354604

  1. Accuracy and consistency of grass pollen identification by human analysts using electron micrographs of surface ornamentation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Baker, Sarah J.; Belcher, Claire M.; Haselhorst, Derek S.; Rodriguez, Jacklyn; Thorn, Jessica L.; Tiwari, Shivangi; Urrego, Dunia H.; Wesseln, Cassandra J.; Punyasena, Surangi W.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. • Methods: We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. • Results: Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. • Discussion: The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias. PMID:25202649

  2. [Concordance among analysts from Latin-American laboratories for rice grain appearance determination using a gallery of digital images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Manuel; Graterol, Eduardo; Alezones, Jesús; Criollo, Beisy; Castillo, Dámaso; Kuri, Victoria; Oviedo, Norman; Moquete, Cesar; Romero, Marbella; Hanley, Zaida; Taylor, Margie

    2012-06-01

    The appearance of rice grain is a key aspect in quality determination. Mainly, this analysis is performed by expert analysts through visual observation; however, due to the subjective nature of the analysis, the results may vary among analysts. In order to evaluate the concordance between analysts from Latin-American rice quality laboratories for rice grain appearance through digital images, an inter-laboratory test was performed with ten analysts and images of 90 grains captured with a high resolution scanner. Rice grains were classified in four categories including translucent, chalky, white belly, and damaged grain. Data was categorized using statistic parameters like mode and its frequency, the relative concordance, and the reproducibility parameter kappa. Additionally, a referential image gallery of typical grain for each category was constructed based on mode frequency. Results showed a Kappa value of 0.49, corresponding to a moderate reproducibility, attributable to subjectivity in the visual analysis of grain images. These results reveal the need for standardize the evaluation criteria among analysts to improve the confidence of the determination of rice grain appearance. PMID:23610906

  3. The Impact of Information Technology on Patient Engagement and Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashrash, Mohamed; Phalakornkule, Kanitha; Carpenter, Janet S; Jones, Josette F

    2016-01-01

    Background Advancements in information technology (IT) and its increasingly ubiquitous nature expand the ability to engage patients in the health care process and motivate health behavior change. Objective Our aim was to systematically review the (1) impact of IT platforms used to promote patients’ engagement and to effect change in health behaviors and health outcomes, (2) behavior theories or models applied as bases for developing these interventions and their impact on health outcomes, (3) different ways of measuring health outcomes, (4) usability, feasibility, and acceptability of these technologies among patients, and (5) challenges and research directions for implementing IT platforms to meaningfully impact patient engagement and health outcomes. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were searched for studies published from 2000 to December 2014. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included papers, and potentially relevant studies were retrieved and assessed for eligibility based on predetermined inclusion criteria. Results A total of 170 articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. Overall, 88.8% (151/170) of studies showed positive impact on patient behavior and 82.9% (141/170) reported high levels of improvement in patient engagement. Only 47.1% (80/170) referenced specific behavior theories and only 33.5% (57/170) assessed the usability of IT platforms. The majority of studies used indirect ways to measure health outcomes (65.9%, 112/170). Conclusions In general, the review has shown that IT platforms can enhance patient engagement and improve health outcomes. Few studies addressed usability of these interventions, and the reason for not using specific behavior theories remains unclear. Further research is needed to clarify these important questions. In addition, an assessment of these types of interventions should be conducted based on a common framework using a large variety of measurements; these

  4. Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook, new guidance to the safety analyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New guidance to the safety analyst has been developed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in the form of the new Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH). Although the older guidance (the Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide) continues to be used for updating the Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) developed in the mid-1980s, this new guidance is used with all new authorization basis documents. With the RFETS mission change in the early 1990s came the need to establish new authorization basis documents for its facilities, whose missions had changed. The methodology and databases for performing the evaluations that support the new authorization basis documents needed to be standardized, to avoid the use of different approaches and/or databases for similar accidents in different facilities. This paper presents this new standardized approach, the SARAH

  5. The Analyst's Act and the Child's Desire: A Retrospective Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Annie G

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, I lay out a blueprint for a child analysis, stipulating the terms and ethics of the Lacanian field of psychoanalysis, the position of the analyst in that field, and the invitation to the child to discover a space for desire in the work of play. Drawing on the grounding work of Freud, Lacan, Dolto, Lefort, Mannoni, and Mathelin, I describe the mainsprings of the psychoanalytic clinic with the child. I then offer a child case and its trajectory from the development of a phobia to a symptom, and show how the primal scene fantasy and its articulation can open a space for desire in a child's play. What is particular to this work of playing is the emergence of signifiers that chain across generations, and move into new metaphors that foreground the Real of the child's experience and desire. PMID:26485483

  6. The Stewardship Role of Analyst Forecasts, and Discretionary Versus Non-Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin

    We examine the interaction between discretionary and non-discretionary accruals in a stewardship setting. Contracting includes multiple rounds of renegotiation based on contractible accounting information and non-contractible but more timely non-accounting information. We show that accounting...... regulation aimed at increasing earnings quality from a valuation perspective (earnings persistence) may have a significant impact on how firms rationally respond in terms of allowing accrual discretion in order to alleviate the impact on the stewardship role of earnings. Increasing the precision of more...... timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation...

  7. The Stewardship Role of Analyst Forecasts, and Discretionary Versus Non-Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin

    2013-01-01

    We examine the interaction between discretionary and non-discretionary accruals in a stewardship setting. Contracting includes multiple rounds of renegotiation based on contractible accounting information and non-contractible but more timely non-accounting information. We show that accounting...... regulation aimed at increasing earnings quality from a valuation perspective (earnings persistence) may have a significant impact on how firms rationally respond in terms of allowing accrual discretion in order to alleviate the impact on the stewardship role of earnings. Increasing the precision of more...... timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation...

  8. Behavior Analysis and Ecological Psychology: Past, Present, and Future. A Review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edward K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a ...

  9. Basic Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia: Systematic Review of the Behavioral and Event-Related Potential/Field Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Salminen, Hanne K.; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    A review of research that uses behavioral, electroencephalographic, and/or magnetoencephalographic methods to investigate auditory processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia is presented. Findings show that measures of frequency, rise time, and duration discrimination as well as amplitude modulation and frequency modulation detection were…

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Inhibition: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator effects on BI processes--assessed by the stop-signal paradigm--in children with ADHD…

  11. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Psychological and Behavioral Variables of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler-Halle, Debra; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews and critiques the literature on the effects of participation in aerobic exercise on psychological/behavioral variables for persons with mental retardation and associated disabilities. Findings suggested that participation in an exercise program produces immediate, but not durable, benefits in the psychological and behavioral…

  12. Are We There Yet? A Review of Gender Comparisons in Three Behavioral Journals through the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Sandra T.; Pells, Jennifer J.; Edenfield, Teresa M.; Hermann, Barbara A.; Schartel, Janell G.; LaMattina, Stephanie M.; Boulard, Nina E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite overwhelming evidence that gender plays a significant role in the course of numerous psychological disorders, researchers have historically neglected to address gender similarities and differences in their research. Previous reviews of the psychological literature have indicated that personality, psychotherapy, and behavioral psychology…

  13. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2012-12-04

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Debora; Raggi, Alberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with breast cancer and to assess the effect of CBT-I on their psychosocial functioning, sleep, quality of life, and mood. Methods: Empirical articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the earliest reports available until August 2015 were considered. The research on PubMed generated 18 papers, three of which did not meet the inclusion criteria. Another paper was retrieved by screening the reference list of the previously selected papers. Results: A total of 16 studies were found that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in breast cancer patients. CBT-I appears to be an effective therapy for insomnia in BCS, improving mood, general and physical fatigue, and global and cognitive dimensions of quality of life. CBT-I may also reduce menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweat problems, frequency of medicated nights, level of depression, and anxiety. Conclusions: CBT-I seems to be an eligible intervention for improving sleep in BCS. Improvements concerning insomnia and sleep quality are durable (usually up to 12 months) and statistically significant. PMID:27536265

  15. The Epidemiology of Suicide Behaviors among the Countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO: a Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Malakouti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review aimed to help better to understand the epidemiology of suicidal behaviors among Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR countries. The PubMed, EMR medex, Scopus, PsychInfo, ISI, and IMEMR were searched with no language limitation for papers on the epidemiology of suicidal behaviors in the general population, published up to August 2013. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. The incidence (per 100.000 of committed suicide ranged from 0.55 to 5.4. The lifelong prevalence of attempted suicide, suicidal plan and thoughts were 0.72-4.2%, 6.2-6.7%, and 2.9-14.1%, respectively. The figures for suicide are higher than those officially reported. Suicide behaviors' statistics is susceptible to underestimation presumably due to the socio-cultural, religious and legal barriers, not to mention the lack of well-organized registries and methodologically sound community-based surveys.

  16. US market risk premium used in 2011 by professors, analysts and companies: A survey with 5.731 answers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo; Aguirreamalloa, Javier; Corres, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The average Market Risk Premium (MRP) used in 2011 by professors for the USA (5.7%) is higher than the one used by analysts (5.0%) and companies (5.6%). The standard deviation of the MRP used in 2011 by analysts (1.1%) is lower than the ones of companies (2.0%) and professors (1.6%). Most previous surveys have been interested in the Expected MRP, but this survey asks about the Required MRP. The paper also contains the references used to justify the MRP, comments from 58 persons that do not us...

  17. A review of research programs related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium-fueled radioisotopic heat sources find application in a spectrum of space, terrestrial, and underseas applications to generate electrical power by thermoelectric or dynamic-cycle conversion. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population. The released radioactivity could be dispersed into various environmental media, such as air, soil, and water and interact with people through various exposure pathways leading to inhalation, ingestion, and external radiological doses and associated health effects. The authors developed short-term exposure (RISK II) and long-term exposure (RISK III) models for use in safety risk assessments of space missions utilizing plutonium-fueled electric power systems. To effectively use these models in risk assessments, representative input values must be selected for a spectrum of environmental transfer parameters that characterize the behavior of plutonium in the environment. The selection of appropriate transfer parameters to be used in a given analysis will depend on the accident scenarios to be modeled and the terrestrial and aquatic environments to be encountered. The authors reviewed the availability of plutonium in the environment. This report summarizes the research programs presently being conducted at six Department of Energy Laboratories and makes recommendations on areas where further research is needed to fill gaps in the data necessary for risk assessments

  18. A review of research programs related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, Bart W.; Wilkinson, Martha J.

    1983-06-15

    Plutonium-fueled radioisotopic heat sources find application in a spectrum of space, terrestrial, and underseas applications to generate electrical power by thermoelectric or dynamic-cycle conversion. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population. The released radioactivity could be dispersed into various environmental media, such as air, soil, and water and interact with people through various exposure pathways leading to inhalation, ingestion, and external radiological doses and associated health effects. The authors developed short-term exposure (RISK II) and long-term exposure (RISK III) models for use in safety risk assessments of space missions utilizing plutonium-fueled electric power systems. To effectively use these models in risk assessments, representative input values must be selected for a spectrum of environmental transfer parameters that characterize the behavior of plutonium in the environment. The selection of appropriate transfer parameters to be used in a given analysis will depend on the accident scenarios to be modeled and the terrestrial and aquatic environments to be encountered. The authors reviewed the availability of plutonium in the environment. This report summarizes the research programs presently being conducted at six Department of Energy Laboratories and makes recommendations on areas where further research is needed to fill gaps in the data necessary for risk assessments

  19. Biochar: A review of its impact on pesticide behavior in soil environments and its potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Khorram, Mahdi; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Dunli; Zheng, Yuan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is produced from the pyrolysis of carbon-rich plant- and animal-residues under low oxygen and high temperature conditions and has been increasingly used for its positive role in soil compartmentalization through activities such as carbon sequestration and improving soil quality. Biochar is also considered a unique adsorbent due to its high specific surface area and highly carbonaceous nature. Therefore, soil amendments with small amounts of biochar could result in higher adsorption and, consequently, decrease the bioavailability of contaminants to microbial communities, plants, earthworms, and other organisms in the soil. However, the mechanisms affecting the environmental fate and behavior of organic contaminants, especially pesticides in biochar-amended soil, are not well understood. The purpose of this work is to review the role of biochar in primary processes, such as adsorption-desorption and leaching of pesticides. Biochar has demonstrable effects on the fate and effects of pesticides and has been shown to affect the degradation and bioavailability of pesticides for living organisms. Moreover, some key aspects of agricultural and environmental applications of biochar are highlighted. PMID:27266324

  20. Searching and oviposition behavior of aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raki A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphidophagous hoverflies forage according two different host-finding mechanisms: they forage for suitable food sources (for their energy-expensive hovering flight, and for protein to mature their reproductive system, and for suitable oviposition sites. Syrphids are highly mobile, enabling them to lay eggs over large areas, and to locate aphid colonies earlier in the season than other aphidophaga. The result is that most syrphid eggs tend to be laid close to aphid colonies. The choice of oviposition sites may be crucial for offspring performance because the neonate larvae have limited dispersal ability. Selection of aphid patches should therefore reflect nutritional value, risk of predation and competition pressure. Several factors are known to affect the choice of oviposition site: habitat, host plant, aphid species, aphid availability, semiochemicals, the presence of intra- or interspecific competitors and female age. We review here the available information on these factors in order to understand the mechanisms of decision-making by syrphid females during their egg-laying behavior, a crucial aspect of their effective use in strategies of the biological control of aphids.

  1. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Zimmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.

  2. Face recognition in schizophrenia disorder: A comprehensive review of behavioral, neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Raffard, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Facial emotion processing has been extensively studied in schizophrenia patients while general face processing has received less attention. The already published reviews do not address the current scientific literature in a complete manner. Therefore, here we tried to answer some questions that remain to be clarified, particularly: are the non-emotional aspects of facial processing in fact impaired in schizophrenia patients? At the behavioral level, our key conclusions are that visual perception deficit in schizophrenia patients: are not specific to faces; are most often present when the cognitive (e.g. attention) and perceptual demands of the tasks are important; and seems to worsen with the illness chronification. Although, currently evidence suggests impaired second order configural processing, more studies are necessary to determine whether or not holistic processing is impaired in schizophrenia patients. Neural and neurophysiological evidence suggests impaired earlier levels of visual processing, which might involve the deficits in interaction of the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways impacting on further processing. These deficits seem to be present even before the disorder out-set. Although evidence suggests that this deficit may be not specific to faces, further evidence on this question is necessary, in particularly more ecological studies including context and body processing. PMID:25800172

  3. The definition and epidemiology of clusters of suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire; Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Platt, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Suicide clusters are a rare and underresearched phenomenon which attract wide media attention and result in heightened concern in the communities where they occur. We conducted a systematic literature review covering the definition and epidemiology of the time-space clustering of suicidal behavior. Of the 890 articles identified by electronic searching, 82 were selected for inclusion and the extracted data were analyzed by narrative synthesis. Less than a third of studies included a definition of a suicide cluster, and definitions varied considerably. Clusters occurred in various settings, including psychiatric hospitals, schools, prisons, indigenous communities, and among the general population. Most clusters involved young people. The proportion of all episodes that occurred in clusters varied considerably between studies and partly depended on study methodology (e.g., a larger proportion was found in studies of specific clusters compared with general population studies). Future studies should aim to combine the statistical analysis of time-space clustering with a case study of events, which examines potential links between individuals and the wider environmental context. PMID:24702173

  4. Neuroscientific Measures of Covert Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ortu, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In radical behaviorism, the difference between overt and covert responses does not depend on properties of the behavior but on the sensitivity of the measurement tools employed by the experimenter. Current neuroscientific research utilizes technologies that allow measurement of variables that are undetected by the tools typically used by behavior analysts. Data from a specific neuroscientific technique, event-related potential (ERP), suggest that emission of otherwise covert responses can be ...

