Holtyn, August F; Jarvis, Brantley P; Silverman, Kenneth
Poverty is a pervasive risk factor underlying poor health. Many interventions that have sought to reduce health disparities associated with poverty have focused on improving health-related behaviors of low-income adults. Poverty itself could be targeted to improve health, but this approach would require programs that can consistently move poor individuals out of poverty. Governments and other organizations in the United States have tested a diverse range of antipoverty programs, generally on a large scale and in conjunction with welfare reform initiatives. This paper reviews antipoverty programs that used financial incentives to promote education and employment among welfare recipients and other low-income adults. The incentive-based, antipoverty programs had small or no effects on the target behaviors; they were implemented on large scales from the outset, without systematic development and evaluation of their components; and they did not apply principles of operant conditioning that have been shown to determine the effectiveness of incentive or reinforcement interventions. By applying basic principles of operant conditioning, behavior analysts could help address poverty and improve health through development of effective antipoverty programs. This paper describes a potential framework for a behavior-analytic antipoverty program, with the goal of illustrating that behavior analysts could be uniquely suited to make substantial contributions to the war on poverty. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Reed, Derek D; Niileksela, Christopher R; Kaplan, Brent A
In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided.
Ajay Subramanian; Jonathan Clarke
We examine the dynamic forecasting behavior of security analysts in response to their prior performance relative to their peers within a continuous time/multi-period framework. Our model predicts a U-shaped relationship between the boldness of an analyst's forecast, that is, the deviation of her forecast from the consensus and her prior relative performance. In other words, analysts who significantly out perform or under perform their peers issue bolder forecasts than intermediate performers....
Fong, Elizabeth Hughes; Catagnus, Robyn M; Brodhead, Matthew T; Quigley, Shawn; Field, Sean
All individuals are a part of at least one culture. These cultural contingencies shape behavior, behavior that may or may not be acceptable or familiar to behavior analysts from another culture. To better serve individuals, assessments and interventions should be selected with a consideration of cultural factors, including cultural preferences and norms. The purpose of this paper is to provide suggestions to serve as a starting point for developing behavior analysts' cultural awareness skills. We present strategies for understanding behavior analysts' personal cultural values and contingencies and those of their clients, integrating cultural awareness practices into service delivery, supervision, and professional development, and becoming culturally aware in everyday practice.
Full Text Available This study investigates changes in foreign analyst behavior before and after Chinese New Accounting Standards was implemented during 2007. The empirical results show that after the new accounting standards were implemented, forecast error among foreign analysts decreased in both absolute and relative terms in comparison with domestic analysts, and foreign analysts forecast earnings more frequently than they did before the new accounting standards. These results imply that the implementation of new accounting standards in the Chinese capital market helped mitigate both information asymmetry between listed firms in China and foreign investors, and the “home bias” of foreign analysts. It also increased the attractiveness of listed firms and facilitated international communication and cooperation. This study also has significant implications for how resource allocation efficiency in the Chinese capital market can be raised and how the “introducing in” policy should be assessed.
KURTI, ALLISON N.; DALLERY, JESSE
The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one’s diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health. PMID:25774070
Udell, Monique A. R.; Wynne, C. D. L.
Dogs likely were the first animals to be domesticated and as such have shared a common environment with humans for over ten thousand years. Only recently, however, has this species' behavior been subject to scientific scrutiny. Most of this work has been inspired by research in human cognitive psychology and suggests that in many ways dogs are…
Heitzman-Powell, Linda S.; White, Rachel; Perrin, Nanette L.
Even with a rich history demonstrating how complex behaviors are acquired, traditional psychological domains are still not well represented in behavior analytic literature (Dougher & Hackbert, 2000). This paper will briefly present some of the reasons why behavior analysts might be reluctant to foray into traditional "counseling" areas. Next, the…
Putnam, Robert F; Kincaid, Donald
Horner and Sugai (2015) recently wrote a manuscript providing an overview of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) and why it is an example of applied behavior analysis at the scale of social importance. This paper will describe why school-wide PBIS is important to behavior analysts, how it helps promote applied behavior analysis in schools and other organizations, and how behavior analysts can use this framework to assist them in the promotion and implementation of applied behavior analysis at both at the school and organizational level, as well as, the classroom and individual level.
Menendez, Anthony L.; Mayton, Michael R.; Yurick, Amanda L.
When rural school districts employ Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) to assist in meeting the needs of students with disabilities, it is important that they be aware of the ethical and professional guidelines to which BCBAs are required to adhere. This article describes the role of these guidelines within the practice of BCBAs and presents…
Frieder, Jessica E; Peterson, Stephanie M; Woodward, Judy; Crane, Jaelee; Garner, Marlane
This paper describes a technically driven, collaborative approach to assessing the function of problem behavior using web-based technology. A case example is provided to illustrate the process used in this pilot project. A school team conducted a functional analysis with a child who demonstrated challenging behaviors in a preschool setting. Behavior analysts at a university setting provided the school team with initial workshop trainings, on-site visits, e-mail and phone communication, as well as live web-based feedback on functional analysis sessions. The school personnel implemented the functional analysis with high fidelity and scored the data reliably. Outcomes of the project suggest that there is great potential for collaboration via the use of web-based technologies for ongoing assessment and development of effective interventions. However, an empirical evaluation of this model should be conducted before wide-scale adoption is recommended.
Friman, Patrick C
Mainstream prominence was Skinner's vision for behavior analysis. Unfortunately, it remains elusive, even as we approach the 110th anniversary of his birth. It can be achieved, however, and there are many routes. One that seems overlooked in many (most?) behavior analytic training programs is what I call the front of the room. The front of the room is a very powerful locus for influencing people. Mastering it can turn a commoner into a king; a middling man into a mayor; or a group of disorganized, dispirited people into an energized force marching into battle. The most powerful members of our species had their most memorable moments at the front of the room. If so much is available there, why is mastery of it in such short supply, not just in behavior analysts but in the population at large? In this paper, I address why, argue that the primary reason can be overcome, and supply 15 behaviorally based steps to take in pursuit of front of the room mastery.
Markovits, Rebecca A.; Weinstein, Yana
The fields of cognitive psychology and behavior analysis have undertaken separate investigations into effective learning strategies. These studies have led to several recommendations from both fields regarding teaching techniques that have been shown to enhance student performance. While cognitive psychology and behavior analysis have studied student performance independently from their different perspectives, the recommendations they make are remarkably similar. The lack of discussion between the two fields, despite these similarities, is surprising. The current paper seeks to remedy this oversight in two ways: first, by reviewing two techniques recommended by behavior analysts—guided notes and response cards—and comparing them to their counterparts in cognitive psychology that are potentially responsible for their effectiveness; and second, by outlining some other areas of overlap that could benefit from collaboration. By starting the discussion with the comparison of two specific recommendations for teaching techniques, we hope to galvanize a more extensive collaboration that will not only further the progression of both fields, but also extend the practical applications of the ensuing research.
Dal Ben, Rodrigo; Calixto, Fernanda Castanho; Ferreira, André Luiz
Recent studies have stressed the importance of disseminating behavior analysis to a more diverse audience and have provided ways to do so effectively. General science publications offer an attractive venue for communicating with a scientifically educated public. The present study examines behavior analysis research published in Science Today and Research Fapesp , monthly general science publications published by the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science and São Paulo Research Foundation, respectively. Behavior analytic terms were searched in issues published from 2003 to 2014, along with psychoanalytic terms as a comparative measure. Only 13 behavior analysis articles were found, while psychoanalytic articles totaled 150. Six of the behavior analysis articles misconstrue fundamental concepts of behavior analysis. The study recommends that behavior analysis researchers extend the dissemination of their findings outside the box.
Park, Junghyun; Hayward, Chris; Zeiler, Cleat; Arrowsmith, Stephen John; Stump, Brian
Automated detections calculated by the progressive multi-channel correlation (PMCC) method (Cansi, 1995) and the adaptive F detector (AFD) (Arrowsmith et al., 2009) are compared to the signals identified by five independent analysts. Each detector was applied to a four-hour time sequence recorded by the Korean infrasound array CHNAR. This array was used because it is composed of both small (<100 m) and large (~1000 m) aperture element spacing. The four hour time sequence contained a number of easily identified signals under noise conditions that have average RMS amplitudes varied from 1.2 to 4.5 mPa (1 to 5 Hz), estimated with running five-minute window. The effectiveness of the detectors was estimated for the small aperture, large aperture, small aperture combined with the large aperture, and full array. The full and combined arrays performed the best for AFD under all noise conditions while the large aperture array had the poorest performance for both detectors. PMCC produced similar results as AFD under the lower noise conditions, but did not produce as dramatic an increase in detections using the full and combined arrays. Both automated detectors and the analysts produced a decrease in detections under the higher noise conditions. Comparing the detection probabilities with Estimated Receiver Operating Characteristic (EROC) curves we found that the smaller value of consistency for PMCC and the larger p-value for AFD had the highest detection probability. These parameters produced greater changes in detection probability than estimates of the false alarm rate. The detection probability was impacted the most by noise level, with low noise (average RMS amplitude of 1.7 mPa) having an average detection probability of ~40% and high noise (average RMS amplitude of 2.9 mPa) average detection probability of ~23%.
Ahearn, William H
In 1998, the English physician Andrew Wakefield suggested that the MMR vaccine insults the guts of children who then regress developmentally and become autistic. Although his research did not provide firm evidence for this hypothesis, many believe that (a) the MMR vaccine can cause autism; (b) children with autism typically have gastrointestinal problems; and, (c) a necessary component of treating autism is "treating the gut" through dietary restrictions. Research has subsequently shown that Wakefield's hypothesis is unquestionably false, children with autism are not more likely to have gastrointestinal problems, and there is no sound evidence that diets are a valid treatment for autism. This paper will critically review these topics.
Sarmento, Hugo; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; McRobert, Allistair; Figueiredo, António
Evolving patterns of match analysis research need to be systematically reviewed regularly since this area of work is burgeoning rapidly and studies can offer new insights to performance analysts if theoretically and coherently organized. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of published articles on match analysis in adult male football, identify and organize common research topics, and synthesize the emerging patterns of work between 2012 and 2016, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Web of Science database was searched for relevant published studies using the following keywords: 'football' and 'soccer', each one associated with the terms 'match analysis', 'performance analysis', 'notational analysis', 'game analysis', 'tactical analysis' and 'patterns of play'. Of 483 studies initially identified, 77 were fully reviewed and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Results showed that research mainly focused on (1) performance at set pieces, i.e. corner kicks, free kicks, penalty kicks; (2) collective system behaviours, captured by established variables such as team centroid (geometrical centre of a set of players) and team dispersion (quantification of how far players are apart), as well as tendencies for team communication (establishing networks based on passing sequences), sequential patterns (predicting future passing sequences), and group outcomes (relationships between match-related statistics and final match scores); and (3) activity profile of players, i.e. playing roles, effects of fatigue, substitutions during matches, and the effects of environmental constraints on performance, such as heat and altitude. From the previous review, novel variables were identified that require new measurement techniques. It is evident that the complexity engendered during performance in competitive soccer requires an integrated approach that considers multiple aspects. A
In this manuscript, empirical research on performance of various types of financial experts is reviewed. Financial experts are used as the umbrella term for financial analysts, stockbrokers, money managers, investors, and day-traders etc. The goal of the review is to find out about the abilities of financial experts to produce accurate forecasts, to issue profitable stock recommendations, as well as to make successful investments and trades. On the whole, the reviewed studies show discouragin...
Bosworth, Hillery; Aizaga, Karen; Cabaniss, Deborah L
Although the literature has stressed that the training analysis should be identical to a nontraining "therapeutic analysis," it was hypothesized that differences do exist between the two, particularly with respect to educational aims. Candidates at the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research were sent anonymous questionnaires and asked to identify aims they felt were being achieved in the training analysis and to identify certain types of interventions that their training analyst made. Most candidates reported that widely accepted goals of the training analysis, such as promoting understanding of countertransference reactions, were being met in their analysis. Many also endorsed didactic and educational goals. Almost all reported using their analyst's technique to some degree as a model for their own. Most notably, a significant minority of candidates reported that their analyst made interventions that appeared to have a primarily didactic, supervisory, or mentoring purpose. The implications of these findings for an understanding of the role of the personal analysis in psychoanalytic education are discussed.
This manual provides information and recommended procedures to be utilized by an agencys Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) Office Data Analyst to perform validation and quality control (QC) checks of WIM traffic data. This manual focuses on data generated by ...
The purpose of this task was to support ESH-3 in providing Airborne Release Fraction and Respirable Fraction training to safety analysts at LANL who perform accident analysis, hazard analysis, safety analysis, and/or risk assessments at nuclear facilities. The task included preparation of materials for and the conduct of two 3-day training courses covering the following topics: safety analysis process; calculation model; aerosol physic concepts for safety analysis; and overview of empirically derived airborne release fractions and respirable fractions
Isay, R A
Some aspects of the work of the homosexual analyst with gay and heterosexual patients are discussed. The author examines the reasons most homosexual patients prefer to work with gay therapists, why it is usually beneficial for them to do so, and the related question of the appropriateness of revealing sexual orientation to one's patients. Manifestations and elaborations of transference and countertransference when the gay analyst works with homosexual and heterosexual patients are also discussed.
Glickman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Vicente J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report describes findings from the culminating experiment of the LDRD project entitled, "Analyst-to-Analyst Variability in Simulation-Based Prediction". For this experiment, volunteer participants solving a given test problem in engineering and statistics were interviewed at different points in their solution process. These interviews are used to trace differing solutions to differing solution processes, and differing processes to differences in reasoning, assumptions, and judgments. The issue that the experiment was designed to illuminate -- our paucity of understanding of the ways in which humans themselves have an impact on predictions derived from complex computational simulations -- is a challenging and open one. Although solution of the test problem by analyst participants in this experiment has taken much more time than originally anticipated, and is continuing past the end of this LDRD, this project has provided a rare opportunity to explore analyst-to-analyst variability in significant depth, from which we derive evidence-based insights to guide further explorations in this important area.
Analytic work is loved and hated. Both attitudes deserve scrutiny, but the analyst's hatred of analysis, which transcends countertransference responses to individual patients, represents an impediment to gratifying analytic work whose recognition and conceptualization has been resisted. The author suggests that antipathy among analysts toward analysis and the analytic situation is normative and expectable, yet commonly experienced as shameful. He speculates that it is sometimes disavowed and projected. Training institutes might inadvertently foster this sense of shame rather than promote its working through. The recognition that analytic identity functions as both a loving and a persecutory internal object has implications for psychoanalytic education and practice. © 2013 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.
Ayres, Thomas J.; Bryant, Larry
Deep space missions such as Voyager rely upon a large team of expert analysts who monitor activity in the various engineering subsystems of the spacecraft and plan operations. Senior teammembers generally come from the spacecraft designers, and new analysts receive on-the-job training. Neither of these methods will suffice for the creation of a new team in the middle of a mission, which may be the situation during the Magellan mission. New approaches are recommended, including electronic documentation, explicit cognitive modeling, and coached practice with archived data.
an artillery tractor that runs on wheels ⎣ tracked artillery tractor =def: an artillery tractor that runs on caterpillar track 20...in response to identified situational needs of analysts, and architectural requirements are designed to ensure coherent evolution of the SE resource...Coordinated Evolution of Ontologies to Support Biomedical Data Integration”, Nature Biotechnology, 25 (11), November 2007, 1251-1255. 13
Actively participates as the IM SME in the IMTD Architecture and Integration committee, sharing knowledge, developing standards and setting direction as needed. • Stays informed ... The work of the Information Management Analyst is crucial to the continuous improvement of information management compliance at IDRC.
The incumbent conducts research on technologies and tools that might enhance service delivery and where appropriate, makes recommendations to management. The Intermediate Infrastructure System Analyst provides leadership and direction to junior team members and functional direction to consultants and ...
Knapp, Terry J.
The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary PMID:22477049
Knapp, T J
The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary.
Rivera Urbina, Guadalupe N.
Full Text Available The contribution of many scientific disciplines allows us to know surprising aspects of the relationship between the brain and its functions. Current technology and the convergence of these disciplines are essential to understand the complex brain mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper will be described some scientific disciplines whose studies help to understand the biological substrates of normal and altered behavior. We will describe some pathologies or neuropsychological disorders and, in addition, we will review some of the known neurobiological mechanisms that control our brain functions. This allows us to conclude that the behavior and brain functions depend on complex biological mechanisms, many of which are still to be elucidated.
Job Summary The Financial Analyst position is essential for the administration and smooth operations of donor partnerships agreements. The Financial Analyst ensures that all financial reporting to donors is accurate and in accordance with the agreements. As well, the Financial Analyst must ensure that all donor ...
Job Summary. The Policy Analyst works as a member of the Policy and Planning Group providing information, research analysis and advice on matters of policy and planning. The Policy Analyst works closely with the Director of Policy and Planning and the Senior Policy Analyst to initiate and undertake research and ...
Analyst Workbenches examines various aspects of analyst workbenches and the tasks and data that they should support. The major advances and state of the art in analyst workbenches are discussed. A comprehensive list of the available analyst workbenches, both the experimental and the commercial products, is provided. Comprised of three parts, this book begins by describing International Computers Ltd's approach to automating analysis and design. It then explains what business analysis really means, outlines the principal features of analyst workbenches, and considers the ways in which they can
Full Text Available We report complex phenomena arising among financial analysts, who gather information and generate investment advice, and elucidate them with the help of a theoretical model. Understanding how analysts form their forecasts is important in better understanding the financial market. Carrying out big-data analysis of the analyst forecast data from I/B/E/S for nearly thirty years, we find skew distributions as evidence for emergence of complexity, and show how information asymmetry or disparity affects financial analysts' forming their forecasts. Here regulations, information dissemination throughout a fiscal year, and interactions among financial analysts are regarded as the proxy for a lower level of information disparity. It is found that financial analysts with better access to information display contrasting behaviors: a few analysts become bolder and issue forecasts independent of other forecasts while the majority of analysts issue more accurate forecasts and flock to each other. Main body of our sample of optimistic forecasts fits a log-normal distribution, with the tail displaying a power law. Based on the Yule process, we propose a model for the dynamics of issuing forecasts, incorporating interactions between analysts. Explaining nicely empirical data on analyst forecasts, this provides an appealing instance of understanding social phenomena in the perspective of complex systems.
Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.
Mouselli, Sulaiman; Hussainey, Khaled
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a firm’s corporate governance (CG) mechanisms on the number of financial analysts following UK firms. The potential effect of the number of analysts following firms in the UK on the association betweenCGmechanisms and firm value was also examined. Design/methodology/approach – Multiple regression models were used to examine the association between CG, analyst coverage and firm value for a large sample of UK firms listed in London...
Maqbool, Zahid; Makhijani, Nidhi; Pammi, V S Chandrasekhar; Dutt, Varun
The aim of this study was to determine how monetary motivations influence decision making of humans performing as security analysts and hackers in a cybersecurity game. Cyberattacks are increasing at an alarming rate. As cyberattacks often cause damage to existing cyber infrastructures, it is important to understand how monetary rewards may influence decision making of hackers and analysts in the cyber world. Currently, only limited attention has been given to this area. In an experiment, participants were randomly assigned to three between-subjects conditions ( n = 26 for each condition): equal payoff, where the magnitude of monetary rewards for hackers and defenders was the same; rewarding hacker, where the magnitude of monetary reward for hacker's successful attack was 10 times the reward for analyst's successful defense; and rewarding analyst, where the magnitude of monetary reward for analyst's successful defense was 10 times the reward for hacker's successful attack. In all conditions, half of the participants were human hackers playing against Nash analysts and half were human analysts playing against Nash hackers. Results revealed that monetary rewards for human hackers and analysts caused a decrease in attack and defend actions compared with the baseline. Furthermore, rewarding human hackers for undetected attacks made analysts deviate significantly from their optimal behavior. If hackers are rewarded for their undetected attack actions, then this causes analysts to deviate from optimal defend proportions. Thus, analysts need to be trained not become overenthusiastic in defending networks. Applications of our results are to networks where the influence of monetary rewards may cause information theft and system damage.
, the Senior Systems Analyst will play a critical role as part of the Information Technology Management (ITM) team responsible for: the preparation of information systems proposals (including project schedule, data analysis, and system ...
Patricia Crifo; Hind Sami
This paper proposes a model to analyze the dynamic relations between incentive contracts and analysts' effort in providing accurate research when both ethical and reputational concerns matter. First, we show that reputation picks up ability and thus serves as a sorting device: when analysts have a relatively low reputation for providing research quality (below a threshold level) banks find it more profitable to offer a mix of monetary and non monetary (ethic based) incentives and rely on the ...
ORENS, Raf; LYBAERT, Nadine
The decline in the relevance of financial statement information to value firms leads to calls from organizational stakeholders to convey non-financial information in order to be able to judge firms' financial performance and value. This literature review aims to report extant literature findings on the use of corporate non-financial information by sell-side financial analysts, the information intermediaries between corporate management and investors. Prior studies highlight that financial ana...
Farooq, Omar; Nielsen, Christian
they have more information. Our results also show that intellectual capital disclosure related to employees and strategic statements are the most important disclosures for analysts. Research limitations/implications: More relevant methods, such as survey or interviews with management, may be used to improve...... the information content of intellectual capital disclosure. Analysts, probably, deduce intellectual capital of a firm from interaction with management rather than financial statements. Practical implications: Firms in biotechnology sector can improve their information environment by disclosing more information......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and analyst following for biotechnology firms listed at the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: Intellectual capital disclosure...
Historically, the productivity of a numerical reactor safety analyst has been hampered by several factors: poor mainframe computer turnaround for problem setup, checkout, and initialization; limited mainframe CPU allocation, accessibility and availability for transient advancement; lost or delayed output; and difficulty assimilating numerical results. Clearly, an economical engineering workstation capable of running RELAP5 interactively, and of simultaneously displaying the results in a coherent graphic fashion as they are produced, would alleviate many of these concerns. The RELAP5 desktop analyzer (RDA) is such a workstation. Although not yet capable of real-time simulation, the RDA will nevertheless reduce analysis costs and enhance analyst productivity since analysis cannot be done in real time anyway. The RDA is a microcomputer-based reactor transient simulation, visualization, and analysis tool developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to assist an analyst in simulating and evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants. The RDA integrates RELAP5 advanced best-estimate engineering simulation capabilities with on-line computer graphics routines allowing interactive reactor plant transient simulation and on-line analysis of results, or replay of past simulations, by means of graphic displays
ORENS, Raf; LYBAERT, Nadine
This paper examines whether the use of non-financial information by sell-side financial analysts influences the accuracy of analysts' forecasts. The research findings, based on a survey of Belgian financial analysts, suggest that financial analysts who use more forward-looking information and more internal-structure information offer more accurate forecasts. Furthermore, the listed Belgian firms examined in this study have improved their non-financial information reporting over time. However...
Job Summary The Junior Information Management Analyst assists a team of Information Management (IM) specialists and technical specialists in the development and implementation of information management methods, practices and tools that help manage enterprise information to support the Centre's business or ...
This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...
Job Summary. Under the supervision of the Manager of Techology Services (TS), the Network/Telecommunications Analyst plays a critical role in service delivery as part of the TS team responsible for the day-to-day operation and maintenance of the Centre's various infrastructure systems in Headquarters and the Regional ...
The intermediate Systems Analyst will bring to the System Development Group the necessary skills to understand in depth the architecture of Oracle to allow better design and implementation of new and enhanced information systems and applications. The incumbent will take full responsibility for the ITM division's ...
analyst reports, and the amount of financial data supplied is not related to the other disclosures in the reports. In comparison to business reporting practices, the fundamental analyst reports put relatively less weight on social and sustainability information, intellectual capital and corporate......This paper contributes to the ongoing debate of developing corporate reporting practices by analyzing the information content of fundamental analyst reports and comparing this with annual reporting practices. As there has been much critique of the lacking relevance of disclosures through corporate...... reporting, taking the point of departure in some of the capital market actors that follow companies the closest, namely the sell-side analysts, will reveal which types of information companies should be disclosing through their corporate reports. By focusing on the reports disclosed in connection...
Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Nielsen, Christian
This study focuses on how financial analysts understand the strategy of a health care company and which elements, from such a strategy perspective, they perceive as constituting the cornerstone of a health care company's business model. The empirical part of this study is based on semi-structured interviews with analysts following a large health care company listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. The authors analyse how the financial analysts view strategy and value creation within the framework of a business model. Further, the authors analyze whether the characteristics emerging from a comprehensive literature review are reflected in the financial analysts' perceptions of which information is decision-relevant and important to communicate to the financial markets. Among the conclusions of the study is the importance of distinguishing between the health care companies' business model and the model by which the payment of revenues are allocated between end users and reimbursing organizations.
Martin, Allison L
The field of primate behavior management has had only limited success in preventing and treating abnormal behaviors, such as stereotypy and self-injury, in captive non-human primates (NHP). In contrast, applied behavior analysts have had great success in treating similar topographies of behavior in human clinical settings. By adapting and adopting the behavioral principles and methodologies commonly used by applied behavior analysts, primatologists may be able to develop more effective ways to analyze, reduce, and prevent these aberrant behaviors in NHP. This article reviews studies that have used behavior analytic techniques to successfully address problem behaviors in NHP. Additionally, relevant literature from the field of applied behavior analysis is reviewed to illustrate how adopting a theoretical framework that emphasizes the determination of the underlying operant functions of behavior could lead to new behavioral technologies and advance the field of captive primate management. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22500, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
My primary research question is: can social networks assist analysts fight terrorism? My secondary research questions are as follows. First, how does...social networking create linkages? Second, how have social networks been used to solve small problems? Third, how have social networks been used to...study. My research incorporates the prevailing ideas, best practices, and real-world examples of applications of social networks to produce a desired
This article contributes to the understanding of how health care companies may communicate the business models by studying financial analysts' analyst reports. The study examines the differences between the information conveyed in recurrent and fundamental analyst reports as well as whether the characteristics of the analysts and their environment affect their business model analyses. A medium-sized health care company in the medical-technology sector, internationally renowned for its state-of-the-art business reporting, was chosen as the basis for the study. An analysis of 111 fundamental and recurrent analyst reports on this company by each investment bank actively following it was conducted using a content analysis methodology. The study reveals that the recurrent analyses are concerned with evaluating the information disclosed by the health care company itself and not so much with digging up new information. It also indicates that while maintenance work might be focused on evaluating specific details, fundamental research is more concerned with extending the understanding of the general picture, i.e., the sustainability and performance of the overall business model. The amount of financial information disclosed in either type of report is not correlated to the other disclosures in the reports. In comparison to business reporting practices, the fundamental analyst reports put considerably less weight on social and sustainability, intellectual capital and corporate governance information, and they disclose much less comparable non-financial information. The suggestion made is that looking at the types of information financial analysts consider important and convey to their "customers," the investors and fund managers, constitutes a valuable indication to health care companies regarding the needs of the financial market users of their reports and other communications. There are some limitations to the possibility of applying statistical tests to the data-set as
Security analysts analyze information regarding publicly traded companies after which they publish their opinion regarding these companies’ stocks. In this dissertation the published opinions of two different types of analysts are analyzed. Technical analysts derive a recommendation to buy, hold, or
Krapfl, Jon E
A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.
Hochhalter, E. E.
The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed
Dömötör, Zsuzsanna; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Szabo, Attila
The objective of this first literature review, in this area, is to unveil the current status of knowledge on superstition in sport. Its outcome reveals that superstitious behaviors vary with the type of sport, athletic level, as well as athletic role. In agreement with past theories, they increase with the level of challenge, as reflected by the importance of the competition, as well as with the level of uncertainty. Cultural factors, in conjunction with the education level, as well as gender, have a strong influence on superstitious behaviors in sports. Based on current thoughts, religiosity and superstition are different psychological constructs used as psychological aids by several athletes. Personality factors appear to mediate the manifestation of the behavior. Elite athletes are clearly more superstitious than non-elite athletes, An interaction between athletic skill and task-difficulty emerges to be another strong predictor of superstition in sport. It is evident that a set of complex personal and situational factors interact in the manifestation of superstitious behavior in sport that is used for the regulation of emotions in a quest for optimal performance. It is concluded that the objective benefits (i.e., success) of superstition in sport may be ascribed to the placebo effect that yields an increased sense of control and mental reassurance in unpredictable contest situations. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rodríguez Quiroga de Pereira, Andrea; Messina, Verónica María; Sansalone, Paula Andrea
This article is a review of the international scientific literature on informed consent and its use in some of the constituent organizations of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA). Because psychoanalysis comprises a theory based on practice, the dearth of clinical material for study, training and research purposes is a serious problem for analysts. Supervisions, presentations at scientific societies and congresses, publications and teaching material involve patients to an extent that goes beyond the work done in their sessions. Should consent be requested in these cases? This contribution addresses controversial and long-standing issues such as informed consent and confidentiality, audio recording of treatments, knowledge production, the ambivalence of participating subjects over time and the perspective of analysts and patients respectively. The authors consider the various alternative approaches available for the handling of these ethical dilemmas without losing sight of the patient's dignity and personal rights, while also taking account of the position of the analyst. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Ngobo , Paul-Valentin; Casta , Jean-François; Ramond , Olivier ,
published on line : 2011/01/08; International audience; This study examines the effects of customer satisfaction on analysts' earnings forecast errors. Based on a sample of analysts following companies measured by the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), we find that customer satisfaction reduces earnings forecast errors. However, analysts respond to changes in customer satisfaction but not to the ACSI metric per se. Furthermore, the effects of customer satisfaction are asymmetric; fo...
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC) provides technology development, scientific consultation, collaboration, data analysis and training to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and staff. The Core Infrastructure and Systems Biology (CISB) group in ABCC strives to streamline and provide innovative solutions for the NCI/NIH community to access and use biological information collected across different sources and formats. Integrating diverse data sources to enable disease agnostic access and analysis, variant impact annotation, identifier conversions across species, and merging clinical and research data enables translation from basic to the goal of precision medicine. CISB is looking for an experienced analyst to support the database and application management efforts at the NCI’s Molecular Targets Program (MTP). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES Provide data management and analysis support Maintain scientific applications and databases on single-user personal computer through the multi-user, multi-processor large memory mainframe Communicate with the experts in the MTP, gather requirements and provide support Provide training to researchers on a variety of platforms and applications Evaluate and develop methodologies to allow utilization of new software tools and generate the information required by MTP researchers Determine methods and procedures on new assignments Document approaches and mechanisms clearly and comprehensively
E.M. Roelofsen (Erik)
textabstractMany firms conduct a conference call with analysts shortly after the quarterly earnings announcement. In these calls, management discusses the completed quarter, and analysts can ask questions. Due to SEC requirements, conference calls in the United States are virtually always live
.... This can be accomplished by training analysts to have a better understanding of their own thinking processes and thereby allow them to predict the enemy's actions more accurately. It is important to define the problems associated with training analysts in order to develop a more functional training method.
Maldonado, Jorge Luis
In this paper, I will consider a type of misunderstanding in the analytical dialogue and the possible unconscious motivations underlying this. I will also make reference to the patient's use of the analyst's words for the purpose of narcissistic enactment and will explore the extent of the analyst's involvement in this. The subjects of misunderstanding and narcissistic enactment will be dealt with in relation to a patient's way of processing certain interpretations at the beginning of analysis and the concealment of her way of processing the analyst's words. By contributing dreams and other significant material in the sessions, the patient gradually revealed her phantasies which enabled the analyst to uncover the possible factors which determined her particular attribution of meaning to the analyst's words and her retention of information about how she had initially construed his interpretations. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ''did what he/she was told.'' The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician's office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface
Körting, Thales Sehn; Garcia Fonseca, Leila Maria; Câmara, Gilberto
Remote sensing images obtained by remote sensing are a key source of data for studying large-scale geographic areas. From 2013 onwards, a new generation of land remote sensing satellites from USA, China, Brazil, India and Europe will produce in 1 year as much data as 5 years of the Landsat-7 satellite. Thus, the research community needs new ways to analyze large data sets of remote sensing imagery. To address this need, this paper describes a toolbox for combing land remote sensing image analysis with data mining techniques. Data mining methods are being extensively used for statistical analysis, but up to now have had limited use in remote sensing image interpretation due to the lack of appropriate tools. The toolbox described in this paper is the Geographic Data Mining Analyst (GeoDMA). It has algorithms for segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, classification, landscape metrics and multi-temporal methods for change detection and analysis. GeoDMA uses decision-tree strategies adapted for spatial data mining. It connects remotely sensed imagery with other geographic data types using access to local or remote database. GeoDMA has methods to assess the accuracy of simulation models, as well as tools for spatio-temporal analysis, including a visualization of time-series that helps users to find patterns in cyclic events. The software includes a new approach for analyzing spatio-temporal data based on polar coordinates transformation. This method creates a set of descriptive features that improves the classification accuracy of multi-temporal image databases. GeoDMA is tightly integrated with TerraView GIS, so its users have access to all traditional GIS features. To demonstrate GeoDMA, we show two case studies on land use and land cover change.
Plavnick, Joshua B; Normand, Matthew P
A variation of the preintervention functional analysis of problem behavior has recently been extended to identify the function of verbal behavior emitted by children with autism. Recent research suggests that a functional analysis of verbal behavior might be beneficial in evaluating previous instruction and guiding the selection of future educational targets and instructional procedures. The present paper reviews previous literature on the functional analysis of verbal behavior and identifies avenues for future research. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A
Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.
Online reviews play an important role in consumers' purchasing decisions. Researchers are increasingly interested in studying the dynamic impact of online reviews on product sales. However, the antecedent of online reviews, online reviewers' behaviors, has not been fully explored. Understanding how online reviewers make review decisions can assist…
Skinner's Verbal Behavior (1957) is a comprehensive treatise that deals with most aspects of verbal behavior. However, its treatment of the learning of grammatical behavior has been challenged repeatedly (e.g., Chomsky, 1959). The present paper will attempt to show that the learning of grammar and syntax can be dealt with adequately within a behavior-analytic framework. There is no need to adopt mentalist (or cognitivist) positions or to add mentalist elements to behaviorist theories. PMID:2103585
This paper discusses the residues of a somatic countertransference that revealed its meaning several years after apparently successful analytic work had ended. Psychoanalytic and Jungian analytic ideas on primitive communication, dissociation and enactment are explored in the working through of a shared respiratory symptom between patient and analyst. Growth in the analyst was necessary so that the patient's communication at a somatic level could be understood. Bleger's concept that both the patient's and analyst's body are part of the setting was central in the working through. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Goldstein, George; Suzuki, Jessica Y
The history of authenticity in psychoanalysis is as old as analysis itself, but the analyst's authenticity in particular has become an increasingly important area of focus in recent decades. This article traces the development of conceptions of analytic authenticity and proposes that the analyst's spontaneous verbalization of his or her unformulated experience in session can be a potent force in the course of an analysis. We acknowledge that although analytic authenticity can be a challenging ideal for the analyst to strive for, it contains the power to transform the experience of the patient and the analyst, as well as the meaning of their work together. Whether it comes in the form of an insight-oriented comment or a simple acknowledgment of things as they seem to be, a therapist's willingness to speak aloud something that has lost its language is a powerful clinical phenomenon that transcends theoretical orientation and modality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This paper examines the phenomenon of embodied countertransference: where the analyst experiences a somatic reaction rather than the more common countertransference responses of thoughts, feelings, images, fantasies and dreams. Discussion of clinical material considers neurotic and syntonic aspects. The analogy is made of resonance with a tuning fork. Several questions are posed: Why does countertransference resonate in the bodies of some analysts but not all? Why do those analysts who are sensitive to this, experience it with some patients but not with others? And what are the conditions which are conducive to producing somatic responses? It proposes that somatic reactions are more likely to occur when a number of conditions come together: when working with patients exhibiting borderline, psychotic or severe narcissistic elements; where there has been early severe childhood trauma; and where there is fear of expressing strong emotions directly. In addition another theoretical factor is proposed, namely the typology of the analyst.
Never in history has there been a more critical time when the United States military has had to focus on how military intelligence analysts are trained to fight today's battles to win tomorrow's wars...
Morrison, Clayton T; Cohen, Paul R
COLAB is a laboratory for studying tools that facilitate collaboration and sensemaking among groups of human analysts as they build interpretations of unfolding situations based on accruing intelligence data...
This paper argues that self-disclosure is intimately related to traumatic experience and the pressures on the analyst not to re-traumatize the patient or repeat traumatic dynamics. The paper gives a number of examples of such pressures and outlines the difficulties the analyst may experience in adopting an analytic attitude - attempting to stay as closely as possible with what the patient brings. It suggests that self-disclosure may be used to try to disconfirm the patient's negative sense of themselves or the analyst, or to try to induce a positive sense of self or of the analyst which, whilst well-meaning, may be missing the point and may be prolonging the patient's distress. Examples are given of staying with the co-construction of the traumatic early relational dynamics and thus working through the traumatic complex; this attitude is compared and contrasted with some relational psychoanalytic attitudes. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Dallery, Jesse; Kurti, Allison; Erb, Philip
Modifiable behavioral risk factors such as cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity contribute to over 40 % of premature deaths in the USA. Advances in digital and information technology are creating unprecedented opportunities for behavior analysts to assess and modify these risk factors. Technological advances include mobile devices, wearable sensors, biomarker detectors, and real-time access to therapeutic support via information technology. Integrating these advances with behavioral technology in the form of conceptually systematic principles and procedures could usher in a new generation of effective and scalable behavioral interventions targeting health behavior. In this selective review of the literature, we discuss how technological tools can assess and modify a range of antecedents and consequences of healthy and unhealthy behavior. We also describe practical, methodological, and conceptual advantages for behavior analysts that stem from the use of technology to assess and treat health behavior.
Coelho, Luís; Peixinho, Rúben
Finance literature suggests that financial analysts are sophisticated agents that act as facilitators of market efficiency by releasing relevant information to the market. This paper uses a sample of four major US bankruptcies to explore if analysts are able to disclose information to the market that provides investors with material information for their investment decisions. In particular, we use a qualitative approach to analyse analysts’ reports in order to verify if these agents are ab...
Ervin, K C; Skledar, S; Hess, M M; Ryan, M
The development of an innovative role for the pharmacy technician is described. The role of the pharmacy technician was based on a needs assessment and the expertise of the pharmacy technician selected. Initial responsibilities of the technician included chart reviews, benchmarking surveys, monthly financial impact analysis, initiative assessment, and quality improvement reporting. As the drug-use and disease-state management (DUDSM) program expanded, pharmacist activities increased, requiring the expansion of data analyst technician (DAT) duties. These new responsibilities included participation in patient assessment, data collection and interpretation, and formulary enforcement. Most recently, technicians' expanded duties include maintenance of a physician compliance profiling database, quality improvement reporting and graphing, active role in patient risk assessment and database management for adult vaccination, and support of financial impact monitoring for other institutions within the health system. This pharmacist-technician collaboration resulted a threefold increase in patient assessments completed per day. In addition, as the DUDSM program continues to expand across the health system, an increase in DAT resources from 0.5 to 1.0 full-time equivalent was obtained. The role of the DAT has increased the efficiency of the DUDSM program and has provided an innovative role for the pharmacy technician.
Gordon R. Middleton
Full Text Available In an era of rapidly increasing technical capability, the intelligence focus is often on the modes of collection and tools of analysis rather than the analyst themselves. Data are proliferating and so are tools to help analysts deal with the flood of data and the increasingly demanding timeline for intelligence production, but the role of the analyst in such a data-driven environment needs to be understood in order to support key management decisions (e.g., training and investment priorities. This paper describes a model of the analytic process, and analyzes the roles played by humans and machine tools in each process element. It concludes that human analytic functions are as critical in the intelligence process as they have ever been, and perhaps even more so due to the advance of technology in the intelligence business. Human functions performed by analysts are critical in nearly every step in the process, particularly at the front end of the analytic process, in defining and refining the problem statement, and at the end of the process, in generating knowledge, presenting the story in understandable terms, tailoring the presentation of the results of the analysis to various audiences, as well as in determining when to initiate iterative loops in the process. The paper concludes with observations on the necessity of enabling expert analysts, tools to deal with big data, developing analysts with advanced analytic methods as well as with techniques for optimal use of advanced tools, and suggestions for further quantitative research.
Donna M. Grant
Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.
Ali, Suhaila; Aziz, Abdul Rashid Abdul
This paper reviews the literature on rent-seeking behaviors in property development, and discusses three major areas: (1) definition and concept of rent-seeking; (2) factors for the rent-seeking behavior appeared; and (3) the impact of rent-seeking behaviors, particularly on property development. In general, there is no exact word that can define what rent-seeking is. It is found that from the reviewed studies that a few researches have adopted search tasks to predict rent-seeking behavior effects in the economy and the respective economic performance. Based on the findings of the review, rent-seeking behavior increases social cost and this might lead to problems such as corruption. This paper paves the way for future studies in examining rent-seeking behaviors in the Malaysian property development, especially for targeted actions to be taken to alleviate upward pressure on home prices.
Travis, Robert; Sturmey, Peter
Individuals with intellectual disabilities who exhibit psychotic verbal behavior are at increased risk for hospitalization and dependence on external support. Traditionally, medication is the clinical treatment of choice for this behavior. This article selectively reviews the existing literature within the field of behavior analysis on reducing…
Luyben, Paul D
Applied behavior analysis, a psychological discipline, has been characterized as the science of behavior change (Chance, 2006). Research in applied behavior analysis has been published for approximately 40 years since the initial publication of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in 1968. The field now encompasses a wide range of human behavior. Although much of the published research centers on problem behaviors that occur in schools and among people with disabilities, a substantial body of knowledge has emerged in community settings. This article provides a review of the behavioral community research published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis as representative of this work, including research in the areas of home and family, health, safety, community involvement and the environment, recreation and sports, crime and delinquency, and organizations. In the interest of space, research in schools and with people with disabilities has been excluded from this review.
Muchinsky, Paul M.
Reviews 278 studies published on vocational behavior and career development in 1982, in the following major categories: discrimination; performance; turnover; satisfaction; commitment and involvement; job analysis and evaluation; selection; life history experiences; performance appraisal; assessment centers; training; unions; alternate work…
Albertus Pramukti Narendra
Full Text Available Issue of Big Data was already raised by Fremont Rider, an American Librarian from Westleyan University, in 1944. He predicted that the volume of American universities collection would reach 200 million copies in 2040. As a result, it brings to fore multiple issues such as big data users, storage capacity, and the need to have data analysts. In Indonesia, data analysts is still a rare profession, and therefore urgently needed. One of its distinctive tasks is to conduct visual analyses from various data resources and also to present the result visually as interesting knowledge. It becomes science enliven by interactive visualization. In response to the issue, librarians have already been equipped with basic information management. Yet, they can see the opportunity and improve themselves as data analysts. In developed countries, it is common that librarian are also regarded as data analysts. They enhance themselves with various skills required, such as cloud computing and smart computing. In the end librarian with data analysts competency are eloquent to extract and present complex data resources as interesting and discernible knowledge.
The author discusses the obstacles to symbolization encountered when the analyst appears in the first dream of an analysis: the reality of the other is represented through the seeming recognition of the person of the analyst, who is portrayed in undisguised form. The interpretation of this first dream gives rise to reflections on the meaning of the other's reality in analysis: precisely this realistic representation indicates that the function of the other in the construction of the psychic world has been abolished. An analogous phenomenon is observed in the countertransference, as the analyst's mental processes are occluded by an exclusively self-generated interpretation of the patient's psychic world. For the analyst too, the reality of the other proves not to play a significant part in the construction of her interpretation. A 'turning-point' dream after five years bears witness to the power of the transforming function performed by the other throughout the analysis, by way of the representation of characters who stand for the necessary presence of a third party in the construction of a personal psychic reality. The author examines the mutual denial of the other's otherness, as expressed by the vicissitudes of the transference and countertransference between analyst and patient, otherness being experienced as a disturbance of self-sufficient narcissistic functioning. The paper ends with an analysis of the transformations that took place in the analytic relationship.
The article reviews the current theory and measurement of subjective wellbeing (SWB). The first two sections discuss growing efforts in many countries to measure and monitor national wellbeing, particularly in the United Kingdom. The third and fourth sections discuss the novelty and controversies about SWB research. It concludes that a critical approach is essential in evaluating SWB research but dismissing it offhand or framing it as antithetical to objective wellbeing is misconceived. The pressing issue for poverty research and public policy is to determine which insights about SWB are worth using, and how much space within conceptions of wellbeing used in public policy should be given to SWB. PMID:24382984
Katy Cooper, PhD
Conclusions: There is limited evidence that physical behavioral techniques for PE improve IELT and other outcomes over waitlist and that behavioral therapies combined with drug treatments give better outcomes than drug treatments alone. Further RCTs are required to assess psychotherapeutic approaches to PE. Cooper K, Martyn‐St James M, Kaltenthaler E, Dickinson K, Cantrell A, Wylie K, Frodsham L, and Hood C. Behavioral therapies for management of premature ejaculation: A systematic review. Sex Med 2015;3:174–188.
Preeti Devnani; Racheal Fernandes
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, ...
David R. Mandel
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts’ probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem. Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target’s membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments.
Bosquet, K.; de Goeij, P.C.; Smedts, K.
Using analyst stock recommendations issued between January 1996 and December 2006 we show that the odds for female financial analysts to issue optimistic investment advice is 40% lower than for male analysts. Although 17% of our sample of analysts is female, 48% is employed by a top financial
Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende
Full Text Available 1 To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2 To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found.Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase; PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers.This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted.
de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rodrigues Lopes, Maurício; Rey-López, Juan Pablo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo
Objective 1) To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2) To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found. Methodology/Principal Findings Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase); PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers. Conclusions This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted. PMID:25144686
This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…
The present article is a reflection on the desire of the analyst on the clinical psychoanalysis with children, where the desire of the analyst is understood as a transference device, central element of the treatment’s direction and the end of the analysis. The analyst’s desire is a “warned desire”, that does not aim happiness, which those analyzed wish for themselves. In accordance with the psychoanalysis ethics, described by Freud in The Malaise in Culture and by Lacan in the Seminar, Book 7...
Baum expressed numerous concerns about my Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism in his review. If his review were an independent submission and I were an independent referee, I would recommend that his review be rejected and that he be encouraged to revise and resubmit, once he has studied the field a bit more and clarified for himself and journal readers several important matters. I outline two sets of concerns that he might usefully clarify in his revision: (a) the important contributions of B. F. Skinner to a book about radical behaviorism, and (b) the nature of private behavioral events. In particular, the methodological behaviorism inherent in Baum's position needs to be resolved.
Full Text Available Cet article s’efforce de décrire comment est structuré le champ de l’analyse du discours. Dans un premier temps il considère la signification qui est donnée au terme « analyse », en revenant sur les principaux courants de l’analyse du discours française à la fin des années 1960. Il réfléchit ensuite sur la diversité des études de discours et propose une distinction entre les « études de discours » et les « disciplines du discours », qui ont chacune un point de vue spécifique sur le discours. Il souligne ensuite la diversité des chercheurs qui pratiquent des approches discursives ; il les divise en trois groupes : ceux dont l’approche est paraphilosophique, ceux pour qui l’étude du discours est une simple « méthode qualitative » des sciences humaines et sociales et ceux qui, s’appuyant en général sur la linguistique, s’efforcent de maintenir un équilibre entre conceptualisation et travaux empiriques. Les unités sur lesquelles travaillent ces spécialistes du discours peuvent être divisées en deux grandes catégories : des « unités topiques », prédécoupées par l’activité sociale (en particulier le genre de discours, et des « unités non-topiques » ; ces dernières peuvent être « transverses » (il s’agit alors de « registres » ou « construites » par le chercheur lui-même. Les deux dernières sections de l’article s’intéressent à la démarche de l’analyste du discours : elle peut être « herméneutique » ou non, « critique » ou non ; mais toute étude du discours possède par nature une dimension critique.The purpose of this article is to propose an overview of the field of discourse analysis. Firstly, it considers the meaning of the term “analysis” by taking into account the main trends of French discourse analysis in the late 1960’s. . Then it reflects on the diversity of the field of discourse studies by making a distinction between
Jesse K. Kreye; Nolan W. Brewer; Penelope Morgan; J. Morgan Varner; Alistair M.S. Smith; Chad M. Hoffman; Roger D. Ottmar
Mastication is an increasingly common fuels treatment that redistributes ââladderââ fuels to the forest floor to reduce vertical fuel continuity, crown fire potential, and fireline intensity, but fuel models do not exist for predicting fire behavior in these fuel types. Recent fires burning in masticated fuels have behaved in unexpected and contradictory ways, likely...
Full Text Available Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non hereditary factors determine homosexual behavior, explaining its persistence despite its apparent disadvantages in relation to reproductive fitness.
Schmid Christopher H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new and challenging problems. In practice, most meta-analyses are performed in general statistical packages or dedicated meta-analysis programs. Results Herein, we introduce Meta-Analyst, a novel, powerful, intuitive, and free meta-analysis program for the meta-analysis of a variety of problems. Meta-Analyst is implemented in C# atop of the Microsoft .NET framework, and features a graphical user interface. The software performs several meta-analysis and meta-regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, as well as analyses for diagnostic and prognostic test studies in the frequentist and Bayesian frameworks. Moreover, Meta-Analyst includes a flexible tool to edit and customize generated meta-analysis graphs (e.g., forest plots and provides output in many formats (images, Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word-ready RTF. The software architecture employed allows for rapid changes to be made to either the Graphical User Interface (GUI or to the analytic modules. We verified the numerical precision of Meta-Analyst by comparing its output with that from standard meta-analysis routines in Stata over a large database of 11,803 meta-analyses of binary outcome data, and 6,881 meta-analyses of continuous outcome data from the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. Results from analyses of diagnostic and prognostic test studies have been verified in a limited number of meta-analyses versus MetaDisc and MetaTest. Bayesian statistical analyses use the OpenBUGS calculation engine (and are thus as accurate as the standalone OpenBUGS software. Conclusion We have developed and validated a new program for conducting meta-analyses that combines the advantages of existing software for this task.
Wallace, Byron C; Schmid, Christopher H; Lau, Joseph; Trikalinos, Thomas A
Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new and challenging problems. In practice, most meta-analyses are performed in general statistical packages or dedicated meta-analysis programs. Herein, we introduce Meta-Analyst, a novel, powerful, intuitive, and free meta-analysis program for the meta-analysis of a variety of problems. Meta-Analyst is implemented in C# atop of the Microsoft .NET framework, and features a graphical user interface. The software performs several meta-analysis and meta-regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, as well as analyses for diagnostic and prognostic test studies in the frequentist and Bayesian frameworks. Moreover, Meta-Analyst includes a flexible tool to edit and customize generated meta-analysis graphs (e.g., forest plots) and provides output in many formats (images, Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word-ready RTF). The software architecture employed allows for rapid changes to be made to either the Graphical User Interface (GUI) or to the analytic modules.We verified the numerical precision of Meta-Analyst by comparing its output with that from standard meta-analysis routines in Stata over a large database of 11,803 meta-analyses of binary outcome data, and 6,881 meta-analyses of continuous outcome data from the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. Results from analyses of diagnostic and prognostic test studies have been verified in a limited number of meta-analyses versus MetaDisc and MetaTest. Bayesian statistical analyses use the OpenBUGS calculation engine (and are thus as accurate as the standalone OpenBUGS software). We have developed and validated a new program for conducting meta-analyses that combines the advantages of existing software for this task.
...) Organizational structures and delegations of authority; (d) Management information systems and concepts; and (e... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chief Management Analyst. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Organization and Program Management General Organization...
Xia, Jianguo; Sinelnikov, Igor V; Han, Beomsoo; Wishart, David S
MetaboAnalyst (www.metaboanalyst.ca) is a web server designed to permit comprehensive metabolomic data analysis, visualization and interpretation. It supports a wide range of complex statistical calculations and high quality graphical rendering functions that require significant computational resources. First introduced in 2009, MetaboAnalyst has experienced more than a 50X growth in user traffic (>50 000 jobs processed each month). In order to keep up with the rapidly increasing computational demands and a growing number of requests to support translational and systems biology applications, we performed a substantial rewrite and major feature upgrade of the server. The result is MetaboAnalyst 3.0. By completely re-implementing the MetaboAnalyst suite using the latest web framework technologies, we have been able substantially improve its performance, capacity and user interactivity. Three new modules have also been added including: (i) a module for biomarker analysis based on the calculation of receiver operating characteristic curves; (ii) a module for sample size estimation and power analysis for improved planning of metabolomics studies and (iii) a module to support integrative pathway analysis for both genes and metabolites. In addition, popular features found in existing modules have been significantly enhanced by upgrading the graphical output, expanding the compound libraries and by adding support for more diverse organisms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Beuselinck, Christof; Joos, Philip; Khurana, I.K.; van der Meulen, Sofie
This study examines whether financial analysts' research structure and portfolio selection choices helped in improving relative earnings forecast accuracy around mandatory IFRS adoption in Europe. Using a sample of 68,665 one-year ahead forecasts for 1,980 publicly listed firms, we find that
James Moir, a pioneering chemist in SouthAfrica, played a leading role in the SA Chemical Institute. He was an excellent organic chemist, who published widely on the relationship between the colour of an organic substance and its chemical structure. In addition to this, he worked as an analyst in the Government Chemical ...
Résumé des fonctions Cette fonction est essentielle à l'administration et au bon déroulement des accords conclus avec des bailleurs de fonds. L'analyste financier veille à ce que les rapports financiers fournis aux bailleurs de fonds soient exacts et conformes aux accords. Par ailleurs, il doit veiller à ce que tous les revenus ...
van der Goot, T.; van Giersbergen, N.
This paper investigates whether analyst recommendations are independent of their employer’s investment banking activities. Our sample consists of internet firms that went public during 1997-2000. The contribution of the paper to the literature is threefold. First, to account for missing
This article provides an investigatory overview of the Pentagon's military analyst program, what it is, how it was implemented, and how it constitutes a form of propaganda. A technical analysis of the program is applied using the theoretical framework of the propaganda model first developed by Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman. Definitions…
Savitz, David A; Murnane, Pamela
Epidemiologic studies of potential behavioral influences on preterm birth have proliferated and yet, with the exception of tobacco smoking, none can be considered an established cause. We conducted a comprehensive summary of the epidemiologic evidence on tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use, and physical, sexual, and occupational activity, to identify promising research directions, as well as research topics that are at an impasse based on currently available methods. Tobacco use is weakly but consistently associated with preterm birth-stronger for heavier smoking, and for spontaneous preterm birth and earlier preterm births. Weaker evidence suggests an adverse effect of environmental tobacco smoke, heavy alcohol or cocaine use, and physically strenuous work. Low levels of alcohol use, caffeine, sexual activity, and employment have generally not been found to be associated with preterm birth, and leisure-time physical activity has generated mixed results. Progress will require more detailed consideration of antecedents, new technologies for assessing exposure, and examination of biologic consequences of the behaviors of interest, focusing on pathways thought to mediate preterm delivery. New strategies-rather than more applications of the same approaches used in past studies-will move the research toward identifying causal relationships and, ultimately, may suggest preventive measures.
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, various forms of impulsivity are associated with borderline personality disorder, including sexual impulsivity. The existing empirical literature indicates that patients with borderline personality disorder appear to differ from patients without this personality disorder in a number of relevant ways. Specifically, those with borderline personality disorder are more likely to exhibit greater sexual preoccupation, have earlier sexual exposure, engage in casual sexual relationships, report a greater number of different sexual partners as well as promiscuity, and engage in homosexual experiences. In addition, patients with borderline personality disorder appear to be characterized by a greater number of high-risk sexual behaviors; a higher likelihood of having been coerced to have sex, experiencing date rape, or being raped by a stranger; and the contraction of more sexually transmitted diseases. Overall, the psychological themes relating to sexual behavior in borderline personality disorder appear to be characterized by impulsivity and victimization. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for clinicians in mental health and primary care settings.
Derbyshire, Katherine L; Grant, Jon E
Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is a common disorder featuring repetitive, intrusive and distressing sexual thoughts, urges and behaviors that negatively affect many aspects of an individual's life. This article reviews the clinical characteristics of CSB, cognitive aspects of the behaviors, and treatment options. We reviewed the literature regarding the clinical aspects of CSB and treatment approaches. The literature review of the clinical aspects of CSB demonstrates that there is likely a substantial heterogeneity within the disorder. In addition, the treatment literature lacks sufficient evidence-based approaches to develop a clear treatment algorithm. Although discussed in the psychological literature for years, CSB continues to defy easy categorization within mental health. Further research needs to be completed to understand where CSB falls within the psychiatric nosology.
Erturk, Buket; Machalicek, Wendy; Drew, Christine
We reviewed single-case research studies examining the effects of behavioral interventions for self-injurious behavior (SIB) in young children with autism and developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 46 studies (66 participants younger than the age of 12) meeting inclusion criteria. Studies were examined based on (a) participant demographics, (b) topography and function of SIB, (c) type of functional behavior assessment (FBA), (d) intervention procedures and outcomes, and (e) experimental design and measurement. Intervention strategies were categorized as antecedent manipulations, teaching behavior, consequence-based procedures, and/or extinction procedures. Positive outcomes were reported for 78% of participants in the reviewed studies and 88% of the participants were diagnosed with autism. Results suggest the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to decrease SIB for young children with disabilities; however, the frequent use of packaged interventions without component analysis limits the conclusiveness of any treatment recommendation. Suggestions for future research are discussed.
The available experimental evidence from laboratory and reactor studies pertaining to tritium production, capture, release, and transport within an HTGR leading to release to the environment is reviewed. Possible mechanisms for release, capture, and transport are considered and a simple model was used to calculate the expected tritium release from HTGRs. Comparison with Federal regulations governing tritium release confirm that expected HTGR releases will be well within the allowable release limits. Releases from HTGRs are expected to be somewhat less than from LWRs based on the published LWR operating data. Areas of research deserving further study are defined but it is concluded that a tritium surveillance at Fort St. Vrain is the most immediate need
Steinberg, Susan; Leon, Gloria; Dimsdale, Joel; Balkin, Thomas; Bono, Joyce; Caldwell, John; Joiner, Thomas; Paulus, Martin; Zaccaro, Stephen
The 2014 Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 17 - 18, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated research plan for the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness, and Work Overload (Sleep Risk) and also received a status update on the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders (BMed Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (Team Risk).
Kõlves, Kairi; Barker, Emma; De Leo, Diego
Allergies are among the most common chronic conditions. In addition to physical and social impacts, a number of studies have consistently linked allergies to poor psychological outcomes, including depression and anxiety. The aim of the present systematic literature review was to analyze the existing literature about the relationship between allergies and fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors. Data sources include articles retrieved from Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, and Web of Knowledge. Search terms: "suicid* and (allerg* or hay fever or atop* or eczema or aeroallergen*)" in English-language peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014. Original research articles that provide empiric evidence about the potential link between allergies and suicidal behaviors. The initial search identified a total of 769 articles with 17 original research articles that present empiric evidence. Nine articles analyzed the relationship between allergies and fatal suicidal behavior, and nine analyzed nonfatal suicidal behaviors (one article included both). There currently is little research into the relationship between allergies and suicidal behavior. The review was restricted to English-language articles published within the chosen time period; other limitations included the small number of articles that involve suicide mortality, and the fact that the majority of articles originated from the United States and Scandinavia. Analysis of the results indicates a link between allergies and suicidality, particularly suicide mortality; however, results for nonfatal suicidal behaviors are mixed. It is important that further research by using more rigorous study designs be carried out to lend strength to these findings.
Full Text Available Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling and physical activity (92 studies or sedentary behaviors (19 studies. Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14, including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste and other health behaviors ((n = 20 smoking, dietary intake, alcohol. These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain.
Hutchinson, Jayne; Prady, Stephanie L; Smith, Michaela A; White, Piran C L; Graham, Hilary M
Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling) and physical activity (92 studies) or sedentary behaviors (19 studies). Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14), including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste) and other health behaviors ((n = 20) smoking, dietary intake, alcohol). These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain.
Author Dennis Potter has written an exceptional psychoanalytically informed television series in The Singing Detective. Potter succeeds by echewing the usual portrayal of psychoanalysis in cinema and television as a therapy which the viewer observes but instead creates, by means of the content and structure of the series, a production that forces the audience into a role of analyst. The story of the current life and the childhood of the protagonist, Philip Marlow, has depth and context which allows the audience to examine the personality of Marlow, including character pathology and traits, sexuality, fantasy, dreams, and delusions from several metapsychological viewpoints. Potter allows the audience to use the dynamic, genetic, topographic, and, most unusual in drama, structural viewpoints. The audience can experience aspects of an analyst's experience, including the process of formulating and evaluating over time analytic hypotheses and coping with emotional reactions to the material which at times has transferencelike qualities.
Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
These are slides on special nuclear material gamma-ray signatures for reachback analysts for an LSS Spectroscopy course. The closing thoughts for this presentation are the following: SNM materials have definite spectral signatures that should be readily recognizable to analysts in both bare and shielded configurations. One can estimate burnup of plutonium using certain pairs of peaks that are a few keV apart. In most cases, one cannot reliably estimate uranium enrichment in an analogous way to the estimation of plutonium burnup. The origin of the most intense peaks from some SNM items may be indirect and from ‘associated nuclides.' Indirect SNM signatures sometimes have commonalities with the natural gamma-ray background.
Full Text Available The Community must develop and integrate into regular use new tools that can assist analysts in filtering and correlating the vast quantities of information that threaten to overwhelm the analytic process…—Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States.Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (The WMD Report1Unlike the other social sciences and, particularly, the physical sciences, where scientists get to choose the questions they wish to answer and experiments are carefully designed to confirm or negate hypotheses, intelligence analysis requires analysts to deal with the demands of decision makers and estimate the intentions of foreign actors, criminals or business competitors in an environment filled with uncertainty and even deliberate deception.
Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.
Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…
Book review. Building better health: a handbook of behavioral change. By I C David Jenkins (2003). MC Asuzu. Abstract. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care 2005, 17(1): 65-66. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jcmphc.v17i1.32431.
Silva, Mariana Benatto Pereira da; Pereira, Mario Eduardo Costa; Celeri, Eloísa Helena Valler
The present work deals with the issue of the analyst's desire in the psychoanalytical treatment of anorexia. It analyzes important elements to establish transference in these cases, as the pursuit of death and the choice of refusing food as a way of controlling the demands of the Other. It then discusses the "analist's desire" function in this clinic. Rejecting the definition of a treatment model and the structural categorization of anorexia, we can find in the cases of the girl of Angouleme ...
Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.
Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…
Schneider, Michael K.; Alford, Mark; Babko-Malaya, Olga; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Lingji; Crespi, Valentino; HandUber, Jason; Haney, Phil; Nagy, Jim; Richman, Mike; Von Pless, Gregory; Zhu, Howie; Rhodes, Bradley J.
Our Multi-INT Data Association Tool (MIDAT) learns patterns of life (POL) of a geographical area from video analyst observations called out in textual reporting. Typical approaches to learning POLs from video make use of computer vision algorithms to extract locations in space and time of various activities. Such approaches are subject to the detection and tracking performance of the video processing algorithms. Numerous examples of human analysts monitoring live video streams annotating or "calling out" relevant entities and activities exist, such as security analysis, crime-scene forensics, news reports, and sports commentary. This user description typically corresponds with textual capture, such as chat. Although the purpose of these text products is primarily to describe events as they happen, organizations typically archive the reports for extended periods. This archive provides a basis to build POLs. Such POLs are useful for diagnosis to assess activities in an area based on historical context, and for consumers of products, who gain an understanding of historical patterns. MIDAT combines natural language processing, multi-hypothesis tracking, and Multi-INT Activity Pattern Learning and Exploitation (MAPLE) technologies in an end-to-end lab prototype that processes textual products produced by video analysts, infers POLs, and highlights anomalies relative to those POLs with links to "tracks" of related activities performed by the same entity. MIDAT technologies perform well, achieving, for example, a 90% F1-value on extracting activities from the textual reports.
Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this paper is to deal with the information seeking and use problem in a professional context and understand how activity can influence practices, by taking as examples, the research undertaken by economic analysts. We analyse the relationship between the situational approach, described by Cheuk, the work environment complexity (with social, technological and personal aspects, and the information seeking and use strategies, which relied on Ellis and Wilson's model, with Bates's comments. Method. We interviewed eight economists, using a questionnaire and the SICIA (Situation, Complexity and Information Activity method. The SICAI method is a qualitative approach, which underlines the relationship between situations, professional contexts and strategies. Both methods allow better understanding of how investment analysts find out what they need for their job. We can clarify their information sources and practices of information seeking, which are very particular because of their activities. We complete our analysis by interviewing analysts from financial institutions. Analysis. A qualitative mode of analysis was used to interpret the interviewees' comments, within the research framework adopted. Results. We find similarity in information seeking and use strategies used by these two groups and environmental levels meet in most situations. But some differences can be also found, explained by the activity frameworks and goals. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that the activity and also the professional context (here the financial context can directly influence practices.