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors associated with female condoms in developing countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lizzie Moore,1 Mags Beksinska,1,2 Alnecia Rumphs,3 Mario Festin,4 Erica L Gollub3 1MatCH Research (Maternal, Adolescent and Child Health Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand, Westville, Durban, South Africa; 2Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 3Florida International University, Department of Epidemiology, Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Miami, FL, USA; 4World Health Organization, Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Abstract: Women in developing countries are at high risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unplanned pregnancy. The female condom (FC is an effective dual protective method regarded as a tool for woman's empowerment, yet supply and uptake are limited. Numerous individual, socioeconomic, and cultural factors influence uptake of new contraceptive methods. We reviewed studies of FC knowledge, attitudes, practices, and behaviors across developing countries, as well as available country-level survey data, in order to identify overarching trends and themes. High acceptability was documented in studies conducted in diverse settings among male and female FC users, with FCs frequently compared favorably to male condoms. Furthermore, FC introduction has been shown to increase the proportion of "protected" sex acts in study populations, by offering couples additional choice. However, available national survey data showed low uptake with no strong association with method awareness, as well as inconsistent patterns of use between countries. We identified a large number of method attributes and contextual factors influencing FC use/nonuse, most of which were perceived both positively and negatively by different groups and between settings. Male partner

  6. Goal-Setting Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison L.; McDaniel, Sara C.; Fernando, Josephine; Troughton, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Students with persistent behavior problems, including those with or at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders, often struggle to be self-regulated learners. To improve self-regulation skills, numerous strategies have been suggested, including goal setting. Whereas goal setting has focused mostly on academic and life skills, behavioral goal…

  7. A Review of Interventions Designed to Increase Sharing Behaviors in Children with Social Delays or Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Sharing materials is a complex social behavior that may lead to long-term development of friendships and concomitant increases in related prosocial behaviors. Given the complexities of sharing behaviors, children with social delays or deficits may not recognize when, how, and with whom to share. Because children with social delays or deficits,…

  8. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  9. A Behavioral Look at the Training of Alex: A Review of Pepperberg's "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bruce E.; Potter, Bill

    2004-01-01

    "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots" by Irene Pepperberg is reviewed from a behavior analytic orientation. The results of the majority of her experiments are discussed in terms drawn from the general literature of behavior analysis and Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. We conclude that she has provided…

  10. Clinical information behavior of rehabilitation therapists: a review of the research on occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists*

    OpenAIRE

    Kloda, Lorie Andrea; Bartlett, Joan C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The review sought to synthesize existing research relevant to rehabilitation therapists' clinical information behavior and to identify gaps in evidence, particularly in comparison to what is already known about the information behavior of other health professionals, such as physicians. Methods: A literature review was conducted of both quantitative and qualitative research studies that included information on the clinical information behavior of occupational therapists, p...

  11. A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND OVERCONFIDENCE ON DECISIONS OF INVESTORS, ANALYSTS AND INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS FROM THE BEHAVIORAL FINANCE POINT OF VIEW UN ESTUDIO SOBRE LA INFLUENCIA DE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS SOCIODEMOGRÁFICAS Y DEL EXCESO DE CONFIANZA SOBRE LAS DECISIONES DE LOS INVERSORES, ANALISTAS Y PROFESIONALES DE INVERSIÓN UM ESTUDO SOBRE A INFLUÊNCIA DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS SOCIODEMOGRÁFICAS E DO EXCESSO DE CONFIANÇA NAS DECISÕES DOS INVESTIDORES, ANALISTAS E PROFISSIONAIS DE INVESTIMENTO À LUZ DAS FINANÇAS COMPORTAMENTAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Paula Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a new field of study that counteracts the assumption of the rationality on the partof decision makers, which is adopted by modern finance. One of the aspects of studies in behavioral financeis to identify how emotions and cognitive failures may influence the decision making process ofindividuals. In  this context, this study aims to ascertain whether the decisions of investors, analysts andinvestment professionals are influenced by a bias of overconfidence and the socio-demographiccharacteristics of these individuals. As a methodology, it was decided to conduct a study with a descriptivequantitative and qualitative approach. Therefore a field survey was carried to out to collect data with anonline questionnaire. The method of sampling by judgment was applied, which is characterized by the nonprobabilistic collection of samples from individuals registered with the Association of Investment Analystsand Professionals of the Capital Market in Minas Gerais (APIMEC-MG, as well as individuals registeredwith TBC Investments. This group consisted of 810 individuals who provided 398 valid questionnaires. Datawas analyzed by using the estimation methods of Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS and Ordinary LeastSquares (OLS, with correction for finite population and the results were compared. They showed thatdi erences of opinion, style and perception of the reality, motivated by personal and investmentcharacteristics and the susceptibility to the bias of the overconfidence of the agents, exert a significantimpact on decision making.Las Finanzas comportamentales son un nuevo campo de estudios que se contraponen a la presuposición deracionalidad de los tomadores de decisión adoptada por las finanzas modernas. Una de las vertientes de losestudios en finanzas  conductuales es la identificación de la forma por la cual las emociones y las fallas cognitivas pueden influir en el proceso de decisión de los individuos. Considerándose ese

  12. Human Analysts at Superhuman Scales: What Has Friendly Software To Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godzaridis, Élénie; Boisvert, Sébastien; Xia, Fangfang; Kandel, Mikhail; Behling, Steve; Long, Bill; Sosa, Carlos P; Laviolette, François; Corbeil, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    As analysts are expected to process a greater amount of information in a shorter amount of time, creators of big data software are challenged with the need for improved efficiency. Ray, our group's usable, scalable genome assembler, addresses big data problems by using optimal resources and producing one, correct and conservative, timely solution. Only by abstracting the size of the data from both the computers and the humans can the real scientific question, often complex in itself, eventually be solved. To draw a curtain over the specific computational machinery of big data, we developed RayPlatform, a programming framework that allows users to concentrate on their domain-specific problems. RayPlatform is a parallel message-passing software framework that runs on clouds, supercomputers, and desktops alike. Using established technologies such as C++ and MPI (message-passing interface), we handle the genomes of hundreds of species, from viruses to plants, using machines ranging from desktop computers to supercomputers. From this experience, we present insights on making computer time more useful-and user time much more valuable. PMID:27447255

  13. When Analysts turn into Boxers: An Introduction to Pre-Sales Requirements Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Oemig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The major goal of a pre-sales phase is to provide customers with a compelling offer that exactly fits their needs. For its creation not only sales but also requirements engineering activities take place. The latter are needed to translate the customers’ needs to features, to efforts, and eventually to costs. Although this sounds like business as usual, compared to conventional requirements engineering, there are substantial differences: the pre-sales phase entails challenges (e.g., a limited duration, a steadily moving target or the supplier’s pre-investment having a tremendous impact on all of these activities. With their conventional approach requirements engineering professionals are doomed to fail. However, an appropriate requirements engineering approach for the pre-sales phase remains to be defined. To address this issue the principal idea is to investigate typical customer engagement types and to conduct a risk analysis revealing the details of the pre-sales phase’s challenges. The results deliver the basis informing the design of a new and capable approach. This article contributes the resulting concept and tools for successful pre-sales requirements engineering. They provide the risk responses and exit criteria to the pre-sales phase’s challenges. The proposed approach even turns analysts into “boxers” when tackling one of the most difficult pre-sales problems: the moving target.

  14. Use of behavior change techniques in clean cooking interventions: a review of the evidence and scorecard of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas J; O'Farrell, Sarah Ellen; Jagoe, Kirstie; Rouse, Jonathan; Roma, Elisa; Biran, Adam; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of effort, around 2.8 billion people still rely on solid fuels to meet domestic energy needs. There is robust evidence this causes premature death and chronic disease, as well as wider economic, social, and environmental problems. Behavior change interventions are effective to reduce exposure to harm such as household air pollution, including those using health communications approaches. This article reports the findings of a project that reviewed the effectiveness of behavior change approaches in cleaner cooking interventions in resource-poor settings. The authors synthesized evidence of the use of behavior change techniques, along the cleaner cooking value chain, to bring positive health, economic, and environmental impacts. Forty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria, which documented 55 interventions carried out in 20 countries. The groupings of behavior change techniques most frequently used were shaping knowledge (n = 47), rewards and threats (n = 35), social support (n = 35), and comparisons (n = 16). A scorecard of behavior change effectiveness was developed to analyze a selection of case study interventions. Behavior change techniques have been used effectively as part of multilevel programs. Cooking demonstrations, the right product, and understanding of the barriers and benefits along the value chain have all played a role. Often absent are theories and models of behavior change adapted to the target audience and local context. Robust research methods are needed to track and evaluate behavior change and impact, not just technology disseminated. Behavior change approaches could then play a more prominent role as the "special sauce" in cleaner cooking interventions in resource poor settings. PMID:25839202

  15. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lima-Serrano

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed.

  16. Influence of size effects on material properties and springback behavior of metal foils in micro bending: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With product miniaturization, the requirement on good forming quality and high dimensional accuracy of micro parts is increasing dramatically. In micro bending process, the springback, a critical factor for the accuracy of micro-bent parts, is significantly affected by size effects. In view of the strong influence of material properties on springback behavior, this paper first reviews the influences of three size-dependent factors on material properties, including foil thickness, grain size and thickness to grain size ratio. Afterwards, the review on the influences of these factors on springback behavior are presented, aiming at enhancing the understanding of relevant size effects and proposing a quantitative analysis approach to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of micro-bent parts.

  17. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescent: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesibe Olgun Kaval

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to review the articles on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In this systematic review, articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (March have been searched in the national and international databases. 20 studies that were met the search criteria were examined in terms of research method, therapy characteristics and results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive behavioral group therapy is effective for symptoms of social anxiety and the problems that accompany social anxiety (depression, anxiety, etc. in children and adolescents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 3-22

  18. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Current Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J., Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Controversy remains about the empirical status of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its presumably different characteristics relative to traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The current study aims to shed some light in this respect by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies that have empirically compared ACT versus CBT. Sixteen studies comparing differential outcomes (N= 954) of ACT versus CBT in diverse problems were identified following several s...

  19. The Use of Behavior Change Theory in Internet-Based Asthma Self-Management Interventions: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Durra, Mustafa; Torio, Monika-Bianca; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence rate of asthma represents a major societal burden. Advancements in information technology continue to affect the delivery of patient care in all areas of medicine. Internet-based solutions, social media, and mobile technology could address some of the problems associated with increasing asthma prevalence. Objective This review evaluates Internet-based asthma interventions that were published between 2004 and October 2014 with respect to the use of behavioral cha...

  20. A behavioral look at the training of Alex: A review of Pepperberg's the Alex studies: Cognitive and communicative abilities of grey parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Bruce E.; Potter, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots by Irene Pepperberg is reviewed from a behavior analytic orientation. The results of the majority of her experiments are discussed in terms drawn from the general literature of behavior analysis and Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. We conclude that she has provided evidence of the complex control of vocal behavior that illustrates a functional verbal repertoire of tacts and mands. This book suggests several areas fo...

  1. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  2. Melatonin Therapy for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Critical Review of Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    McGrane, Ian R.; Leung, Jonathan G.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2014-01-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia associated with dream enactment often involving violent or potentially injurious behaviors during REM sleep that is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. Clonazepam has long been suggested as the first-line treatment option for RBD. However, evidence supporting melatonin therapy is expanding. Melatonin appears to be beneficial for the management of RBD with reductions in clinical behavioral outcomes and decrease in muscle...

  3. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on psychological and behavioral outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heather Ann Hausenblas; Kacey Heekin; Heather Lee Mutchie; Stephen Anton

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Throughout the past three decades, increased scientiifc attention has been given to examining saffron’s (Crocus sativusL.) use as a potential therapeutic or preventive agent for a number of health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and depression. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to examine and categorize the current state of scientiifc evidence from randomized controled trials (RCTs) regarding the efifcacy of saffron on psychological/behavioral outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic and non-electronic systematic searches were conducted to identify al relevant human clinical research on saffron. The search strategy was extensive and was designed according to the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).” Reference lists of articles that met the inclusion criteria were searched. Only English language studies were reviewed. INCLUSION CRITERIA:Saffron trials in combination with other substances and saffron safety studies were considered, in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Included studies must have a control group. Included studies must measure a physiological and/or a behavioral outcome. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS:The methodological quality of al included studies was independently evaluated by two reviewers using the Jadad score. Mean scores andP-values of measures were compared both inter- and intra-study for each parameter (i.e., depression). RESULTS:Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies examined the effects of saffron on psychological/behavioral outcomes of: major depressive disorder (n = 6), premenstrual syndrome (n = 1), sexual dysfunction and infertility (n = 4), and weight loss/snacking behaviors (n = 1). The data from these studies support the efifcacy of saffron as compared to placebo in improving the folowing conditions:depressive symptoms (compared to anti-depressants and placebo), premenstrual symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. In addition

  4. Identifying the Education Needs of the Business Analyst: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Richards

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Business Analyst (BA plays a key role in ensuring that technology is appropriately used to achieve the organisation’s goals. This important mediating role is currently in high (unmet demand in many English-speaking countries and thus more people need to be trained for this role. To determine the educational and/or training needs of a BA we conducted a survey in the Information and Communication Technology industry in Australia. The survey items are based on prior studies of information systems educational requirements and the internationally-developed Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA that has been endorsed by the Australian Computer Society. From the literature we identified three types of skills: soft, business and technical. With the increasing importance of GreenIT and the pivotal role that the BA could play in green decision making, we added a fourth type of skill: green. The survey considers 85 skills, their importance, the level of attainment of that skill, skill gaps and types of skills. Results show that all soft skills were considered to be important with the smallest knowledge gaps. Selected business skills and green skills were seen to be important. Technical skills were considered less important, but also where the largest knowledge gaps existed. Further we asked respondents whether each skill should be acquired via an undergraduate or postgraduate degree and/or industry training and experience. We found that the workplace was considered the most appropriate place to acquire and/or develop all skills, except the ability to innovate. While we found that softskills should be taught almost equally at the undergraduate and postgraduate level, business and green skills were more appropriate in a postgraduate degree. In contrast, technical skills were best acquired in an undergraduate program of study.

  5. Use of Differential Reinforcement to Reduce Behavior Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Methodological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Monali; Benson, Betsey A.

    2011-01-01

    The least-restrictive-alternative guideline for providing treatment emphasizes the use of non-aversive procedures to reduce maladaptive behaviors in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Differential reinforcement (DR) is an excellent example of such a non-aversive, reinforcement based behavioral intervention. The purpose of this…

  6. Review of Video Modeling with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sonia D.; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often engage in behavior that is disruptive in the classroom, impedes educational progress, and inhibits peer relationships. Video modeling has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for other challenging populations (e.g., autism) and has been identified as a feasible intervention…

  7. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Rhodes; G.J. de Bruijn

    2013-01-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that in

  8. Antisocial Behavior in Children and Hans Eysenck's Biosocial Theory of Personality: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Dawn E.; Center, David B.

    This paper examines antisocial behavior in children and youth in relation to the biosocial personality theory of Hans Eysenck. It explains Eysenck's theory, which includes a significant role for biological factors in the development of antisocial behavior. The theory holds that three temperament traits--Psychoticism (P), Extroversion (E), and…

  9. Behavioral Nutrition Interventions Using e- and m-Health Communication Technologies: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-17

    e- and m-Health communication technologies are now common approaches to improving population health. The efficacy of behavioral nutrition interventions using e-health technologies to decrease fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake was demonstrated in studies conducted from 2005 to 2009, with approximately 75% of trials showing positive effects. By 2010, an increasing number of behavioral nutrition interventions were focusing on body weight. The early emphasis on interventions that were highly computer tailored shifted to personalized electronic interventions that included weight and behavioral self-monitoring as key features. More diverse target audiences began to participate, and mobile components were added to interventions. Little progress has been made on using objective measures rather than self-reported measures of dietary behavior. A challenge for nutritionists is to link with the private sector in the design, use, and evaluation of the many electronic devices that are now available in the marketplace for nutrition monitoring and behavioral change. PMID:27022772

  10. Hofstede’s cultural Dimensions and tourist behaviors: A review and conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita A. Manrai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a conceptual framework for analyzing tourist behaviors and identifies three categories of behaviors based on the applications of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the processes underlying these influences. Our findings indicate that tourist behaviors in the Before-Travel, During-Travel, and After-Travel stages differ significantly in terms of the applicability and process through which Hofstede’s cultural dimensions operate. The results of our analysis suggest three categories of behavioral patterns, namely, "Social Interaction Driven Travel Behaviors," (SID, "Risk Tendencies Driven Travel Behaviors," (RTD, and "Collectivity Orientation Driven Travel Behaviors," (COD. SID relates to the evaluation of travel experiences in the after-travel stage. The dominant cultural values associated with SID are Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity, and Power Distance. These three values act either independently or in pairs or all three together. RTD relates to the consumption of travel products in the during-travel stage, and COD relates to the formation of travel preferences in the before-travel stage. Individualism/Collectivism and Uncertainty Avoidance are associated with both RTD and COD. However, the underlying processes differ for these two categories of travel behaviors. In addition to their independent influences on travel behaviors, these two values associated with RTD and COD also have an interactive effect. For RTD, the Uncertainty Avoidance motive determines the Individualism/Collectivism outcome, whereas, for COD, the opposite is true: the Individualism/Collectivism determines the Uncertainty Avoidance outcome. The paper also discusses the application of a fifth cultural dimension, Confucian Dynamism (short-term versus long-term orientation, for the study of tourists’ behaviors.

  11. Advancing the discussion about systematic classroom behavioral observation, a product review of Tenny, J. (2010). eCOVE observation software. Pacific City, OR: eCOVE Software, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Smith, Liana

    2014-05-01

    Applied child psychologists and behavioral consultants often use systematic behavioral observations to inform the psychological assessment and intervention development process for children referred for attention and hyperactivity problems. This article provides a review of the 2010 version of the eCOVE classroom observation software in terms of its utility in tracking the progress of children with attention and hyperactive behaviors and its use in evaluating teacher behaviors that may impede or promote children's attention and positive behavior. The eCOVE shows promise as an efficient tool for psychologists and behavioral consultants who want to evaluate the effects of interventions for children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, mood disorders and learning disorders; however, some research-based improvements for future models are suggested. The reviewers also share their firsthand experience in using eCOVE to evaluate teacher and student behavior exhibited on a television show about teaching urban high school students and during a movie about an eccentric new kindergarten teacher. Rich examples are provided of using strategic behavioral observations to reveal how to improve the classroom environment so as to facilitate attention, motivation and positive behavior among youth. Broader implications for enhancing the use of systematic behavioral observations in the assessment of children and adolescents with attention disorders and related behavioral problems are discussed. Key issues are examined such as the use of behavioral observations during psychological consultation to prevent the previously found gender bias in referrals for ADHD. Using behavioral observations to enhance differential diagnosis is also discussed. PMID:22408136

  12. 78 FR 45592 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...: Small Business Lending Companies. Responses: 215. Annual Burden: 107.50. Curtis Rich, Management Analyst... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business...

  13. 78 FR 39820 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Business concerns. Responses: 4926. Annual Burden: 2463. Curtis Rich, Management Analyst. BILLING CODE 8025... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business...

  14. Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.

  15. Current measurement in applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Bonnie; Brown, Tom; Duncan, Philip K.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of behavior began with a form of data, rate of responding, which allowed for efficient study and for the description of the basic principles of behavior. Especially important were the facts that rate of responding was a direct reflection of fundamental properties of behavior, and that rate of responding was measured continuously within an experimental session. As behavior analysts moved from purely experimental to applied settings, discontinuous, time-based methods of measurement...

  16. An Affective Events Model of Charismatic Leadership Behavior : A Review, Theoretical Integration, and Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Bruch, Heike

    2009-01-01

    Although research has long focused on the consequences of leaders' charismatic behavior, the antecedents of such leadership are increasingly gaining scholarly attention. Nevertheless, the antecedent-oriented literature on charismatic leadership has been fragmented to date and lacks theoretical integ

  17. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics-A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence. PMID:26835016

  18. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics—A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization’s culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence. PMID:26835016

  19. Innovative Interventions to Promote Behavioral Change in Overweight or Obese Individuals: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Okorodudu, Daniel E.; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades placing significant burdens on healthcare in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in techn...

  20. Review of behavioral health integration in primary care at Baylor Scott and White Healthcare, Central Region

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, John B.; Fluet, Norman R.; Reis, Michael D.; Stern, Charles H.; Thompson, Alexander W.; Jolly, Gillian A.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of behavioral health services in primary care has been referred to in many ways, but ultimately refers to common structures and processes. Behavioral health is integrated into primary care because it increases the effectiveness and efficiency of providing care and reduces costs in the care of primary care patients. Reimbursement is one factor, if not the main factor, that determines the level of integration that can be achieved. The federal health reform agenda supports change...

  1. Behavioral Competence as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hing Keung Ma

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral competence is delineated in terms of four parameters: (a) Moral and Social Knowledge, (b) Social Skills, (c) Positive Characters and Positive Attributes, and (d) Behavioral Decision Process and Action Taking. Since Ma's other papers in this special issue have already discussed the moral and social knowledge as well as the social skills associated in detail, this paper focuses on the last two parameters. It is hypothesized that the following twelve positive characters are highly rel...

  2. Active Assistance Technology for Health-Related Behavior Change: An Interdisciplinary Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H.; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Background Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user exper...

  3. Control of stress and violent behavior: mid-course review of the 1990 health objectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, M M; Lalley, T L; Rosenberg, M L; Smith, J. C.; Parron, D; Jacobs, J.

    1988-01-01

    Control of stress and violent behavior is 1 of the 15 priority areas addressed in the 1990 health objectives for the nation. For control of stress, improved awareness of appropriate community service agencies and increased scientific knowledge of stress effects are the main objectives. For control of violent behavior, the objectives focus on three major problems: (a) deaths from homicide among young black males, (b) adolescent suicide, and (c) child abuse. Since the last progress report, publ...

  4. Credibility and Consumer Behavior of Islamic Bank in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Naufal BACHRI; Abdul RAHMAN LUBIS; NURDASILA; M. Shabri Abd. Majid

    2016-01-01

    The concept “credibility” has become significant attention from academics and practitioners because it played an important role in creating and maintaining consumer behavior. This study uses twenty- seven references relates to credibility, customer value, satisfaction, and loyalty. Several studies have discussed the relationship between credibility and consumer behavior and also elaborated dimensions of credibility. It also presented the shortcomings of current research and the trends for fut...

  5. State of the art review of degradation processes in LMFBR materials. Volume II. Corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of materials exposed to Na in LMFBR service is reviewed. The degradation processes are discussed in sections on corrosion and mass transfer, erosion, wear and self welding, sodium--water reactions, and external corrosion. (JRD)

  6. Children's antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P; Sekol, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children. PMID:22229730

  7. Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L; Bushman, Brad J; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R; Saleem, Muniba

    2010-03-01

    Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past meta-analyses; (b) cross-cultural comparisons; (c) longitudinal studies for all outcomes except physiological arousal; (d) conservative statistical controls; (e) multiple moderator analyses; and (f) sensitivity analyses. Social-cognitive models and cultural differences between Japan and Western countries were used to generate theory-based predictions. Meta-analyses yielded significant effects for all 6 outcome variables. The pattern of results for different outcomes and research designs (experimental, cross-sectional, longitudinal) fit theoretical predictions well. The evidence strongly suggests that exposure to violent video games is a causal risk factor for increased aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, and aggressive affect and for decreased empathy and prosocial behavior. Moderator analyses revealed significant research design effects, weak evidence of cultural differences in susceptibility and type of measurement effects, and no evidence of sex differences in susceptibility. Results of various sensitivity analyses revealed these effects to be robust, with little evidence of selection (publication) bias. PMID:20192553

  8. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seyffert

    Full Text Available Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings.We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials.Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis.We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001 with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017 compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004. The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013 in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to 48 weeks after post

  9. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyffert, Michael; Lagisetty, Pooja; Landgraf, Jessica; Chopra, Vineet; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Conte, Marisa L.; Rogers, Mary A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Objectives The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings. Data Sources We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials. Methods Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis. Results We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001) with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017) compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004). The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013) in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were

  10. Behavioral Competence as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral competence is delineated in terms of four parameters: (a Moral and Social Knowledge, (b Social Skills, (c Positive Characters and Positive Attributes, and (d Behavioral Decision Process and Action Taking. Since Ma’s other papers in this special issue have already discussed the moral and social knowledge as well as the social skills associated in detail, this paper focuses on the last two parameters. It is hypothesized that the following twelve positive characters are highly related to behavioral competence: humanity, intelligence, courage, conscience, autonomy, respect, responsibility, naturalness, loyalty, humility, assertiveness, and perseverance. Large-scale empirical future studies should be conducted to substantiate the predictive validity of the complete set of these positive characters. The whole judgment and behavioral decision process is constructed based on the information processing approach. The direction of future studies should focus more on the complex input, central control, and output subprocesses and the interactions among these sub-processes. The understanding of the formation of behavior is crucial to whole-person education and positive youth development.

  11. Can computerized clinical decision support systems improve practitioners' diagnostic test ordering behavior? A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise-Kelly Lorraine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Underuse and overuse of diagnostic tests have important implications for health outcomes and costs. Decision support technology purports to optimize the use of diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The objective of this review was to assess whether computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs are effective at improving ordering of tests for diagnosis, monitoring of disease, or monitoring of treatment. The outcome of interest was effect on the diagnostic test-ordering behavior of practitioners. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls in clinical care settings. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS gave suggestions for ordering or performing a diagnostic procedure. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of test ordering outcomes. Results Thirty-five studies were identified, with significantly higher methodological quality in those published after the year 2000 (p = 0.002. Thirty-three trials reported evaluable data on diagnostic test ordering, and 55% (18/33 of CCDSSs improved testing behavior overall, including 83% (5/6 for diagnosis, 63% (5/8 for treatment monitoring, 35% (6/17 for disease monitoring, and 100% (3/3 for other purposes. Four of the systems explicitly attempted to reduce test ordering rates and all succeeded. Factors of particular interest to decision makers include costs, user satisfaction, and impact on workflow but were rarely investigated or reported. Conclusions Some CCDSSs can modify practitioner test-ordering behavior. To better inform development and implementation efforts, studies should describe in more detail potentially

  12. A renaissance in residential behavior analysis? A historical perspective and a better way to help people with challenging behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Holburn, Steve

    1997-01-01

    After a slow start, the popularity of applied behavior analysis for people with severe behavior problems peaked in the 1970s and was then battered down by the effects of methodological behaviorism, the aversives controversy, overregulation, and the inherent limitations of congregate living. Despite the ethical, technical, and conceptual advancements in behavior analysis, many people with challenging behavior live in futile environments in which the behavior analyst can only tinker. A radicall...

  13. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hackman CL; Knowlden AP

    2014-01-01

    Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interven...

  14. Design of electronic word-of-mouth systems pays : effects of layout of online product review webpages on consumer purchase behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Lianzhuang; 曲连壮

    2015-01-01

    To make informed buying decisions, online consumers increasingly turn to online product review systems, or electronic word-of-mouth systems (EWOMSs). Previous studies suggest that EWOMS designs can determine consumer behavior. Even some tiny changes, such as background color or picture, can greatly affect consumers’ buying behavior. Hence, it is critical to investigate how designs of EWOMS influence online consumers’ buying behavior. This research develops a theoretical model of the effec...

  15. Socially Desirable Fast Moving Consumer Goods - A Literature Review on How To Decrease the Gap Between Intention & Purchase Behavior Through Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Mikael; Löfvenberg, Sara-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Authors: Mikael Forsberg and Sara-Maria Löfvenberg Tutor: Susanne Åberg Title: Socially Desirable Fast Moving Consumer Goods – A Literature Review on How To Decrease the Gap Between Intention & Purchase Behavior Through Marketing Keywords Branding, Consumer Behavior, Consumer Value Creation, Decision-making, Differentiation, Eco, Ecological, Environmentally Conscious Behavior, Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), Green Consumer, Green Marketing, In-store marketing, Marketing, Organ...