Liu, Richard T; Miller, Ivan
Despite the sustained theoretical and empirical interest over the past 40years in the association between life events and suicidal ideation and behavior, the literature in this area has yet to be systematically reviewed. The current article provides a comprehensive review of the empirical literature pertaining to life events in relation to at least one aspect of suicidal ideation and behavior (i.e., suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, degree of suicidal intent, medical severity of attempt, repeat versus first lifetime attempt status, and death by suicide). A total of 95 articles meeting inclusion criteria were identified by a literature search using Medline and PsycINFO. Evidence for an association between negative life events and suicidal ideation and behavior was generally consistent, with strongest support found for more severe than with less severe forms of suicidal ideation and behavior. Support for an inverse relation between positive events and suicidal ideation and behavior was generally lacking. Although there is general support for life stressors as a risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior, interpretation of these findings is constrained by methodological limitations prevalent in much of the literature, particularly in the case of suicidal ideation and suicide plans. Recommendations for future research are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Minen, Mia Tova; Torous, John; Raynowska, Jenelle; Piazza, Allison; Grudzen, Corita; Powers, Scott; Lipton, Richard; Sevick, Mary Ann
There is increasing interest in using electronic behavioral interventions as well as mobile technologies such as smartphones for improving the care of chronic disabling diseases such as migraines. However, less is known about the current clinical evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of such behavioral interventions. To review the published literature of behavioral interventions for primary headache disorders delivered by electronic means suitable for use outside of the clinician's office. An electronic database search of PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase was conducted through December 11, 2015. All eligible studies were systematically reviewed to examine the modality in which treatment was delivered (computer, smartphone, watch and other), types of behavioral intervention delivered (cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT], biofeedback, relaxation, other), the headache type being treated, duration of treatment, adherence, and outcomes obtained by the trials to examine the overall feasibility of electronic behavioral interventions for headache. Our search produced 291 results from which 23 eligible articles were identified. Fourteen studies used the internet via the computer, 2 used Personal Digital Assistants, 2 used CD ROM and 5 used other types of devices. None used smartphones or wearable devices. Four were pilot studies (N ≤ 10) which assessed feasibility. For the behavioral intervention, CBT was used in 11 (48 %) of the studies, relaxation was used in 8 (35 %) of the studies, and biofeedback was used in 5 (22 %) of the studies. The majority of studies (14/23, 61 %) used more than one type of behavioral modality. The duration of therapy ranged from 4-8 weeks for CBT with a mean of 5.9 weeks. The duration of other behavioral interventions ranged from 4 days to 60 months. Outcomes measured varied widely across the individual studies. Despite the move toward individualized medicine and mHealth, the current literature shows that most studies using
Ostrowsky, Michael K
This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.
Juliana Lourenço Araújo Veras
Full Text Available Objective: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature on eating disorders and the relationship with suicidal behavior. Methods: Searches were performed in the Medline, Lilacs, Adolec and Pubmed databases for articles published between 2003 and 2014. Results: Anorexia nervosa was the most often cited eating disorder in the articles selected. In cases of bulimia nervosa, suicide attempts and self-aggression were more frequent among those who use multiple compensation behaviors. Behavior disorders, emotional disorders and chemical dependency were described as risk factors in all publications. Conclusion: Despite the small number of studies performing an in-depth investigation into the relationship between eating disorder and suicidal behavior, the concomitant presence of these conditions places the health of patients at greater risk.
Groysberg, Boris; Healy, Paul Murray; Maber, David A.
We use proprietary data from a major investment bank to investigate factors associated with analysts' annual compensation. We find compensation to be positively related to "All-Star" recognition, investment-banking contributions, the size of analysts' portfolios, and whether an analyst is identified as a top stock picker by The Wall Street Journal. We find no evidence that compensation is related to earnings forecast accuracy. But consistent with prior studies, we find analyst turnover to be ...
Marinelli, Carlo; Weissensteiner, Alex
We analyze the relation between earnings forecast accuracy and the expected profitability of financial analysts. Modeling forecast errors with a multivariate normal distribution, a complete characterization of the payoff of each analyst is provided. In particular, closed-form expressions for the ......We analyze the relation between earnings forecast accuracy and the expected profitability of financial analysts. Modeling forecast errors with a multivariate normal distribution, a complete characterization of the payoff of each analyst is provided. In particular, closed-form expressions...
Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A.; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T.
It is increasingly recognized that a key component of successful infection control efforts is understanding the complex, two-way interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. Human behavior such as contact precautions and social distancing clearly influence disease prevalence, but disease prevalence can in turn alter human behavior, forming a coupled, nonlinear system. Moreover, in many cases, the spatial structure of the population cannot be ignored, such that social and behavioral processes and/or transmission of infection must be represented with complex networks. Research on studying coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks in particular is growing rapidly, and frequently makes use of analysis methods and concepts from statistical physics. Here, we review some of the growing literature in this area. We contrast network-based approaches to homogeneous-mixing approaches, point out how their predictions differ, and describe the rich and often surprising behavior of disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks, and compare them to processes in statistical physics. We discuss how these models can capture the dynamics that characterize many real-world scenarios, thereby suggesting ways that policy makers can better design effective prevention strategies. We also describe the growing sources of digital data that are facilitating research in this area. Finally, we suggest pitfalls which might be faced by researchers in the field, and we suggest several ways in which the field could move forward in the coming years.
Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T
It is increasingly recognized that a key component of successful infection control efforts is understanding the complex, two-way interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. Human behavior such as contact precautions and social distancing clearly influence disease prevalence, but disease prevalence can in turn alter human behavior, forming a coupled, nonlinear system. Moreover, in many cases, the spatial structure of the population cannot be ignored, such that social and behavioral processes and/or transmission of infection must be represented with complex networks. Research on studying coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks in particular is growing rapidly, and frequently makes use of analysis methods and concepts from statistical physics. Here, we review some of the growing literature in this area. We contrast network-based approaches to homogeneous-mixing approaches, point out how their predictions differ, and describe the rich and often surprising behavior of disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks, and compare them to processes in statistical physics. We discuss how these models can capture the dynamics that characterize many real-world scenarios, thereby suggesting ways that policy makers can better design effective prevention strategies. We also describe the growing sources of digital data that are facilitating research in this area. Finally, we suggest pitfalls which might be faced by researchers in the field, and we suggest several ways in which the field could move forward in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Devnani, Preeti; Fernandes, Racheal
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG) while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.
Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.
Holvoet, Claire; Scola, Céline; Arciszewski, Thomas; Picard, Delphine
In 2007, a study carried out by Hamlin, Wynn, and Bloom provided concrete evidence that infants as young as 6 months were capable of social evaluation, displaying an early preference for agents performing a prosocial behavior. Since then the development of early social abilities to judge other's behavior has been the topic of a growing body of research. The present paper reviews studies conducted between 2007 and 2015 that experimentally examined infants' social evaluation abilities by testing their preference for agents acting prosocially. We performed a detailed analysis of a corpus of 16 research studies including 59 experimental results, scrutinizing their methods and findings, and identifying their convergent and divergent features. This analysis showed that a preference for agents who perform prosocial behaviors (as opposed to antisocial or neutral) was present in a majority of infants, but some conflicting results have also been reported. The rich interpretation that infants are endowed with mature socio-moral evaluation abilities has not really been sufficiently discussed. In order to deepen this debate, we assessed other studies that have further explored infants' understanding of the social value of behaviors. Many of the studies provide evidence that young infants manage to identify and prefer the prosocial agent by taking into account the context and agents' mental states beyond the behavior itself. In this study two specific areas are assessed: (1) studies that have previously explored social evaluation abilities beyond a basic preference for prosocial behavior and (2) current theories which attempt to explain how and why such preferences could exist so early in infancy. Future directions for research on social evaluation abilities in infants are also discussed as well as a review of the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Big data and predictive analysis have been hailed as the fourth paradigm of science. Big data and analytics are critical to the future of business sustainability. The demand for data scientists is increasing with the dynamic nature of businesses, thus making it indispensable to manage big data, derive meaningful results and interpret management decisions. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide a brief conceptual review of big data and analytics and further illustrate the use of a multicriteria decision-making technique in selecting the right skilled candidate for big data and analytics in procurement management. Method: It is important for firms to select and recruit the right data analyst, both in terms of skills sets and scope of analysis. The nature of such a problem is complex and multicriteria decision-making, which deals with both qualitative and quantitative factors. In the current study, an application of the Fuzzy VIsekriterijumska optimizacija i KOmpromisno Resenje (VIKOR method was used to solve the big data analyst selection problem. Results: From this study, it was identified that Technical knowledge (C1, Intellectual curiosity (C4 and Business acumen (C5 are the strongest influential criteria and must be present in the candidate for the big data and analytics job. Conclusion: Fuzzy VIKOR is the perfect technique in this kind of multiple criteria decisionmaking problematic scenario. This study will assist human resource managers and procurement managers in selecting the right workforce for big data analytics.
Bradel, Lauren; Self, Jessica S.; Endert, Alexander; Hossain, Shahriar M.; North, Chris; Ramakrishnan, Naren
As analysts attempt to make sense of a collection of documents, such as intelligence analysis reports, they may wish to “connect the dots” between pieces of information that may initially seem unrelated. This process of synthesizing information between information requires users to make connections between pairs of documents, creating a conceptual story. We conducted a user study to analyze the process by which users connect pairs of documents and how they spatially arrange information. Users created conceptual stories that connected the dots using organizational strategies that ranged in complexity. We propose taxonomies for cognitive connections and physical structures used when trying to “connect the dots” between two documents. We compared the user-created stories with a data-mining algorithm that constructs chains of documents using co-occurrence metrics. Using the insight gained into the storytelling process, we offer design considerations for the existing data mining algorithm and corresponding tools to combine the power of data mining and the complex cognitive processing of analysts.
McGill, Bronwyn; O'Hara, Blythe J; Bauman, Adrian; Grunseit, Anne C; Phongsavan, Philayrath
To identify the behavioral economics (BE) conceptual underpinnings of lifestyle financial incentive (FI) interventions. A mapping review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted by searching electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were real-world FI interventions explicitly mentioning BE, targeting individuals, or populations with lifestyle-related behavioral outcomes. Exclusion criteria were hypothetical studies, health professional focus, clinically oriented interventions. Study characteristics were tabulated according to purpose, categorization of BE concepts and FI types, design, outcome measures, study quality, and findings. Data Synthesis and Analysis: Financial incentives were categorized according to type and payment structure. Behavioral economics concepts explicitly used in the intervention design were grouped based on common patterns of thinking. The interplay between FI types, BE concepts, and outcome was assessed. Seventeen studies were identified from 1452 unique records. Analysis showed 76.5% (n = 13) of studies explicitly incorporated BE concepts. Six studies provided clear theoretical justification for the inclusion of BE. No pattern in the type of FI and BE concepts used was apparent. Not all FI interventions claiming BE inclusion did so. For interventions that explicitly included BE, the degree to which this was portrayed and woven into the design varied. This review identified BE concepts common to FI interventions, a first step in providing emergent and pragmatic information to public health and health promotion program planners.
Vartanian, Lenny R; Porter, Alexis M
Weight stigma is a pervasive social problem, and this paper reviews the evidence linking weight stigma to eating behavior. Correlational studies consistently find that experiences with weight stigma are associated with unhealthy eating behaviors and eating pathology (such as binge eating, skipping meals), although results vary somewhat depending on the sample being studied and the specific stigma/eating constructs being assessed. Experimental studies consistently find that manipulations such as priming overweight stereotypes, exposure to stigmatizing content, and social exclusion all lead to increased food intake, but whether or not those manipulations capture the impact of weight stigma experiences per se is less clear. Finally, studies of stigma experiences in daily life show that more frequent stigma experiences are associated with decreased motivation to diet and with less healthy eating behaviors. Overall, this research highlights the potential for weight stigma to negatively impact individuals' eating behavior, which in turn could have consequences for their overall health and well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun
Correct situation awareness (SA) has been considered a crucial key to improving performance and reducing error in NPPs. There are a lot of information sources that should be monitored in NPPs, but operators have only limited capacity of attention and memory. Operators in NPPs selectively attend to important information sources to effectively develop SA when an abnormal or accidental situation occurs. Selective attention to important information sources is continued while maintaining SA as well. In this work, various models of operator's visual sampling behavior are reviewed for the use in human factors studies in NPPs
Full Text Available Catherine H Yu,1,2 Giuliana Guarna,1 Pamela Tsao,3 Jude R Jesuthasan,1 Adrian NC Lau,3,4 Ferhan S Siddiqi,1 Julie Anne Gilmour,3 Danyal Ladha,1 Henry Halapy,5 Andrew Advani1–3 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Health Network, 5Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases.Methods: The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included.Results: A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated.Conclusion: While the majority of
The aim of this article is to think of the place of the witness as a third place that the analyst, in the clinical space of trauma, is able to sustain. According to Ferenczi, in traumatic dreams a third is already being summoned. It is not the witness of the realm of law, nor the place of the father or the symbolic law. This is a third space that can be called potential, interstitial space, indeterminate and formless, where something that at first would be incommunicable circulates and gradually takes shape. This space allows and supports the literalness of a testimonial narrative, its hesitations, paradoxes and silences. More than a trauma theory, the notion of a potential space would be the great contribution of psychoanalysis to the treatment of trauma survivors, establishing the difference between the task of a psychoanalyst and the one of a truth commission.
This paper touches on three areas of interest to the radiation analyst; the dose issue, legal persuasion, and future legal issues. While many laboratory scientists would think that the actual dose received by the plaintiff's relevant organ would be an easy issue to resolve, that has not been the experience to date. All radiation cases are assumed to be ultrahazardous activity cases, even though they involve a dose well below yearly natural background. At some point the law needs to realize that such low dose cases are a waste of scarce judicial resources. Lawyers and scientists need to communicate with each other and work together to help improve the way the legal system processes these important cases
Harris, Sandra L.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin
Reviews research on the effectiveness of such procedures as differential reinforcement of behaviors incompatible with disruptive behavior (DRO), a contingent removal of reinforcement (time-out), overcorrection, and punishment to suppress seriously disruptive and self-injurious behaviors. Research on the generalization, maintenance, and side…
Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin
This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...
Mentalistic terms such as belief and desire have been rejected by behavior analysts because they are traditionally held to refer to unobservable events inside the organism. Behavior analysis has consequently been viewed by philosophers to be at best irrelevant to psychology, understood as a science of the mind. In this book, the philosopher Rowland Stout argues cogently that beliefs and desires (like operants such as rats' lever presses) are best understood in terms of an interaction over time between overt behavior and its overt consequences (a viewpoint called teleological behaviorism). This book is important because it identifies the science of the mind with the science of overt behavior and implies that the psychologists best equipped to study mental life are not those who purport to do so but those who focus on the experimental analysis of behavior.
Mentalistic terms such as belief and desire have been rejected by behavior analysts because they are traditionally held to refer to unobservable events inside the organism. Behavior analysis has consequently been viewed by philosophers to be at best irrelevant to psychology, understood as a science of the mind. In this book, the philosopher Rowland Stout argues cogently that beliefs and desires (like operants such as rats' lever presses) are best understood in terms of an interaction over time between overt behavior and its overt consequences (a viewpoint called teleological behaviorism). This book is important because it identifies the science of the mind with the science of overt behavior and implies that the psychologists best equipped to study mental life are not those who purport to do so but those who focus on the experimental analysis of behavior. PMID:10503301
Paritosh Chandra Sinha
Full Text Available In a brief review of the literature on stocks’ pricing, the study shows that information vis-à-vis noise serves critical roles in the equilibrium process. It is dynamic in nature and there are different infiltrating aspects from the standard finance to behavioral finance points of views. The aspects of market efficiency, fundamental risk, noise traders’ risk, and implementation costs make the stock markets noisy and thereby, limit the arbitrage opportunity of informed traders. Investors’ psychological bases viz., belief and preferences contribute more in the equilibrium process. Beliefs include representativeness, conservativeness, and anchoring, availability biases, optimism and wishful thinking, overconfidence, and herd behavior tendency on the part of the investors. On the preferences, investors are influenced by disposition effect, prospects based on reference points, mental accounting, ambiguity aversion, and self control.The study explores the empirical literature also and reviews the six puzzles in the standard finance. Finally, the work identifies a few research gaps to be addressed in the literature.
Evidence shows that market participants value analysts’ target prices. There is limited evidence, however, on how target price revisions influence investors’ decisions. I examine whether analyst ranking status affects institutional investors’ decisions to incorporate target price information into their investment strategies. This examination is relevant to the economic question: Does analyst reputation mitigate or exacerbate the conflicts of interest that analysts face? Consistent with instit...
Koch, C.C.; Easton, D.S.
The mechanical properties of type II superconducting materials are reviewed as well as the effect of stress on the superconducting properties of these materials. The bcc alloys niobium-titanium and niobium-zirconium exhibit good strength and extensive ductility at room temperature. Mechanical tests on these alloys at 4.2 0 K revealed serrated stress-strain curves, nonlinear elastic effects and reduced ductility. The nonlinear behavior is probably due to twinning and detwinning or a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. The brittle A-15 compound superconductors, such as Nb 3 Sn and V 3 Ga, exhibit unusual elastic properties and structural instabilities at cryogenic temperatures. Multifilamentary composites consisting of superconducting filaments in a normal metal matrix are generally used for superconducting devices. The mechanical properties of alloy and compound composites, tapes, as well as composites of niobium carbonitride chemically vapor deposited on high strength carbon fibers are presented. Hysteretic stress-strain behavior in the metal matrix composites produces significant heat generation, an effect which may lead to degradation in the performance of high field magnets. Measurements of the critical current density, J/sub c/, under stress in a magnetic field are reported. Modest stress-reversible degradation in J/sub c/ was observed in niobium-titanium composites, while more serious degradation was found in Nb 3 Sn samples. The importance of mechanical behavior to device performance is discussed
Full Text Available Measuring the information environment of firms using analyst (price forecast bias and forecast dispersion before listing, we empirically examine the interactive influence of the information environment and market-wide sentiment on the initial returns of initial public offerings (IPOs. We find the smaller the analyst forecast bias/dispersion, the lower the effect market-wide sentiment has on IPO initial returns. This finding indicates that information asymmetry is a basic reason for noise trading occurs and demonstrates the positive effect of financial analysts during IPOs. In addition, the effect of analyst forecasts is more pronounced during periods of rising markets and when IPO prices are not regulated.
Piquet-Pessôa, Marcelo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Naltrexone (NTX), a mu-opioid receptor antagonist, has been approved for the treatment of alcoholism and opioid dependence. More recently, however, NTX and a related drug, nalmefene (NMF), have also shown positive results for the treatment of gambling disorders. In this study, we reviewed the trials testing the effect of opioid antagonists (OA) in gambling disorders and in other broadly defined behavioral addictions, including selected DSM-5 disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, eating disorders, and other conditions not currently recognized by official classification schemes. We found six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of OA in gambling disorder, two RCTs of OA in trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), two RCTs of OA in binge eating disorder, and one RCT of OA for kleptomania. We also reviewed case reports on hypersexual disorder, compulsive buying and skin picking disorders. The reviewed data supported the use of OA, namely NTX and NMF, in gambling disorder (both) and kleptomania (NTX). We did not find enough evidence to support the use of NTX or NMF in trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), excoriation (skin-picking) disorder, compulsive buying disorder, hypersexual disorder, or binge eating disorder.
Full Text Available Juliana Castilhos Beauvalet,1,2 Caroline Luísa Quiles,1,2 Melissa Alves Braga de Oliveira,1,2 Carlos Augusto Vieira Ilgenfritz,1 Maria Paz Loayza Hidalgo,1–3 André Comiran Tonon1 1Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Even though light is considered the main cue that entrains inner biological rhythms according to circadian environmental rhythms, social organizations have the capacity to take the body “out of sync”. An emergent field of research on the topic refers to what has been described as social jetlag, the biological misalignment that arises from alternated work and free days. However, to the present moment, there is still controversial evidence on the effects of such a phenomenon to human health.Objective: The aim of this study was to identify current peer-reviewed evidence of the health and behavioral risks associated with social jetlag.Method: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on PubMed, Scopus, Embase and LILACS electronic databases using the terms “social AND (jet lag OR jetlag”. The search was finalized on August 22, 2016, resulting in 26 research articles included in the review.Results and discussion: Our results point to a variety of health and behavioral outcomes that seem to be associated with the mismatch existent between work or study days and free days. They are epilepsy, minor psychiatric symptoms, aggression and conduct problems, mood disorders, cognitive impairment (eg, work and academic performance, substance use, cardiometabolic risk and adverse endocrine profiles
A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…
Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.
In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506
Chafouleas, Sandra M.
The conceptual foundation for Direct Behavior Rating as a behavior assessment method is reviewed. A contemporary definition of Direct Behavior Rating is framed as combining strengths of systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales, which may result in a usable and defensible assessment tool for educators engaged in formative purposes.…
... Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analysts-Order Management, Voice Over Internet Protocol, Small And... Management, Voice Over Internet Protocol, Small And Medium Business, San Antonio, TX; Amended Certification... Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analysts-Order Management, Voice Over Internet Protocol, Small and...
A. de Jong (Abe); G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); A.M. van der Poel (Marieke); R. van Dijk (Ronald)
textabstractAbstract: We examine financial analysts’ views on corporate financial reporting issues by means of a survey among 306 analysts and interviews among 21 analysts and compare their views with that of CFOs. Since CFOs believe that meeting or beating analysts’ forecasts and managing
SafetyAnalyst provides a set of software tools for use by state and local highway agencies for highway safety management. SafetyAnalyst can be used by highway agencies to improve their programming of site-specific highway safety improvements. SafetyA...
Lee, Choong Kwon; Han, Hyo-Joo
This paper presents the most up-to-date skill requirements for programmer/analyst, one of the most demanded entry-level job titles in the Information Systems (IS) field. In the past, several researchers studied job skills for IS professionals, but few have focused especially on "programmer/analyst." The authors conducted an extensive empirical…
Park, Chang Min; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Jang, Min; Son, Ahjeong; Yoon, Yeomin
A pronounced increase in the use of nanotechnology has resulted in nanomaterials being released into the environment. Environmental exposure to the most common engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), such as carbon-based and metal-based nanomaterials, can occur directly via intentional injection for remediation purposes, release during the use of nanomaterial-containing consumer goods, or indirectly via different routes. Recent reviews have outlined potential risks assessments, toxicity, and life cycle analyses regarding ENM emission. In this review, inevitable release of ENMs and their environmental behaviors in aqueous porous media are discussed with an emphasis on influencing factors, including the physicochemical properties of ENMs, solution chemistry, soil hydraulic properties, and soil matrices. Major findings of laboratory column studies and numerical approaches for the transport of ENMs are addressed, and studies on the interaction between ENMs and heavy metal ions in aqueous soil environments are examined. Future research is also presented with specific research directions and outlooks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McGuire, Joseph F.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Piacentini, John; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.
Behavior therapy is an evidenced-based intervention with moderate-to-large treatment effects in reducing tic symptom severity among individuals with Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs) and Tourette’s Disorder (TD). This review describes the behavioral treatment model for tics, delineates components of evidence-based behavior therapy for tics, and reviews the empirical support among randomized controlled trials for individuals with PTDs or TD. Additionally, this review discusses several challenges...
Lijtmaer, Ruth M
A patient's religious beliefs and practices challenge the clinical experience and self-knowledge of the analyst owing to a great complexity of factors, and often take the form of the analyst's resistances and countertransference reactions to spiritual and religious issues. The analyst's feelings about the patient's encounters with religion and other forms of healing experiences may result in impasses and communication breakdown for a variety of reasons. These reasons include the analyst's own unresolved issues around her role as a psychoanalyst-which incorporates in some way psychoanalysis's views of religious belief-and these old conflicts may be irritated by the religious themes expressed by the patient. Vignettes from the treatments of two patients provide examples of the analyst's countertransference conflicts, particularly envy in the case of a therapist who is an atheist.
Antonio Lopo Martinez
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of analysts’ coverage, forecasting errors and earnings management. It corroborates the role of analysts as gatekeepers by finding that analysts enhance transparency and reduce the scope of earnings management. To identify analysts’ coverage we used the I/B/E/S, from where we also obtained information on the consensus projections of analysts for listed Brazilian companies. The results indicated a negative correlation between the number of analysts covering firms and the magnitude of their discretionary accruals in absolute terms, indicating that more scrutiny inhibits earnings management. We also found a negative correlation between analysts’ coverage and forecasting errors. Multivariate regressions showed statistically significant results in the same sense. Therefore, market analysts, despite the severe criticism they receive from the specialized press, actually have a beneficial effect on corporate governance by monitoring managers and inhibiting earnings management.
Cornet, L.J.M.; de Kogel, C.H.; Nijman, H.I.; Raine, A.; van der Laan, P.H.
This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific
The purpose of this review was to survey the literature examining alcohol effects on human behavior and performance, especially low alcohol dose effects. Other comprehensive reviews on this topic from 1975 to 1990 found that alcohol could affect all ...
Pearson, Gavin; Madahar, Bhopinder
Joint Vision 2020 highlights that achievement of `full spectrum dominance rests upon information superiority' and that information capabilities are changing rapidly. Similarly the Eight Great Technologies and McKinsey Global Institute have highlighted the criticality of `Big Data' technologies. But most `Big Data' technologies are predicated on the availability of high quality/bandwidth distributed information Infrastructure and service rich systems, and much of the technology is designed for use by highly trained data scientists. In deployed military operations the context is radically different; many analysts are generalists as opposed to highly trained data scientists, and the information infrastructure is frequently significantly smaller, sparse and brittle but nevertheless complex. Further operations are highly dynamic, temporally challenging, and in an unfamiliar sociocultural environment. As Joint Vision 2020 states `the need to shape ambiguous situations at the low end of the range of operations will present special challenges'. This paper outlines the S&T challenges associated with adapting `Big Data' technologies to build a distributed analytic capability for the deployed operations. In particular we will discuss issues associated with: a) The adoption of data analytic platforms and the need for adaption to a distributed coalition environment and tactical information infrastructures; b) The Volume, Velocity, Variety, Veracity, Viscosity and Value of information and information processing, storage and distribution capabilities; c) The nature of the situations to be understood and the resulting impact on abstract representations and synergistic human-machine teams; d) The role of the human in collaboratively extracting understanding from information and directing the information system.
Graham, Meghan N.; Graham, Jacob L.
We have seen significant change in the study and practice of human reasoning in recent years from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. Ubiquitous communication coupled with advances in computing and a plethora of analytic support tools have created a push for instantaneous reporting and analysis. This notion is particularly prevalent in law enforcement, emergency services and the intelligence community (IC), where commanders (and their civilian leadership) expect not only a birds' eye view of operations as they occur, but a play-by-play analysis of operational effectiveness. This paper explores the use of Red Cell Analytics (RCA) as pedagogy to train the next-gen analyst. A group of Penn State students in the College of Information Sciences and Technology at the University Park campus of The Pennsylvania State University have been practicing Red Team Analysis since 2008. RCA draws heavily from the military application of the same concept, except student RCA problems are typically on non-military in nature. RCA students utilize a suite of analytic tools and methods to explore and develop red-cell tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs), and apply their tradecraft across a broad threat spectrum, from student-life issues to threats to national security. The strength of RCA is not always realized by the solution but by the exploration of the analytic pathway. This paper describes the concept and use of red cell analytics to teach and promote the use of structured analytic techniques, analytic writing and critical thinking in the area of security and risk and intelligence training.
Privett, Grant J.; Harvey, Peter R. W.; Booth, David M.; Kent, Philip J.; Redding, Nick J.; Evans, Dean; Jones, K. L.
Increasingly demanding military requirements and rapid technological advances are producing reconnaissance sensors with greater spatial, spectral and temporal resolution. This, with the benefits to be gained from deploying multiple sensors co-operatively, is resulting in a so-called data deluge, where recording systems, data-links, and exploitation systems struggle to cope with the required imagery throughput. This paper focuses on the exploitation stage and, in particular, the provision of cueing aids for Imagery Analysts (IAs), who need to integrate a variety of sources in order to gain situational awareness. These sources may include multi-source imagery and intelligence feeds, various types of mapping and collateral data, as well the need for the IAs to add their own expertise in military doctrine etc. This integration task is becoming increasingly difficult as the volume and diversity of the input increases. The first stage in many exploitation tasks is that of image registration. It facilitates change detection and many avenues of multi-source exploitation. Progress is reported on the automating this task, on its current performance characteristics, its integration into a potentially operational system, and hence on its expected utility. We also report on the development of an evolutionary architecture, 'ICARUS' in which feature detectors (or cuers) are constructed incrementally using a genetic algorithm that evolves simple sub-structures before combining, and further evolving them, to form more comprehensive and robust detectors. This approach is shown to help overcome the complexity limit that prevents many machine-learning algorithms from scaling up to the real world.
Full Text Available Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior. The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.
Carr, James E; Fox, Eric J
Although applied behavior analysis has generated many highly effective behavior-change procedures, the procedures have not always been effectively disseminated. One solution to this problem is the use of video technology, which has been facilitated by the ready availability of video production equipment and software and multiple distribution methods (e.g., DVD, online streaming). We review a recent DVD that was produced to disseminate the successful experimental functional analysis procedure. The review is followed by general recommendations for disseminating behavior-analytic procedures via video technology.
Huebner, David M; Perry, Nicholas S
Behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior depend on strong health behavior theory. By identifying the psychosocial variables that lead causally to sexual risk, theories provide interventionists with a guide for how to change behavior. However, empirical research is critical to determining whether a particular theory adequately explains sexual risk behavior. A large body of cross-sectional evidence, which has been reviewed elsewhere, supports the notion that certain theory-based constructs (e.g., self-efficacy) are correlates of sexual behavior. However, given the limitations of inferring causality from correlational research, it is essential that we review the evidence from more methodologically rigorous studies (i.e., longitudinal and experimental designs). This systematic review identified 44 longitudinal studies in which investigators attempted to predict sexual risk from psychosocial variables over time. We also found 134 experimental studies (i.e., randomized controlled trials of HIV interventions), but of these only 9 (6.7 %) report the results of mediation analyses that might provide evidence for the validity of health behavior theories in predicting sexual behavior. Results show little convergent support across both types of studies for most traditional, theoretical predictors of sexual behavior. This suggests that the field must expand the body of empirical work that utilizes the most rigorous study designs to test our theoretical assumptions. The inconsistent results of existing research would indicate that current theoretical models of sexual risk behavior are inadequate, and may require expansion or adaptation.
McNeese, Michael D.; Mancuso, Vincent; McNeese, Nathan; Endsley, Tristan; Forster, Pete
The preparation of next generation analyst work requires alternative levels of understanding and new methodological departures from the way current work transpires. Current work practices typically do not provide a comprehensive approach that emphasizes the role of and interplay between (a) cognition, (b) emergent activities in a shared situated context, and (c) collaborative teamwork. In turn, effective and efficient problem solving fails to take place, and practice is often composed of piecemeal, techno-centric tools that isolate analysts by providing rigid, limited levels of understanding of situation awareness. This coupled with the fact that many analyst activities are classified produces a challenging situation for researching such phenomena and designing and evaluating systems to support analyst cognition and teamwork. Through our work with cyber, image, and intelligence analysts we have realized that there is more required of researchers to study human-centered designs to provide for analyst's needs in a timely fashion. This paper identifies and describes how The Living Laboratory Framework can be utilized as a means to develop a comprehensive, human-centric, and problem-focused approach to next generation analyst work, design, and training. We explain how the framework is utilized for specific cases in various applied settings (e.g., crisis management analysis, image analysis, and cyber analysis) to demonstrate its value and power in addressing an area of utmost importance to our national security. Attributes of analyst work settings are delineated to suggest potential design affordances that could help improve cognitive activities and awareness. Finally, the paper puts forth a research agenda for the use of the framework for future work that will move the analyst profession in a viable manner to address the concerns identified.
Rector, Neil A; Beck, Aaron T
Early case studies and noncontrolled trial studies focusing on the treatment of delusions and hallucinations have laid the foundation for more recent developments in comprehensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions for schizophrenia. Seven randomized, controlled trial studies testing the efficacy of CBT for schizophrenia were identified by electronic search (MEDLINE and PsychInfo) and by personal correspondence. After a review of these studies, effect size (ES) estimates were computed to determine the statistical magnitude of clinical change in CBT and control treatment conditions. CBT has been shown to produce large clinical effects on measures of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Patients receiving routine care and adjunctive CBT have experienced additional benefits above and beyond the gains achieved with routine care and adjunctive supportive therapy. These results reveal promise for the role of CBT in the treatment of schizophrenia although additional research is required to test its efficacy, long-term durability, and impact on relapse rates and quality of life. Clinical refinements are needed also to help those who show only minimal benefit with the intervention.