  16. Suicide Behaviors in Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Update for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Weisler, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    Suicide behaviors (ideation, attempts, and completions) are unfortunately common in patients with bipolar disorder. It is estimated that 25 to 50% attempt suicide at least once during their lifetime, and 6% to 19% complete suicide. Risk factors include a family history of suicide, previous suicide attempts, younger age of onset, comorbid psychiatric illnesses, and psychological constructs like hopelessness. Pharmacologic treatment may impact suicidal behaviors, either increasing vulnerability or resilience. Clinicians need to be particularly sensitive to their patient's thoughts and beliefs about death, particularly during stressful times of life or when in a depressive/mixed episode of bipolar disorder. PMID:26876322

  17. The Concept of Employee Engagement: A Comprehensive Review from a Positive Organizational Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Chang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Employee engagement has been understood from various academic and practical perspectives, mainly due to its recent popularity. This study explores not only positive movements--positive psychology, positive organizational scholarship (POS), and positive organizational behavior (POB)--as a background of engagement but also the conceptualization,…

  18. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy…

  19. A review of the contrasting behavior of two magmatic volatiles: Chlorine and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are common magmatic volatiles with contrasting behaviors. CO2 solubility increases with pressure whereas Cl solubility shows relatively little pressure or temperature effect. CO2 speciation changes with silicate melt composition, dissolving as carbonate in basaltic magmas and molecular CO2 in more silicic compositions. In H2O-bearing systems, the strongly non-ideal behavior of alkali chlorides causes unmixing of the volatile phase to form a H2O-rich vapor and a hydrosaline phase with important implications for the maximum concentration of Cl in magmas. Addition of CO2 to magma hastens immiscibility at crustal pressures (Chlorine (Cl) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are common magmatic volatiles with contrasting behaviors. CO2 solubility increases with pressure whereas Cl solubility shows relatively little pressure or temperature effect. CO2 speciation changes with silicate melt composition, dissolving as carbonate in basaltic magmas and molecular CO2 in more silicic compositions. In H2O-bearing systems, the strongly non-ideal behavior of alkali chlorides causes unmixing of the volatile phase to form a H2O-rich vapor and a hydrosaline phase with important implications for the maximum concentration of Cl in magmas. Addition of CO2 to magma hastens immiscibility at crustal pressures (<500 MPa), inducing the formation of CO2-rich vapors and Cl-rich hydrosaline melts.

  20. Treating Adaptive Living Skills of Persons with Autism Using Applied Behavior Analysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Belva, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Work, self-help, leisure, and hygiene skill deficits are often associated with Autistic Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in socialization, communication, and repetitive and restricted behaviors or interests. A number of interventions have been established to assist individuals with these impairments.…

  1. A Review of Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Aggression in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Julie; Healy, Olive

    2011-01-01

    Aggression can present as a significant problem behavior in individuals with a diagnosis of developmental disability. Much research has focused on the prevalence of aggression in individuals with varying degrees of severity of intellectual disability (AD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and co-morbidity of ID and ASD. Research has also focused on…

  2. The Association between Adolescent Sexting, Psychosocial Difficulties, and Risk Behavior: Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-01-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…

  3. Internet-administered cognitive behavior therapy for health problems: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Andersson, G.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral interventions are the most extensively researched form of psychological treatment and are increasingly offered through the Internet. Internet-based interventions may save therapist time, reduce waiting-lists, cut traveling time, and reach populations with health problems who can

  4. A Review on Breathing Behaviors of Metal-Organic-Frameworks (MOFs for Gas Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mays Alhamami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs are a new class of microporous materials that possess framework flexibility, large surface areas, “tailor-made” framework functionalities, and tunable pore sizes. These features empower MOFs superior performances and broader application spectra than those of zeolites and phosphine-based molecular sieves. In parallel with designing new structures and new chemistry of MOFs, the observation of unique breathing behaviors upon adsorption of gases or solvents stimulates their potential applications as host materials in gas storage for renewable energy. This has attracted intense research energy to understand the causes at the atomic level, using in situ X-ray diffraction, calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. This article is developed in the following order: first to introduce the definition of MOFs and the observation of their framework flexibility. Second, synthesis routes of MOFs are summarized with the emphasis on the hydrothermal synthesis, owing to the environmental-benign and economically availability of water. Third, MOFs exhibiting breathing behaviors are summarized, followed by rationales from thermodynamic viewpoint. Subsequently, effects of various functionalities on breathing behaviors are appraised, including using post-synthetic modification routes. Finally, possible framework spatial requirements of MOFs for yielding breathing behaviors are highlighted as the design strategies for new syntheses.

  5. A review of similarities between domain-specific determinants of four health behaviors among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.H. Peters; C.H. Wiefferink; F. Hoekstra; G.J. Buijs; G.T.M. ten Dam; T.G.W.M. Paulussen

    2009-01-01

    Schools are overloaded with health promotion programs that, altogether, focus on a broad array of behavioral domains, including substance abuse, sexuality and nutrition. Although the specific content of programs varies according to the domain focus, programs usually address similar concepts: knowled

  6. Children and Aerobic Exercise: A Review of Cognitive and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, M. Cay; Labbe, Elise E.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes and critiques 16 studies involving the cognitive and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise on children in both schools and clinical settings. Concludes that few studies concurrently measure physical and psychological changes that may accompany exercise in children and suggests methods for further investigation. (SW)

  7. Behavioral Interventions to Address Sleep Disturbances in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kylan S.; Johnson, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the adverse effects that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, these sleep problems also present significant challenges for the entire family. This article outlines the results of a…

  8. Frictional Behavior of Micro/nanotextured Surfaces Investigated by Atomic Force Microscope: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Jia, Junhong

    2015-08-01

    Tribological issues between friction pair are fundamental problems for minimized devices because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio. Micro/nanotexturing is an effective technique to reduce actual contact area between contact pair at the nanoscale. Micro/nanotexture made a great impact on the frictional behavior of textured surfaces. This paper summarizes the recent advancements in the field of frictional behavior of micro/nanotextured surfaces, which are based on solid surface contact in atmosphere environment, especially focusing on the factors influencing the frictional behavior: Surface property, texturing density, texturing height, texturing structure and size of contact pair (atomic force microscope (AFM) tip) and texturing structures. Summarizing the effects of these factors on the frictional behavior is helpful for the understanding and designing of the surfaces in sliding micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). Controlling and reducing the friction force in moving mechanical systems is very important for the performance and reliability of nanosystems, which contribute to a sustainable future.

  9. The Impact of Ranking Information on Students’ Behavior and Performance in Peer Review Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2015-01-01

    and Telecommunications Engineering. We performed a controlled experiment, grouping students into 3 study conditions: control, usage data, usage and ranking data. Students in the control condition did not receive additional information. Students in the next two conditions were able to see their usage......The paper explores the potential of usage and ranking information in increasing student engagement in a double-blinded peer review setting, where students are allowed to select freely which/how many peer works to review. The study employed 56 volunteering sophomore students majoring in Informatics...... data (logins, peer work viewed/reviewed, etc.), while students in the last group could additionally see their ranking in their group according to their usage data. Results showed that while the three groups were comparable, a range of different attitudes were visible in the Ranking group. Students with...

  10. Review of behavior of plutonium in soils and other geologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available information on the physical and chemical reactions of Pu in soils and other geologic materials is reviewed. The primary intent of this review was to bring together information that may be helpful in assessing the movement and biological availability of Pu in terrestrial environment. The review is divided into two general categories, e.g., studies of chemical reactions of Pu in aqueous solutions and studies of Pu reactions in the more complex systems of soils and other geologic materials. The latter category is further divided into studies of Pu in materials that were freshly contaminated in the laboratory and of Pu in materials that had been contaminated in natural environments and had resided there for varying numbers of years. After the discussion of physical and chemical reactions of Pu, several reported examples of the actual movement of Pu in terrestrial environments are given

  11. Exercise training for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in people with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Philipe de Souto; Demougeot, Laurent; Pillard, Fabien; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Rolland, Yves

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessed the effects of exercise on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, including depression) in people with dementia (PWD). Secondary outcomes for the effects of exercise were mortality and antipsychotic use. Twenty studies were included in this review (n=18 in the meta-analysis). Most studies used a multicomponent exercise training (n=13) as intervention; the control group was often a usual care (n=10) or a socially-active (n=8) group. Exercise did not reduce global levels of BPSD (n=4. Weighted mean difference -3.884; 95% CI -8.969-1.201; I(2)=69.4%). Exercise significantly reduced depression levels in PWD (n=7). Standardized mean difference -0.306; 95% CI -0.571 to -0.041; I(2)=46.8%); similar patterns were obtained in sensitivity analysis performed among studies with: institutionalized people (p=0.038), multicomponent training (p=0.056), social control group (p=0.08), and low risk of attrition bias (p=0.11). Exploratory analysis showed that the principal BPSD (other than depression) positively affected by exercise was aberrant motor behavior. Exercise had no effect on mortality. Data on antipsychotics were scarce. In conclusion, exercise reduces depression levels in PWD. Future studies should examine whether exercise reduces the use (and doses) of antipsychotics and other drugs often used to manage BPSD. PMID:26369357

  12. Assessment of Consultation and Intervention Implementation: A Review of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Reviews of treatment outcome literature indicate treatment integrity is not regularly assessed. In consultation, two levels of treatment integrity (i.e., consultant procedural integrity [CPI] and intervention treatment integrity [ITI]) provide relevant implementation data. Specifically, assessment of CPI and ITI are necessary to conclude (a)…

  13. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-08-15

    Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  14. Dysregulation of the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Review of Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Urošević, Snez̆ana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a call for increased research on bipolar disorder has been answered with methodologically diverse studies exploring goal striving, life events, cognitive style, decision-making, and neurobiological abnormalities in bipolar disorder. In order to further this spurt of research and to systematize our understanding of bipolar disorder, an integrative perspective is warranted. The behavioral approach system (BAS) dysregulation theory, proposed by Richard Depue and colleagues, prov...

  15. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  16. Information Seeking in Social Media: A Review of YouTube for Sedentary Behavior Content

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Emily; Intzandt, Brittany; MacDougall, Alicia; Saunders, Travis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of sedentary lifestyles is of grave concern for public health around the world. Moreover, the health risk of sedentary behaviors is of growing interest for researchers, clinicians, and the general public as evidence demonstrates that prolonged amounts of sedentary time increases risk for lifestyle-related diseases. There is a growing trend in the literature that reports how social media can facilitate knowledge sharing and collaboration. Social sites like YouT...

  17. Evolutionary concept analysis of health seeking behavior in nursing: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Poortaghi, Sarieh; Raiesifar, Afsaneh; Bozorgzad, Parisa; Golzari, Samad E. J.; Parvizy, Soroor; Rafii, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the research in health seeking behavior has been evolving, its concept remains ambiguous. Concept clarification, as a central basis of developing knowledge, plays an undeniable role in the formation of nursing sciences. As the initial step toward the development of theories and theoretical models, concept analysis is broadly used through which the goals can be used and tested. The aim of this study was to report an analysis of the concept of “health seeking behavior”. Meth...

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Development in Children Following Maternal Postpartum Depression: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Mirhosseini, Hamid; Moosavipoor, Seyed Ahmad; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Sara; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdian-anari, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Mothers’ constitute is a very important part of infants’ social environment and mediate their experience with the surrounding world. Postpartum depression, which is considered one of the most common and important psychiatric disorders, affects 10–15% of mothers, its causes are different. By investigating various sources, some effects of this disorder have been observed on the cognitive development of children, particularly among boys, such as language, intelligence quotient (IQ), and behavior...

  19. Review of Behavior on a Disk from CMS Academic Software: instructional programs for teaching teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, J A

    1992-01-01

    The programs on BOAD represent a set of useful simulations and demonstrations of learning phenomena that successfully convey important practical and theoretical information to students. The most successful modules deal with shaping and the selective effect of positive reinforcement on behavior. The range of examples is sufficiently broad to convey the generality of these learning phenomena, but the graphics and particular examples are better suited to the college classroom (for which they were developed and in which they have received extensive field testing) than to the general public, where some users might be distracted by working with simulated animal "subjects" or bored by the simple graphics. There is a separate application on the disk that drills students on behavioral vocabulary, a useful resource for helping to assure that behavioral issues are discussed using consistent terminology. Although a single disk is initialized for a single user so that individual progress can be tracked accurately in printed reports, the cost of a disk is so low that no student who needs to learn about teaching would be discouraged from purchasing it. In truth, this is the best deal in instructional software I have seen yet. PMID:1626085

  20. Testimony of David Yardas, water resources analyst Environmental Defense Fund on the contemporary needs and management of the Newlands Reclamation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the testimony of David Yardas, water resource analyst for the Environmental Defense Fund, concerning the contemporary needs and management of federal...

  1. Conserving analyst attention units: use of multi-agent software and CEP methods to assist information analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey; McNeese, Michael; Hall, David

    2013-05-01

    Although the capability of computer-based artificial intelligence techniques for decision-making and situational awareness has seen notable improvement over the last several decades, the current state-of-the-art still falls short of creating computer systems capable of autonomously making complex decisions and judgments in many domains where data is nuanced and accountability is high. However, there is a great deal of potential for hybrid systems in which software applications augment human capabilities by focusing the analyst's attention to relevant information elements based on both a priori knowledge of the analyst's goals and the processing/correlation of a series of data streams too numerous and heterogeneous for the analyst to digest without assistance. Researchers at Penn State University are exploring ways in which an information framework influenced by Klein's (Recognition Primed Decision) RPD model, Endsley's model of situational awareness, and the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model can be implemented through a novel combination of Complex Event Processing (CEP) and Multi-Agent Software (MAS). Though originally designed for stock market and financial applications, the high performance data-driven nature of CEP techniques provide a natural compliment to the proven capabilities of MAS systems for modeling naturalistic decision-making, performing process adjudication, and optimizing networked processing and cognition via the use of "mobile agents." This paper addresses the challenges and opportunities of such a framework for augmenting human observational capability as well as enabling the ability to perform collaborative context-aware reasoning in both human teams and hybrid human / software agent teams.

  2. Applied behavior analysis and statistical process control?

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines Pfadt and Wheeler's (1995) suggestions that the methods of statistical process control (SPC) be incorporated into applied behavior analysis. The research strategies of SPC are examined and compared to those of applied behavior analysis. I argue that the statistical methods that are a part of SPC would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with the problems with which they deal and would, therefore, likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Ex...