Veening, Jan G; Olivier, Berend
The intranasal (IN-) administration of substances is attracting attention from scientists as well as pharmaceutical companies. The effects are surprisingly fast and specific. The present review explores our current knowledge about the routes of access to the cranial cavity. 'Direct-access-pathways' from the nasal cavity have been described but many additional experiments are needed to answer a variety of open questions regarding anatomy and physiology. Among the IN-applied substances oxytocin (OT) has an extensive history. Originally applied in women for its physiological effects related to lactation and parturition, over the last decade most studies focused on their behavioral 'prosocial' effects: from social relations and 'trust' to treatment of 'autism'. Only very recently in a microdialysis study in rats and mice, the 'direct-nose-brain-pathways' of IN-OT have been investigated directly, implying that we are strongly dependent on results obtained from other IN-applied substances. Especially the possibility that IN-OT activates the 'intrinsic' OT-system in the hypothalamus as well needs further clarification. We conclude that IN-OT administration may be a promising approach to influence human communication but that the existing lack of information about the neural and physiological mechanisms involved is a serious problem for the proper understanding and interpretation of the observed effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Résumé …….. Les analystes du renseignement sont aux prises avec des problèmes de surcharge informationnelle et cognitive. Pour régler ces problèmes...support cognitifs. Ce rapport propose un cadre d’intégration pour jeter les bases d’un analyste virtuel du renseignement , sensible au contexte. Une...initial instantiation of analysis components on the proposed framework is also described. Les analystes du renseignement sont aux prises avec des
Piotrowska Patrycja J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between social position and physical health is well-established across a range of studies. The evidence base regarding social position and mental health is less well developed, particularly regarding the development of antisocial behavior. Some evidence demonstrates a social gradient in behavioral problems, with children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds experiencing more behavioral difficulties than children from high-socioeconomic families. Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous concept that encompasses behaviors as diverse as physical fighting, vandalism, stealing, status violation and disobedience to adults. Whether all forms of antisocial behavior show identical social gradients is unclear from previous published research. The mechanisms underlying social gradients in antisocial behavior, such as neighborhood characteristics and family processes, have not been fully elucidated. This review will synthesize findings on the social gradient in antisocial behavior, considering variation across the range of antisocial behaviors and evidence regarding the mechanisms that might underlie the identified gradients. Methods In this review, an extensive manual and electronic literature search will be conducted for papers published from 1960 to 2011. The review will include empirical and quantitative studies of children and adolescents ( Discussion This systematic review has been proposed in order to synthesize cross-disciplinary evidence of the social gradient in antisocial behavior and mechanisms underlying this effect. The results of the review will inform social policies aiming to reduce social inequalities and levels of antisocial behavior, and identify gaps in the present literature to guide further research.
McGuire, Joseph F; Ricketts, Emily J; Piacentini, John; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A; Lewin, Adam B
Behavior therapy is an evidenced-based intervention with moderate-to-large treatment effects in reducing tic symptom severity among individuals with Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs) and Tourette's Disorder (TD). This review describes the behavioral treatment model for tics, delineates components of evidence-based behavior therapy for tics, and reviews the empirical support among randomized controlled trials for individuals with PTDs or TD. Additionally, this review discusses several challenges confronting the behavioral management of tics, highlights emerging solutions for these challenges, and outlines new directions for treatment research.
Hashemian, F; Shafigh, F; Roohi, E
In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents' libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.
Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.
Boerman, S.C.; Kruikemeier, S.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.
Advertisers are increasingly monitoring people's online behavior and using the information collected to show people individually targeted advertisements. This phenomenon is called online behavioral advertising (OBA). Although advertisers can benefit from OBA, the practice also raises concerns about
Winer, Gerald A.
Reviews four major ways of measuring children's fearful behavior (through behavioral rating scales, self-report measures, projective techniques, and physiological measures). Makes the point that disruptive behaviors in dental settings are seen in relatively few children, with marked diminutions in anxiety occurring in the preschool years. (RH)
On behalf of the Editorial Board and the editorial management staff of MDPI, it is my great pleasure to introduce this new journal Behavioral Sciences. Behavioral Sciences seeks to publish original research and scholarship contributing to our understanding of human behavior. The journal will provide a forum for work that furthers knowledge and stimulates research in the behavioral sciences. We are committed to building a diverse and methodologically rigorous literature of interest and benefit...
Garcia, Dainelys; Hungerford, Gabriela M.; Bagner, Daniel M.
Objective To summarize recent research on negative behavioral and cognitive outcomes following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Topical review of the literature published since the year 2000 examining behavioral and cognitive difficulties following TBI in early childhood. Results Research findings from the reviewed studies demonstrate a variety of negative behavioral and cognitive outcomes following TBI in childhood, particularly for children
Alamar, B C; Glantz, S A
To document how the tobacco industry has used Wall Street analysts to further its public policy objectives. Searching tobacco documents available on the internet, newspaper articles, and transcripts of public hearings. The tobacco industry used nominally independent Wall Street analysts as third parties to support the tobacco industry's legislative agenda at both national and state levels in the USA. The tobacco industry has, for example, edited the testimony of at least one analyst before he testified to the US Senate Judiciary Committee, while representing himself as independent of the industry. The tobacco industry has used undisclosed collaboration with Wall Street analysts, as they have used undisclosed relationships with research scientists and academics, to advance the interests of the tobacco industry in public policy.
The analyst's consulting room toilet lends itself to myriad uses in the context of the analytic relationship. It is a place where "dirty" secrets may be excitedly deposited and where perverse fantasies can be fueled and acted out, as illustrated in the analysis of Mr. D. This perverse use of the analyst's toilet is contrasted with the case of Ms. C., whose anxieties about the destructiveness of her aggression led initially to a phobic avoidance of the toilet and then evolved toward its use as a container for parts of herself she felt were bad and unacceptable, thereby protecting the relationship with the analyst, who could not yet be trusted to receive and survive her projections. In these cases the toilet becomes quite concretely the location of the "toilet-breast" (Meltzer 1967), a means of preserving a more idealized relationship with the analyst.
Shi, Wei; You, Haifeng
We examine how companies voluntarily change their financial reporting conservatism in response to an exogenous decrease in analyst coverage. We hypothesize that more severe information asymmetry and weaker external monitoring associated with such a decrease in analyst coverage exacerbate agency conflicts between contracting parties, which in turn creates a greater demand for conservative accounting. Consistent with this prediction, we document a significant increase in accounti...
Suxia Liu; Xuan Zhu
The authors present an integrated GIS tool, Accessibility Analyst, for accessibility analysis in urban transportation planning, built as an extension to the desktop GIS software package, ArcView. Accessibility Analyst incorporates a number of accessibility measures, ranging from catchment profile analysis to cumulative-opportunity measures, gravity-type measures, and utility-based measures, contains several travel-impedance measurement tools for estimating the travel distance, time, or cost b...
Alamar, B; Glantz, S
Objective: To document how the tobacco industry has used Wall Street analysts to further its public policy objectives. Methods: Searching tobacco documents available on the internet, newspaper articles, and transcripts of public hearings. Results: The tobacco industry used nominally independent Wall Street analysts as third parties to support the tobacco industry's legislative agenda at both national and state levels in the USA. The tobacco industry has, for example, edited the testimony of a...
To answer the questions: why don't more people enter analysis and how do we get more people to do so? Attention is drawn to anxieties in the analyst that become obstacles to the initiation of analysis. The main focus of the paper is how to understand why analysts, irrespective of patient characteristics, seem to have resistances against embarking on analysis. Being a meeting between strangers the consultation activates strong emotional reactions in both parties. One way of coping is defensively to diagnose, assess and exclude instead of being present as an analyst. The analytic frame of a consultation is ambiguous, and a secure analytic function is needed in order to meet the openness and unpredictability of this frame. A fragile psychoanalytic identity is seen as central to analysts' failure to create an analytic practice; it takes years to develop and maintain a robust analytic function, and analytic work continues to cause disturbing emotional reactions in the analyst. Analysts' vulnerable identity is also linked to the history of psychoanalysis that has fostered an ideal of analytic practice that is omnipotent and impossible to reach. Therefore it is no wonder that attempts to reach a convinced recommendation of analysis can become diverted in the process of consultation. Confronting these inner impediments in order to strengthen the analytic identity is suggested as a better way to get more analytic patients than to keep looking for so-called analysability in patients. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Osborne, Nikola K P; Taylor, Michael C; Healey, Matthew; Zajac, Rachel
It is becoming increasingly apparent that contextual information can exert a considerable influence on decisions about forensic evidence. Here, we explored accuracy and contextual influence in bloodstain pattern classification, and how these variables might relate to analyst characteristics. Thirty-nine bloodstain pattern analysts with varying degrees of experience each completed measures of compliance, decision-making style, and need for closure. Analysts then examined a bloodstain pattern without any additional contextual information, and allocated votes to listed pattern types according to favoured and less favoured classifications. Next, if they believed it would assist with their classification, analysts could request items of contextual information - from commonly encountered sources of information in bloodstain pattern analysis - and update their vote allocation. We calculated a shift score for each item of contextual information based on vote reallocation. Almost all forms of contextual information influenced decision-making, with medical findings leading to the highest shift scores. Although there was a small positive association between shift scores and the degree to which analysts displayed an intuitive decision-making style, shift scores did not vary meaningfully as a function of experience or the other characteristics measured. Almost all of the erroneous classifications were made by novice analysts. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xia, Jianguo; Wishart, David S
MetaboAnalyst (http://www.metaboanalyst.ca) is a comprehensive Web application for metabolomic data analysis and interpretation. MetaboAnalyst handles most of the common metabolomic data types from most kinds of metabolomics platforms (MS and NMR) for most kinds of metabolomics experiments (targeted, untargeted, quantitative). In addition to providing a variety of data processing and normalization procedures, MetaboAnalyst also supports a number of data analysis and data visualization tasks using a range of univariate, multivariate methods such as PCA (principal component analysis), PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis), heatmap clustering and machine learning methods. MetaboAnalyst also offers a variety of tools for metabolomic data interpretation including MSEA (metabolite set enrichment analysis), MetPA (metabolite pathway analysis), and biomarker selection via ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis, as well as time series and power analysis. This unit provides an overview of the main functional modules and the general workflow of the latest version of MetaboAnalyst (MetaboAnalyst 3.0), followed by eight detailed protocols. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Garcia, Dainelys; Hungerford, Gabriela M; Bagner, Daniel M
To summarize recent research on negative behavioral and cognitive outcomes following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). Topical review of the literature published since the year 2000 examining behavioral and cognitive difficulties following TBI in early childhood. Research findings from the reviewed studies demonstrate a variety of negative behavioral and cognitive outcomes following TBI in childhood, particularly for children behaviors, attention, language, and cognitive functioning (e.g., IQ, executive functioning). Furthermore, negative outcomes have been shown to persist up to 16 years following the injury. The empirical studies reviewed demonstrate the increased risk for negative behavioral and cognitive outcomes following early childhood TBI. Furthermore, the review highlights current strengths and limitations of TBI research with young children and the need for multidisciplinary work examining outcomes for this vulnerable pediatric population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Brown, Jennifer L; Gause, Nicole K; Northern, Nathan
Alcohol use is prevalent among college students and may contribute to sexual risk behavior engagement. A narrative review of the recent empirical literature examining the association between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among college student samples was conducted. The purpose of this review was to: (a) review studies examining the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors; and (b) overview research investigating alcohol expectancies and partner characteristics as factors that may influence the alcohol-risky sex relation among college students. Findings regarding the direct link between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors were mixed. Results suggest a more nuanced association between alcohol and risky sexual behaviors that is influenced by alcohol expectancies and partner characteristics. Results highlight the importance of considering additional factors that may influence the alcohol-risky sex relation. Future interventions targeting alcohol-related sexual risk behavior engagement among college students are needed.
Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H
This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options. © The Author(s) 2013.
Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Lortie, Christopher J.; Budden, Amber E.; Koricheva, Julia; Leimu, Roosa; Tregenza, Tom
We show that when ecologists act as reviewers their reported rejection rates recommended for manuscripts increases with their publication frequency in high impact factor journals. Rejection rate however does not relate to reviewer age. These results indicate that the likelihood of getting a paper accepted for publication may depend upon factors in addition to scientific merit. Multiple reviewer selection for a given manuscript therefore should consider not only appropriate expertise, but also reviewers that have variable publication experience with a range of different journals to ensure balanced treatment. Interestingly since age did not relate to rejection rates, more senior scientists are not necessarily more jaded in reviewing practices. PMID:19621085
Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Brennan, Kaitlyn M.; King, Seth A.
Visual displays such as graphs have played an instrumental role in psychology. One discipline relies almost exclusively on graphs in both applied and basic settings, behavior analysis. The most common graphic used in behavior analysis falls under the category of time series. The line graph represents the most frequently used display for visual…
Caroline M Hostetler
Full Text Available The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF system plays a key role in a diversity of behaviors accompanying stress, anxiety and depression. There is also substantial research on relationships between social behaviors and the CRF system in a variety of taxa including fish, birds, rodents, and primates. Some of these relationships are due to the broad role of CRF and urocortins in stress and anxiety, but these peptides also modulate social behavior specifically. For example, the social interaction (SI test is often used to measure anxiety-like behavior. Many components of the CRF system including CRF, urocortin1, and the R1 receptor have been implicated in SI, via general effects on anxiety as well as specific effects depending on the brain region. The CRF system is also highly responsive to chronic social stressors such as social defeat and isolation. Animals exposed to these stressors display a number of anxiety- and stress-related behaviors, accompanied by changes in specific components the CRF system. Although the primary focus of CRF research on social behavior has been on the deleterious effects of social stress, there are also insights on a role for CRF and urocortins in prosocial and affiliative behaviors. The CRF system has been implicated in parental care, maternal defense, sexual behavior, and pair bonding. Species differences in the ligands and CRF receptors have been observed in vole and bird species differing in social behavior. Exogenous administration of CRF facilitates partner preference formation in monogamous male prairie voles, and these effects are dependent on both the CRF R1 and R2 receptors. These findings are particularly interesting as studies have also implicated the CRF and urocortins in social memory. With the rapid progress of social neuroscience and in understanding the complex structure of the CRF system, the next challenge is in parsing the exact contribution of individual components of this system to specific social
Baum, William M
B. F. Skinner founded both radical behaviorism and behavior analysis. His founding innovations included: a versatile preparation for studying behavior; explicating the generic nature of stimulus and response; a pragmatic criterion for defining behavioral units; response rate as a datum; the concept of stimulus control; the concept of verbal behavior; and explicating the explanatory power of contingencies. Besides these achievements, however, Skinner also made some mistakes. Subsequent developments in radical behaviorist thought have attempted to remedy these mistakes. Moore's book presents a “party line” version of radical behaviorism. It focuses narrowly on a few of Skinner's concepts (mostly mentalism and verbal behavior) and contains no criticism of his mistakes. In fact, Moore adds a few mistakes of his own manufacture; for example, he insists that the mental realm does not exist—an unprovable and distracting assertion. The book's portrayal of behavior analysis would have been current around 1960; it mentions almost none of the developments since then. It also includes almost no developments in radical behaviorism since Skinner. Moore's book would give an unwary reader a highly distorted picture of contemporary behavior analysis and radical behaviorism.
O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention, (2) include at least one obesity-related eating behavior as an outcome, (3) include quantitative outcomes, and (4) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N=21 articles were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programs, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behavior outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviors. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for changing obesity-related eating behaviors, specifically binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. PMID:24636206
Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pragmatism, selectionism, analytic philosophy). Part II examines behavior-analytic interpretations of mentalistic concepts (intention, imagination, ethics, cognition). Part III presents extensions and applications of basic research in behavior analysis (verbal behavior, creativity, development, education, disability, and corporate culture). The publication of this book signals that behaviorism has developed mature philosophical foundations.
Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Stride, Christopher B; Rowe, Richard
The relationship between social position and physical health is well-established across a range of studies. The evidence base regarding social position and mental health is less well developed, particularly regarding the development of antisocial behavior. Some evidence demonstrates a social gradient in behavioral problems, with children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds experiencing more behavioral difficulties than children from high-socioeconomic families. Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous concept that encompasses behaviors as diverse as physical fighting, vandalism, stealing, status violation and disobedience to adults. Whether all forms of antisocial behavior show identical social gradients is unclear from previous published research. The mechanisms underlying social gradients in antisocial behavior, such as neighborhood characteristics and family processes, have not been fully elucidated. This review will synthesize findings on the social gradient in antisocial behavior, considering variation across the range of antisocial behaviors and evidence regarding the mechanisms that might underlie the identified gradients. In this review, an extensive manual and electronic literature search will be conducted for papers published from 1960 to 2011. The review will include empirical and quantitative studies of children and adolescents (antisocial behavior. A standardized data extraction form and quality appraisal checklist will be used to retrieve essential information and critically appraise each study and the inter-rater reliability of the quality scores will be assessed. If practical, meta-analysis will be used to synthesize the data. However, it is expected that the selected studies will be heterogeneous, in which case narrative synthesis will be applied. Separate conclusions may be drawn for logically grouped studies on the basis of their quality score, scope or methodology. This systematic review has been proposed in order to synthesize cross
Hallenbeck, Betty A.; Kauffman, James M.
This paper reviews research on observational learning, including model characteristics and observers' responses, vicarious reinforcement as implicit punishment, vicarious effects on students with problem behavior, observers' other characteristics and vicarious effects, and aggression and vicarious processes. Regular class placement of students…
Aarts, O.A.J.; Maanen, P.P. van; Ouboter, T.; Schraagen, J.M.
This literature review is aimed at examining state of the art research in the field of online social networks. The goal is to identify the current challenges within this area of research, given the questions raised in society. In this review we pay attention to three aspects of social networks:
Conejero, Ismael; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Giner, Lucas; Baca-Garcia, Enrique
Suicidal behavior and its prevention constitute a major public health issue. Etiology of suicidal behavior is multifactorial. Whereas current research is mostly focused on clinical and biological risk factors, the sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior, first highlighted by Durkheim, have received less attention. Besides the well-known impact of age and gender, sociodemographic variables such as marital and parental status, education, occupation, income, employment status, religion, migration or minority status, and sexual orientation are repeatedly reported to play an important role in suicidal behavior. This narrative review aimed to summarize recent research on sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior and to elicit possible implications for suicide prevention.
Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pr...
Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie
Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions.
Wile, Daryl J; Pringsheim, Tamara M
When tics caused by Tourette Syndrome cause meaningful impairment for patients, a comprehensive treatment approach includes education of patients, peers, and family, treatment of comorbid behavioral disorders if present, and consideration of behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for tics themselves. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that behavior therapies based on Habit Reversal Therapy, including the Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics are effective in reducing tic severity when compared with supportive psychotherapy. When these behavior therapies are unavailable, Exposure with Response Prevention may also be effective. Both face-to-face and telehealth delivery methods for behavior therapy improve tic severity, and broader distribution of behavior therapy through increased training or telehealth methods is encouraged. High-quality randomized trials comparing behavior therapies for tics with pharmacotherapy are needed.
O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describ...
Hauer, Karen E.; Carney, Patricia A.; Chang, Anna; Satterfield, Jason
Purpose Unhealthy behaviors contribute to half of U.S. deaths. However, physicians lack sufficient skill in counseling patients to change behaviors. Characterizing effective published curricular interventions for behavior-change counseling for medical trainees would inform educators toward improved training. Method The authors conducted a systematic literature search of studies published 1965–2011 evaluating curricula on behavior change counseling for medical trainees. Included studies described: (1) behavior change counseling, (2) teaching interventions for medical trainees, and (3) assessment of interventions. The authors extracted eligible articles, rated outcomes for learners and patients using Kirkpatrick’s hierarchy, and determined study quality. Results Of 2,788 identified citations, 109 met inclusion criteria. Most studies were performed in the United States (98), 93 at a single institution, and 81 in primary care settings. Curricular topics for counseling included smoking (67 studies), nutrition (30), alcohol/drug use (26), and exercise (22). Although most studies did not include theoretical frameworks, 39 used the Transtheoretical Model of Change. Sixty-two studies involved eight or fewer hours of curricular time, and 51 spanned four or fewer weeks. The studies with highest-level outcomes and quality employed multiple curricular techniques and included practice of counseling techniques in either simulated or actual clinical settings. Conclusions Existing literature suggests that trainees learn behavior change counseling through active, realistic practice and implementation of reminder and feedback systems within actual clinical practice settings. Multi-institutional medical education research on methods of teaching behavior-change counseling that influence patients’ health outcomes are needed to ensure trainees’ clinical competence and improve patient care. PMID:22622220
MacNaul, Hannah L; Neely, Leslie C
The purpose of this article is to review the literature on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedures without extinction for individuals with autism. Using predetermined inclusion criteria, a total of 10 studies were included and summarized in terms of the following: (a) participant characteristics (e.g., sex, age, and diagnosis), (b) treatment setting, (c) problem behavior, (d) function, (e) alternative behavior, (f) intervention, (g) outcomes, and (h) conclusiveness of evidence. Of the 10 studies, nine demonstrated positive effects and one mixed effects. Five studies successfully reduced problem behavior by manipulating different reinforcement parameters (magnitude, immediacy, and quality) and four manipulated the schedule of reinforcement. One study had mixed results with two of the three participants requiring extinction. The findings of this review suggest that variations of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior interventions without an extinction component may be considered promising practices for the treatment of challenging behavior in individuals with autism.
Full Text Available Premise of the study: Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. Methods: We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. Results: Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. Discussion: The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.
Arthur, R M; Hoogenboom, J; Green, R D; Taylor, M C; de Bruin, K G
Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic discipline concerned with the classification and interpretation of bloodstains and bloodstain patterns at the crime scene. At present, it is unclear exactly which stain or pattern properties and their associated values are most relevant to analysts when classifying a bloodstain pattern. Eye tracking technology has been widely used to investigate human perception and cognition. Its application to forensics, however, is limited. This is the first study to use eye tracking as a tool for gaining access to the mindset of the bloodstain pattern expert. An eye tracking method was used to follow the gaze of 24 bloodstain pattern analysts during an assigned task of classifying a laboratory-generated test bloodstain pattern. With the aid of an automated image-processing methodology, the properties of selected features of the pattern were quantified leading to the delineation of areas of interest (AOIs). Eye tracking data were collected for each AOI and combined with verbal statements made by analysts after the classification task to determine the critical range of values for relevant diagnostic features. Eye-tracking data indicated that there were four main regions of the pattern that analysts were most interested in. Within each region, individual elements or groups of elements that exhibited features associated with directionality, size, colour and shape appeared to capture the most interest of analysts during the classification task. The study showed that the eye movements of trained bloodstain pattern experts and their verbal descriptions of a pattern were well correlated.
Mander, Luke; Baker, Sarah J; Belcher, Claire M; Haselhorst, Derek S; Rodriguez, Jacklyn; Thorn, Jessica L; Tiwari, Shivangi; Urrego, Dunia H; Wesseln, Cassandra J; Punyasena, Surangi W
Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. • We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. • Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. • The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.
Cho, Chan Hee; Lee, Hee Jong; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Nam, Min Woo; Hong, Sung Yull
Some essential components in nuclear power plants are periodically inspected using non destructive examinations, for example ultrasonic, eddy current and radiographic examinations, in order to determine their integrity. These components include nuclear power plant items such as vessels, containments, piping systems, pumps, valves, tubes and core support structure. Steam generator tubes have an important safety role because they constitute one of the primary barriers between the radioactive and non radioactive sides of the nuclear power plant. There is potential that if a tube bursts while a plant is operating, radioactivity from the primary coolant system could escape directly to the atmosphere. Therefore, in service inspections are critical in maintaining steam generator tube integrity. In general, the eddy current testing is widely used for the inspection of steam generator tubes due tube integrity. In general, the eddy current testing is widely used for the inspection of steam generator tubes due to its high inspection speed and flaw detectability on non magnetic tubes. However, it is not easy to analyze correctly eddy current signals because they are influenced by many factors. Therefore, the performance of eddy current data analysts for steam generator tubing should be demonstrated comprehensively. In Korea, the performance of steam generator tubing analysts has been demonstrated using the Qualified Data Analyst program. This paper describes the performance demonstration program for steam generator tubing analysts and its implementation results in Korea. The pass rate of domestic analysts for this program was 71.4%
Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah
This conceptual paper studies the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) in academic dishonesty with the mediating variable of ethical ideologies. The study reviews literature on the Theory of Planned Behavior and past studies pertaining to academic dishonesty. The paper analyses the relationship of the variables of TPB on academic…
Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve
Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…
Bruhn, Allison; McDaniel, Sara; Kreigh, Christi
Explicitly teaching skills associated with self-determination has been promoted to support students' independence and control over their own lives. This is especially important for students with behavior problems. One self-determination skill or behavior that has been studied widely is self-monitoring. Although multiple reviews of various…
Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline
Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…
Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby
Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…
Parkington, Sandra R; Roussos, Stergios
A critical review of the accuracy of salt consumption measurement can enhance future dietary sodium interventions. A review of the measures of salt consumption was conducted with a focus on the measurement that may facilitate behavior modification. Measures were critiqued for factors known to threaten the validity of behavioral measurement in applied settings. The review included observational, interventional, and measurement studies that used at least one measure of behavior indicative of salt consumption. Eighteen articles were retrieved by examining their definitions of salt consumption to ensure a measurement of behavior and a discussion of factors known to influence behavior and its measurement. Articles meeting the above criteria were critically reviewed for factors related to a valid measurement of behavior: participant and setting characteristics, measurement definitions, and measurement procedures. The results indicate that imprecise definitions of salt consumption and insensitive measurement tools limit valid measurement of salt-eating behaviors. Further research is needed to improve the specificity of measures of behaviors that are indicative of salt consumption and to produce tools that clinicians and patients may use for more accurate, and possibly real-time, salt consumption measurement. The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease in the aging U.S. population demands better methods to assess and subsequently control salt consumption in applied settings.
Simo-Pinatella, David; Font-Roura, Josep; Planella-Morato, Joaquima; McGill, Peter; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Gine, Climent
A motivating operation (MO) alters both the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that particular stimulus. This article reviews studies that have manipulated a MO during interventions with school-age participants with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. A…
Diehl, Katharina; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan; Mayer, Jochen; Litaker, David G.; Schneider, Sven
Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky) behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the fr...
Marques, Sofia; Barrocas, Daniel; Rijo, Daniel
Borderline personality disorder is the most common personality disorder, with a global prevalence rate between 1.6% and 6%. It is characterized by affective disturbance and impulsivity, which lead to a high number of self-harm behaviors and great amount of health services use. International guidelines recommend psychotherapy as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder. This paper reviews evidence about the effects and efficacy of cognitive-behavioral oriented psychological treatments for borderline personality disorder. A literature review was conducted in Medline and PubMed databases, using the following keywords: borderline personality disorder, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and efficacy. Sixteen randomized clinical trials were evaluate in this review, which analyzed the effects of several cognitive-behavioral oriented psychotherapeutic interventions, namely dialectical behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, schema-focused therapy and manual-assisted cognitive therapy. All above stated treatments showed clinical beneficial effects, by reducing borderline personality disorder core pathology and associated general psychopathology, as well as by reducing the severity and frequency of self-harm behaviors, and by improving the overall social, interpersonal and global adjustment. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy also caused a soaring remission rate of diagnostic borderline personality disorder criteria of 57% and 94%, respectively. Although there were differences between the psychotherapeutic interventions analysed in this review, all showed clinical benefits in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy presented the strongest scientific data documenting their efficacy, but both interventions are integrative cognitive-behavioral therapies which deviate from the traditional cognitive-behavioral model. In summary, the available studies support
Avery, Kerry N L; Donovan, Jenny L; Horwood, Jeremy; Lane, J Athene
Theory-based approaches are now recommended to design and enact dietary interventions, but their use in cancer trials is unknown. This systematic review examined application of behavior theory to dietary interventions aimed at preventing cancer to improve the design and interpretation of trials. Electronic databases were searched (inception-July 2011). Data were synthesized and a theory coding scheme (TCS) used to describe and assess how behavior theory informed interventions. Studies not reporting a dietary behavior intervention informed by a specified behavior change model(s) were excluded. Of 237 potentially eligible studies, only 40 (16.9 %) were relevant, mostly RCTs (34, 85.0 %). Twenty-one interventions targeted diet alone (52.5 %) or integrated diet into a lifestyle intervention (19, 47.5 %). Most (24, 60.0 %) invoked several behavior change models, but only 10 (25.0 %) interventions were reported as explicitly theory-informed and none comprehensively targeted or measured theoretical constructs or tested theoretical assumptions. The 10 theory-informed interventions were more effective at improving diet. Dietary interventions for cancer prevention improved diet more effectively if they were informed by behavior theory. While behavior theory was often applied to these dietary interventions, they were rarely implemented or described thoroughly. Accurate intervention reporting is essential to assess theoretical quality and facilitate implementation effective behavior change techniques. Guidelines regarding the application and reporting of behavior theory for complex interventions, for example, proposed by the National Institutes of Health and Medical Research Council, should be revised accordingly. Failure to adequately ground dietary interventions in behavior theory may hinder establishing their effectiveness and relationships between diet and cancer.
Jones, Rachel A; Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J; Barnett, Lisa M; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A; Papadopoulos, Nicole V; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna; Hinkley, Trina
Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children's physical activity (34-166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126-558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428-750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors.
Delissaint, Dieula; McKyer, E. Lisako J.
This systematic review critically synthesizes the literature focusing on factors related to preconception health behaviors (PCHBs) among childbearing age women in the United States, developed countries, and developing countries. Ovid Medline and CINAHL databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2008 relating to…
Fraser, Mark W.; Wu, Shiyou
This article reviews the origins, conceptual bases, psychometric properties, and limitations of consumer satisfaction measures in social welfare and behavioral health. Based on a systematic review of research reports published between 2003 and 2013, we identify 58 consumer satisfaction measures. On average, these measures have acceptable…
Sabey, Christian V.; Charlton, Cade T.; Pyle, Daniel; Lignugaris-Kraft, Benjamin; Ross, Scott W.
The purpose of this article is to synthesize the existing research on classwide social, emotional, and behavioral programs for kindergarten students. The researchers identified 26 studies in peer-reviewed journals and dissertation databases to review. Each study was examined and coded in terms of study characteristics, strength of evidence, and…
Howlin, Patricia; Magiati, Iliana; Charman, Tony
Recent reviews highlight limitations in the evidence base for early interventions for children with autism. We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of early intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI) for young children with autism. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria (including two randomized controlled trials). At group level,…
Full Text Available Using 231 pairs of matched firms from 2009 to 2012 in Chinese stock market, we find that the stock index adjustment significantly affects the analyst coverage, which in addition to the stock index leads to more analyst coverage, while deletion from the stock index has no significant effect, indicating that stock index adjustment can significantly change the information environments of firms that are added to the index. An index adjustment also affects institutional holdings in consideration of new information (e.g., changes in fundamentals and information environments. Changes in institutional holdings are partially due to changes in analyst coverage, and both index funds and other types can change their portfolios in response to changes in the target firms’ informativeness.
Birisan, Mihnea; Beling, Peter
New generations of surveillance drones are being outfitted with numerous high definition cameras. The rapid proliferation of fielded sensors and supporting capacity for processing and displaying data will translate into ever more capable platforms, but with increased capability comes increased complexity and scale that may diminish the usefulness of such platforms to human operators. We investigate methods for alleviating strain on analysts by automatically retrieving content specific to their current task using a machine learning technique known as Multi-Instance Learning (MIL). We use MIL to create a real time model of the analysts' task and subsequently use the model to dynamically retrieve relevant content. This paper presents results from a pilot experiment in which a computer agent is assigned analyst tasks such as identifying caravanning vehicles in a simulated vehicle traffic environment. We compare agent performance between MIL aided trials and unaided trials.
By tracing a portion of close process of a patient's shifts from a relatively silent and inhibited stance to one in which he is beginning to verbalize more about his experience and fantasy, I will illustrate some tensions between the analyst's role as facilitating expressiveness and as occupying a place in the patient's internalized world. Since the analyst's functions as facilitator and as internal object (often an obstacle to the patient's expressiveness) are sometimes in conflict with one another, it is important for the analyst to be able to work internally with this conflict as he works with his patient. Splitting processes between these two functions may provide the analyst with cues related to the patient's and the analyst's resistance to understanding the patient's communication of unconscious conflict and the patient's recruitment of the analyst into the patient's internalized world. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Chee Seng Cheong
Full Text Available We examine whether financial analysts’ forecast accuracy differs between the pre- and post- adoption ofAustralian Equivalents to the International Financial Reporting Standards (AIFRS. We find that forecastaccuracy has improved after Australia adopted AIFRS. As a secondary objective, this paper also investigatesthe role of financial analysts in reducing information asymmetry in today’s Australian capital market. We findweak evidence that more analysts following a stock do not help to improve forecast accuracy by bringingmore firm-specific information to the market.
Peters, L.W.H.; Kok, G.; Ten Dam, G.T.M.; Buijs, G.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.
Background. Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements
Polenick, Courtney Allyn; Flora, Stephen Ray
Late-life depression (LLD) is a major public health concern that can have devastating effects on older individuals and their families. Behavioral theories predict that decreases in response-contingent positive reinforcement and increases in negatively reinforced avoidance behaviors, often accompanied by aversive life events, result in the selection and maintenance of depression. Based on these theories, behavioral activation treatments for depression are designed to facilitate structured increases in enjoyable activities that increase opportunities for contact with positive reinforcement. We discuss the applicability of behavioral models for LLD, and we briefly review current behavioral activation interventions for LLD with an emphasis on implications for future behavior-analytic research. Behavioral activation has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing depression and increasing healthy behavior in older adults. Potential challenges and considerations for future research are discussed. We suggest that applied behavior analysts and clinical behavior analysts are particularly well suited to improve and expand on the knowledge base and practical application of behavioral activation interventions with this population.
Götschi, Thomas; de Nazelle, Audrey; Brand, Christian; Gerike, Regine
This paper reviews the use of conceptual frameworks in research on active travel, such as walking and cycling. Generic framework features and a wide range of contents are identified and synthesized into a comprehensive framework of active travel behavior, as part of the Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches project (PASTA). PASTA is a European multinational, interdisciplinary research project on active travel and health. Along with an exponential growth in active travel research, a growing number of conceptual frameworks has been published since the early 2000s. Earlier frameworks are simpler and emphasize the distinction of environmental vs. individual factors, while more recently several studies have integrated travel behavior theories more thoroughly. Based on the reviewed frameworks and various behavioral theories, we propose the comprehensive PASTA conceptual framework of active travel behavior. We discuss how it can guide future research, such as data collection, data analysis, and modeling of active travel behavior, and present some examples from the PASTA project.
Tahir, Muhammad Sohail; Alifiah, Mohammad Norfian
Research on corporate liquidity management practices has mainly focused on the trade-off between the potential costs and benefits of holding cash. However, in order to improve the firm financial performance, much remained to be understood, particularly, the cash holding behavior of firms. Furthermore, this study reveals that contemporary literature in the area of cash management may overlook the industry and institutional context of firms at sector level. In addition, sectors are important to...
Elsner, J; Suter, K E; Ulbrich, B; Schreiner, G
Three laboratories collaborated to evaluate and compare different test concepts to be used for routine testing in behavioral teratology. Rat dams were treated orally with methylmercury starting two weeks prior to pairing until weaning of their offspring. In the first laboratory, the usual reproduction parameters were assessed in the dams, and all offspring (96-103 per group) were subjected to a routine developmental and behavioral test battery. After termination of the tests a random selection of these animals was further tested by multiparametric automated techniques in the other two laboratories. In one of these laboratories 12-13 males and females per group (one of each per litter) were tested in a visual discrimination reversal schedule, using nose-poking as operand. In the other laboratory the free behavioral of eight randomly selected males per dose group was studied in a wheel-shaped activity monitor with respect to locomotion magnitude and structure. In the same laboratory eight other males per group were trained in a discrete trial spatial alternation schedule, using lever press as operand. Both the developmental and behavioral testing battery as well as the automated techniques showed some significant effects in the offspring even at the low dose, where no reproduction effects had been noted. However, whereas the testing battery results were of unspecific nature, results of the automated techniques gave precise and specific information. In order to obtain optimal information, it is proposed to combine both approaches for routine testing. This combination could be achieved by using a balanced testing battery in young pups followed by an appropriate operant conditioning schedule in selected young adults.
Veening, J.G.; Olivier, B.
The intranasal (IN-) administration of substances is attracting attention from scientists as well as pharmaceutical companies. The effects are surprisingly fast and specific. The present review explores our current knowledge about the routes of access to the cranial cavity. 'Direct-access-pathways'
Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Hawe, Penelope; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K
Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today's youth. Friend's health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual's level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends' higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend's sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Friends' physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual's physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents.
Full Text Available Recent developments in stress theory have emphasized the significance of perseverative cognition (worry and rumination in furthering our understanding of stress-disease relationships. Substantial evidence has shown that perseverative cognition (PC is associated with somatic outcomes and numerous physiological concomitants have been identified (i.e., cardiovascular, autonomic and endocrine nervous system activity parameters. However, there has been no synthesis of the evidence regarding the association between PC and health behaviors. This is important given such behaviors may also directly and/or indirectly influence health and disease outcomes (triggered by PC. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to synthesise available studies that have explored the relationship between worry and rumination and health behaviors (health risk: behaviors which, if performed, would be detrimental to health; health promoting: behaviors which, if performed, would be beneficial for health. A systematic review and meta-analyses of the literature were conducted. Studies were included in the review if they reported the association between PC and health behavior. Studies identified in MEDLINE or PsycINFO (k = 7504 were screened, of which19 studies met the eligibility criteria. Random-effects meta-analyses suggested increased PC was generally associated with increased health risk behaviors but not health promoting behaviors. Further analyses indicated that increases in rumination, (r = .122, but not reflection (r = -.080, or worry, r = .048 were associated with health risk behaviors. In conclusion, these results showed that increases in PC are associated with increases in health risk behaviors (substance use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating and smoking that are driven primarily through rumination. These findings provide partial support for our hypothesis that in Brosschot and colleagues (2006 original perseverative cognition hypothesis, there may be scope
Donaldson, Amy L.; Stahmer, Aubyn C.
Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and behavior analysts are key members of school-based teams that serve children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Behavior analysts approach assessment and intervention through the lens of applied behavior analysis (ABA). ABA-based interventions have been found effective for targeting skills across…
Full Text Available Chloride-induced corrosion and its effect on structural and seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC structures have been the topic of several research projects in past decades. This literature review summarizes the state of the art by presenting a brief description of chloride-induced corrosion, its main characteristics and influencing factors, a summary of experimental published data, and existing corrosion-induced deterioration models together with numerical and experimental methods used to evaluate corroded RC bridge pier. This literature review highlights the need for reliable deterioration models for RC structures and appropriate analysis methods are needed for design of new structures or assessment of existing civil engineering structures especially in seismic areas.
Vesnaver, Elisabeth; Keller, Heather H
Food intake is often poor within the older population and many are at nutritional risk. Food intake is complex, as there are multiple individual, social, and environmental determinants that may interact and change over time. Social isolation has long been recognized as a key factor predicting nutrition risk in this population. However, the mechanisms by which social relationships influence diet among older adults remain poorly understood. The purpose of this review is two-fold: ( 1 ) to identify and, where possible, clarify the social concepts used in older adult nutrition research over the past two decades, specifically, the concepts of social integration, social support, companionship and commensality; and ( 2 ) to provide a review and summary of the empirical literature on social factors and diet among cognitively well older adults living in the community. Finally, challenges to studying social concepts in older adult nutrition and areas of future research will be discussed.
Mendez, Mario F.
Morality may be innate to the human brain. This review examines the neurobiological evidence from research involving functional magnetic resonance imaging of normal subjects, developmental sociopathy, acquired sociopathy from brain lesions, and frontotemporal dementia. These studies indicate a “neuromoral” network for responding to moral dilemmas centered in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and its connections, particularly on the right. The neurobiological evidence indicates the existence ...
Walls, Susan C.
This state‐of‐the‐art book has made its timely emergence amid a crisis of global magnitude: that of population declines, range reductions, and extinctions of numerous species of amphibians. A clear understanding of the fundamental concepts in amphibian biology is crucial to the success of any conservation effort. This volume compiles the information necessary to acquire that basic understanding. It is a comprehensive synthesis of both traditional and contemporary facets of amphibian biology, spanning a breadth of topics ranging from phylogeny, physiology, behavior, population and community ecology, and conservation. As such, it undoubtedly takes its place among contemporary volumes as the single, authoritative source for basic topics relevant to amphibian life.
Dawson, Geraldine; Burner, Karen
The study provides an overview of recent studies on behavioral interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent reviews of the effectiveness of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) conclude that EIBI can improve language and cognitive skills. The first randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a comprehensive early intervention for toddlers with ASD demonstrated gains in language, cognitive abilities, and adaptive behavior. Targeted, brief behavioral interventions are efficacious for improving social communication in young children with ASD. Parents can be taught to deliver behavioral interventions, which are associated with improvements in parent-child interaction; effects on child outcome, however, have been mixed. Several studies show that social skills interventions are efficacious for improving peer relationships and social competence. Behavioral interventions are also effective for reducing anxiety symptoms and aggression. Medication combined with behavioral intervention was found to be more effective for reducing aggression than medication alone. Behavioral interventions are effective for improving language, cognitive abilities, adaptive behavior, and social skills, and reducing anxiety and aggression. Medication combined with behavioral intervention appears to be more effective for reducing aggressive behavior than medication alone.
Full Text Available Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB, obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case-control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases.
Pugh, Gemma; Gravestock, Helen L; Hough, Rachael E; King, Wendy M; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail
It is important that teenage and young adult (TYA) cancer survivors adopt a healthy lifestyle, since health vulnerabilities associated with their diagnosis and treatment may be exacerbated by poor health behaviors. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on health behavior change interventions created specifically for TYA-aged cancer survivors. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched for studies investigating interventions targeting one or more health behaviors, including: physical activity, diet, smoking cessation, and alcohol consumption. Studies were eligible for review if the study population were defined as TYA cancer survivors and the mean age of the sample was younger than 30 years of age. Twelve studies were identified, of which nine were randomized controlled trials. Physical activity was the most commonly targeted health behavior. Six of the 12 interventions included within this review were successful in changing health behavior. Due to the heterogeneity of intervention characteristics, the relationship between intervention efficacy or outcome and intervention content, delivery mode, or theoretical framework was not discernible. Nevertheless, trends emerged relating to the delivery and content of health behavior interventions designed specifically for TYA cancer survivors. More research is required to identify the most effective means of promoting health behavior change among the TYA cancer survivor population. Specifically, future research should focus on providing evidence of the efficiency and feasibility of interventions that use online technologies to facilitate remote intervention delivery and peer support.
Silveira, Loreana Sanches; Inoue, Daniela Sayuri; Rodrigues da Silva, Jose Messias; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro
High blood pressure (HBP) is a cardiovascular risk factor that can initiate in childhood and adolescence and may be associated with other risk factors such as sedentary lifestyles. Therefore, verifying if these associations occur from the earliest ages is of fundamental importance. to report the prevalence of HBP combined with sedentary behavior through a systematic review. The research was performed based on studies published between 2010 and 2016 in Medline, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), and Scielo, using terms related to: 'sedentary behavior' OR 'screen time' AND 'high blood pressure'. In the initial search, 821 studies were found and after exclusions twelve studies were included in the review. Twelve studies addressing the relationship between sedentary behavior and HBP were found. Eighty-three percent of the studies evaluated sedentary behavior using a questionnaire (n = 10). The majority of studies analyzed in the review were conducted in North America (41.6%). Only four studies presented the prevalence of HBP related to sedentary behavior (variation 1-22.9%). In seven studies a close relationship between sedentary behavior and HBP was observed. Although most studies observed a relationship between sedentary behavior and HBP, the results still need to be further explained. Based on the findings of this review, follow-up studies and objective measurements of time spent in sedentary behavior in young people could help to determine the cause-effect relationship between sedentary behavior and HBP in pediatric populations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
There is much to be gained by using systems analysis in educational administration. Most administrators, presently relying on classical statistical techniques restricted to problems having few variables, should be trained to use more sophisticated tools such as systems analysis. The systems analyst, interested in the basic processes of a group or…
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,827] Verizon Business Networks... Under MCI Communication Services, Inc., Hilliard, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... Verizon Business Network Services, Inc., Senior Analyst-Service Program Delivery, Hilliard, Ohio (subject...
We hypothesised that emerging mobile health (mhealth) technology could offer a costeffective alternative to current gold standard AIS coding mechanisms in a highvolume trauma centre in South Africa (SA). The primary aim of this study was to compare. ISSs coded by the data analysts and those coded using the mhealth.
Silberzahn, Raphael; Uhlmann, E.L.; Martin, D.P.; Anselmi, P.; Aust, F.; Awtrey, E.; Bahnik, Š.; Bai, F.; Bannard, C.; Bonnier, E.; Carlsson, R.; Cheung, F.; Christensen, G.; Clay, R.; Craig, M.A.; Dalla Rosa, A.; Dam, Lammertjan; Evans, M.H.; Flores Cervantes, I.; Fong, N.; Gamez-Djokic, M.; Glenz, A.; Gordon-McKeon, S.; Heaton, T.J.; Hederos, K.; Heene, M.; Hofelich Mohr, A.J.; Högden, F.; Hui, K.; Johannesson, M.; Kalodimos, J.; Kaszubowski, E.; Kennedy, D.M.; Lei, R.; Lindsay, T.A.; Liverani, S.; Madan, C.R.; Molden, D.; Molleman, Henricus; Morey, R.D.; Mulder, Laetitia; Nijstad, Bernard; Pope, N.G.; Pope, B.; Prenoveau, J.M.; Rink, Floortje; Robusto, E.; Roderique, H.; Sandberg, A.; Schlüter, E.; Schönbrodt, F.D.; Sherman, M.F.; Sommer, S.A.; Sotak, K.; Spain, S.; Spörlein, C.; Stafford, T.; Stefanutti, L.; Täuber, Susanne; Ullrich, J.; Vianello, M.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Witkowiak, M.; Yoon, S.; Nosek, B.A.
Twenty-nine teams involving 61 analysts used the same dataset to address the same research question: whether soccer referees are more likely to give red cards to dark skin toned players than light skin toned players. Analytic approaches varied widely across teams, and estimated effect sizes ranged
Hughes, Peter M.
During numerous contacts with a satellite each day, spacecraft analysts must closely monitor real-time data. The analysts must watch for combinations of telemetry parameter values, trends, and other indications that may signify a problem or failure. As the satellites become more complex and the number of data items increases, this task is becoming increasingly difficult for humans to perform at acceptable performance levels. At NASA GSFC, fault-isolation expert systems are in operation supporting this data monitoring task. Based on the lessons learned during these initial efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA) is being developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of real-time expert systems to serve as fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. Although initially domain-specific in nature, this powerful tool will readily support the development of highly graphical expert systems for data monitoring purposes throughout the space and commercial industry.
Carpenter, Donald A.; Snyder, Johnny; Slauson, Gayla Jo; Bridge, Morgan K.
This paper presents a statistical analysis to support the notion that the Information Systems Analyst (ISA) exam can be used as a program assessment tool in addition to measuring student performance. It compares ISA exam scores earned by students in one particular Computer Information Systems program with scores earned by the same students on the…
Dao, David; Fraser, Adam N; Hung, Jane; Ljosa, Vebjorn; Singh, Shantanu; Carpenter, Anne E
CellProfiler Analyst allows the exploration and visualization of image-based data, together with the classification of complex biological phenotypes, via an interactive user interface designed for biologists and data scientists. CellProfiler Analyst 2.0, completely rewritten in Python, builds on these features and adds enhanced supervised machine learning capabilities (Classifier), as well as visualization tools to overview an experiment (Plate Viewer and Image Gallery). CellProfiler Analyst 2.0 is free and open source, available at http://www.cellprofiler.org and from GitHub (https://github.com/CellProfiler/CellProfiler-Analyst) under the BSD license. It is available as a packaged application for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows and can be compiled for Linux. We implemented an automatic build process that supports nightly updates and regular release cycles for the software. firstname.lastname@example.orgSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
1.1 This guide covers the qualification of analysts to perform chemical analysis or physical measurements of nuclear fuel cycle materials. The guidance is general in that it is applicable to all analytical methods, but must be applied method by method. Also, the guidance is general in that it may be applied to initial qualification or requalification.
Boudt, Kris; de Goeij, Peter; Thewissen, James; Van Campenhout, Geert
We examine the profitability of implementing a short term trading strategy based on predicting the error in analysts' earnings per share forecasts using publicly available information. Since large earnings surprises may lead to extreme values in the forecast error series that disrupt their smooth
Corace, Kimberly M; Srigley, Jocelyn A; Hargadon, Daniel P; Yu, Dorothy; MacDonald, Tara K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Garber, Gary E
Influenza vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) is important for protecting staff and patients, yet vaccine coverage among HCW remains below recommended targets. Psychological theories of behavior change may help guide interventions to improve vaccine uptake. Our objectives were to: (1) review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behavior change to improve HCW influenza vaccination rates, and (2) determine which psychological theories have been used to predict HCW influenza vaccination uptake. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, The Joanna Briggs Institute, SocINDEX, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for studies that applied psychological theories of behavior change to improve and/or predict influenza vaccination uptake among HCW. The literature search yielded a total of 1810 publications; 10 articles met eligibility criteria. All studies used behavior change theories to predict HCW vaccination behavior; none evaluated interventions based on these theories. The Health Belief Model was the most frequently employed theory to predict influenza vaccination uptake among HCW. The remaining predictive studies employed the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Risk Perception Attitude, and the Triandis Model of Interpersonal Behavior. The behavior change framework constructs were successful in differentiating between vaccinated and non-vaccinated HCW. Key constructs identified included: attitudes regarding the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccination, perceptions of risk and benefit to self and others, self-efficacy, cues to action, and social-professional norms. The behavior change frameworks, along with sociodemographic variables, successfully predicted 85-95% of HCW influenza vaccination uptake. Vaccination is a complex behavior. Our results suggest that psychological theories of behavior change are promising tools to increase HCW influenza vaccination uptake. Future studies are needed to develop and evaluate novel
Hopkin, T. J.; Sarkar, Swarjit
Aim The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the physical activity time (PAT) of white collar office workers in order to assess the levels of sedentary activity in an office environment. Analysing the office workers PAT will not only allow an insight into how an office based job could impact a person’s overall health and wellness status, but will also allow for the development of future office based inter ventions aimed at increasing the overall physical activity among white collar of...
Diehl, Katharina; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan; Mayer, Jochen; Litaker, David G; Schneider, Sven
Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky) behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the frequency of selected risk behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, use of illicit drugs, unhealthy nutrition, and doping) in adolescent athletes. Two independent reviewers selected articles following the PRISMA Statement. Behavior frequency was assessed as was comparability of study design and methods. When possible, meta- analyses were performed using data from subgroups of studies in which operational indicators were comparable. Seventy-eight articles met eligibility criteria. Although report of risky behaviors varied across studies, we observed overall, that studies tend to report higher alcohol use, less smoking, less recreational drug use, and more smokeless tobacco use in (high-involved) athletes. Considerable heterogeneity was noted in study design, definition of target groups and use of operational indicators (I(2) ranged from 93.2% to 100%). Especially the higher prevalence of using alcohol and smokeless tobacco needs more attention in interventions targeted to this group. Overall, greater consensus on methods used to assess risky behaviors in adolescent athletes. Key pointsThis is the first systematic review focusing on different health related risk behaviors of adolescent athletes aged ≤ 18 years from different countries.Health related risk behaviors such as alcohol consumption are common among recreational and elite adolescent athletes.Athletes were more likely to consume alcohol, smokeless tobacco, and steroids and less likely to smoke and to use
Full Text Available Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the frequency of selected risk behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, use of illicit drugs, unhealthy nutrition, and doping in adolescent athletes. Two independent reviewers selected articles following the PRISMA Statement. Behavior frequency was assessed as was comparability of study design and methods. When possible, meta- analyses were performed using data from subgroups of studies in which operational indicators were comparable. Seventy-eight articles met eligibility criteria. Although report of risky behaviors varied across studies, we observed overall, that studies tend to report higher alcohol use, less smoking, less recreational drug use, and more smokeless tobacco use in (high-involved athletes. Considerable heterogeneity was noted in study design, definition of target groups and use of operational indicators (I² ranged from 93.2% to 100%. Especially the higher prevalence of using alcohol and smokeless tobacco needs more attention in interventions targeted to this group. Overall, greater consensus on methods used to assess risky behaviors in adolescent athletes
Charani, Esmita; Edwards, Rachel; Sevdalis, Nick; Alexandrou, Banos; Sibley, Eleanor; Mullett, David; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Holmes, Alison
Antimicrobial use in acute care is widely reported to be suboptimal. Inappropriate use of antimicrobials is a major contributing factor to the emergence of multidrug resistance and health care-associated infection. Addressing prescribing behavior is a key component of antimicrobial stewardship. We performed a novel systematic review of both qualitative and quantitative literature on antimicrobial prescribing behavior in acute care. We assessed the extent to which behavioral sciences and social marketing were used and whether this could be related to the effectiveness of reported outcomes. MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), Business Source Complete, The Cochrane Library, PsychInfo, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) and Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) were searched for studies undertaken during the period January 1999-April 2011 and published in English. Five qualitative and 5 quantitative studies met the quality criteria. Qualitative studies highlight the predominant influence of social norms, attitudes, and beliefs on antimicrobial prescribing behavior. Quantitative studies reporting interventions to optimize antimicrobial prescribing behavior do not use theoretical science or primary research to inform the design and choice of the interventions deployed. Despite qualitative evidence demonstrating the impact of behavioral determinants and social norms on prescribing, these influences are not given due consideration in the design and evaluation of interventions. To ensure a better understanding of prescribing behaviors and to improve the quality of interventions and research in this area, the incorporation and application of behavioral sciences supported by appropriate multidisciplinary collaboration is recommended.
Ward, Stéphanie A; Bélanger, Mathieu F; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie
Children learn by observing and imitating others, meaning that their eating behaviors and physical activity may be influenced by their peers. This paper systematically reviews how preschoolers' eating behaviors and physical activity relate to their peers' behaviors, and discusses avenues for future research. Six databases were searched for quantitative, peer-reviewed studies published up to July 2015 reporting on the correlates, predictors or effectiveness of peers on eating behaviors and physical activity in preschoolers. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two evaluators using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Thirteen articles were included: six measured physical activity, and seven assessed eating behaviors. Four of the six physical activity studies reported that children were more active when peers were present, while large peer group size was negatively associated with physical activity in two cross-sectional studies. All nutrition interventions reported that children's eating behaviors may be influenced by their peers. Although supported by weak evidence, peers appear to influence children's eating behaviors and physical activity. However, this influence may be moderated by the number of peers, gender, age and the perceived status of the role models. Future obesity prevention interventions should consider involving peers as agents for positive eating behaviors and physical activity in preschoolers.
Carolina Santillán Torres Torija
Full Text Available Many variables related to risk of HIV infection, progression of the disease andadherence to antiretroviral drug therapy have been studied from different approaches.This review incorporates a group of studies including optimism as avariable related to Positive Psychology and HIV/AIDS, to explain how it interactswith: sexual risk behaviors, disease progression and adherence to antiretroviral(ARV therapy. Refereed academic journals published from 1994 to 2009, wereaccessed from the EBSCO database. Subject Terms were related both to HIVand optimism. Articles were arranged into three classifications: infection, diseaseprogression and ARV therapy adherence. The review included 32 articles carriedout mainly in the USA. Most articles showed significant relationships betweenoptimism and risk behaviors, disease progression and ARV adherence. This studyconcluded that more research in evaluation of optimism, and optimism relatedinterventions should be made to disentangle the complex relationship it has withsex risk behaviors, disease progression and adherence to ARV Therapy. Moderateoptimism appears to be a predictor to health related sexual behaviors.
This report presents a review of the corrosion and pyrophoricity behavior of uranium and plutonium. For each element, the reactions with oxygen, water vapor, and aqueous solutions are described in terms of reaction rates, products, and mechanisms. Their pyrophoric tendencies in terms of measured ignition temperatures are discussed, and the effects of the important variables specific area, gas composition, and prior storage rare stated. The implications of the observed behavior for current storage issues are considered
Full Text Available Islam prohibits the taking of one's life, because this way you will interfere with the work of G-d (Allah, which is clear from several places in the Quran. Concerning individual suicide or suicide attempts in various Arab countries the literature is sparse and the incidence low. In this paper we present a review of research from Israel showing that suicide epidemiology among the Arab population of children and adolescents display a low incidence, but an increase has been observed over the past decade, but still much lower than the Jewish population. We believe that there is a need for the development of prevention and intervention strategies in order to keep this incidence low.
Young, Ian; Reimer, Danielle; Greig, Judy; Meldrum, Richard; Turgeon, Patricia; Waddell, Lisa
Consumers often engage in unsafe food handling behaviors at home. Previous studies have investigated the ability of behavior-change theories to explain and predict these behaviors. The purpose of this review was to determine which theories are most consistently associated with consumers' safe food handling behaviors across the published literature. A standardized systematic review methodology was used, consisting of the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of identified references; confirmation of relevance and characterization of relevant articles; risk-of-bias assessment; data extraction; and descriptive analysis of study results. A total of 20 relevant studies were identified; they were mostly conducted in Australia (40%) and the United States (35%) and used a cross-sectional design (65%). Most studies targeted young adults (65%), and none focused on high-risk consumer groups. The outcomes of 70% of studies received high overall risk-of-bias ratings, largely due to a lack of control for confounding variables. The most commonly applied theory was the Theory of Planned Behavior (45% of studies), which, along with other investigated theories of behavior change, was frequently associated with consumer safe food handling behavioral intentions and behaviors. However, overall, there was wide variation in the specific constructs found to be significantly associated and in the percentage of variance explained in each outcome across studies. The results suggest that multiple theories of behavior change can help to explain consumer safe food handling behaviors and could be adopted to guide the development of future behavior-change interventions. In these contexts, theories should be appropriately selected and adapted to meet the needs of the specific target population and context of interest.
Full Text Available Michael Blomgren Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of stuttering followed by a synopsis of current approaches to treat stuttering in children and adults. Treatment is discussed in terms of multifactorial, operant, speech restructuring, and anxiolytic approaches. Multifactorial and operant treatments are designed for young children who stutter. Both of these approaches involve parent training and differ primarily in their focus on reducing demands on the child (multifactorial or in their use of response contingent stimulation (operant conditioning. Speech restructuring and anxiolytic approaches are used with adults who stutter. Speech restructuring approaches focus on the mechanics of speech production, and anxiolytic treatments tend to focus on the symptoms and social and vocational challenges of stuttering. The evidence base for these different approaches is outlined. Response contingent therapy (for children and speech restructuring therapy (for adults have the most robust empirical evidence base. Multifactorial treatments for children and stuttering management approaches for adults are popular but are based on theoretical models of stuttering; the evidence base is not robust and tends to be inferred from work in areas such as cognitive behavior therapy and desensitization. Comprehensive, or holistic, approaches to treating stuttering are also discussed. Comprehensive approaches for treating stuttering in adults address both improved speech fluency and stuttering management. Keywords: stuttering, treatment, stuttering management, speech restructuring, cognitive restructuring
... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Birmingham, Alabama; Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Service Program Delivery Division San Francisco, California; Verizon Business Networks...
Arguel, Amaël; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Li, Simon Y W; Lau, Annie Y S
The aim of this review was to identify general theoretical frameworks used in online social network interventions for behavioral change. To address this research question, a PRISMA-compliant systematic review was conducted. A systematic review (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014007555) was conducted using 3 electronic databases (PsycINFO, Pubmed, and Embase). Four reviewers screened 1788 abstracts. 15 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria. Randomized controlled trials and controlled studies were assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's "risk-of-bias" tool, and narrative synthesis. Five eligible articles used the social cognitive theory as a framework to develop interventions targeting behavioral change. Other theoretical frameworks were related to the dynamics of social networks, intention models, and community engagement theories. Only one of the studies selected in the review mentioned a well-known theory from the field of health psychology. Conclusions were that guidelines are lacking in the design of online social network interventions for behavioral change. Existing theories and models from health psychology that are traditionally used for in situ behavioral change should be considered when designing online social network interventions in a health care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...
Macaya Pascual, A; Ferreres Riera, J R; Campoy Sánchez, A
Countless sex education programs have been implemented worldwide in recent decades, but epidemiological data show no improvement in rates of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. To summarize the evidence from higher-quality systematic reviews on the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. We conducted an overview of reviews by selecting systematic reviews that met minimum quality criteria in terms of the design of the studies reviewed. We compared the results obtained when the effects of interventions were assessed on the basis of objective criteria (biological data) to those obtained when outcomes were assessed on the basis of subjective criteria (self-reports). The results of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were also compared. We identified 55 systematic reviews. No overall effect on the sexual behavior of program participants was observed in 72.5% of the reviews that used objective criteria and in 48.1% of the reviews based on subjective criteria. In the Cochrane reviews, no evidence of an overall effect was observed in 86% of reviews based on objective variables and in 70.5% of those based on subjective variables. There is no evidence that behavioral interventions modify rates of sexually transmitted infections (including human immunodeficiency virus infections) or unintended pregnancies, particularly when effects are assessed using objective, biological data. Primary prevention strategies for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Reviews the book, The Behavioral Health Specialist in Primary Care: Skills for Integrated Practice edited by Mary Ann Burg and Oliver Oyama (see record 2015-46891-000). The editors and the chapter authors of this useful book provide insight into the skills and knowledge needed to do integrated behavioral health in primary care. The most beneficial part of the book is the layout of the chapters, and the authors do a great job of articulating the clinical components of care. Behavioral health and medical providers in practice or in training could greatly benefit from reading this book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A
Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kaar, Jill L; Simon, Stacey L; Schmiege, Sarah J; Nadeau, Kristen J; Kelsey, Megan M
One-third of US adolescents are obese, and related comorbidities exist in this population. Preventing early indicators of these diseases, such as insulin resistance (IR), may impact future morbidity and mortality. Interventions to date have only focused on diet or exercise. Additional targets to prevent disease are needed. This paper reviews the evidence in adolescents examining multiple health behaviors that have been associated with IR. Health behaviors (i.e., diet, activity, sleep) have been individually examined as possible contributors to disease, but an understanding of the complex interplay between these behaviors is lacking. A better understanding of how multiple health behaviors contribute to IR in adolescents is needed. Future studies using both advanced statistical methodology and robust measures of each health behavior may facilitate better understanding of the impact of lifestyle factors on IR and guide intervention strategies to reduce the risk of disease.
Franco-Martín, Manuel A; Muñoz-Sánchez, Juan Luis; Sainz-de-Abajo, Beatriz; Castillo-Sánchez, Gema; Hamrioui, Sofiane; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel
Suicide is the second cause of death in young people. The use of technologies as tools facilitates the detection of individuals at risk of suicide thus allowing early intervention and efficacy. Suicide can be prevented in many cases. Technology can help people at risk of suicide and their families. It could prevent situations of risk of suicide with the technological evolution that is increasing. This work is a systematic review of research papers published in the last ten years on technology for suicide prevention. In September 2017, the consultation was carried out in the scientific databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. A general search was conducted with the terms "prevention" AND "suicide" AND "technology. More specific searches included technologies such as "Web", "mobile", "social networks", and others terms related to technologies. The number of articles found following the methodology proposed was 90, but only 30 are focused on the objective of this work. Most of them were Web technologies (51.61%), mobile solutions (22.58%), social networks (12.90%), machine learning (3.23%) and other technologies (9.68%). According to the results obtained, although there are technological solutions that help the prevention of suicide, much remains to be done in this field. Collaboration among technologists, psychiatrists, patients, and family members is key to advancing the development of new technology-based solutions that can help save lives.
Hildebrand, Maria; Øglund, Guro P; Wells, Jonathan C; Ekelund, Ulf
Our aim was to systematically summarize the evidence on whether prenatal, birth and early life factors up to 6 years of age predict sedentary behavior in young people (≤18 years). PRISMA guidelines were followed, and searches were conducted in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE and Web of Science up to December 1, 2015. We included observational (non-intervention) and longitudinal studies, that reported data on the association between one or more of the potential predictors and objectively or subjectively measured sedentary behavior. Study quality was assessed using a formal checklist and data extraction was performed using standardized forms independently by two researchers. More than 18,000 articles were screened, and 16 studies, examining 10 different predictors, were included. Study quality was variable (0.36-0.95). Two studies suggest that heritability and BMI in children aged 2-6 years were significant predictors of sedentary behavior later in life, while four and seven studies suggest no evidence for an association between gestational age, birth weight and sedentary behavior respectively. There was insufficient evidence whether other prenatal, birth and early life factors act as predictors of later sedentary behavior in young people. The results suggest that heritability and early childhood BMI may predict sedentary behavior in young people. However, small number of studies included and methodological limitations, including subjective and poorly validated sedentary behavior assessment, limits the conclusions. The systematic review is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO, 17.10.2014 ( CRD42014014156 ).