  3. Contingency Analysis of Caregiver Behavior: Implications for Parent Training and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    Parent training is often a required component of effective treatment for a variety of common childhood problems. Although behavior analysts have developed several effective parent-training technologies, we know little about the contingencies that affect parent behavior. Child behavior is one source of control for parent behavior that likely…

  4. A REVIEW OF HUMAN ACTIVITY RECONGNITION AND BEHAVIOR UNDERSTANDING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.Revathi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey of activity recognition and understanding the behaviour of human activity in video sequence. The major goal of this paper is to provide a general review on the overall process of a surveillance system used in the current trend. Visual surveillance system is directed on automatic identification of events of interest, especially on tracking and classification of moving objects. The processing step of the video surveillance system includes the following stages: Surrounding model, object representation, object tracking, activity recognition and behaviour understanding. It describes techniques that use to define a general set of activities that are applicable to a wide range of scenes and environments in video sequence. The review methods used for real-time surveillance through a set of events for further analysis triggering, including virtual fencing, speed profiling, behaviour classification, anomaly detection, and object interaction.

  5. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Trenchard, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems including bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to ene...

  6. ON THE ANALYST'S IDENTIFICATION WITH THE PATIENT: THE CASE OF J.-B. PONTALIS AND G. PEREC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Henry P

    2016-01-01

    The writer Georges Perec was in psychoanalysis with Jean-Bertrand Pontalis for four years in the early 1970s. In this essay, the author presents the exceptional interest this analyst took in this patient and the ways in which that interest manifested itself in his work, psychoanalytic and otherwise. Many correlative factors suggest that identificatory processes persisted beyond the treatment and were maintained into Pontalis's later life. While this paper is primarily intended to provide evidence to support this view of a specific case, the author closes by reflecting that this may be a more general phenomenon and the reasons for this. PMID:26784718

  7. The Relationships between Symmetry and Attractiveness and Mating Relevant Decisions and Behavior: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Joel Wade

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory based research shows that attractiveness is based on biological correlates that index appropriate estrogen and testosterone levels. Symmetry affects or plays a role in the perception of many of these correlates of attractiveness. Additionally, since attractiveness affects infidelity perception and reactions, sexual satisfaction, and personality perception, symmetry also affects these areas. This paper reviews the literature on symmetry showing how symmetry affects: the correlates of attractiveness, sexual satisfaction, personality, and infidelity perceptions and reactions.

  8. A review of the neural and behavioral consequences for unitizing emotional and neutral information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Murray

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A special type of association, called a “unitization,” is formed when pieces of information are encoded as a single representation in memory (e.g., “shirt” and “blue” are encoded as a “blue shirt”; Graf & Schacter, 1989 and typically are later reactivated in memory as a single unit, allowing access to the features of multiple related stimuli at once (Bader et al., 2010; Diana et al., 2011. This review examines the neural processes supporting memory for unitizations and how the emotional content of the material may influence unitization. Although associative binding is typically reliant on hippocampal processes and supported by recollection, the first part of this review will present evidence to suggest that when two items are unitized into a single representation, memory for those bound items may be accomplished on the basis of familiarity and without reliance on the hippocampus. The second part of this review discusses how emotion may affect the processes that give rise to unitizations. Emotional information typically receives a mnemonic benefit over neutral information, but the literature is mixed on whether the presence of emotional information impedes or enhances the associative binding of neutral information (reviewed by Mather, 2007. It has been suggested that the way the emotional and neutral details are related together may be critical to whether the neutral details are enhanced or impeded (Mather, 2007; Mather & Sutherland, 2011. We focus on whether emotional arousal aides or inhibits the creation of a unitized representation, presenting preliminary data and future directions to test empirically the effects of forming and retrieving emotional and neutral unitizations.

  9. Sexuality, Antisocial Behavior, Aggressiveness, and Victimization in Juvenile Sexual Offenders: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebke Driemeyer; Dahlnym Yoon; Peer Briken

    2011-01-01

    The present review focuses on six factors that have been addressed in the literature about juvenile sexual offenders: general delinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, aggressiveness and psychopathology, sexuality, sexual deviance, and victimization experiences. Empirical findings are characterized by great heterogeneity. Due to a lack of standardized assessment and because of different study groups they rarely facilitate direct comparisons. In an endeavor to clarify this vast heterogeneity, the p...

  10. Megavitamin treatment of mental retardation in children: a review of effects on behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, B W

    1992-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many forms of vitamin supplementation have been proposed for the treatment of behavioral and cognitive disorders in children with mental retardation. Except for nutrient deficiencies and selected inborn errors of metabolism, the efficacy of these treatments has not been established. Therapeutic supplementation with vitamin B(6) in Down syndrome and folie acid in fragile X syndrome was attempted following the identification of apparent biochemical aberrations involving the nutrients. Double-blind controlled trials have revealed no evidence that B(6) treatment was effective in Down syndrome. Very limited evidence, only among prepubertal subjects, suggested that behaviors improved with folie acid treatment in fragile X syndrome. There is less clarity of the scientific rationales for various combinations of vitamins (or vitamins and minerals) that have been promoted according to the concept of orthomolecular medicine. Well-designed controlled studies, with data presented in conformity with generally accepted scientific standards, have not supported the efficacy of megadose supplementation with 1) multivitamins in cognitive disabilities or attention deficit disorders, or 2) multivitamins and minerals in Down syndrome or other forms of mental retardation. Insufficient data are available to support claims made for vitamin B(6) and magnesium supplementation in autism. Research in the larger field of nutrient-behavior research has reinforced the need for studies to be more rigorously designed and to draw on the expertise of multiple disciplines. Evidence of toxic effects of nutrients continues to accrue, reinforcing the fact that megadoses should not be used indiscriminately or without physician monitoring. For children with mental retardation generally, assuring that established nutritional needs are met warrants primary consideration. PMID:19630613

  11. 301 research topics from Skinner's book verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    1991-01-01

    Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior addresses some of the most important issues in human behavior. However, relatively few of the analyses presented by Skinner in Verbal Behavior have been subjected to an experimental analysis. The current list of topics was assembled in an effort to stimulate empirical research on verbal behavior. The list contains thirty research areas with ten topics suggested for each area. A final topic, education, is presented as a challenge to behavior analysts.

  12. Behavior Analysis: Thriving, But How About Its Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Fantino, Edmund

    2008-01-01

    Behavior analysis has been thriving by continuing to make important theoretical and empirical contributions to a wide array of problems, as well as by contributing to interdisciplinary research. Applied research in behavior analysis is flourishing. Despite these positive signs there may be an erosion of support for basic research in animal learning and behavior, including behavior analysis. Increased attention by behavior analysts to fundamental problems in areas of cognition, including decis...

  13. Systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy related treatments for victims of natural disasters: a worldwide problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Alessandra Pereira; Macedo, Tânia Fagundes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Ventura, Paula Rui

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters can have devastating consequences. Each year, about 225 million people are victims of natural disasters worldwide, and up to 13,5 million of these people can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the first or second year following the disaster. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the first-choice treatment for this disorder. In order to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy for people who developed post traumatic stress disorder after natural disasters we conducted a systematic search of published studies. We used the terms reported below in the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, PILOTS and Scopus with no restrictions of language or publication date. Articles that described randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and non controlled studies on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy for individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder after exposure to a natural disaster were eligible for inclusion. The studies were required to use a standardized measure of effectiveness before and after the intervention and have a group of patients who had used cognitive-behavior therapy as the only intervention. Our search identified 820 studies, and 11 were selected for this review. These 11 studies involved 742 subjects, 10 related to earthquakes and 1 to a hurricane. The cognitive-behavior therapy techniques used were various: 7 studies used exposure therapy, 2 studies used problem solving, and the only 2 studies with adolescents used techniques including reconstructions and reprocessing of the traumatic experience. As limitations, the search involved only five electronic databases, no experts in the field were consulted, and the heterogeneity of the findings made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis. The results suggest the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy, particularly exposure techniques, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

  14. US adolescents’ friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chan Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents’ risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents’ engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies’ methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents’ risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample. Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO. Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS. Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1–9. Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale’s mid-point.

  15. A review: study on the behavior of 137Cs in agricultural environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, study on the behavior of137Cs in agricultural environment was begun in 1960. Many papers on the behavior of 137Cs in soil-plant system and the estimation of 137Cs radioactivity in soil and food were published. The absorption, accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in plant, the relationship between absorption of 137Cs by plant and contaminating way and form, the 137Cs radioactivity in soil and food and its transfer coefficient in soil-plant system, the effects of the characters of soil and plant as well as the living stages on the transfer are concerned. The results show that the average radioactivity of 137Cs in soil of China is 10.45 Bq/kg, and the deposition densities decrease with the latitude decreasing. The transfer coefficient of 137Cs from soil to the agricultural products is about 0.12∼8.19 x 10-3. The distribution of 137Cs in rice plant is in the order of the root>glume>leaf>stem>rice. The radioactivity of aerial part accumulates mainly in the glume. The countermeasures to alleviate the adverse effects of 137Cs contamination need further study

  16. Nonpoint-source nitrogen and phosphorus behavior and modeling in cold climate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheng-Wei; Xu, Shi-Guo; Liu, Jian-Wei; Lian, Jian-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Pollution from nonpoint-source (NPS) nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the main causes of eutrophication in lotic, lentic and coastal systems. The climate of cold regions might play an important role in disturbing environmental behavior of NPS N and P, influencing simulation of watershed scale hydrologic and nonpoint-source pollution models. The losses of NPS N and P increase in regions of cold climate. In cold seasons, accumulations of N and P are accelerated in soil with increasing fine root and aboveground biomass mortality, decreasing plant nutrient uptake, as well as freezing soil. N and P transformation is disturbed by soil frost and snow. Moreover, factors such as physical disruption of soil aggregates, pollutant accumulation in snowpack, and snow melting can all increase the NPS N and P losses to the waterbody. Therefore, NPS N and P in first flush are more serious in cold climate. All these effects, especially frozen soil and snowpack, make great challenges to watershed scale hydrologic and nonpoint-source pollution models simulation in cold climate. Model improvements of snowmelt runoff, nutrient losses in frozen soil, as well as N and P behavior have been initiated and will be continued to evaluate in terms of their performances and suitability with different scale, hydrologic and geologic conditions in the future. PMID:21076213

  17. A systematic review of interventions in primary care to improve health literacy for chronic disease behavioral risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taggart Jane

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW. Methods A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings. We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australasian Medical Index, Google Scholar, Community of Science and four targeted journals (Patient Education and Counseling, Health Education and Behaviour, American Journal of Preventive Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Study inclusion criteria: Adults over 18 years; undertaken in a primary care setting within an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD country; interventions with at least one measure of health literacy and promoting positive change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or weight; measure at least one outcome associated with health literacy and report a SNAPW outcome; and experimental and quasi-experimental studies, cohort, observational and controlled and non-controlled before and after studies. Papers were assessed and screened by two researchers (JT, AW and uncertain or excluded studies were reviewed by a third researcher (MH. Data were extracted from the included studies by two researchers (JT, AW. Effectiveness studies were quality assessed. A typology of interventions was thematically derived from the studies by grouping the SNAPW interventions into six broad categories: individual motivational interviewing and counseling; group education; multiple interventions (combination of interventions; written materials; telephone coaching or counseling; and computer or web based interventions. Interventions were classified by intensity of contact with the subjects (High ≥ 8 points of contact

  18. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed. PMID:26902519

  19. Antígona: palavra oracular (pura e palavra do analista Antigone: oracular word (pure and word of the analyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Marcon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Tenta-se aproximar a palavra oracular ou pura do adivinho Tirésias na tragédia Antígona de Sófocles da palavra do analista numa psicanálise. Faz-se tal aproximação por meio da apresentação das características comuns as duas palavras em questão (do analista e do adivinho: potência de suspensão do sentido e abertura a outros sentidos - enunciação - presentes num enunciado ou discurso racional ou argumentativo.The present article makes the oracular or pure word of the soothsayer Tiresias in the Sophocles Antigone close to the word of the analyst in psychoanalysis. It makes such approximation through the presentation of the common characteristics of both words (the one of the analyst and the one of the soothsayer: power of suspension of the sense and opening to other senses - enunciation - present in a declaration or in a rational or argumentative discourse.

  20. Changes in physiological and behavioral parameters of preterm infants undergoing body hygiene: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Freitas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To verify the effect of bathing on the body temperature of preterm infants (PTI. Method Systematic review conducted in the following bibliographic electronic sources: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde/Lilacs (BVS, Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science, using a combination of search terms, keywords and free terms. The review question was adjusted to the PICO acronym (Patient/population, Intervention, Control/comparative intervention, Outcome. The selected publications were evaluated according to levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for efficacy/effectiveness studies, as established by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results Eight hundred and twenty four (824 publications were identified and four studies met the inclusion criteria, of which three analyzed the effect of sponge baths and the effect of immersion baths. Conclusion Sponge baths showed a statistically significant drop in body temperature, while in immersion baths the body temperature remained stable, although they studied late preterm infants.