Weal, Mark; Morrison, Leanne; Yardley, Lucy
Background Incorporating social media features into digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs) has the potential to contribute positively to their success. However, the lack of clear design principles to describe and guide the use of these features in behavioral interventions limits cross-study comparisons of their uses and effects. Objective The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of DBCIs targeting modifiable behavioral risk factors that have included social media features as part of their intervention infrastructure. A taxonomy of social media features is presented to inform the development, description, and evaluation of behavioral interventions. Methods Search terms were used in 8 databases to identify DBCIs that incorporated social media features and targeted tobacco smoking, diet and nutrition, physical activities, or alcohol consumption. The screening and review process was performed by 2 independent researchers. Results A total of 5264 articles were screened, and 143 articles describing a total of 134 studies were retained for full review. The majority of studies (70%) reported positive outcomes, followed by 28% finding no effects with regard to their respective objectives and hypothesis, and 2% of the studies found that their interventions had negative outcomes. Few studies reported on the association between the inclusion of social media features and intervention effect. A taxonomy of social media features used in behavioral interventions has been presented with 36 social media features organized under 7 high-level categories. The taxonomy has been used to guide the analysis of this review. Conclusions Although social media features are commonly included in DBCIs, there is an acute lack of information with respect to their effect on outcomes and a lack of clear guidance to inform the selection process based on the features’ suitability for the different behaviors. The proposed taxonomy along with the set of recommendations included
Full Text Available Marie T Williams,1 Tanja W Effing,2,3 Catherine Paquet,4 Carole A Gibbs,5 Hayley Lewthwaite,1 Lok Sze Katrina Li,6 Anna C Phillips,6 Kylie N Johnston6 1Health and Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA, School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Repatriation General Hospital, 3School of Medicine, Flinders University, 4Division of Health Sciences, Centre for Population Health Research, School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, 5Library, University of South Australia, 6Division of Health Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Counseling has been suggested as a promising approach for facilitating changes in health behavior. The aim of this systematic review of counseling interventions for people with COPD was to describe: 1 counseling definitions, 2 targeted health behaviors, 3 counseling techniques and 4 whether commonalities in counseling techniques were associated with improved health behaviors. Ten databases were searched for original randomized controlled trials which included adults with COPD, used the term “counseling” as a sole or component of a multifaceted intervention and were published in the previous 10 years. Data extraction, study appraisal and coding for behavior change techniques (BCTs were completed by two independent reviewers. Data were synthesized descriptively, with meta-analysis conducted where possible. Of the 182 studies reviewed as full-text, 22 were included. A single study provided a definition for counseling. Two key behaviors were the main foci of counseling: physical activity (n=9 and smoking cessation (n=8. Six studies (27% reported underlying models and/or theoretical frameworks. Counseling was the sole intervention in 10 studies and part of a multicomponent intervention in 12
Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Bernhardt, Jay M
Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior interventions. We conducted a review of the literature in September 2014 using key search terms in several relevant scientific journal databases. Only English articles pertaining to health interventions using mobile phone apps were included in the final sample. The 24 studies identified for this review were primarily feasibility and pilot studies of mobile apps with small sample sizes. All studies were informed by behavioral theories or strategies, with self-monitoring as the most common construct. Acceptability of mobile phone apps was high among mobile phone users. The lack of large sample studies using mobile phone apps may signal a need for additional studies on the potential use of mobile apps to assist individuals in changing their health behaviors. Of these studies, there is early evidence that apps are well received by users. Based on available research, mobile apps may be considered a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions, but a greater number of studies and more rigorous research and evaluations are needed to determine efficacy and establish evidence for best practices.
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javadinia, Seyed Alireza; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sedghijalal, Homa
Risky sexual behavior (RSB), addiction, and aggression are three important personal and social factors which influence each other. To overview the potential relationship among RSB, addiction, and aggression to conduct an interactive model for the pathology and management of human behavior. This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Ebsco, IEEE, Scopus, Springer, MagIran, and IranMedex databases from the year 1993 to 2013. The search terms were violence, aggression, drug abuse, substance abuse, illicit drug, psychoactive drug, intravenous drug users, addiction and high-risk sexual relationships, unprotected sex, high risk sexual behavior, and sexual risk-taking. In this study, forty-nine studies were accepted for further screening, and met all our inclusion criteria (in English or Persian, full text, and included the search terms). Forty-nine articles were included; 17 out of 26 studies showed a significant correlation between addiction and risky sexual behavior, 15 out of 19 articles indicated a statistically significant correlation between aggression and addiction, and 9 out of 10 articles reported significant correlation between aggression and risky sexual behavior. According to the results, the triangle hypothesis of sex, addiction, and aggression led to the definition of the relationship among the variables of the hypothetical triangle based on the reviewed studies; and the proposed dual and triple relationship based on the conducted literature review was confirmed. This is not a meta-analysis, and there is no analysis of publication bias.
Sullivan, Rachel A; Kuzel, AnnMarie H; Vaandering, Michael E; Chen, Weiyun
In this systematic review, we assessed the existing research describing the effects of physical activity (PA) on academic behavior, with a special focus on the effectiveness of the treatments applied, study designs, outcome measures, and results. We obtained data from various journal search engines and 218 journal articles were downloaded that were relevant to PA and academic performance topics. The abstracts of all the articles were independently peer reviewed to assess whether they met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. The literature search was ongoing. Of the reviewed articles, 9 were chosen on the topic of PA effects on academic behavior. Each article was analyzed and summarized using a standard summary template. Overall, PA interventions commonly found positive effects on academic behavior, with few exceptions. There were additional unique findings regarding differences in outcome measures and PA treatments. The findings from these studies are significant and support the implementation or continuation of PA in schools to improve academic behavior and associated performance. More research needs to be conducted using the effective aspects of the treatments from this review with consistent outcome measures. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Wan Yunus, Farahiyah; Liu, Karen P.; Bissett, Michelle; Penkala, Stefania
Sensory-based intervention is a common approach used to address behavioral problems in children. Types of sensory-based intervention for children and details of the intervention effectiveness have not been systematically examined. This review examined the effectiveness and ideal types of sensory-based interventions for children with behavioral…
Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf
The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…
Murphy, Elaine M.
The paper discusses the relationship between social structure and fertility behavior in man. Focusing upon human fertility within the context of varying social groups, the document reviews recent interdisciplinary population studies. Information and interpretations from biology, ethnology, anthropology, history, and sociology are presented in four…
This paper is a review of literature devoted to the unique information needs and information-seeking behavior of the growing nontraditional or mature community college student population. This underserved user group faces distinctive challenges that librarians, researchers, and administrators must recognize and address. Much of the existing…
James, Jessica S.
Depression is common in individuals with intellectual disabilities, but evidence regarding treatment for this population is lacking. Through a systematic literature review of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals with intellectual disabilities, a total of six studies were identified that used pretest-post-test nonequivalent control…
Sullivan, Rachel A.; Kuzel, AnnMarie H.; Vaandering, Michael E.; Chen, Weiyun
Background: In this systematic review, we assessed the existing research describing the effects of physical activity (PA) on academic behavior, with a special focus on the effectiveness of the treatments applied, study designs, outcome measures, and results. Methods: We obtained data from various journal search engines and 218 journal articles…
Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.
Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…
LeRoy, Adam Scott
Prior concerns have been raised about the ability of schools to access evidence-based practices, however, these practices are instrumental for addressing behavior concerns. This is particularly true at the secondary level, where students are more likely to be disproportionately identified for school removal. This review investigates studies of…
Goedhard, L.E.; Stolker, J.J.; Heerdink, E.R.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Olivier, B.; Egberts, A.C.G.
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence for pharmacologic management of outwardly directed aggressive behavior in general adult psychiatry. DATA SOURCES: Literature searches in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane libraries from 1966 through March 2005 were used to identify relevant
Speckens, A.E.M.; Hawton, K.
There is an increasing focus on deficiencies in problem solving as a vulnerability factor for suicidal behavior in general and hence a target for treatment in suicide attempters. In view of the uncertainty of evidence for this in adolescents we conducted a systematic review of the international
McGrath, Patrick J.; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene
Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410
Full Text Available Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT or behavioural activation (BA. One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12 of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression.
Rains, Jeanetta C; Penzien, Donald B; McCrory, Douglas C; Gray, Rebecca N
Theoretical developments and burgeoning research on stress and illness in the mid-20th century yielded the foundations necessary to conceptualize headache as a psychophysiological disorder and eventually to develop and apply contemporary behavioral headache treatments. Over the past three decades, these behavioral headache treatments (relaxation training, biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and stress-management training) have amassed a sizeable evidence base. Meta-analytic reviews of the literature consistently have shown behavioral interventions to yield 35% to 55% improvements in migraine and tension-type headache and that these outcomes are significantly superior to control conditions. The strength of the evidence has lead many professional practice organizations to recommend use of behavioral headache treatments alongside pharmacologic treatments for primary headache. The present overview was prepared as a companion article to and intended to provide a background for the Guidelines for Trials of Behavioral Treatments for Recurrent Headache also published within this journal supplement. This article begins with a synopsis of key historical developments leading to our current conceptualization of migraine and tension-type headache as psychophysiological disorders amenable to behavioral intervention. The evolution of the behavioral headache literature is discussed, exemplified by publication trends in the journal Headache. Leading empirically-based behavioral headache interventions are described, and meta-analytic reviews examining the migraine and tension-type headache literatures are summarized, compared, and contrasted. A critique of the methodological quality of the clinical trials literature is presented, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses in relation to recruitment and selection of patients, sample size and statistical power, the use of a credible control, and the reproducibility of the study interventions in clinical practice.
Diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior are important, yet modifiable, determinants of obesity. Recent research into the clustering of these behaviors suggests that children and adolescents have multiple obesogenic risk factors. This paper reviews studies using empirical, data-driven methodologies, such as cluster analysis (CA) and latent class analysis (LCA), to identify clustering patterns of diet, PA and sedentary behavior among children or adolescents and their associations with socio-demographic indicators, and overweight and obesity. A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken to identify studies which have used data-driven methodologies to investigate the clustering of diet, PA and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents aged 5–18 years old. Eighteen studies (62% of potential studies) were identified that met the inclusion criteria, of which eight examined the clustering of PA and sedentary behavior and eight examined diet, PA and sedentary behavior. Studies were mostly cross-sectional and conducted in older children and adolescents (≥9 years). Findings from the review suggest that obesogenic cluster patterns are complex with a mixed PA/sedentary behavior cluster observed most frequently, but healthy and unhealthy patterning of all three behaviors was also reported. Cluster membership was found to differ according to age, gender and socio-economic status (SES). The tendency for older children/adolescents, particularly females, to comprise clusters defined by low PA was the most robust finding. Findings to support an association between obesogenic cluster patterns and overweight and obesity were inconclusive, with longitudinal research in this area limited. Diet, PA and sedentary behavior cluster together in complex ways that are not well understood. Further research, particularly in younger children, is needed to understand how cluster membership differs according to socio-demographic profile. Longitudinal research
Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H
Sedentary behavior is implicated in youth and adult overweight and obesity. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and weight status is often small or inconsistent, with few studies controlling for confounding factors such as diet and physical activity. Diet has been hypothesized to covary with some sedentary behaviors. It is opportune, therefore, to review whether dietary intake is associated with sedentary behavior in young people and adults. This may allow for better interpretation of the diversity of findings concerning sedentary behavior and weight status. Published English-language studies were located from computerized and manual searches in early 2010. Included studies were observational studies assessing an association between at least one sedentary behavior and at least one aspect of dietary intake in children (aged 18 years). Fifty-three studies, totaling 111 independent samples, were eligible for this review. Sedentary behavior in children (n=19, independent samples=24), adolescents (n=26, independent samples=72), and adults (n=11, independent samples=14) appears to be clearly associated with elements of a less healthy diet including lower fruit and vegetable consumption; higher consumption of energy-dense snacks, drinks, and fast foods; and higher total energy intake. Strengths of association were mainly in the small-to-moderate range. The association drawn mainly from cross-sectional studies is that sedentary behavior, usually assessed as screen time and predominantly TV viewing, is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children, adolescents, and adults. Interventions need to be developed that target reductions in sedentary time to test whether diet also changes. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bouris, Alida; Lee, Jane; McCarthy, Katharine; Michael, Shannon L.; Pitt-Barnes, Seraphine; Dittus, Patricia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To date, most parent-based research has neglected the role of fathers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior and has focused on mothers. The objective of this study was to conduct a structured review to assess the role of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior and to assess the methodological quality of the paternal influence literature related to adolescent sexual behavior. METHODS: We searched electronic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies published between 1980 and 2011 that targeted adolescents 11 to 18 years and focused on paternal parenting processes were included. Methodological quality was assessed by using an 11-item scoring system. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were identified and reviewed. Findings suggest paternal factors are independently associated with adolescent sexual behavior relative to maternal factors. The most commonly studied paternal influence was emotional qualities of the father-adolescent relationship. Paternal communication about sex was most consistently associated with adolescent sexual behavior, whereas paternal attitudes about sex was least associated. Methodological limitations include a tendency to rely on cross-sectional design, nonprobability sampling methods, and focus on sexual debut versus broader sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Existing research preliminarily suggests fathers influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children; however, more rigorous research examining diverse facets of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior is needed. We provide recommendations for primary care providers and public health practitioners to better incorporate fathers into interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:23071205
Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed.
Young, Lufei; Barnason, Susan; DO, VAN
Self-management plays a vital role in improving health outcomes and reducing costs in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors. Based on existing studies, rural residents with CVD and/or risk factors show low engagement in self-management behaviors. Due to low participation in behavioral intervention trials, the most promising mechanism to promote self-management among rural populations is unknown. In turn, the purpose of this article is to review the evidence that supports strategies to recruit and retain rural patients to participate in behavioral intervention trials aimed to promote self-management of CVD and its risk factors. This review is expected to assist researchers in identifying effective solutions to overcome barriers in the recruitment and retention processes when conducting intervention research studies on the self-management of CVD in rural communities.
Diamond, Michael J
This paper argues that recovering the "missing" paternal function in analytic space is essential for the patient's achievement of mature object relations. Emerging from the helpless infant's contact with primary caregivers, mature intimacy rests on establishing healthy triadic functioning based on an infant-with-mother-and-father. Despite a maternocentric bias in contemporary clinical theory, the emergence of triangularity and the inclusion of the paternal third as a separating element is vital in the analytic dyad. Effective technique requires the analyst's balanced interplay between the paternal, investigative and the maternal, maximally receptive modes of functioning-the good enough analytic couple within the analyst-to serve as the separating element that procreatively fertilizes the capacity for intimacy with a differentiated other. A clinical example illustrates how treatment is limited when the paternal function is minimized within more collusive, unconsciously symbiotic dyads. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.
Pike, William A; Riensche, Roderick M; Best, Daniel M; Roberts, Ian E; Whyatt, Marie V; Hart, Michelle L; Carr, Norman J; Thomas, James J
Systems and computer-implemented processes for storage and management of information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device. The processes and systems can capture a sequence of interactive operation elements that are performed by the information analyst, who is collecting an information artifact from at least one of the plurality of software applications. The information artifact can then be stored together with the interactive operation elements as a snippet on a memory device, which is operably connected to the processor. The snippet comprises a view from an analysis application, data contained in the view, and the sequence of interactive operation elements stored as a provenance representation comprising operation element class, timestamp, and data object attributes for each interactive operation element in the sequence.
Leeman, Robert F.; Potenza, Marc N.
This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioral addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity and family history/genetics findings for behavioral addictions involving gambling, internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioral addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and gray matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history/genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that those with behavioral addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic/family history findings in substance and non-substance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviors may constitute addictions. Findings to date are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania and sexual behavior. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered. PMID:23756286
Downing, Katherine L; Hnatiuk, Jill; Hesketh, Kylie D
Sedentary behavior has negative health outcomes, evident even in young children. Identifying the prevalence of sedentary behavior in children review was to determine the prevalence of sedentary behavior in children reviewed English language journal; mean age of children behavior. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies used parent-reported screen time as the sedentary behavior measure; only one study reported time spent restrained (i.e., kept inactive) and no studies reported objectively assessed sedentary time. Estimates of young children's screen time ranged from 36.6 to 330.9min/day. The proportion of children meeting the zero screen time recommendation ranged from 2.3% to 83.0%. In conclusion, very little is known about sedentary behaviors other than screen time in this age group. Although highly variable, findings suggest that children are already engaging in high levels of screen time by age 2 and the majority exceed current recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review
This article presents a review of the world literature about two important subjects: family violence and problems of aggressive behavior and oppositional defiant disorder in childhood. We opted for publications that had used the CBCL- Child Behavior Checklist for investigating behavior problems in children. This instrument is internationally recognized for its reliability and validity, considered an efficient tool for identifying behavior problems in children. Our findings showed that marital violence predominated in the studies as kind of familiar violence able to cause problems of aggressiveness and transgression in children. Another point discussed was the lack of consensus on the terms used in the articles to refer to such behavior problems. The review showed the need for in-depth studies into this subject, mainly in the sense of thinking about prevention and health promotion in childhood and adolescence. Aggressive behavior in children tends to remain and increase over time, a fact that points to the need for strategies for preventing these problems in the school, familiar and health environments.
Yang, Yan; Shin, Jong Cheol; Li, Dongying; An, Ruopeng
Sedentary behavior, characterized by a sitting or reclining posture and low-energy expenditure, has been recognized as an independent health risk factor. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association between sedentary behavior and sleep problems. Keyword and reference search were performed in PubMed, Cochrance Library, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant studies. The methodological quality of each study was assessed by standardized tools. The pooled estimates on the relationship between sedentary behavior and sleep problems were calculated in meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted for studies examining alternative sedentary behavior types, using self-reported or objective measures of sedentary behavior, different age groups, and assessed with different study quality levels. Sixteen eligible studies were identified through a literature search. Meta-analysis found sedentary behavior to be associated with an increased risk of insomnia (pooled odds ratio [POR] = 1.176, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.014-1.364) and sleep disturbance (POR = 1.381, 95% CI = 1.282-1.488). No association between sedentary behavior and daytime sleepiness and/or poor sleep quality was observed. Except for study quality levels, no significant differences in sleep disturbance were observed across alternative sedentary behavior types, sedentary behavior measures, and age groups in subgroup analyses. Prolonged sedentary behavior tends to be associated with an elevated risk of insomnia and sleep disturbance in the existing literature. Future studies with experimental study design and longer follow-up periods are warranted to demonstrate the long-term causal impact of sedentary behavior on sleep problems.
Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S
Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Bennett, Brooke L; Deiner, Melodi; Pokhrel, Pallav
Currently, most college campuses across the U.S. in some way address on-campus cigarette smoking, mainly through policies that restrict smoking on campus premises. However, it is not well understood whether college-level anti-smoking policies help reduce cigarette smoking among students. In addition, little is known about policies that may have an impact on student smoking behavior. This study attempted to address these issues through a literature review. A systematic literature review was performed. To identify relevant studies, the following online databases were searched using specific keywords: Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Studies that met the exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for review. Studies were not excluded based on the type of anti-smoking policy studied. Total 11 studies were included in the review. The majority of the studies (54.5%) were cross-sectional in design, 18% were longitudinal, and the rest involved counting cigarette butts or smokers. Most studies represented more women than men and more Whites than individuals of other ethnic/racial groups. The majority (54.5%) of the studies evaluated 100% smoke-free or tobacco-free campus policies. Other types of policies studied included the use of partial smoking restriction and integration of preventive education and/or smoking cessation programs into college-level policies. As far as the role of campus smoking policies on reducing student smoking behavior is concerned, the results of the cross-sectional studies were mixed. However, the results of the two longitudinal studies reviewed were promising in that policies were found to significantly reduce smoking behavior and pro-smoking attitudes over time. More longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of college anti-smoking policies on student smoking behavior. Current data indicate that stricter, more comprehensive policies, and policies that incorporate prevention and cessation programming
Dodo zu Knyphausen-Aufseß; Michael Mirow; Lars Schweizer
Increasingly, financial analysts are influencing the strategy formation process of corporations, but so far little attention has been paid to the complex processes of interaction and the corresponding strategic outcomes. This article discusses these influences through different theoretical lenses (strategic management, finance and accounting theory and economic sociology, institutional and systems theory). Based on case study evidence from three companies, we describe how the interactions bet...
Résumé des fonctions. Sous la supervision du gestionnaire, Infrastructure, sécurité et documents – DGITI, l'analyste intermédiaire de l'infrastructure joue un rôle essentiel dans la prestation des services (à titre de membre de l'équipe Infrastructure, sécurité et documents [ISD] chargée du fonctionnement et de la ...
Résumé des fonctions L'analyste de la gestion des documents est la ressource technique au sein de l'équipe de la Gestion de l'information et des documents. ... Se tenir également informé de toutes les pratiques exemplaires liées à la gestion de l'information et des documents électroniques et matériels que le CRDI doit ...
Salzedo, Catherine; Young, Steven; El-Haj, Mahmoud
Research questions the rigor and objectivity of analysts’ research due to the institutional structures in which they operate (Fogarty and Rogers, 2005 Accounting, Organisations and Society). However, insights from psychology highlight the need to condition this conclusion on the incentives for attributional search. Based on social cognition theory, we test whether the degree of diligence and criticality evident in analyst research is higher (lower) for negative(nonnegative) schema-discrepant ...
Sous la supervision générale du gestionnaire, Infrastructure, sécurité et documents, au sein de la DGITI, l'analyste de l'infrastructure débutant joue un rôle essentiel en ce qui concerne le soutien de l'infrastructure (à titre de membre de l'équipe ISD, chargée du fonctionnement et de la maintenance courants des divers ...
Stephanie Young, Daniel Tremblay, Roland J. Yardley The U.S. Department of Defense’s Earned Value Management –Analyst Workforce C O R P O R A T I O...trademark. iii Preface The role of earned value management (EVM) as a tool for integrated program manage - ment across the U.S. Department of Defense has...1 Responsibilities of the Performance Assessments and Root Cause Analyses Earned Value Management Division
L'analyste de systèmes principal apportera au Groupe du développement des systèmes les compétences qui permettront à ce dernier de comprendre d'une manière approfondie l'architecture d'Oracle afin qu'il soit en mesure de concevoir et de mettre en oeuvre de nouveaux et meilleurs systèmes et applications ...
L'analyste réseau/ télécommunications apporte aux Services d'infrastructure les compétences nécessaires et une compréhension approfondie de l'architecture de l'infrastructure, notamment des éléments liés au réseau et aux télécommunications, qui lui permettent de recommander, concevoir, documenter et réaliser des ...
Full text: The primary role of the UK EPSRC funded Collaborative Computational Project No 14 for Single Crystal and Powder Diffraction (CCP14) is to provide freely available crystallographic software to academics and students. While the CCP14 routinely concentrates on crystallographic applications (crystal structure solution and structure refinement), there is still a variety of software useful and freely available to X-ray analysts. As it is routinely important for X-ray analysts to keep up to date with effective new methods and time saving improvements, this presentation will concentrate on techniques relevant to most X-ray analysts - from data conversion to unit cell refinement to quantitative analysis and some structure refinement tools. Emphasis will also be put on the fact that crystallographic and powder diffraction programs are best not used as a black box. While point and click software tools are available, it can be very important to understand the theory behind what they are doing. Mentioned software can be downloaded via the CCP14 website in the UK (www.ccp14.ac.uk/mirror/), with full regional mirrors in the USA, Canada and Australia. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc
Full Text Available The research related to the association between structure ownership and the firm value is a discussion about corporate governance which is still has contradictory conclusion and mixed result. It indicates open question that needs empirical evidence. The influence of concentrated ownership on firm value still brought conflict of interest so the role of analyst following can be stated as an alternative of corporate governance mechanism (Lang et al., 2004. The objectives of this research are to examine the interaction effect between concentrated ownership and analyst following, and the effect of investor protection toward firm value in five Asian companies. Asia is chosen because it has unique characteristic, in term of corporates ownership structure which is more concentrated on families and board of governance is weak (Choi, 2003. The data is consisting of 7.100 firm year observations obtained from Bloomberg and OSIRIS database for the period 2011-2013 in five Asian Countries, i.e. China, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand. Multiple Regression analysis is used to test hypotheses. The results show that concentrated ownership is positively affects the firm value. However, there is no empirical evidence that the interaction of concentrated ownership and analyst following positively affect the firm value. As hypothesized, this research also shows that investor protection has negative impact on firm’s value.
It is imperative that young adult cancer survivors address any modifiable risk factors, given their increased health risks. Unfortunately, few behavioral interventions have been developed for this population. The literature on physical activity, smoking, and alcohol and drug use among young adult cancer survivors was reviewed in order to identify the behaviors most in need of intervention, the most vulnerable subsets of the population, and the health behavior theories that might guide intervention development. This literature indicates that young adult cancer survivors are not meeting physical activity recommendations though smoking and risky drinking appear less pervasive than in the general population. Several demographic and medical characteristics are associated with health behaviors, indicating subsets of the population particularly in need of intervention. The literature also indicates that a few different theories and models (e.g., social cognitive theory, self-determination theory) might be useful in guiding the development of interventions for this population.
Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.
Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor
The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.
Stanton, Steven J
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.This manuscript reviews the current literature on the actions of the steroid hormones testosterone and estradiol in shaping humans' behavior within two applied contexts, specifically consumer behavior and decision making (both social and economic). The theoretical argument put forth is that steroids shape these everyday behaviors and choices in service to being more competitive in achieving long-term goals related to resource acquisition, mating success, and social dominance. In addition, a discussion of the increased research focus on the role of steroids in other applied business domains will highlight the relevant applications of basic science discoveries in behavioral endocrinology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Costigan, Sarah A; Barnett, Lisa; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lubans, David R
Evidence suggests sitting time is independently associated with a range of health issues in adults, yet the relationship between sedentary behavior and health indicators in young people is less clear. Age-related increases in sedentary behavior are well-documented; the behavioral patterns of adolescent girls are of particular concern. More than one third of adolescent girls' sedentary behavior time is accumulated through use of recreational screen-based behaviors. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between recreational screen-based sedentary behavior and the physical, behavioral, and psychosocial health indicators for adolescent girls. A secondary objective was to identify studies that have adjusted sedentary behavior indicators for physical activity. A structured electronic search of all publication years (through December 2011) was conducted to identify studies in: CINAHL, Communications and Mass Media Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus with Full Text. Included publications were observational and interventional studies involving adolescent girls (12-18 years) that examined associations between screen-based, sedentary behavior and health indicators (physical, psychosocial, and/or behavioral). The search identified 33 studies that evaluated health indicators of screen-based sedentary behaviors among adolescent girls. Strong evidence for a positive association between screen-based sedentary behavior and weight status was found. A positive association was observed between screen-time and sleep problems, musculoskeletal pain and depression. Negative associations were identified between screen time and physical activity/fitness, screen time and psychological well-being, and screen time and social support. The relationship between screen-based sedentary behavior and diet quality was inconclusive. Less than half of the studies adjusted sedentary behavior indicators for physical activity. Screen-based sedentary
Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Swanson, Kenda
To gather and synthesize current evidence on the associations between aspects of friendship networks (e.g., friends' dietary behavior, popularity) and an individual's dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A systematic search of six scientific online databases was conducted in August 2013. Eligible studies included child or adolescent participants (aged 6 to 18years), a measure of each participant's friendship network, and a measure of habitual dietary behavior for both the participant and the participant's nominated friend(s). Data on study design, participant characteristics, friendship networks, dietary behavior, and study outcomes were abstracted. From a total of 9041 articles retrieved, seven studies were included in this review. Overall, friends' unhealthy food consumption was associated with an individual's unhealthy food consumption, and this association appeared to be stronger for boys compared with girls. More popular adolescents also tended to consume more unhealthy foods. Best friends' total energy intake was correlated with an individual's total energy intake. Similarities among friends' healthy food consumption, as well as daily breakfast consumption, were inconclusive. Longitudinal evidence showed that an individual's unhealthy food consumption tended to become similar to friends' unhealthy food consumption over time. Social network analysis in the adolescent dietary behavior literature is beginning to emerge. Results highlight friends' particular influence on unhealthy food consumption among adolescents. Focus on modeling healthy dietary behaviors among adolescent friendship group may help reduce unhealthy dietary behaviors and promote healthy weight status among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poton, Wanêssa Lacerda; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de; Gonçalves, Helen
This systematic review study aimed to assess the evidence available for the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood and adolescence. The search was carried out in the PubMed, Lilacs, and PsycINFO databases up to December 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: prospective, retrospective and cross-sectional studies assessing the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood or adolescence, using psychometric tests, carried out in humans and published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. The search was performed in several stages by two independent researchers using pre-established criteria. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Breastfeeding for a period equal to or higher than three or four months seemed to be inversely associated with total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood; however, the association remains unclear for other behavior disorders. Only four studies assessed behavior disorders in adolescence, and when an association was found, it was likely to be positive. The duration of breastfeeding seemed to be more important than the exclusive or non-exclusive pattern of breastfeeding. Breastfed children for at least three to four months had fewer total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood. Further studies are needed to better understand this association, particularly in adolescence and involving other behavioral profiles.
Wanêssa Lacerda Poton
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This systematic review study aimed to assess the evidence available for the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood and adolescence. METHODS The search was carried out in the PubMed, Lilacs, and PsycINFO databases up to December 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: prospective, retrospective and cross-sectional studies assessing the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood or adolescence, using psychometric tests, carried out in humans and published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. The search was performed in several stages by two independent researchers using pre-established criteria. RESULTS Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Breastfeeding for a period equal to or higher than three or four months seemed to be inversely associated with total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood; however, the association remains unclear for other behavior disorders. Only four studies assessed behavior disorders in adolescence, and when an association was found, it was likely to be positive. The duration of breastfeeding seemed to be more important than the exclusive or non-exclusive pattern of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS Breastfed children for at least three to four months had fewer total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood. Further studies are needed to better understand this association, particularly in adolescence and involving other behavioral profiles.
Poton, Wanêssa Lacerda; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Gonçalves, Helen
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This systematic review study aimed to assess the evidence available for the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood and adolescence. METHODS The search was carried out in the PubMed, Lilacs, and PsycINFO databases up to December 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: prospective, retrospective and cross-sectional studies assessing the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood or adolescence, using psychometric tests, carried out in humans and published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. The search was performed in several stages by two independent researchers using pre-established criteria. RESULTS Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Breastfeeding for a period equal to or higher than three or four months seemed to be inversely associated with total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood; however, the association remains unclear for other behavior disorders. Only four studies assessed behavior disorders in adolescence, and when an association was found, it was likely to be positive. The duration of breastfeeding seemed to be more important than the exclusive or non-exclusive pattern of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS Breastfed children for at least three to four months had fewer total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood. Further studies are needed to better understand this association, particularly in adolescence and involving other behavioral profiles. PMID:29412376
Hadland, Scott E; Knight, John R; Harris, Sion K
Marijuana policy is rapidly evolving in the United States and elsewhere, with cannabis sales fully legalized and regulated in some jurisdictions and use of the drug for medicinal purposes permitted in many others. Amidst this political change, patients and families are increasingly asking whether cannabis and its derivatives may have therapeutic utility for a number of conditions, including developmental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. This review examines the epidemiology of cannabis use among children and adolescents, including those with developmental and behavioral diagnoses. It then outlines the increasingly well-recognized neurocognitive changes shown to occur in adolescents who use cannabis regularly, highlighting the unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain and describing the role of the endocannabinoid system in normal neurodevelopment. The review then discusses some of the proposed uses of cannabis in developmental and behavioral conditions, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Throughout, the review outlines gaps in current knowledge and highlights directions for future research, especially in light of a dearth of studies specifically examining neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes among children and adolescents with developmental and behavioral concerns exposed to cannabis.
Eritsyan, Ksenia Y.
Full Text Available Immunization is one of the most significant achievements of public health over the last 100 years. Recently, however, people have been increasingly refusing to vaccinate. There are a large number of separate studies on how pervasive this behavior is and what fac- tors influence it, but no systematic review has been undertaken so far that looked at these studies as a whole. To conduct an analysis of studies that examine vaccine refusal and negative attitudes towards vaccination, focusing on the methodological approaches to the study of these problems and evaluation of their quality. A systematic review of English-language studies published between 1980 and 2015, using the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection database. The final review dealt with 31 papers. The studies in question were mainly conducted in North America and Western Europe. They were published three years after conclusion, on average. We have identified five different approaches to the study of these problems: 1 studies of parents’ attitudes and behavior; 2 analysis of vaccination records; 3 studies of attitudes and behavior among the general population; 4 studies of medical professionals’ attitudes, behavior, and experience; and 5 others. We found that theoretical models were not commonly used at the planning stage, while the studies also lacked a common approach to the operationalization of vaccine refusal, as well as of negative attitudes towards vaccination. Several promising directions have been identified for future studies on vaccine refusal and negative attitudes towards vac- cination.
Khosravi, Yahya; Asilian-Mahabadi, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hassanzadeh-Rangi, Narmin; Bastani, Hamid; Behzadan, Amir H
Construction is a hazardous occupation due to the unique nature of activities involved and the repetitiveness of several field behaviors. The aim of this methodological and theoretical review is to explore the empirical factors influencing unsafe behaviors and accidents on construction sites. In this work, results and findings from 56 related previous studies were investigated. These studies were categorized based on their design, type, methods of data collection, analytical methods, variables, and key findings. A qualitative content analysis procedure was used to extract variables, themes, and factors. In addition, all studies were reviewed to determine the quality rating and to evaluate the strength of provided evidence. The content analysis identified 8 main categories: (a) society, (b) organization, (c) project management, (d) supervision, (e) contractor, (f) site condition, (g) work group, and (h) individual characteristics. The review highlighted the importance of more distal factors, e.g., society and organization, and project management, that may contribute to reducing the likelihood of unsafe behaviors and accidents through the promotion of site condition and individual features (as proximal factors). Further research is necessary to provide a better understanding of the links between unsafe behavior theories and empirical findings, challenge theoretical assumptions, develop new applied theories, and make stronger recommendations.
Hadland, Scott E.; Knight, John R.; Harris, Sion K.
Marijuana policy is rapidly evolving in the United States and elsewhere, with cannabis sales fully legalized and regulated in some jurisdictions and use of the drug for medicinal purposes permitted in many others. Amidst this political change, patients and families are increasingly asking whether cannabis and its derivatives may have therapeutic utility for a number of conditions, including developmental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. This review examines the epidemiology of cannabis use among children and adolescents, including those with developmental and behavioral diagnoses. It then outlines the increasingly well-recognized neurocognitive changes shown to occur in adolescents who use cannabis regularly, highlighting the unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain and describing the role of the endocannabinoid system in normal neurodevelopment. The review then discusses some of the proposed uses of cannabis in developmental and behavioral conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Throughout, the review outlines gaps in current knowledge and highlights directions for future research, especially in light of a dearth of studies specifically examining neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes among children and adolescents with developmental and behavioral concerns exposed to cannabis. PMID:25650954
Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando
The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.
Nahar, V. K.; Ford, M. A.; Bass, M. A.; Vice, M. A.; Hallam, J. S.
Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses socio demographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the Pub Med, Psycinfo, Medline, and Eric databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years) spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.
Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M
Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R
In this mini-review, we consider an evolutionary biocultural perspective on human aging and sexuality. An evolutionary approach to senescence highlights the energetic trade-offs between fertility and mortality. By comparing humans to other primates, we situate human senescence as an evolutionary process, with shifts in postreproductive sexual behavior in this light. Age-related declines in sexual behavior are typical for humans but also highly contingent on the sociocultural context within which aging individuals express their sexuality. We briefly review some of the most comprehensive studies of aging and sexual behavior, both from the USA and cross-culturally. We frame these patterns with respect to the long-term relationships within which human sexual behavior typically occurs. Because sexuality is typically expressed within pair-bonds, sexual behavior sometimes declines in both members of a couple with age, but also exhibits sex-specific effects that have their roots in evolved sex differences. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Katon, Wayne J.
Objective To systematically review the literature to determine if health risk behaviors in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are associated with subsequent symptom burden or level of functioning. Method Using the PRISMA systematic review method we searched PubMed, Cochrane, PsychInfo and EMBASE databases with key words: health risk behaviors, diet, obesity, overweight, BMI, smoking, tobacco use, cigarette use, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity, activity level, fitness, sitting AND schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, bipolar illness, schizoaffective disorder, severe and persistent mental illness, and psychotic to identify prospective, controlled studies of greater than 6 months duration. Included studies examined associations between sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and subsequent symptom severity or functional impairment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Results Eight of the 2130 articles identified met inclusion criteria and included 508 patients with a health risk behavior and 825 controls. Six studies examined tobacco use and two studies examined weight gain/obesity. Seven studies found that patients with schizophrenia or bipolar illness and at least one health risk behavior had more severe subsequent psychiatric symptoms and/or decreased level of functioning. Conclusion Tobacco use and weight gain/obesity may be associated with increased severity of symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or decreased level of functioning. PMID:23044246
Copeland, Lauren; McNamara, Rachel; Kelson, Mark; Simpson, Sharon
Motivational interviewing (MI) has been identified as an effective treatment for health behaviors. Understanding the mechanisms of MI could have practical implications for MI delivery. This review is the first to examine mechanisms within MI that affect health behavior outcomes and summarizes and evaluates the evidence. A systematic literature search was conducted in PSYCHINFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies that delivered individual MI in the context of health behaviors, excluding addictions, and investigated mechanisms of MI. Effect sizes were calculated. 291 studies were identified and 37 met the inclusion criteria. Few of the 37 studies included, conducted mediation analyses. MI spirit and motivation were the most promising mechanisms of MI. Although self-efficacy was the most researched, it was not identified as a mechanism of MI. Study quality was generally poor. Although this review has indicated possible mechanisms by which MI could influence health behavior outcomes, it also highlights that more high quality research is needed, looking at other possible mechanisms or causal pathways within health behavior outcomes. MI spirit possibly plays an important role within MI and may potentially be used to evoke change talk which links to outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Currently, there are different treatment options like computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy, computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy and also, internet-based CBT. However, preliminary evidence suggests that computerised cognitive behaviour therapies (cCBT, are acceptable and effective interventions for children and adolescents. In this study is to review not only the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour treatments of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents but also the tecniques which have been used and their effects on the course and the treatments. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 99-108
Carroll, Kathleen M; Weiss, Roger D
Although counseling is a required part of office-based buprenorphine treatment of opioid use disorders, the nature of what constitutes appropriate counseling is unclear and controversial. The authors review the literature on the role, nature, and intensity of behavioral interventions in office-based buprenorphine treatment. The authors conducted a review of randomized controlled studies testing the efficacy of adding a behavioral intervention to buprenorphine maintenance treatment. Four key studies showed no benefit from adding a behavioral intervention to buprenorphine plus medical management, and four studies indicated some benefit for specific behavioral interventions, primarily contingency management. The authors examined the findings from the negative trials in the context of six questions: 1) Is buprenorphine that effective? 2) Is medical management that effective? 3) Are behavioral interventions that ineffective in this population? 4) How has research design affected the results of studies of buprenorphine plus behavioral treatment? 5) What do we know about subgroups of patients who do and those who do not seem to benefit from behavioral interventions? 6) What should clinicians aim for in terms of treatment outcome in buprenorphine maintenance? High-quality medical management may suffice for some patients, but there are few data regarding the types of individuals for whom medical management is sufficient. Physicians should consider a stepped-care model in which patients may begin with relatively nonintensive treatment, with increased intensity for patients who struggle early in treatment. Finally, with 6-month retention rates seldom exceeding 50% and poor outcomes following dropout, we must explore innovative strategies for enhancing retention in buprenorphine treatment.
BETTER EQUIPPING RESERVE MILITARY INTELLIGENCE ANALYST TO MEET THE NEEDS OF...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Better Equipping Reserve Military Intelligence Analyst To Meet The Needs Of The Commander by Championing A Process-Driven Training...Analyst to Meet the Needs of the Commander by Championing a Process-Driven Training Model Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Jack D. Kem, Ph.D
Guo, Hua; Gomez, Steven R; Ziemkiewicz, Caroline; Laidlaw, David H
We present results from an experiment aimed at using logs of interactions with a visual analytics application to better understand how interactions lead to insight generation. We performed an insight-based user study of a visual analytics application and ran post hoc quantitative analyses of participants' measured insight metrics and interaction logs. The quantitative analyses identified features of interaction that were correlated with insight characteristics, and we confirmed these findings using a qualitative analysis of video captured during the user study. Results of the experiment include design guidelines for the visual analytics application aimed at supporting insight generation. Furthermore, we demonstrated an analysis method using interaction logs that identified which interaction patterns led to insights, going beyond insight-based evaluations that only quantify insight characteristics. We also discuss choices and pitfalls encountered when applying this analysis method, such as the benefits and costs of applying an abstraction framework to application-specific actions before further analysis. Our method can be applied to evaluations of other visualization tools to inform the design of insight-promoting interactions and to better understand analyst behaviors.
Williams, Monnica; Viscusi, Jenifer A
Until recently, compulsive hoarding has been treated as a type of obsessive-compulsive disorder with mixed results. Little research exists on the efficacy of behavioral interventions specifically designed to treat hoarding disorder, and most existing research is limited with regard to the numbers of participants, their ethnic and cultural diversity, and study replication; therefore, the generalizability of findings is limited. This article reviews the prevalence of hoarding disorder, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment approaches, and measurement of symptoms. A systematic review compares the efficacy of various CBT methods, with particular attention to comparing therapy that is traditionally used to treat OCD with those designed specifically to treat hoarding disorder. Only clinical studies using CBT interventions designed to treat hoarding associated with OCD or hoarding disorder were included. Studies included participants of all ages, and articles were published in peer-reviewed journals. Case studies were excluded. After a comprehensive search and removing duplicates from databases and references, 65 articles were reviewed, of which 12 met criteria for review. Preliminary results demonstrate improvement in hoarding symptoms with CBT interventions that are both for OCD and those designed to specifically treat hoarding disorder; however, when compared to each other, the efficacy of these treatments is inconclusive, thus more research is needed.
Kral, Tanja V E; Eriksen, Whitney T; Souders, Margaret C; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their caregivers face unique challenges in the children's daily eating routines and food intake patterns. The aim of this brief review is to describe eating behaviors of children with ASD, including increased food neophobia and food selectivity, and review findings on children's diet quality, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Advancing knowledge about the interrelationships between these nutrition-related domains in children with ASD is expected to have important implications for clinical nursing practice and caregiver care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Eun-Suk; Park, Tae-Youn; Koo, Bonjin
Organizational identification has been argued to have a unique value in explaining individual attitudes and behaviors in organizations, as it involves the essential definition of entities (i.e., individual and organizational identities). This review seeks meta-analytic evidence of the argument by examining how this identity-relevant construct functions in the nexus of attitudinal/behavioral constructs. The findings show that, first, organizational identification is significantly associated with key attitudes (job involvement, job satisfaction, and affective organizational commitment) and behaviors (in-role performance and extra-role performance) in organizations. Second, in the classic psychological model of attitude-behavior relations (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), organizational identification is positioned as a basis from which general sets of those attitudes and behaviors are engendered; organizational identification has a direct effect on general behavior above and beyond the effect of general attitude. Third, the effects of organizational identification are moderated by national culture, a higher-level social context wherein the organization is embedded, such that the effects are stronger in a collectivistic culture than in an individualistic culture. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Dunn, C; Deroo, L; Rivara, F P
To examine the effectiveness of brief behavioral interventions adapting the principles and techniques of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to four behavioral domains: substance abuse, smoking, HIV risk and diet/exercise. We conducted a systematic review of 29 randomized trials of MI interventions. Data on methodological quality were extracted and tabulated. Between-group behavior change effect sizes and confidence intervals were calculated for each study. Due to varying intervention time lengths, targeted problem behaviors, settings and interventionists' backgrounds and skill levels, outcomes were not combined meta-analytically. Sixty per cent of the 29 studies yielded at least one significant behavior change effect size. No significant association between length of follow-up time and magnitude of effect sizes was found across studies. There was substantial evidence that MI is an effective substance abuse intervention method when used by clinicians who are non-specialists in substance abuse treatment, particularly when enhancing entry to and engagement in more intensive substance abuse treatment treatment-as-usual. Data were inadequate to judge the effect of MI in the other domains. Client attribute-treatment interactions were understudied and the sparse and inconsistent findings revealed little about the mechanism by which MI works or for whom it works best. To determine more effectively how well MI works in domains other than substance abuse and for whom it works best in all domains, researchers should study MI with risk behaviors other than substance abuse, while examining both interactions and the theoretical components of MI.
Full Text Available Background and objective: One of the ways to prevent and control occupational accidents and educate people informing them of the risks and how to work safely. The aim of this study was to study the effectiveness of educational interventions to promote safe behavior and knowledge workers is studied. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed SID database and to obtain titles and abstracts containing data related to worker safety behaviors by examining the full text of 22 articles were selected and the results of which were analyzed Results: The group of workers includes training class. The impact of educational interventions: improving the safety of workers and the development of a safety culture in the workplace can be named. Most of the training programs designed for group discussion and the principles of adult learning. Conclusion: summary and analysis of the literature showed the need to promote safe behavior of workers. Since this behavior is very important, intervention is capable of knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control about unsafe behavior change and improve the performance of their safety Paper Type: review Article.
O’Connor, Sydney G.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Belcher, Britni R.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Margolin, Gayla; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.
Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviors (e.g., dietary intake and physical activity) among U.S. children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children’s obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behavior (i.e., healthy diet (n=3), unhealthy diet (n=6), physical activity (n=7), sedentary behavior (n=9)). Overall, findings for the relationship between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors were mixed, with no evidence for an association with children’s healthy or unhealthy dietary intake, but fairly consistent evidence for the association of maternal stress with children’s lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior. Recommendations for future research include prioritizing prospective designs, identifying moderators, and use of high resolution, real-time data collection techniques to elucidate potential mechanisms. PMID:28296057
To enable implementation of the American Association of State Highway Transportation (AASHTO) Highway Safety Manual using : SaftetyAnalyst (an AASHTOWare software product), the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) studied the data assessment :...
Potter, Bill; Brown, Deborah L.
Selection-based (SB) verbal behavior, in most general terms, consists of selecting stimuli from an array, which presumably has some effect on a listener. Topography-based (TB) verbal behavior consists of responses with unique topographies (e.g. speaking, signing, writing) which is also presumed to have some effect on a listener. This article reviews research examining the nature of these two types of verbal behavior. Overall, TB verbal behavior appears to be more easily acquired and may also ...
Full Text Available Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists' involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices.
Sleddens, Ester F C; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
Despite emerging efforts to investigate the influence parents have on their children's weight status and related dietary and activity behaviors, reviews regarding the role of general parenting are lacking. We performed a systematic review regarding the relationship between general parenting and these weight-related outcomes to guide observational research. In total, 36 studies were included. Discrepancies across studies were found, which may be explained by differences in conceptualization of parenting constructs. Overall, however, results suggest that children raised in authoritative homes ate more healthy, were more physically active and had lower BMI levels, compared to children who were raised with other styles (authoritarian, permissive/indulgent, uninvolved/neglectful). Findings of some moderation studies indicate that general parenting has a differential impact on children's weight-related outcomes, depending on child and parental characteristics. These findings underline the importance of acknowledging interactions between general parenting and both child and parent characteristics, as well as behavior-specific parenting practices.
Elaheebocus, Sheik Mohammad Roushdat Ally; Weal, Mark; Morrison, Leanne; Yardley, Lucy
Incorporating social media features into digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs) has the potential to contribute positively to their success. However, the lack of clear design principles to describe and guide the use of these features in behavioral interventions limits cross-study comparisons of their uses and effects. The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of DBCIs targeting modifiable behavioral risk factors that have included social media features as part of their intervention infrastructure. A taxonomy of social media features is presented to inform the development, description, and evaluation of behavioral interventions. Search terms were used in 8 databases to identify DBCIs that incorporated social media features and targeted tobacco smoking, diet and nutrition, physical activities, or alcohol consumption. The screening and review process was performed by 2 independent researchers. A total of 5264 articles were screened, and 143 articles describing a total of 134 studies were retained for full review. The majority of studies (70%) reported positive outcomes, followed by 28% finding no effects with regard to their respective objectives and hypothesis, and 2% of the studies found that their interventions had negative outcomes. Few studies reported on the association between the inclusion of social media features and intervention effect. A taxonomy of social media features used in behavioral interventions has been presented with 36 social media features organized under 7 high-level categories. The taxonomy has been used to guide the analysis of this review. Although social media features are commonly included in DBCIs, there is an acute lack of information with respect to their effect on outcomes and a lack of clear guidance to inform the selection process based on the features' suitability for the different behaviors. The proposed taxonomy along with the set of recommendations included in this review will support future research aimed
Shaffer, Jonathan A; Falzon, Louis; Cheung, Ken; Davidson, Karina W
Randomized controlled trials are the sine qua non of causal inference; however, heterogeneity of treatment effects for many chronic conditions and for many symptoms often limits their utility. Single-patient studies in which patients select a treatment after trying a randomized sequence of treatments (i.e., multiple crossover trials) offer an alternative to traditional randomized controlled trials by providing scientifically valid results in a practical manner that can be used by patients and their providers to decide upon their personally optimal treatment. Although N-of-1 trials have been used in the medical literature, their use for interventions that consist of psychological or health behavior outcomes is unknown. This systematic review thus aims to describe the interventions and outcomes and assess the quality of N-of-1 trials for psychological or health behavior outcomes. Electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the six databases in the Cochrane Library) will be searched using all relevant subject headings and free-text terms to represent N-of-1 trials and psychological or behavioral interventions. Full text review and bibliography searching will be conducted. Unpublished studies will be sought by searching trial registries and contacting authors of included studies. Eligibility criteria are the following: population, all human participants for whom N-of-1 trials with psychological or health behavior outcomes have been conducted; interventions, all interventions for which N-of-1 trials have been conducted; comparison, placebo or active treatment control; and outcome, psychological and health behavior outcomes including self-perceived disease severity and psychological phenomena such as mood and affect. Studies that do not contain sufficient trial detail, describe only design or statistical analytic issues in N-of-1 trials without presentation of an N-of-1 trial itself, and/or are not written in the English language are ineligible
Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E
Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morgan, Robert L.
Research on professionals’, consumers’, and others’ judgments of the restrictiveness, social acceptability, and estimated frequency of use of procedures to decrease behavior were reviewed. General findings were that (a) respondents generally were consistent in rating procedures from least to most restrictive; (b) most respondents agreed that procedures judged more restrictive should be used as a last resort; (c) more restrictive procedures were not frequently used in practice; (d) respondents...
Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107
Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Record, Elizabeth J; Palmer-Bacon, Jessica
Nonadherence to psychopharmacological treatments poses a significant challenge to treatment success in individuals with serious mental illness, with upwards of 60% of people not taking their psychiatric medications as prescribed. Nonadherence is associated with adverse outcomes, including exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms, impaired functioning, increased hospitalizations and emergency room use, and increased health care costs. Whereas interventions using psychoeducation or cognitive approaches, such as motivational interviewing, have largely proven ineffective in improving adherence, approaches employing behavioral tailoring that incorporate medication taking into the daily routine and/or use environmental supports have shown promise. Recently, adherence-enhancing behavioral tailoring interventions that utilize novel technologies, such as electronic monitors and mobile phones, have been developed. Although interventions utilizing these platforms have the potential for widespread dissemination to a broad range of individuals, most require further empirical testing. This paper reviews selected behavioral tailoring strategies that aim to improve medication adherence and other functional outcomes among individuals with serious mental illness.
Dohle, Simone; Diel, Katharina; Hofmann, Wilhelm
In order to pursue the long-term goal of losing weight, a dieter needs to resist the urge to eat appealing, tasty foods. Beside sufficient motivation to resist these foods, dieters also need the capacity for successful self-regulation, and this capacity is strongly related to executive functions. Executive function is an umbrella term encompassing a number of interrelated higher-order cognitive processes that allow people to take goal-directed action. In this review, we outline how basic facets of executive functioning (updating, inhibiting, and shifting) contribute to the successful self-regulation of eating behavior. Moreover, we identify aspects of the self-regulation of eating behavior that are still under-researched. We conclude by outlining the implications of the extant research for intervention strategies and the design of future research studies on the role of executive functions for the self-regulation of eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The research plan of the validation on effects of colloids and organic materials drawn up by the Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute and its' research outcome were reviewed comprehensively by an expert committee established in the Nuclear Safety Research Association. Additionally, experimental investigations for the migration behavior of actinide elements and fission products in engineering barrier and natural barrier medias, and for solution chemistry of them were carried out and discussed by the committee, in order to enhance the reliability of prediction for migration behavior of radionuclides. The subjects investigated by the expert committee are as follows: (1) Research on solubility products of An(III) hydroxide. (2) Diffusion and electromigration behavior of plutonium in buffer material. (3) Analysis of the nuclide solubility in compacted bentonite. (4) Survey of the actual contamination by alpha emitters in steel materials. (author)
Erasmus, M A
Stocking density, the amount of space available per animal, greatly affects the welfare of commercial turkeys. For example, stocking density has been found to affect behavior such as injurious pecking; production, such as growth rates and feed efficiency; and health-related aspects, such as leg health and the incidence of airsacculitis. Current industry guidelines and standards for turkey space requirements and stocking densities vary, and they are different from those that have been examined scientifically. Scientific research into stocking density effects on turkey behavior, welfare, and productivity have been conducted in experimental settings with flock sizes that are much different from those in the commercial turkey industry. There is currently little information available regarding how much space turkeys require for particular behavioral activities. This paper reviews the current industry guidelines and standards as well as scientific literature pertaining to stocking densities for commercial turkeys. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Weinberger, Andrea H; Kashan, Rachel S; Shpigel, Danielle M; Esan, Hannah; Taha, Farah; Lee, Christine J; Funk, Allison P; Goodwin, Renee D
Smoking and depression are both leading causes of disability, mortality and morbidity around the world. Using epidemiologic data to study the association between depression and the severity, course, and persistence of smoking in the general population is important for understanding the scope of the problem of smoking among people with depression. The current paper aims to critically review existing epidemiologic research on the smoking behaviors of persons with depressive symptoms and disorders and to identify gaps in the literature that warrant further study. Literature searches of Medline and EMBASE were used to identify articles that analyzed epidemiologic data and examined an aspect of smoking behavior in persons with depressive symptoms or disorders. Six hundred ninety-three abstracts were reviewed and 45 studies met all of the inclusion criteria to be included in the review. Persons with depression, compared to those without depression, are more likely to smoke, and meet criteria for nicotine dependence, are less likely to quit smoking, and are more likely to relapse. Little is known about the association between depression and smoking behavior by age, socioeconomic status, or race/ethnicity or with regard to the use of tobacco products other than cigarettes. Persons with depression are more likely to smoke cigarettes and have greater difficulty quitting smoking. Community-based and public health approaches may need to begin considering the links between depression and smoking in order to best target the current smokers in the population and develop more effective tobacco control campaigns.
Bland, Vikki J; Lambie, Ian; Best, Charlotte
Child neglect, whether intentional or unintentional on the part of caregivers, has serious and far-reaching negative consequences for children. Neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment and has been associated with impaired cognitive development, changes in brain structure and nervous systems, behavioral and personality disorders and poor academic performance. However, the role of child neglect, and subtypes of neglect, in the development of adult violent behavior is not well understood. The "cycle of violence" hypothesis, which predicts that individuals exposed to child physical abuse are more likely to be physically violent in adulthood, is well supported by the literature. However, a growing number of studies suggests that child neglect may be equally predictive, or more predictive, of adult violent behavior than child physical abuse. The present review considers a range of studies that investigate aspects of this relationship, and identifies key patterns and trends that have emerged from these investigations. Methodological issues and limitations of the existing literature are also identified and new research directions suggested. This review also considers studies that support the possibility of protective factors against the development of adult violent behavior in victims of child neglect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance.
Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho
Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.
Harkness, Emily L; Mullan, Barbara; Mullan, Barbara M; Blaszczynski, Alex
The purpose of this review was to determine whether an association exists between sexual risk behaviors and pornography consumption. Consumption of pornography is common, yet research examining its link with sexual risk behaviors is in its infancy. Indicators of sexual risk behavior, including unsafe sex practices and a higher number of sexual partners, have been linked to poor health outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, and CINAHL. Studies were included if they assessed the association between pornography use and indicators of sexual risk behaviors in an adult population. A total of 17 were included in the review, and all were assessed for research standards using the Quality Index Scale. For both Internet pornography and general pornography, links with greater unsafe sex practices and number of sexual partners were identified. Limitations of the literature, including low external validity and poor study design, restrict the generalizability of the findings. Accordingly, replication and more rigorous methods are recommended for future research.
Goodson, Patricia; Buhi, Eric R; Dunsmore, Sarah C
This review systematically examined the relationship between self-esteem and adolescents' sexual behaviors, attitudes, and intentions, as empirically investigated by researchers over the last 20 years. Based on the Matrix Method for systematic reviews, five electronic databases and reference lists of published studies were searched. Thirty-eight (n = 38) publications met specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and comprised the final sample. Each study was assigned a methodological quality score (MQS; maximum = 20 points). Each study's empirical test of the relationship between self-esteem and sexual behaviors/attitudes/intentions was counted as a single finding and was classified as exhibiting an inverse linear relationship, no statistically significant linear relationship, or a positive linear relationship. A total of 189 findings (average = 4.97/publication, range 1-28) were analyzed. Most findings (n = 138, 73%) consisted of tests of self-esteem and sexual behaviors. Regarding the nature of the relationship between self-esteem and the various behavior/attitude/intention variables, 62% of behavior findings and 72% of the attitudinal findings exhibited no statistically significant association. All of the intention-related findings exhibited some type of relationship (either positive or inverse). Studies' average MQS was 11.71 (SD = 1.60). Higher quality studies yielded findings of positive or absence of relationship (Cramer's V = .329, p = .001). If most findings exhibit no association between self-esteem and adolescent sexual behaviors/attitudes/intentions, questions are inevitably raised whether the emphasis placed on self-esteem by public health professionals is innocuous. Recommendations for methodological improvement of this body of research are also presented.
In this paper the author questions whether the body of the analyst may be helpfully conceptualized as an embodied feature of the setting and suggests that this may be especially helpful for understanding patients who develop a symbiotic transference and for whom any variance in the analyst's body is felt to be profoundly destabilizing. In such cases the patient needs to relate to the body of the analyst concretely and exclusively as a setting 'constant' and its meaning for the patient may thus remain inaccessible to analysis for a long time. When the separateness of the body of the analyst reaches the patient's awareness because of changes in the analyst's appearance or bodily state, it then mobilizes primitive anxieties in the patient. It is only when the body of the analyst can become a dynamic variable between them (i.e., part of the process) that it can be used by the patient to further the exploration of their own mind. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Choi, Hanbyul; Irwin, Michael R; Cho, Hyong Jin
To examine and compare the effects of subjective and objective social isolation on behavioral health in elderly adults. A systematic search of PubMed was performed for original research articles from peer-reviewed journals examining one of the following topics: "Social isolation and sleep disturbance", "social isolation and depression", or "social isolation and fatigue in older adults". Studies were selected following the criteria established based on the aim of this review. Data were extracted from the articles by two independent reviewers. Due to the heterogeneity in study designs and outcome measures of the included studies, qualitative and narrative analyses were conducted. The set criteria were used to select a total of 16 studies for the review. Of the 16, 13 were cross-sectional studies. The characteristics of study populations were identified as follows. A total of 12 studies randomly selected subjects irrespective of pre-existing health conditions. Consequently, an unspecified number of the study subjects had chronic diseases in the studies compared. In addition, cultural and ethnic backgrounds of studies in this review were diverse, and included subjects living in North America, South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Both subjective and objective types of social isolation increased behavioral symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, depressive symptoms, and fatigue in older adults. Furthermore, a few recent studies reported stronger effects of subjective social isolation than objective social isolation on sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Social isolation affects behavioral health in older adults. Compared to the objective social isolation, subjective social isolation contributes more significantly to sleep disturbance and depression.
K. E. Gibos; A. Slijepcevic; T. Wells; L. Fogarty
Wildland fire managers must frequently make meaning from chaos in order to protect communities and infrastructure from the negative impacts of fire. Fire management personnel are increasingly turning to science to support their experience-based decision-making processes and to provide clear, confident leadership for communities frequently exposed to risk from wildfire...
Heard, Astrid E.
The Launch Processing System architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle System engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter are described. The described ground operations are the culmination of eleven years of experience and redesign. Some of the 'lessons learned' are examined, and problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and Launch Processing Systems continue to grow in complexity are discussed. The Operational Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for the Launch Processing System Operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the Launch Processing System.
Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin
We examine the interaction between discretionary and non-discretionary accruals in a stewardship setting. Contracting includes multiple rounds of renegotiation based on contractible accounting information and non-contractible but more timely non-accounting information. We show that accounting...... timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation...
Lamal, P A
The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism, edited by Bruce A. Thyer, is a set of original contributions, each dealing, from a behavioral stance, with one of the following major topics of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, consciousness, language, free will and determinism, and self-control. Confusions about radical behaviorism and its similarities to, and differences from, other behavioral and non-behavioral approaches are described in the book, which provides a state-of-the-art description of the philosophical underpinnings of behavior analysis.
Tianxiao Jiang; Siddiqui, Hasan; Ray, Shruti; Asman, Priscella; Ozturk, Musa; Ince, Nuri F
This paper presents a portable platform to collect and review behavioral data simultaneously with neurophysiological signals. The whole system is comprised of four parts: a sensor data acquisition interface, a socket server for real-time data streaming, a Simulink system for real-time processing and an offline data review and analysis toolbox. A low-cost microcontroller is used to acquire data from external sensors such as accelerometer and hand dynamometer. The micro-controller transfers the data either directly through USB or wirelessly through a bluetooth module to a data server written in C++ for MS Windows OS. The data server also interfaces with the digital glove and captures HD video from webcam. The acquired sensor data are streamed under User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to other applications such as Simulink/Matlab for real-time analysis and recording. Neurophysiological signals such as electroencephalography (EEG), electrocorticography (ECoG) and local field potential (LFP) recordings can be collected simultaneously in Simulink and fused with behavioral data. In addition, we developed a customized Matlab Graphical User Interface (GUI) software to review, annotate and analyze the data offline. The software provides a fast, user-friendly data visualization environment with synchronized video playback feature. The software is also capable of reviewing long-term neural recordings. Other featured functions such as fast preprocessing with multithreaded filters, annotation, montage selection, power-spectral density (PSD) estimate, time-frequency map and spatial spectral map are also implemented.
Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain
Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in dialog systems for behavior change, with
Davis, Tonya N; Machalicek, Wendy; Scalzo, Rachel; Kobylecky, Alicia; Campbell, Vincent; Pinkelman, Sarah; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Sigafoos, Jeff
Some individuals with developmental disabilities develop inappropriate sexual behaviors such as public masturbation, disrobing, and touching others in an unwanted sexual manner. Such acts are problematic given the taboo nature of the behaviors and the potential for significant negative consequences, such as restricted community access, injury, and legal ramifications. Therefore, it is necessary to equip caregivers and practitioners with effective treatment options. The purpose of this paper is to review studies that have evaluated behavioral treatments to reduce inappropriate sexual behavior in persons with developmental disabilities. The strengths and weaknesses of each treatment are reviewed, and a model for treatment selection is provided.
Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A
Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.
Full Text Available Grazing, a type of maladaptive eating behavior, has been associated with poor weight outcomes in bariatric patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the association between grazing behavior and weight regain post-bariatric surgery. Literature searches, study selection, design of the method, and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent authors. The search strategy was performed until October 2017 in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses, and Open Grey. Of a total of 3764 articles, five papers met the inclusion criteria (four original articles and one thesis, comprising 994 subjects, mostly women. The prevalence of grazing behavior ranged from 16.6 to 46.6%, and the highest prevalence of significant weight regain was 47%. The association between grazing and weight regain was observed in four of the five evaluated studies. Our findings support an association between grazing behavior and weight regain after bariatric surgery, regardless of surgery type and contextual concept of grazing. Further studies are needed to confirm the clarity of the real prevalence and interfering factors related to grazing behavior and weight outcomes.
Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Seemann, Jocelyn R.; Maren, Stephen
There is considerable interest, from both a basic and clinical standpoint, in gaining a greater understanding of how pharmaceutical or behavioral manipulations alter fear extinction in animals. Not only does fear extinction in rodents model exposure therapy in humans, where the latter is a cornerstone of behavioral intervention for anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and specific phobias, but also understanding more about extinction provides basic information into learning and memory processes and their underlying circuitry. In this paper, we briefly review three principal approaches that have been used to modulate extinction processes in animals and humans: a purely pharmacological approach, the more widespread approach of combining pharmacology with behavior, and a purely behavioral approach. The pharmacological studies comprise modulation by: brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), d-cycloserine, serotonergic and noradrenergic drugs, neuropeptides, endocannabinoids, glucocorticoids, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and others. These studies strongly suggest that extinction can be modulated by drugs, behavioral interventions, or their combination, although not always in a lasting manner. We suggest that pharmacotherapeutic manipulations provide considerable promise for promoting effective and lasting fear reduction in individuals with anxiety disorders. PMID:24374101
Prazeres, Angélica M; Nascimento, Antônio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.
Roy, Laurence; Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Latimer, Eric A; Ayllon, Andrea Reyes
The objectives of the systematic review were to estimate the prevalence and correlates of criminal behavior, contacts with the criminal justice system, and victimization among homeless adults with severe mental illness. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science were searched for published empirical investigations of prevalence and correlates of criminal behavior, contacts with the justice system, and episodes of victimization in the target population. The search yielded 21 studies. Fifteen examined prevalence of contacts with the criminal justice system; lifetime arrest rates ranged between 62.9% and 90.0%, lifetime conviction rates ranged between 28.1% and 80.0%, and lifetime incarceration rates ranged between 48.0% and 67.0%. Four studies examined self-reported criminal behavior, with 12-month rates ranging from 17.0% to 32.0%. Six studies examined the prevalence of victimization, with lifetime rates ranging between 73.7% and 87.0%. Significant correlates of criminal behavior and contacts with the justice system included criminal history, high perceived need for medical services, high intensity of mental health service use, young age, male gender, substance use, protracted homelessness, type of homelessness (street or shelter), and history of conduct disorder. Significant correlates of victimization included female gender, history of child abuse, and depression. Rates of criminal behavior, contacts with the criminal justice system, and victimization among homeless adults with severe mental illness are higher than among housed adults with severe mental illness.