  1. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems that include bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to energy saving mechanisms, including convective processes that can be observed in many systems over both short and long time scales, as well as high collective output processes in which a form of collective position locking occurs. PMID:27288936

  2. Management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons: systematic literature review of evidence-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Emma; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze existing literature testing the effectiveness of programs involving the management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons. For the study, 545 English-language articles published in peer reviewed journals were retrieved using the terms "suicid*," "prevent*," "prison," or "correctional facility" in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, and Web of Knowledge. In total, 12 articles were relevant, with 6 involving multi-factored suicide prevention programs, and 2 involving peer focused programs. Others included changes to the referral and care of suicidal inmates, staff training, legislation changes, and a suicide prevention program for inmates with Borderline Personality Disorder. Multi-factored suicide prevention programs appear most effective in the prison environment. Using trained inmates to provide social support to suicidal inmates is promising. Staff attitudes toward training programs were generally positive. PMID:24611725

  3. Review of the licensing basis for RIA and LOCA transients in light of new evidence on high burnup fuel behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel of power reactors can be damaged by both rapid reactivity insertion accidents (RIA) and by Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) due to the break of a coolant pipe. The consequences of such postulated accidents with a very low probability can be mitigated by dedicated safety systems. Yet, the possible consequences need to be assessed as part of the safety evaluation in the framework of the reactor licensing process as these transients form part of the so-called design basis. Most importantly, coolability of the reactor core must be demonstrated. The current paper reviews the important fuel related phenomena that may occur during such transients and their relation to the current licensing basis. Finally, possible changes in light of new experimental evidence from high burnup fuel behavior tests are discussed. (author)

  4. Cognitive behavior therapy via the Internet: a systematic review of applications, clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Lindefors, Nils

    2012-12-01

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is a promising treatment that may increase availability of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for psychiatric disorders and other clinical problems. The main objective of this study was to determine the applications, clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ICBT. The authors conducted a systematic review to identify randomized controlled trials investigating CBT delivered via the internet for adult patient populations. Searches to identify studies investigating cost-effectiveness of ICBT were also conducted. Evidence status for each clinical application was determined using the American Psychologist Association criteria for empirically supported treatments. Of 1104 studies reviewed, 108 met criteria for inclusion, of which 103 reported on clinical efficacy and eight on cost-effectiveness. Results showed that ICBT has been tested for 25 different clinical disorders, whereas most randomized controlled trials have been aimed at depression, anxiety disorders and chronic pain. Internet-based treatments for depression, social phobia and panic disorder were classified as well-established, that is, meeting the highest level of criteria for evidence. Effect sizes were large in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, severe health anxiety, irritable bowel syndrome, female sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, cannabis use and pathological gambling. For other clinical problems, effect sizes were small to moderate. Comparison to conventional CBT showed that ICBT produces equivalent effects. Cost-effectiveness data were relatively scarce but suggested that ICBT has more than 50% probability of being cost effective compared with no treatment or to conventional CBT when willingness to pay for an additional improvement is zero. Although ICBT is a promising treatment option for several disorders, it can only be regarded as a well-established treatment for depression, panic disorder and social phobia. It seems that ICBT is as

  5. A Review on Driving Behavior Models%驾驶行为模型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段冀阳; 李志忠

    2012-01-01

    驾驶员行为模型的研究对于预测和干预驾驶员的风险行为、设计相关的道路安全设施与车内设备,以及制定交通法律法规等具有重要的意义.为了解和掌握学术界关于驾驶行为模型的研究进展,搜集、筛选和归纳了1960-2010年被SCI数据库索引的相关文章,将驾驶行为模型分类为描述性模型、信息处理模型、动机模型、计划行为理论(TPB)和躯体标识假设,并对每种模型进行评述和总结,理清这些模型间的内在联系.研究发现,现有各模型只是从某个角度研究驾驶员行为的部分特征,而不能解释驾驶员的全部行为.今后应不断完善和整合各类模型,并借鉴心理学、生理学和行为科学等相关领域的理论、知识,使驾驶行为模型变得更为实用、有效.%The research on driving behavior models could be useful for the prediction and intervention of risky behavior of drivers, the design of road facilities and in-vehicle equipment, and the improvement of traffic regulations. Relevant articles indexed by Web of Science from 1960 to 2010 were collected for the review of the development of driver behavior models, including descriptive models, information processing models, motivational models, TPB model and Somatic marker hypothesis. Summary and comments were given to those models which were widely cited, along with the internal relationships among these models. It is concluded that each of these models can only partly explain driving behaviors, thus much effort should be spent on their continuous improvement, integration, and the introduction of new findings from psychology , physiology, behavior science, and other related disciplines, so that they would become more practical and effective.

  6. Developing Behavioral Fluency with Movement Cycles Using SAFMEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Durica, Krina C.; Healy, Nora M.

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Teaching term "movement cycle" refers to a behavior with a clearly observable movement and a distinct beginning and end. The present experiment examined whether behavior analysts and special education teachers could become fluent identifying movement cycles. A frequency-building intervention called SAFMEDS, an acronym for…

  7. A review of Zircaloy fuel cladding behavior in a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the state-of-the-art experimental work performed in several countries with respect to the acceptance criteria established for emergency core cooling (ECC) in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOGA) of light water reactors (LWRs). It covers in detail oxidation, embrittlement, plastic deformation and coolability of deformed rod bundles. The main test results are discussed on the basis of research work performed at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KfK) within the framework of the Nuclear Safety Project (PNS) and reference is made to test data obtained in other countries. The conclusion reached in the paper is that the major mechanisms and consequences of oxidation, deformation and emergency core cooling are sufficiently investigated in order to provide a reliable data base for safety assessments and licensing of LWRs. All test data prove that the ECC-criteria are conservative and that the coolability of an LWR and the public safety can be maintained in a LOCA. (orig.)

  8. 校园欺负行为研究述评%Campus Bullying Behavior Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳; 赵婷

    2015-01-01

    Campus bullying and intervention becomes urgent issue of the current researchers. Through literature review, this study describes the theoretical basis campus bullying and research methods to analyze the causes of school bullying and in-tervention strategies, discuss future research directions.%校园欺负行为及其干预日益成为当前研究者关注的迫切性问题。通过文献回顾,本研究介绍了校园欺负行为的理论依据和研究方法,分析了校园欺负行为的成因与干预策略,讨论了未来的研究方向。

  9. A Review of Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Increased Carbon Dioxide Exposure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Aleksandra; Alexander, David; Oman, Charles M.; Schneiderman, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Existing research has reliably demonstrated the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation at moderately increased levels, with documented physiological changes to heart rate, blood pressure, tissue pH, and blood solubility (for a review of the human health risks of acute elevated CO2 exposure, see Rice, 2004). Studies of indoor air quality have linked increased levels of ambient CO2 with physiological symptoms such as headache, fatigue, and sore throat (Apte et al., 2000; Seppanen et al., 1999; Wargocki et al., 2000). High levels of CO2 (35%) have reliably resulted in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and subjective anxiety responses in healthy individuals (Argyropoulos et al., 2002), as well as panic attack-like symptoms (Colasanti et al., 2008; Griez et al., 2007) and experiences of physiological stress (Consolazio & Fisher, 1947; Kaye et al., 2004). While significant neurological findings correspond to high levels of CO2 exposure, less clinically significant cognitive effects may occur at a much lower level. These cognitive changes and the exposure thresholds at which they occur are less well established than their physiological counterparts; this paper, therefore, reviews the existing literature on the cognitive, neurological, and psychomotor effects of increased CO2 exposure, with the objective of identifying research areas in which further investigation remains necessary. In particular, this investigation is motivated by the chronic exposure to elevated ambient CO2 concentrations experienced by astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS), and the CO2 exposure-related symptoms that have been reported by astronauts on orbit (James, 2007; Law & Watkins, 2009). Such exposure may negatively affect crew health and operations, including mission safety and the successful completion of scientific goals.

  10. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (269) The Science of Imaging - An Introduction Northern Lights Vacuum Bazookas, Electric Rainbow Jelly, and 27 other Saturday Science Projects Physics and Engineering in Medicine in the New Millennium CD-ROM REVIEWS (272) I fell in love with a STARBase trooper Aber - greatest hits... WEB WATCH (273) 'Here is the guess of their true strength and forces' Gary Williams EDITOR'S NOTE (275) Reviews of Christopher Bishop's Astrophysics (John Murray, 2000) PHYSICS TEASER (276) Why or How, Sophistry and Guestimation

  11. Altered diurnal pattern of steroid hormones in relation to various behaviors, external factors and pathologies: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collomp, K; Baillot, A; Forget, H; Coquerel, A; Rieth, N; Vibarel-Rebot, N

    2016-10-01

    The adrenal and gonadal stress steroids [i.e., cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] have gathered considerable attention in the last few decades due to their very broad physiological and psychological actions. Their diurnal patterns have become a particular focus following new data implicating altered diurnal hormone patterns in various endocrine, behavioral and cardiovascular risk profiles. In this review of the current literature, we present a brief overview of the altered diurnal patterns of these hormones that may occur in relation to chronic stress, nutritional behaviors, physical exercise, drugs and sleep deprivation/shift. We also present data on the altered diurnal hormone patterns implicated in cardiometabolic and psychiatric/neurologic diseases, cancer and other complex pathologies. We consider the occasionally discrepant results of the studies, and summarize the current knowledge in this new field of interest, underlining the potential effects on both biological and psychological functioning, and assess the implications of these effects. Last, we conclude with some practical considerations and perspectives. PMID:27235338

  12. A Review of Training Methods and Instructional Techniques: Implications for Behavioral Skills Training in U.S. Astronauts (DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J.; Galarza, Laura; Holland, Albert W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-duration space missions (LDM) place unique physical, environmental and psychological demands on crewmembers that directly affect their ability to live and work in space. A growing body of research on crews working for extended periods in isolated, confined environments reveals the existence of psychological and performance problems in varying degrees of magnitude. The research has also demonstrated that although the environment plays a cathartic role, many of these problems are due to interpersonal frictions (Wood, Lugg, Hysong, & Harm, 1999), and affect each individual differently. Consequently, crewmembers often turn to maladaptive behaviors as coping mechanisms, resulting in decreased productivity and psychological discomfort. From this body of research, critical skills have been identified that can help a crewmember better navigate the psychological challenges of long duration space flight. Although most people lack several of these skills, most of them can be learned; thus, a training program can be designed to teach crewmembers effective leadership, teamwork, and self-care strategies that will help minimize the emergence of maladaptive behaviors. Thus, it is the purpose of this report is twofold: 1) To review the training literature to help determine the optimal instructional methods to use in delivering psychological skill training to the U.S. Astronaut Expedition Corps, and 2) To detail the structure and content of the proposed Astronaut Expedition Corps Psychological Training Program.

  13. Underlying Mechanisms of Gene-Environment Interactions in Externalizing Behavior: A Systematic Review and Search for Theoretical Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Joyce; Overbeek, Geertjan; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Matthys, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, several candidate genes (i.e., MAOA, DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, 5-HTTLPR, and COMT) have been extensively studied as potential moderators of the detrimental effects of postnatal family adversity on child externalizing behaviors, such as aggression and conduct disorder. Many studies on such candidate gene by environment interactions (i.e., cG × E) have been published, and the first part of this paper offers a systematic review and integration of their findings (n = 53). The overview shows a set of heterogeneous findings. However, because of large differences between studies in terms of sample composition, conceptualizations, and power, it is difficult to determine if different findings indeed illustrate inconsistent cG × E findings or if findings are simply incomparable. In the second part of the paper, therefore, we argue that one way to help resolve this problem is the development of theory-driven a priori hypotheses on which biopsychosocial mechanisms might underlie cG × E. Such a theoretically based approach can help us specify our research strategies, create more comparable findings, and help us interpret different findings between studies. In accordance, we describe three possible explanatory mechanisms, based on extant literature on the concepts of (1) emotional reactivity, (2) reward sensitivity, and (3) punishment sensitivity. For each mechanism, we discuss the link between the putative mechanism and externalizing behaviors, the genetic polymorphism, and family adversity. Possible research strategies to test these mechanisms, and implications for interventions, are discussed. PMID:26537239

  14. Angry Birds, Angry Children, and Angry Meta-Analysts: A Reanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Doi, Suhail A R

    2016-05-01

    Ferguson's (2015a) meta-analysis assessed a very important and controversial topic about children's mental health and video games. In response to the concerns raised by researchers about the appropriateness of the meta-analytical methods used by Ferguson; we decided to reanalyze the data and discuss two major misconceptions about meta-analysis. We argue that partial correlations can (and should) be meta-analyzed instead of zero-order bivariate correlations if the predictors included in the partial correlation represent a similar construct. We also discuss the fallacy by which the conventional meta-analytical model assumes that the studies' effect sizes came into being according to the same random effect construct used by the analysis. Our replication results using partial correlations, standardized (valid and reliable) outcomes, and an improved meta-analytical model (that does not assume a random effect is the mechanism of data generation) confirmed the main results of Ferguson's meta-analysis. There was a significant yet very small effect on aggressive behavior of exposure to both general, rp = 0.062, 95% CI [0.012, 0.112], and violent, rp = 0.055, 95% CI [0.019, 0.091], video games. A very small effect was seen on reduced prosocial behavior, but this was only in the general video game exposure category, rp = 0.072, 95% CI [0.045, 0.100]. PMID:27217253

  15. The relationship between teacher responsiveness and the engagement of children with aggressive behavior in preschool : A systematic literature review from 2000-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulou, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    The importance of aggressive behavior in preschool ages can be seen from the serious impact it has later in children's lives if a suitable change will not take place. the number of children with behavioral rpoblems in preschool are increasing with a great amount of teachers admitting that they are insufficiently prepared to manage it. The aim of this systematic literature review is to examine the evidence of teacher responsiveness affecting child engagement, with specific focus on children fr...

  16. Treatment of behavioral sleep problems in children and adolescents – literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kaczor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To collect data on treatment of behavioural sleep disorders in children and adolescents. Materials and methods. A literature review based on the PUBMED database. Results. Based on the analysed materials three basic complementary procedures were identified – implementation of sleep hygiene, behavioural interventions and pharmacological treatment. The rules of sleep hygiene proven to be effective include: regular sleep schedule, adequately prepared place to sleep (a dark, quiet bedroom without multimedia, bedtime routine, avoiding caffeinated beverages. The following issues require further studies to confirm their effectiveness: falling asleep independently without parent’s assistance, bedtime reading, physical activity, reducing daytime multimedia use, tryptophan rich breakfasts. Behavioural interventions and pharmacological treatment may in some cases be temporarily implemented to complement the sleep hygiene. Conclusions. The implementation of sleep hygiene is a primary, fully acceptable to the child and parents, way to improve the baby sleep. In case of ineffectiveness of the proposed rules, those can be complemented with behavioural methods that are highly effective but some parents do not accept them or make mistakes in their introduction. Pharmacotherapy can be used as a temporary support for families with severe behavioural problems as an aid in the implementation of sleep hygiene and behavioural methods.

  17. Effects of radionuclide decay on waste glass behavior: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an extension of a chapter in an earlier report [1] that provides an updated review on the status of radiation damage problems in nuclear waste glasses. This report will focus on radiation effects on vitrified borosilicate nuclear waste glasses under conditions expected in the proposed Yucca mountain repository. Radiation effects on high-level waste glasses and their surrounding repository environment are important considerations for radionuclide immobilization because of the potential to alter the glass stability and thereby influence the radionuclide retentive properties of this waste form. The influence of radionuclide decay on vitrified nuclear waste may be manifested by several changes, including volume, stored energy, structure, microstructure, mechanical properties, and phase separation. Radiation may also affect the composition of aqueous fluids and atmospheric gases in relatively close proximity to the waste form. What is important to the radionuclide retentive properties of the repository is how these radiation effects collectively or individually influence the durability and radionuclide release from the glass in the event of liquid water contact

  18. Effects of radionuclide decay on waste glass behavior: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    This paper is an extension of a chapter in an earlier report [1] that provides an updated review on the status of radiation damage problems in nuclear waste glasses. This report will focus on radiation effects on vitrified borosilicate nuclear waste glasses under conditions expected in the proposed Yucca mountain repository. Radiation effects on high-level waste glasses and their surrounding repository environment are important considerations for radionuclide immobilization because of the potential to alter the glass stability and thereby influence the radionuclide retentive properties of this waste form. The influence of radionuclide decay on vitrified nuclear waste may be manifested by several changes, including volume, stored energy, structure, microstructure, mechanical properties, and phase separation. Radiation may also affect the composition of aqueous fluids and atmospheric gases in relatively close proximity to the waste form. What is important to the radionuclide retentive properties of the repository is how these radiation effects collectively or individually influence the durability and radionuclide release from the glass in the event of liquid water contact.

  19. A Review of Sex Differences in Peer Relationship Processes: Potential Trade-offs for the Emotional and Behavioral Development of Girls and Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Amanda J.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2006-01-01

    Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls’ and boys’ development. This paper provides a critical review of sex differences in: several peer-relationship processes, including behavioral and social-cognitive styles, stress and coping, and relationship provisions. Based on this review, a speculative peer-socialization model is presented that considers...

  20. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  1. Review on Residents' Behavior in Low- carbon Life%居民低碳生活行为研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪丽; 路正南; 王健

    2011-01-01

    从居民对低碳生活行为的态度倾向、影响居民低碳生活行为的内外部因素等方面综述国内外居民低碳生活行为研究进展.%This thesis reviews the behavior of domestic and foreign residents in low - carbon lives from the following aspects; the attitude trend of the residents to the behavior in low -carbon life, and the factors which influence residents' behavior in low - carbon life.

  2. A Review of Tc Geochemistry: The Behavior of an Artificial Element in the Natural Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99 (99Tc) is an element of concern for the environment due to its high solubility and low sorption potential (KD 5 a = annum), large scale production during fission of uranium fuel rods (6.06%), and moderate radiotoxicity. Nearly 290 metric tonnes of 99Tc have been produced worldwide (2008), and this number is roughly quadruple of that in 1994. The oxidized form of 99Tc is the pertechnetate anion [Tc(VII)O4-], which migrates in the subsurface at nearly the same velocity as groundwater. In reducing environments (4- anion is reduced to the quadra-valent state [Tc(IV)], especially in the presence of reducing agents, such as biogenic Fe(II) sorbed onto mineral surfaces. The heterogeneous surface-mediated reduction reaction occurs much more rapidly than the homogenous one and yields the relatively insoluble Tc(IV)O2.nH2O solid ([TcO(IV)(OH)20aq] = 10-8.2 mol/L). Thus, reduction of Tc(VII) can take place either through an indirect route via bio-generated Fe(II) or through direct enzymatic reduction by certain dissimilar metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) that couple the oxidation of H2 or organic molecules to reduction of metals. However, even for solutions in equilibrium with Tc(IV) solids, the activity of 99Tc is still above the Drinking Water Standard set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of 900 pCi/L. Recent investigations have shown that 99Tc(IV) can be immobilized either as a co-precipitate or a trace element in iron sulfides, hydrous iron oxy-hydroxides, or perhaps carbonates. This review explores the potential of sequestering Tc into solid phases and addresses the data gaps that must be closed in order to enable efficient subsurface remediation schemes. (authors)

  3. On uses, misuses and potential abuses of fractal analysis in zooplankton behavioral studies: A review, a critique and a few recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Fractal analysis is increasingly used to describe, and provide further understanding to, zooplankton swimming behavior. This may be related to the fact that fractal analysis and the related fractal dimension D have the desirable properties to be independent of measurement scale and to be very sensitive to even subtle behavioral changes that may be undetectable to other behavioral variables. As early claimed by Coughlin et al. (1992), this creates "the need for fractal analysis" in behavioral studies, which has hence the potential to become a valuable tool in zooplankton behavioral ecology. However, this paper stresses that fractal analysis, as well as the more elaborated multifractal analysis, is also a risky business that may lead to irrelevant results, without paying extreme attention to a series of both conceptual and practical steps that are all likely to bias the results of any analysis. These biases are reviewed and exemplified on the basis of the published literature, and remedial procedures are provided not only for geometric and stochastic fractal analyses, but also for the more complicated multifractal analysis. The concept of multifractals is finally introduced as a direct, objective and quantitative tool to identify models of motion behavior, such as Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion, ballistic motion, Lévy flight/walk and multifractal random walk. I finally briefly review the state of this emerging field in zooplankton behavioral research.

  4. Methodology, the matching law, and applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vyse, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    The practical value of the quantitative analysis of behavior is limited by two methodological characteristics of this area of research: the use of (a) steady-state strategies and (b) relative vs. absolute response rates. Applied behavior analysts are concerned with both transition-state and steady-state behavior, and applied interventions are typically evaluated by their effects on absolute response rates. Quantitative analyses of behavior will have greater practical value when methods are de...

  5. Applied behavior analysis at West Virginia University: A brief history

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Robert P.; Chase, Philip N.; Scotti, Joseph R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an emphasis on applied behavior analysis in the Department of Psychology at West Virginia University is traced. The emphasis began primarily in the early 1970s, under the leadership of Roger Maley and Jon Krapfl, and has continued to expand and evolve with the participation of numerous behavior analysts and behavior therapists, both inside and outside the department. The development has been facilitated by several factors: establishment of a strong behavioral emphasis in th...

  6. The ability of analysts' recommendations to predict optimistic and pessimistic forecasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Biglari

    Full Text Available Previous researches show that buy (growth companies conduct income increasing earnings management in order to meet forecasts and generate positive forecast Errors (FEs. This behavior however, is not inherent in sell (non-growth companies. Using the aforementioned background, this research hypothesizes that since sell companies are pressured to avoid income increasing earnings management, they are capable, and in fact more inclined, to pursue income decreasing Forecast Management (FM with the purpose of generating positive FEs. Using a sample of 6553 firm-years of companies that are listed in the NYSE between the years 2005-2010, the study determines that sell companies conduct income decreasing FM to generate positive FEs. However, the frequency of positive FEs of sell companies does not exceed that of buy companies. Using the efficiency perspective, the study suggests that even though buy and sell companies have immense motivation in avoiding negative FEs, they exploit different but efficient strategies, respectively, in order to meet forecasts. Furthermore, the findings illuminated the complexities behind informative and opportunistic forecasts that falls under the efficiency versus opportunistic theories in literature.

  7. The ability of analysts' recommendations to predict optimistic and pessimistic forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Vahid; Alfan, Ervina Binti; Ahmad, Rubi Binti; Hajian, Najmeh

    2013-01-01

    Previous researches show that buy (growth) companies conduct income increasing earnings management in order to meet forecasts and generate positive forecast Errors (FEs). This behavior however, is not inherent in sell (non-growth) companies. Using the aforementioned background, this research hypothesizes that since sell companies are pressured to avoid income increasing earnings management, they are capable, and in fact more inclined, to pursue income decreasing Forecast Management (FM) with the purpose of generating positive FEs. Using a sample of 6553 firm-years of companies that are listed in the NYSE between the years 2005-2010, the study determines that sell companies conduct income decreasing FM to generate positive FEs. However, the frequency of positive FEs of sell companies does not exceed that of buy companies. Using the efficiency perspective, the study suggests that even though buy and sell companies have immense motivation in avoiding negative FEs, they exploit different but efficient strategies, respectively, in order to meet forecasts. Furthermore, the findings illuminated the complexities behind informative and opportunistic forecasts that falls under the efficiency versus opportunistic theories in literature. PMID:24146741

  8. The role of complex networks in behavior epidemiology. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai

    2015-12-01

    Outbreaks of disease can trigger spontaneous behavioral response of individuals to consider prevention measures (mainly including medical cure and non-pharmaceutical intervention), which usually in turn influence the diffusion of epidemic, namely, forming the interplay between individual behaviors and epidemic dynamics. During the past decade, understanding such coupled disease-behavior dynamics in population has become a critical tool for predicting the disease evolution and designing effective prevention strategies [1-3].

  9. Can analysts agree? The problems of consensus and the psychoanalytic mannequin: I. A proposed solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caston, J

    1993-01-01

    Psychoanalysis, plagued by lack of demonstrable consensus on clinical formulations, is as much endangered by overinflated agreement from stereotypical dynamic formulas: tests of psychoanalytic hypotheses derived from any such formulations may therefore rest on questionable foundations. The problems that give rise to artifactual overagreement or failure to reach agreement are here traced in earlier empirical psychoanalytic research. Review reveals that although new and inventive empirical strategies (applied in the last two decades) achieve adequate success in the area of agreement, they demonstrate little headway in ruling out that stereotypy may underlie such consensus. The present investigation offers a solution for testing agreement in complex clinical psychoanalytic propositions, in a way that sets up a "test of the mannequin": that is, whether stereotypical assumptions about the patient's dynamics are overridden (revised) by the specific character of a given patient's narrative. The mannequin concept introduces a new and epistemically crucial consideration in the making of psychodynamic formulations and is relevant to both empirically controlled and clinical contexts of observation and formulation. No psychoanalytic paradigm, whether classically ego-psychological, self-psychological, control-mastery, or object-relational, escapes this problem. PMID:8478519

  10. Training department's role in human factor analysis during post-trip reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provide training is a frequent corrective action specified in a post-trip review report. This corrective action is most often decided upon by technical and operational staff, not training staff, without a detailed analysis of whether training can resolve the immediate problem or enhance employees' future performance. A more specific human factor or performance problem analysis would often reveal that training cannot impact or resolve the concern to avoid future occurrences. This human factor analysis is similar to Thomas Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model (Human Competence, McGraw-Hill, 1978) or Robert Mager's/Peter Pipe's Performance Analysis (Analyzing Performance Problems, Pitman Learning, 1984). At Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, training analysts participate in post-trip reviews in order to conduct or provide input to this type of human factor and performance problem analysis. Their goal is to keep provide training out of corrective action statements unless training can in fact impact or resolve the problem. The analysts follow a plant specific logic diagram to identify human factors and to identify whether changes to the environment or to the person would best resolve the concern

  11. Self-Management for Primary School Students Demonstrating Problem Behavior in Regular Classrooms: Evidence Review of Single-Case Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busacca, Margherita L.; Anderson, Angelika; Moore, Dennis W.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates self-management literature targeting problem behaviors of primary school students in general education settings. Thirty-one single-case design studies met inclusion criteria, of which 16 demonstrated adequate methodological rigor, according to What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) design standards. Visual analysis and WWC…

  12. A Review of Sex Differences in Peer Relationship Processes: Potential Trade-Offs for the Emotional and Behavioral Development of Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Amanda J.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2006-01-01

    Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls' and boys' development. This article provides a critical review of sex differences in several peer relationship processes, including behavioral and…

  13. Promoting the Social and Communicative Behavior of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Parent-Implemented Intervention Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Yu, SeonYeong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to critically review the literature on parent-implemented interventions aimed at promoting and enhancing the social and communicative behavior of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Twelve parent-implemented intervention studies that were conducted, at least in part, in home environments and were published…

  14. U.S. and Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors toward dietary supplements: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.

  15. Simple deterministic models and applications. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun Mo

    2015-12-01

    Currently, discrete modellings are largely accepted due to the access to computers with huge storage capacity and high performance processors and easy implementation of algorithms, allowing to develop and simulate increasingly sophisticated models. Wang et al. [7] present a review of dynamics in complex networks, focusing on the interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. By doing an extensive review regarding to the human behavior responding to disease dynamics, the authors briefly describe the complex dynamics found in the literature: well-mixed populations networks, where spatial structure can be neglected, and other networks considering heterogeneity on spatially distributed populations. As controlling mechanisms are implemented, such as social distancing due 'social contagion', quarantine, non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccination, adaptive behavior can occur in human population, which can be easily taken into account in the dynamics formulated by networked populations.

  16. Analysts Tracking and the IPOs Price Performance%分析师跟踪和新上市公司股价表现研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 陈晓红

    2016-01-01

    基于2006年至2008年6月之间新上市公司数据,考量分析师跟踪和新上市公司股价表现,结果表明,分析师对公司的跟踪越多,说明分析师看好该公司,对某公司进行跟踪的分析师数量传递了分析师对公司价值未来的预期。利用 Fama-Frcnch 三因素模型的截距项表征新上市公司超额收益,发现超额分析师跟踪越多的公司其新股超额收益越大。%Using a sample of newly listed companies between 2006 and June of 2008,we study the factors that affect analysts tracking on IPOs,thus isolating the excess analysts tracking on companies after controlling the size,industry and other factors.Our hypothesis proposes that more of the tracking indicates more analysts hold optimistic estimations on the company,hence the number of analysts who keep track delivers their future expectations for a company.Utilizing the intercept term in the Fama-French three-factor model to represent the excess return of IPO companies,we find that the larger the excess analysts tracking the greater the IPO excess returns a company earns.This is consistent with our hypothesis,and this finding also shows that,to a certain extent,analysts tracking can improve corporate governance.

  17. The geochemistry of technetium: A review of the behavior of an artificial element in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the chemistry of technetium has only increased since its discovery in 1937, mainly because of the large and growing inventory of 99Tc generated during fission of 235U, its environmental mobility in oxidizing conditions, and its potential radiotoxicity. For every ton of enriched uranium fuel (3% 235U) that is consumed at a typical burn-up rate, nearly 1 kg of 99Tc is generated. Thus, the mass of 99Tc produced since 1993 has nearly quadrupled, and the pace of generation will likely increase if more emphasis is placed on nuclear power to slow the accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of 99Tc and the natural environment, we review the sources of 99Tc in the nuclear fuel cycle and its biogeochemical behavior. We include an evaluation of the use of Re as a chemical analog of Tc, as well as a summary of the redox potential, sorption, colloidal behavior, and interaction of humic substances with Tc, and the potential for re-oxidation and remobilization of Tc(IV). What emerges is a more complicated picture of Tc behavior than that of an easily tractable transition of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) with consequent immobilization. Reducing conditions (+200 to +100 mV Eh) and the presence of Fe(II) sorbed onto Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides will bring the mobile Tc(VII) species to a lower oxidation state and will form the relatively insoluble Tc(IV)O2 · nH2O, but even as a solid, equilibrium concentrations of aqueous Tc are nearly a factor of 20x above the EPA set drinking water standards. However, sequestration of Tc(IV) into Fe(III)-bearing phases, such as goethite, iron-bearing phyllosilicates and, perhaps, siderite, may ameliorate concerns over the mobility of Tc. A key factor, elucidated through experiment, in retarding the mobility of Tc in the environment is isolation from exposure to oxygen, which occurs when Tc is in a crystallographic position in a solid phase.

  18. The impact of exposure to peer suicidal self-directed violence on youth suicidal behavior: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, M Franci; Leech, Nancy L

    2014-02-01

    There is considerable evidence that being exposed to the suicide or suicidal behavior of another can increase the risk for suicide. Significant relationships between media coverage and youth suicide have been documented in the professional literature. Exposure to familial suicidal behavior has also been established as a risk factor for youth suicidal behavior; However, peer suicide exposure is not as clear cut as research results in this area have been mixed. In the current paper the empirical literature focused on the associations between exposure to peer suicides and suicide attempts and youth suicidal behavior is critically reviewed. Effect sizes were computed for each of the 23 studies included in the review to allow for cross-study comparisons. The results demonstrate that having a friend or acquaintance attempt suicide is significantly related to risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior. However, the support for the relationship between the suicide of a peer and youth suicidal behavior was less consistent. Implications for clinical practice and suicide postvention as well as areas of future research are discussed. PMID:24033603

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: a systematic review of follow-up studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Davis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To conduct a systematic review about the long-term response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders (ADs in children and adolescents. Methods The PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases were consulted. Search in the databases was performed in November 2012 and included cohort studies after CBT for ADs in children and adolescents with a follow-up period over 12 months. Results A total of 10 papers met the inclusion criteria. The follow-up period ranged from 12 months to 13 years and the results generally showed maintenance of the short-term benefits with CBT. However, the studies presented limitations, especially regarding methods, such as lack of a control group and losses to follow-up. Conclusion The long-term benefits of CBT were identified, however it would be interesting to conduct other studies with more frequent assessment periods, in order to minimize losses to follow-up, in addition to evaluating children and adolescents in the various stages of their development.

  20. Personality as a predictor of unprotected sexual behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuper, Paul A; Joharchi, Narges; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    The present investigation involved a systematic literature review to (1) identify associations between personality constructs and unprotected sex among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH); (2) assess patterns of direct versus indirect personality-risky sex associations; and (3) explore possible differences in personality-risky sex associations among PLWH versus non-infected populations. Among the 26 studies yielded through the systematic search, sensation seeking and sexual compulsivity were the constructs most frequently examined, with fewer studies investigating traditional personality typologies. Personality constructs that were more conceptually proximal to the sexual act, such as sexual compulsivity and sex-related sub-components of sensation seeking, showed relatively direct associations with unprotected sex, whereas more conceptually distal constructs such as generalized impulsivity demonstrated only weak or indirect associations. Associations were also frequently mediated by other risk factors, including perceived responsibility and substance use. These findings have implications for the development of interventions to reduce high risk sexual behavior among PLWH. PMID:23835736

  1. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption & Fostering, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 17 publications covering a variety of topics including abused disabled children; child placement; helping attachment disordered children; open adoption; family empowerment; teenage fostering; the Children Act of 1989 (Great Britain); family law; social services and child care law; and challenging racism in the early years. (TJQ)

  2. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (353) Dr Dyer's Academy Further Advanced Physics Physics 11-14, with Biology 11-14 and Chemistry 11-14 Nelson Modular Science: Books 1 and 2 Key Science: Physics, 3rd Edition Nelson Science: Physics, 2nd Edition Physics for AQA: Separate Award, Coordinated Award Physical Processes: A Visual Approach WEB WATCH (359) Physics Favourites: John Miller's selection

  3. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The two published parts of the Desmid Flora of Austria are well-illustrated review volumes on a group of precious freshwater microalgae. Volume 1 contains a pretty, visual key to the genera, completed by figures of one or more characteristic species. In all keys of the separate genera many visual ai

  4. 一分析师关注影响信息披露的及时性吗?--基于A股上市公司的经验证据%The Timeliness of Information Disclosure Is Influenced by Analyst Coverage:Empirical Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓玲; 涂士华; 胡欢

    2014-01-01

    证券分析师作为一种非正式的外部治理机制,在公司治理过程中发挥着重要作用。以2001-2012年中国A股上市公司为样本,实证检验分析师关注对信息披露及时性的影响。研究发现:样本期间,分析师的关注使得上市公司信息披露更加及时;区分审计意见类型,相对“非标”意见公司,分析师关注使得“标准”意见公司信息披露更加及时。该研究结论有助于加深对上市公司信息披露行为的理解,为分析师的外部监督职能研究提供增量证据。%As a kind of informal external governance mechanism, securities analysts play an important role in the process of corporate governance. This paper empirically analyzes the analyst coverage influence on the timeliness of information disclosure by taking 2002 to 2012 A-share listed companies as the sample. The findings suggest that the analyst coverage will make listed companies disclose information more timely. Distinguishing the audit opinion report type, further research shows that the analyst coverage will make the company with standard audit opinion disclose information more timely. The conclusions help to deepen our understanding of the listed companies’information disclosure behavior, providing incremental evidence for the research of analysts’external oversight function.

  5. Assessing community-based conservation projects: A systematic review and multilevel analysis of attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based conservation (CBC promotes the idea that long-term conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for local communities. Though widespread, CBC projects are not always successful or free of controversy. With criticisms on all sides of the conservation debates, it is critical to have a better understanding of (1 whether CBC is an effective conservation tool, and (2 of the factors associated with the success or failure of CBC projects, and the scale at which these factors operate. Recent CBC reviews have typically examined only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a newly coded global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic and explore synergies and tradeoffs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context (H-NC, project design (H-PD, and local community characteristics (H-CC affect these four measures of success. Methods To add to a sample of 62 projects that we used from previous systematic reviews, we systematically searched the conservation literature using six terms in four online databases. To increase the number of projects for each country in order to conduct a multilevel analysis, we also conducted a secondary search using the Advancing Conservation in a Social Context online library. We coded projects for 65 pieces of information. We conducted bivariate analyses using two-dimensional contingency tables and proportional odds logistic regression and conducted multivariate analyses by fitting reduced form proportional odds logistic regression models that were selected using a forward stepwise AIC approach. Results The primary and secondary searches produced 74 new projects to go along with the 62

  6. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  7. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments of the...... vacuolar proteolysis are described. Substrates of the vacuolar proteases are mostly imported via endocytosis or autophagocytosis, and vacuolar proteolysis appears to be mainly important under nutritional stress conditions and sporulation....

  8. Enhancements to the Behavioral Parent Training Paradigm for Families of Children with ADHD: Review and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Andrea M.; Chacko, Anil; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral parent training (BPT) is one of the empirically supported psychosocial treatments for ADHD. Over many years and in many studies, BPT has been documented to improve both child ADHD behavior and maladaptive parenting behavior. In some studies, BPT has also been found to result in benefits in additional domains, such as parenting stress…

  9. Test Review: Bracken, B. A., & Keith, L. K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Behavior." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tanya N.

    2006-01-01

    The Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB) is designed to assess both adaptive and problematic behaviors of children and adolescents from age 2 to 18 years. It can be individually or group administered, measures behaviors in different contexts, and includes both parent and teacher forms. The test was developed to be consistent with current…

  10. Development of Family-Based Dietary Self-Management Support Program on Dietary Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklima Aklima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: WHO statistics show that Indonesia has the fourth highest number of diabetes sufferers. The International Diabetes Federation‟s 5th estimated that in 2011 there were 71.4 million people in South East Asia region were suffering with DM Purpose: To develop a family-based dietary self-management support program to improve dietary behaviors in patients with T2DM. Method: A literature review was conducted by reviewing articles related evidence-based practices. Only articles in the English and Indonesian languages were reviewed. The search found eleven published experimental studies related to the topic. Result: Even though dietary self-management has benefits for patients with diabetes, many studies have found that these patients often have difficulty in establishing or maintaining an effective program to self-manage their dietary behaviors. Lack of family support is one factor that often seems to be related to such failures. Family participation in a diabetes education program also had positive psychosocial impacts. Otherwise, another study found that family might not always have a positive impact on self-management. Therefore, this review recommends that development of a family-based support program could be a positive factor in helping to improve dietary self-management behaviors in patients with T2DM. Self-management theory by Funnell and Anderson‟s work (2004 can guide the development of a program with the goal of empowering individuals and families in improving the patient‟s dietary behaviors. The program consists of: (1 reflecting on current and/or past self-management experiences by listening to the patient about their dietary behaviors, (2 discussing the emotions and feelings of the patients, (3 engaging the patient in improving their situation by active listening and helping the patient reflect on their problems and identifying effective strategies, (4 providing information about dietary management and problem

  11. Behavioral Interventions to Enhance Adherence to Hormone Therapy in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Cabling, Mark L; Lobo, Tania; Dash, Chiranjeev; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2016-08-01

    Adjuvant hormone therapy contributes to reductions in recurrence and mortality for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. However, adherence to hormone therapy is suboptimal. This is the first systematic literature review examining interventions aimed at improving hormone therapy adherence. Researchers followed the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed-Medline, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Ovid-Medline, and EMBASE were searched for behavioral interventions that aimed to enhance adherence to adjuvant hormone therapy in breast cancer survivors. A total of 376 articles were screened for eligibility. Five articles met the study criteria. All interventions presented adherence outcomes after 1-year follow-up. None significantly enhanced adherence compared to the usual care in the primary analysis (odds ratios ranged from 1.03 to 2.06 for adherence and from 1.11 to 1.18 for persistence). All studies targeted patients, and only 3 studies included postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Three tested the same intervention consisting of educational materials. Only one was conducted in the United States. Only one reported participants' ethnicity. Overall, it was unclear whether the studies contained bias. The use of different terminology and operationalization of adherence made comparisons challenging. Interventions to improve adherence to adjuvant hormone therapy in US breast cancer populations that include survivors who are ethnically diverse, premenopausal, and receiving tamoxifen therapy are necessary to inform future interventions. Adoption of consistent adherence definitions/measurements will provide a clearer framework to consolidate aggregate findings. Given the limited efficacy of tested interventions, it is important to engage oncologists and researchers to develop approaches that target different components associated with hormone therapy adherence, such as doctor-patient communication or social support. PMID:27133733

  12. A Graph is Worth a Thousand Words: How Overconfidence and Graphical Disclosure of Numerical Information Influence Financial Analysts Accuracy on Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ricardo Lopes; Leite, Rodrigo Oliveira; de Aquino, André Carlos Busanelli

    2016-01-01

    Previous researches support that graphs are relevant decision aids to tasks related to the interpretation of numerical information. Moreover, literature shows that different types of graphical information can help or harm the accuracy on decision making of accountants and financial analysts. We conducted a 4×2 mixed-design experiment to examine the effects of numerical information disclosure on financial analysts' accuracy, and investigated the role of overconfidence in decision making. Results show that compared to text, column graph enhanced accuracy on decision making, followed by line graphs. No difference was found between table and textual disclosure. Overconfidence harmed accuracy, and both genders behaved overconfidently. Additionally, the type of disclosure (text, table, line graph and column graph) did not affect the overconfidence of individuals, providing evidence that overconfidence is a personal trait. This study makes three contributions. First, it provides evidence from a larger sample size (295) of financial analysts instead of a smaller sample size of students that graphs are relevant decision aids to tasks related to the interpretation of numerical information. Second, it uses the text as a baseline comparison to test how different ways of information disclosure (line and column graphs, and tables) can enhance understandability of information. Third, it brings an internal factor to this process: overconfidence, a personal trait that harms the decision-making process of individuals. At the end of this paper several research paths are highlighted to further study the effect of internal factors (personal traits) on financial analysts' accuracy on decision making regarding numerical information presented in a graphical form. In addition, we offer suggestions concerning some practical implications for professional accountants, auditors, financial analysts and standard setters. PMID:27508519

  13. Misconception and miseducation: Presentations of radical behaviorism in psychology textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, James T.; Morris, Edward K.

    1983-01-01

    Behavior analysts have recently expressed concern about what appear to be misrepresentations of behaviorism in psychology textbooks. This paper presents an analysis of currently used textbooks in the areas of introductory, social, cognitive, personality, and developmental psychology that confirms this. Topics on which behavior analysis is most often misrepresented relate to the role of animal learning research, environmentalism, the “empty organism,” language, and the overall utility of the a...

  14. OCB 与 CWB 关系研究述评%A Review of the Relationship Between Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Counterproductive Work Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾本君

    2013-01-01

      组织公民行为是对组织有利的积极的关系的行为,反生产行为指从组织角度来看,员工有意违背所在组织合法利益的任何行为。反生产行为与组织公民行为同属自发行为。对于组织公民行为和反生产行为之间的关系,有研究认为组织公民行为是亲社会行为,反生产行为是反社会行为,二者是一个连续体的正负两端;另有研究认为反生产行为与组织公民行为之间是相关且相互独立的概念。%Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) are positive behaviors that contribute to organizational effectiveness , while the counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) refers to any intentional behavior on the part of an organization member viewed by the organization as contrary to its legitimate interests .Both OCB and CWB are voluntary behaviors .Some studies show that OCB and CWB are alternately labeled prosocial and antisocial behaviors , with these labels making it somewhat intui-tive to view these as polar opposites.Many other studies show that CWB is related to , but still separate from OCB.

  15. Workshop Presentations: BSCW Analysts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These slides were presented at the AePW, April 21-22, 2012. They detail the analytical results generated by each of the participating analysis teams for the...

  16. Workshop Presentations: RSW Analysts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These slides were presented at the AePW, April 21-22, 2012. They detail the analytical results generated by each of the participating analysis teams for the...

  17. Workshop Presentations: HIRENASD Analysts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These slides were presented at the AePW, April 21-22, 2012. They detail the analytical results generated by each of the participating analysis teams for the HIRENASD.

  18. Behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, W E; Fabiano, G A

    2000-07-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and substantially impairing disorder. This means that treatment must also be chronic and substantial. Behavior Modification, and in many cases, the combination of behavior modification and stimulant medication, is a valid, useful treatment for reducing the pervasive impairment experienced by children with ADHD. Based on the research evidence reviewed, behavior modification should be the first line of treatment for children with ADHD. PMID:10944662

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of social cognitive theory-based physical activity and/or nutrition behavior change interventions for cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Fiona G; James, Erica L.; Chapman, Kathy; Courneya, Kerry S; Lubans, David R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about how to improve and create sustainable lifestyle behaviors of cancer survivors. Interventions based on social cognitive theory (SCT) have shown promise. This review examined the effect of SCT-based physical activity and nutrition interventions that target cancer survivors and identified factors associated with their efficacy. Methods A systematic search of seven databases identified randomized controlled trials that (i) targeted adult cancer survivors (any point f...

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: a systematic review of efficacy, technical, and methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvaget, Anne; Trojak, Benoît; Bulteau, Samuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Wolz, Ines; Menchón, José M.; Achab, Sophia; Vanelle, Jean-Marie; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral addictions (BA) are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA. Methods: A bibliographic search has been ...