Allen, Mark S; Walter, Emma E; McDermott, Máirtín S
Too much sitting is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease and premature death. This investigation aimed to systematically review the evidence for personality as a correlate of time spent in sedentary pursuits. Electronic databases (PubMed; Science Direct; PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and SPORTDiscus via EBSCO; Web of Science; MEDLINE via Ovid; Scopus; ProQuest) were searched in December 2015 for studies reporting an association between at least 1 personality trait and time spent in at least 1 sedentary behavior. Pooled mean effect sizes were computed using inverse-variance weighted random effects meta-analysis. Twenty-six studies (28 samples, 110 effect sizes) met inclusion criteria. Higher levels of sedentary behavior were associated with higher levels of neuroticism (r+ = .08, 95% confidence interval [CI: .05, .10]) and lower levels of conscientiousness (r+ = -.08, 95% CI [-.11, -.06]). Nonsignificant associations were observed for extraversion (r+ = .00, 95% CI [-.07, .06]), openness (r+ = -.02, 95% CI [-.05, .02]), and agreeableness (r+ = -.04, 95% CI [-.09, .00]). Effects for neuroticism and extraversion were moderated by measurement of sedentary behavior, and effects for openness and agreeableness were moderated by participant age and gender. Findings appear consistent with personality trait associations with other health-related behaviors. More objective measures of sedentary behavior are required to make more definitive conclusions about the contribution of personality to a sedentary lifestyle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Qazi, Atika; Waheed, Mahwish; Abraham, Ajith
Existing opinion mining studies have focused on and explored only two types of reviews, that is, regular and comparative. There is a visible gap in determining the useful review types from customers and designers perspective. Based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and statistical measures we examine users' perception about different review types and its effects in terms of behavioral intention towards using online review system. By using sample of users (N = 400) and designers (N = 106), current research work studies three review types, A (regular), B (comparative), and C (suggestive), which are related to perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention. The study reveals that positive perception of the use of suggestive reviews improves users' decision making in business intelligence. The results also depict that type C (suggestive reviews) could be considered a new useful review type in addition to other types, A and B. PMID:24711739
Quigley, Jody; Rasmussen, Susan; McAlaney, John
Social influences-including the suicidal and self-harming behaviors of others-have been highlighted as a risk factor for suicidal and self-harming behavior in young people, but synthesis of the evidence is lacking. A systematic review of 86 relevant papers was conducted. Considerable published evidence was obtained for positive associations between young people's suicidal and self-harming behavior and that of people they know, with those reporting knowing people who had engaged in suicidal or self-harming behaviors more likely to report engaging in similar behaviors themselves. Findings are discussed in relation to a number of methodological and measurement issues-including the role of normative perceptions-and implications for the prevention of suicidal and self-harming behavior are considered.
Zhao, Jing; Freeman, Becky; Li, Mu
Globally, mobile phones have achieved wide reach at an unprecedented rate, and mobile phone apps have become increasingly prevalent among users. The number of health-related apps that were published on the two leading platforms (iOS and Android) reached more than 100,000 in 2014. However, there is a lack of synthesized evidence regarding the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in changing people's health-related behaviors. The aim was to examine the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in achieving health-related behavior change in a broader range of interventions and the quality of the reported studies. We conducted a comprehensive bibliographic search of articles on health behavior change using mobile phone apps in peer-reviewed journals published between January 1, 2010 and June 1, 2015. Databases searched included Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Embase, Health Technology Assessment, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research during that same period were hand-searched on the journal's website. Behavior change mechanisms were coded and analyzed. The quality of each included study was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria, arranged under 11 themes according to their target behaviors. All studies were conducted in high-income countries. Of these, 17 studies reported statistically significant effects in the direction of targeted behavior change; 19 studies included in this analysis had a 65% or greater retention rate in the intervention group (range 60%-100%); 6 studies reported using behavior change theories with the theory of planned behavior being the most commonly used (in 3 studies). Self-monitoring was the most common behavior change technique applied (in 12 studies). The studies suggest that some features improve the effectiveness of apps, such as less time
Full Text Available Much qualitative research involves the analysis of verbal data. Although the possibility to conduct qualitative research in a rigorous manner is sometimes contested in debates of qualitative/quantitative methods, there are scholarly communities within which qualitative research is indeed data driven and enacted in rigorous ways. How might one teach rigorous approaches to analysis of verbal data? In this study, 20 sessions were recorded in introductory graduate classes on qualitative research methods. The social scientist thought aloud while analyzing transcriptions that were handed to her immediately prior the sessions and for which she had no background information. The students then assessed, sometimes showing the original video, the degree to which the analyst had recovered (the structures of the original events. This study provides answers to the broad question: "How does an analyst recover an original event with a high degree of accuracy?" Implications are discussed for teaching qualitative data analysis. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1503119
Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S
A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mauer, Sivan; Vergne, Derick; Ghaemi, S Nassir
Dementia is a major public health issue, with notably high rates in persons with mood illnesses. Lithium has been shown to have considerable neuroprotective effects, even in trace or low doses. The aim of this review is to summarize the current understanding of lithium benefits in trace or low doses in dementia prevention and for other behavioral or medical benefits. A systematic review identified 24 clinical, epidemiological, and biological reports that met inclusion criteria of assessing lithium in standard or low doses for dementia or other behavioral or medical benefits. Five out of seven epidemiological studies found an association between standard-dose lithium and low dementia rates. Nine out of 11 epidemiological studies, usually of drinking water sources, found an association between trace-dose lithium and low suicide/homicide/mortality and crime rates. All four small randomized clinical trials of lithium for Alzheimer's dementia have found at least some clinical or biological benefits versus placebo. Only one small randomized clinical trial (RCT) of trace lithium has been conducted, assessing mood symptoms in former substance abusers, and found benefit with lithium versus placebo. Lithium, in both standard and trace doses, appears to have biological benefits for dementia, suicide, and other behavioral outcomes. Further RCT research of trace lithium in dementia is warranted. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
Muse, Amelia R; Lamson, Angela L; Didericksen, Katharine W; Hodgson, Jennifer L
Integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) is an emerging solution for the delivery of behavioral health in primary care contexts. Although IBHC has been implemented and studied for more than 2 decades, little seems to be known about how it is best evaluated. This article illustrates a framework for IBHC evaluation based on the Three World view (with a focus on the operational and financial worlds) and delivers results from a systematic review on the operational and financial characteristics of existing IBHC research. This study identified original reports of research that included an evaluation or assessment of the operational or financial success or sustainability of IBHC sites or programs. A total of 3,386 articles were found through the selected databases and 46 articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria. From the 46 articles that contained an IBHC evaluation including operational or financial variables, 9 operational and 11 financial characteristics were identified as barriers or strengths to sustainability or success. The characteristics of the evaluation participants, IBHC settings, and method of evaluation were also coded and analyzed. As a result of this systematic review of articles, evaluation of the success and sustainability of the operational and financial worlds can now be conceptualized at provider and practice levels. Collaboration and communication between medical and behavioral health providers was a significant operational characteristic related to success and sustainability. Financial characteristics indicated that continuous financial evaluation throughout implementation was important to success and sustainability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Horn, Ivor Braden; Joseph, Jill G; Cheng, Tina L
The use of nonabusive physical punishment as a form of discipline has been greatly debated in the scientific and popular literature. Impact on child behavioral outcomes has frequently been found; however, the effects of its use are not clear, particularly for African-American children. This systematic review of the literature examined the impact of exposure to nonabusive physical punishment on the behavior of African-American children. A search was conducted of PubMed and Psyclnfo from 1970 to 2000 using the key terms: corporal punishment, physical punishment, disciplinary practices, and discipline and parenting. Studies that described ethnicity of the population and included a majority of a well-described African-American population were included. Each study was required to include measurable data on child behavioral outcomes and at least one measure of discipline that assessed use of nonabusive physical punishment in children 0-14 years of age. All seven included studies used lower socioeconomic status (SES) and/or urban African-American populations. Study design and rural versus urban populations differentiated beneficial and detrimental outcomes. In all longitudinal studies, African-American children had beneficial or neutral outcomes. This review suggests that it is possible that there are benefits to nonabusive physical punishment for African-American children. However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence.
Alexandra Martini de Oliveira
Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.
Maher, Carol A; Lewis, Lucy K; Ferrar, Katia; Marshall, Simon; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vandelanotte, Corneel
The dramatic growth of Web 2.0 technologies and online social networks offers immense potential for the delivery of health behavior change campaigns. However, it is currently unclear how online social networks may best be harnessed to achieve health behavior change. The intent of the study was to systematically review the current level of evidence regarding the effectiveness of online social network health behavior interventions. Eight databases (Scopus, CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Web of Science and Communication & Mass Media Complete) were searched from 2000 to present using a comprehensive search strategy. Study eligibility criteria were based on the PICOS format, where "population" included child or adult populations, including healthy and disease populations; "intervention" involved behavior change interventions targeting key modifiable health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol consumption, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) delivered either wholly or in part using online social networks; "comparator" was either a control group or within subject in the case of pre-post study designs; "outcomes" included health behavior change and closely related variables (such as theorized mediators of health behavior change, eg, self-efficacy); and "study design" included experimental studies reported in full-length peer-reviewed sources. Reports of intervention effectiveness were summarized and effect sizes (Cohen's d and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated wherever possible. Attrition (percentage of people who completed the study), engagement (actual usage), and fidelity (actual usage/intended usage) with the social networking component of the interventions were scrutinized. A total of 2040 studies were identified from the database searches following removal of duplicates, of which 10 met inclusion criteria. The studies involved a total of 113,988 participants (ranging from n=10 to n=107,907). Interventions included
Butler, Andrew C; Chapman, Jason E; Forman, Evan M; Beck, Aaron T
This review summarizes the current meta-analysis literature on treatment outcomes of CBT for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. A search of the literature resulted in a total of 16 methodologically rigorous meta-analyses. Our review focuses on effect sizes that contrast outcomes for CBT with outcomes for various control groups for each disorder, which provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy as quantified by meta-analysis. Large effect sizes were found for CBT for unipolar depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and childhood depressive and anxiety disorders. Effect sizes for CBT of marital distress, anger, childhood somatic disorders, and chronic pain were in the moderate range. CBT was somewhat superior to antidepressants in the treatment of adult depression. CBT was equally effective as behavior therapy in the treatment of adult depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Large uncontrolled effect sizes were found for bulimia nervosa and schizophrenia. The 16 meta-analyses we reviewed support the efficacy of CBT for many disorders. While limitations of the meta-analytic approach need to be considered in interpreting the results of this review, our findings are consistent with other review methodologies that also provide support for the efficacy CBT.
Groff, Sara E
In this study the author reviews the current empirical research regarding Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT-E) in the treatment of the full range of eating disorders (EDs): anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. All peer-reviewed outcome studies identified through electronic bibliographic databases and manual searches of article reference lists are reviewed. A total of six studies (n = 6) were found. The author reports the results of these studies consisting of open-trials of CBT-E applied to different ED diagnoses, comparing two forms of CBT-E (focused and broad) to waitlist, and comparing CBT-E plus Motivation Focused Therapy. There is evidence to support the use of CBT-E for the treatment of EDs; however, this evidence is tentative as CBT-E is still in its early phases of empirical testing. No trials found CBT-E to be ineffective. Although these research designs are not randomized control trials, these results are promising for ED research. There are few efficacious treatments for EDs, especially for those with "chronic" EDs and adults with anorexia nervosa. CBT-E is one of the first interventions that focuses on particular symptomatic behaviors of EDs manifested in individual clients rather than treating ED diagnoses generically.
Tse, Samson; Hong, Song-Iee; Wang, Chong-Wen; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M
With the rapid aging of the population and the increased availability of gambling facilities over the past three decades, older adults may gamble more and may be increasingly at risk for problem gambling (PG) or pathological gambling disorder (PGD). To facilitate a better understanding of gambling behavior among older adults that will inform preventive strategies, this article systematically examined empirical studies on issues related to older adults' gambling. This article reviewed 75 empirical studies including data on the distribution and determinants of PG and PGD and the outcomes of gambling. This review used the broad term of "disordered gambling" as a means to explain a continuum of problems caused by PG and PGD. The analyses covered seven topics concerning older adults' gambling behaviors: Participation rates for gambling, prevalence rates of disordered gambling, motivation for initially beginning to gamble, risk and protective factors for disordered gambling, and negative and positive health outcomes from gambling. Based on research gaps identified in the review, this article proposes six recommendations for future studies focusing on well-being of older adults who gamble, research method issues, and taking into account older adults' inspirations and adjustment to the aging process in the 21st century.
Costa, J H C; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M
Standard practice in the dairy industry is to separate the calf and dam immediately after birth and raise calves in individual pens during the milk-feeding period. In nature and in extensive beef systems, the young calf lives in a complex social environment. Social isolation during infancy has been associated with negative effects, including abnormal behavior and developmental problems, in a range of species. Here, we review empirical work on the social development of calves and the effects of social isolation in calves and other species; this evidence indicates that calves reared in isolation have deficient social skills, difficulties in coping with novel situations, as well as specific cognitive deficits. We also review the practices associated with group housing of dairy calves, and discuss problems and suggested solutions, especially related to cross-sucking, competition, aggression, and disease. The studies reviewed indicate that social housing improves solid feed intakes and calf weight gains before and after calves are weaned from milk to solid feed. Evidence regarding the effects of social housing on calf health is mixed, with some studies showing increased risk of disease and other studies showing no difference or even improved health outcomes for grouped calves. We conclude that there is strong and consistent evidence of behavioral and developmental harm associated with individual housing in dairy calves, that social housing improves intakes and weight gains, and that health risks associated with grouping can be mitigated with appropriate management. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J
The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.
Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W. N.; de Vlas, Sake J.
Background The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Results We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Discussion Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population. PMID:24236121
This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design
This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.
Knight, Emily; Intzandt, Brittany; MacDougall, Alicia; Saunders, Travis J
The global prevalence of sedentary lifestyles is of grave concern for public health around the world. Moreover, the health risk of sedentary behaviors is of growing interest for researchers, clinicians, and the general public as evidence demonstrates that prolonged amounts of sedentary time increases risk for lifestyle-related diseases. There is a growing trend in the literature that reports how social media can facilitate knowledge sharing and collaboration. Social sites like YouTube facilitate the sharing of media content between users. The purpose of this project was to identify sedentary behavior content on YouTube and describe features of this content that may impact the effectiveness of YouTube for knowledge translation. YouTube was searched on a single day by 3 independent reviewers for evidence-based sedentary behavior content. Subjective data (eg, video purpose, source, and activity type portrayed) and objective data (eg, number of views, comments, shares, and length of the video) were collected from video. In total, 106 videos met inclusion criteria. Videos were uploaded from 13 countries around the globe (ie, Australia, Barbados, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Kenya, New Zealand, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States). The median video length was 3:00 minutes: interquartile range (IQR) 1:44-5:40. On average, videos had been on YouTube for 15.0 months (IQR 6.0-27.5) and had been viewed 239.0 times (IQR 44.5-917.5). Videos had remarkably low numbers of shares (median 0) and comments (median 1). Only 37.7% (40/106) of videos portrayed content on sedentary behaviors, while the remaining 66 videos portrayed physical activity or a mix of behaviors. Academic/health organizations (39.6%, 42/106) and individuals (38.7%, 41/106) were the most prevalent source of videos, and most videos (67.0%, 71/106) aimed to educate viewers about the topic. This study explored sedentary behavior content available on YouTube. Findings demonstrate that
Heerman, William J.; JaKa, Meghan M.; Berge, Jerica M.; Trapl, Erika S.; Sommer, Evan C.; Samuels, Lauren R.; Jackson, Natalie; Haapala, Jacob L.; Kunin-Batson, Alicia S.; Olson-Bullis, Barbara A.; Hardin, Heather K.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Barkin, Shari L.
Background A better understanding of the optimal “dose” of behavioral interventions to affect change in weight-related outcomes is a critical topic for childhood obesity intervention research. The objective of this review was to quantify the relationship between dose and outcome in behavioral trials targeting childhood obesity to guide future intervention development. Methods A systematic review and meta-regression included randomized controlled trials published between 1990 and June 2017 tha...
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming
This review examines the global literature regarding the relationship between acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviors among international migrants. Seventy-nine articles published in English-language journals prior to July 2012 met the criteria for inclusion. We conducted a systematic review and subset meta-analysis of correlations between acculturation and five types of sexual behaviors including condom use, multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, sexually transmitted diseases...
Schwebel, David C; Barton, Benjamin K; Shen, Jiabin; Wells, Hayley L; Bogar, Ashley; Heath, Gretchen; McCullough, David
Pedestrian injuries represent a pediatric public health challenge. This systematic review/meta-analysis evaluated behavioral interventions to teach children pedestrian safety. Multiple strategies derived eligible manuscripts (published before April 1, 2013, randomized design, evaluated behavioral child pedestrian safety interventions). Screening 1,951 abstracts yielded 125 full-text retrievals. 25 were retained for data extraction, and 6 were later omitted due to insufficient data. In all, 19 articles reporting 25 studies were included. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed. Behavioral interventions generally improve children's pedestrian safety, both immediately after training and at follow-up several months later. Quality of the evidence was low to moderate. Available evidence suggested interventions targeting dash-out prevention, crossing at parked cars, and selecting safe routes across intersections were effective. Individualized/small-group training for children was the most effective training strategy based on available evidence. Behaviorally based interventions improve children's pedestrian safety. Efforts should continue to develop creative, cost-efficient, and effective interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Rose, Meredith; Aronow, Laura; Breen, Sarah; Tully, Carrie; Hilliard, Marisa E; Butler, Ashley M; Streisand, Randi
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence in youth is growing across all racial/ethnic backgrounds, with the most marked increase in African-American youth under 5. Underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities are at an increased risk for health complications. This review focuses on the reported disparities, demographics of samples in behavioral interventions, and study design considerations. Recruitment data from two ongoing behavioral intervention trials for young children with T1D are presented to compare enrolled/non-enrolled individuals and to discuss culturally appropriate study design considerations. Data were compared to the demographics of children (ages 1-6) with T1D in the clinic populations from the recruitment sites. Enrolling a representative sample and designing culturally appropriate behavioral interventions are important for generalizability, yet there is a gap between the individuals participating in T1D research and those who are most negatively affected by T1D. Suggestions are offered for ways to expand inclusion of diverse samples in behavioral intervention research in T1D.
Full Text Available Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.
Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan
Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178
Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz
The present review postulates the current mental health status in migrant children and adolescents in the North American continent. 35 studies published from 2009 to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included. Almost all studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. From the perspective of selection effect, migration as a risk factor was not proven. The migration process perspective could have underestimated a higher danger of problem behavior in second-generation migrant children. Comparing native and migrant children, balanced results in problem behavior were reported, but the Asian migrant group was at higher risk of developing mental disorders. Family-based risk factors were offered: high acculturation stress, low English language competence, language brokering, discrepancies in children's and parent's cultural orientation, the non-Western cultural orientation, e.g., collectivistic, acceptance feelings of parents, or harsh parenting. However, the importance to support migrant families in the acculturation process becomes apparent.
Smith, Jordan W
Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.
Emma Ida Brunberg
Full Text Available Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed towards pen-mates. Tail biting in pigs and feather pecking in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both tail biting and feather pecking are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis.
Schoenfelder, Erin N; Kollins, Scott H
Across the lifespan, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased health risk behaviors including substance abuse, binge eating and obesity, and unsafe sexual behavior. These risks are directly linked to the neurocognitive deficits associated with ADHD, and are also mediated by the cascade of psychosocial impairments and stressors caused by ADHD across development. However, little is known about optimal approaches to improve health outcomes in this high-risk population. This topical review provides an overview of health risks associated with ADHD and the limited existing research relevant to health promotion for children and adolescents with ADHD. Future research questions and implications for clinicians are also addressed-especially how psychologists and medical practitioners may improve child health through early screenings, increasing medication adherence, and treating psychosocial impairments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Holle, Daniela; Halek, Margareta; Holle, Bernhard; Pinkert, Christiane
Individualized formulation-led interventions offer a promising approach for analyzing and managing challenging behaviors in people with dementia. Little is known about which individualized formulation-led interventions exist and what effects these interventions have on people with dementia and their caregivers. Therefore, the review aims to describe and examine existing interventions and to review their evidence. An integrative review of individualized formulation-led interventions for managing challenging behavior in people with dementia was conducted. PUBMED, PsycINFO [EBSCO] and CINAHL [EBSCO] databases were searched between February and April 2014 using key terms related to dementia, challenging behavior and individualized formulation- led interventions. The literature search was limited to German and English publications published from 1995. No limitations were placed on the type of paper, type of study design and stage of disease or setting. 37 relevant papers that met the inclusion criteria were included in this review. The literature review provided 14 different individualized formulation-led interventions. The effects on people with dementia were diverse, as only half of the studies showed a significant reduction in behaviors compared with the control group. Family caregivers felt less upset about the challenging behavior and more confident in their ability to manage the behavior. There is a clear need for further research on individualized formulation-led interventions. The results of this review have the potential for developing interventions and for designing methodological robust evaluation studies that take into account the effectiveness of individualized formulation-led interventions on patient and caregiver outcomes.
Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…
Brug, J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.
The present commentary provides a brief overview of and reflections on the joint findings of two reviews of the present evidence regarding correlates, predictors and/or determinants of sedentary behavior among youth and older adults published in the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition &
Anderson, C.A.; Shibuya, A.; Ihori, N.; Swing, E.L.; Bushman, B.J.; Sakamoto, A.; Rothstein, H.R.; Saleem, M.; Barlett, C.P.
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive
Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Sugai, George
A review of the literature related to culture and student behavior reveals a number of interesting observations that are not surprising. First, culture is a difficult construct to define and has been defined variably over the years. Second, schools are becoming increasingly diverse, and evidence-based behavior management practices have been…
Heberlein, Ulrike; Tsai, Linus T.–Y.; Kapfhamer, David; Lasek, Amy W.
In the last decade, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, highly accessible to genetic, behavioral and molecular analyses, has been introduced as a novel model organism to help decipher the complex genetic, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical underpinnings of behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Here we review these data, focusing specifically on cocaine-related behaviors. Several of cocaine's most characteristic properties have been recapitulated in Drosophila. First, cocaine induces motor b...
Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard
Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings.
Sisson, Susan B; Krampe, Megan; Anundson, Katherine; Castle, Sherri
Review peer-reviewed interventions designed to reduce obesity and improve obesogenic behaviors, including physical activity, diet, and screen time, at child care centers. Interventions components and outcomes, study design, duration, use of behavioral theory, and level of social ecological influence are detailed. Article searches were conducted from March 2014, October 2014, March 2015, January 2016 across three databases. Eligible interventions were conducted in child care settings, included 3-to-5-year-old children, included an outcome measure of obesity or obesogenic behavior, and published in English. Study design quality was assessed using Stetler's Level of Quantitative Evidence. All unique records were screened (n=4589): 237 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 97 articles describing 71 interventions met inclusion criteria. Forty-four articles included multi-level interventions. Twenty-nine interventions included an outcome measure of obesity. Forty-one interventions included physical activity. Forty-five included diet. Eight included screen time. Fifty-five percent of interventions were Level II (randomized controlled trials), while 37% were Level III (quasi-experimental or pre-post only study design), and 8% were Level IV (non-experimental or natural experiments). Most interventions had the intended effect on the target: obesity 48% (n=14), physical activity 73% (n=30), diet 87% (n=39), and screen time 63% (n=5). Summarizing intervention strategies and assessing their effectiveness contributes to the existing literature and may provide direction for practitioners and researchers working with young children in child care. Most interventions produced the targeted changes in obesity and obesity-associated behaviors, supporting current and future efforts to collaborate with early-care centers and professionals for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rumbaugh, Duane M.
Sidman addresses two very important questions in Equivalence Relations and Behavior: A Research Story: What are the bases of behavioral competence? And how do units of learning become related? The book recounts the story of how an understanding of emergent relations and competencies was achieved through studies in his teaching-research program with mentally retarded subjects. Although children normally accrue vast networks of relations between stimuli and events, those with mental retardation typically do not. Consequently, by learning how to establish those networks, Sidman and his students contribute richly both to the cultivation of competencies by their subjects and, more generally, to an understanding of real-world human behavior. The basic equivalence paradigm affords the subject feedback and reinforcement for very specific choices during training, but the test is not for those choices! Rather, tests for equivalence look for new choices, ones seemingly quite foreign to the training regimen. The tests for equivalence relations entail presentations of stimuli that were the options for conditional choice during reinforced training. In tests of equivalence, correct choices are novel; hence, they have never been reinforced during training. The study of equivalence relations can encourage the emergence of new perspectives that are more symbiotic than competitive. In full acknowledgment of the important role and contributions made by those who identify themselves as experimental analysts of behavior, it is timely that rapprochements be worked toward, as indeed they are, to meld that perspective with others of our time. Both our research methods and our expectations about the nature of the learning process and the abilities of our subjects can delimit what they might learn and what we, in turn, learn about their learning. The text will be of great value for instruction at the upper-division and graduate levels. Its impact will be substantial, for it defines an
Full Text Available The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM: electronic word of mouth (eWOM, considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the potential of both.
The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM): electronic word of mouth (eWOM), considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the potential of both.
Prazeres, Ang?lica M; Nascimento, Ant?nio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to tr...
Kesley Pablo Morais de Azevedo; Isis Kelly dos Santos; Paulo Moreira Silva Dantas; Maria Irany Knackfuss; Teresa Bento; José Carlos de Leitão; Humberto Jefferson de Medeiros
Background: The objective of this study is to accomplish a systematic review of the literature describing the associationbetween pubertal maturation and health risk behaviors among adolescents. Methods: It was used the database from MEDLINE/Pubmed, Scopus, Lilacs and Web of Science. The terms used in the research, with its variations, were “puberty”, “maturation”, “maturity”, “risk behaviors”, “risk factors”,“adolescent” and “student”. There were included studies that considered: 1) pre...
Full Text Available Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effective strategy is to prevent disordered eating attitudes in early childhood. Restriction and pressure are not effective strategies in developing healthy eating.
Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J
Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.
Sherar, Lauren B; Sanders, James P; Sanderson, Paul W; Esliger, Dale W
Background The location in which physical activity and sedentary behavior are performed can provide valuable behavioral information, both in isolation and synergistically with other areas of physical activity and sedentary behavior research. Global positioning systems (GPS) have been used in physical activity research to identify outdoor location; however, while GPS can receive signals in certain indoor environments, it is not able to provide room- or subroom-level location. On average, adults spend a high proportion of their time indoors. A measure of indoor location would, therefore, provide valuable behavioral information. Objective This systematic review sought to identify and critique technology which has been or could be used to assess the location of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods To identify published research papers, four electronic databases were searched using key terms built around behavior, technology, and location. To be eligible for inclusion, papers were required to be published in English and describe a wearable or portable technology or device capable of measuring location. Searches were performed up to February 4, 2015. This was supplemented by backward and forward reference searching. In an attempt to include novel devices which may not yet have made their way into the published research, searches were also performed using three Internet search engines. Specialized software was used to download search results and thus mitigate the potential pitfalls of changing search algorithms. Results A total of 188 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Global positioning systems were the most widely used location technology in the published research, followed by wearable cameras, and radio-frequency identification. Internet search engines identified 81 global positioning systems, 35 real-time locating systems, and 21 wearable cameras. Real-time locating systems determine the indoor location of a wearable tag via the known location of
Full Text Available Daniel J Pilowsky,1,2 Li-Tzy Wu3,41Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health New York City, NY, USA; 2Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Although HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have been studied extensively in adolescents and young adults, there is limited information about these behaviors among older Americans, which make up a growing segment of the US population and an understudied population. This review of the literature dealing with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV-infected found a low prevalence of condom use among older adults, even when not in a long-term relationship with a single partner. A seminal study by Schick et al published in 2010 reported that the prevalence of condom use at last intercourse was highest among those aged 50–59 years (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 15.6–35.8 and declined with age, with a 17.1% prevalence among those aged 60–69 years (17.1%; 95% confidence interval, 7.3–34.2. Studies have shown that older Americans may underestimate their risk of becoming HIV-infected. Substance use also increases the risk for sexual risk behaviors, and studies have indicated that the prevalence of substance use among older adults has increased in the past decade. As is the case with younger adults, the prevalence of HIV infections is elevated among ethnic minorities, drug users (eg, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men. When infected, older adults are likely to be diagnosed with HIV-related medical disorders later in the course of illness compared with their younger counterparts. Physicians are less likely to discuss sexual risk behaviors with older adults and to test them for HIV compared with younger adults. Thus, it is
Wells, Chad R.; Galvani, Alison P.
In a loop of dynamic feedback, behavior such as the decision to vaccinate, hand washing, or avoidance influences the progression of the epidemic, yet behavior is driven by the individual's and population's perceived risk of infection during an outbreak. In what we believe will become a seminal paper that stimulates future research as well as an informative teaching aid, Wang et. al. comprehensively review methodological advances that have been used to incorporate human behavior into epidemiological models on the effects of coupling disease transmission and behavior on complex social networks . As illustrated by the recent outbreaks of measles and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), here we highlight the importance of coupling behavior and disease transmission that Wang et al. address.
Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid I; Tellez, Marisol
Primary care providers (e.g., family physicians, pediatricians, registered nurses, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) could play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive services, especially for very young children (younger than 3 years old) and population groups with limited access to dental care. Given the current problems with access to dental care among low-income Americans, we contend there is a need to involve nondental primary health care providers in screening for and preventing oral health problems. The objective of this overview is to present findings from systematic reviews on the efficacy of continuing medical education, printed educational material, academic outreach, reminders, and local opinion leaders on the adoption of new knowledge and practices by primary care providers. A search was conducted using the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE. The search aimed to locate systematic reviews published between January 1988 and March 2003. Two researchers independently extracted data and assessed study quality using a modified version of the QUOROM statement. Eleven systematic reviews were included in this overview. The evidence from the included systematic reviews showed that formal continuing medical education (CME) and distributing educational materials did not effectively change primary care providers' behaviors. There are effective interventions available to increase knowledge and change behaviors of primary care providers, such as small group discussion, interactive workshops, educational outreach visits, and reminders. There is a limited knowledge base on the efficacy of the selected interventions on oral health screening by primary care providers. Considering the potential role of primary care providers in improving oral health of underserved populations, this research area should receive more attention.
Smith, Tanyka K; Larson, Elaine L
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health concern in the United States, particularly among older Black women who comprise approximately 40% of the newly diagnosed cases among women. This systematic review sought to answer the research question: What are the sexual practices in older Black women associated with HIV risk? CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Knowledge electronic databases were searched for English-language research studies published between 2003 and 2013 that focused on the HIV sexual risk practices of Black women over the age of 50. Using PRISMA guidelines, two reviewers independently reviewed and appraised the quality of relevant articles; agreement of select studies was achieved by consensus. Among the 3,167 articles surveyed, 9 met inclusion criteria. The majority (88%) were quantitative, observational studies. All nine articles addressed at least one of three factors that contribute to HIV sexual risk: Behavioral (inconsistent condom use and multiple sexual partners), psychological (risk perception, depression/stress, trauma, and self-esteem issues), and social factors (economics, education, and drugs/alcohol use). Outcome measures varied across studies. Although this systematic review appraised few studies, findings suggest that many older Black women are engaged in HIV risk-taking practices. Clinicians and researchers need to be aware of the HIV risk practices of older Black women to improve health outcomes through education, effective communication and risk appraisal. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
VanStelle, Sarah E.; Vicars, Sara M.; Harr, Victoria; Miguel, Caio F.; Koerber, Jeana L.; Kazbour, Richard; Austin, John
The purpose of this study was to extend into a third decade previous reviews conducted by Balcazar, Shupert, Daniels, Mawhinney, and Hopkins (1989) and Nolan, Jarema, and Austin (1999) of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" ("JOBM"). Every article published in "JOBM" between 1998 and 2009 was objectively reviewed and analyzed for…
OLAHUT Meda Roxana
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present an extended literature review of relevant empirical studies which examine the effect of ambient scent on consumers' perception, consumers' emotions and consumers' behavioral responses in the context of retailing. Compared with other atmospheric stimuli (such as background music, ambient scent has received little attention from researchers. This paper is also concentrated on identifying de principal dimensions of ambient scent (presence versus absence; congruity versus incongruity and pleasantness versus unpleasantness and examined how these dimensions of ambient scent have an impact on evaluation of a product, of a store or of a shopping mall and their impact on shopping behavior within a store. The paper also presented the Gulas and Bloch (1995 model, a complex conceptual framework on the influence of ambient scent on consumer responses, in their model the authors introduced the influence of mediating factors on behavioral responses to scent. Their model is a first step on the understanding the role of ambient scent in influencing consumer behavior. Davis, Kooijman and Ward (2003 extending and elaborating the Gulas and Bloch (1995 model by introducing concepts from cognate disciplines and examines mediating factors that help shape the emotional and behavioural responses that are stimulated to encompass current research on human olfaction and brings another specific points for future research. Based on the results of the relevant studies the authors of the present paper concludes by identifying gaps in the literature and suggest future research to explore how the use of scent help to create an overall store atmosphere which influence shopping behavior in the context of retailing.
Rogers, Annie G
In this paper, I lay out a blueprint for a child analysis, stipulating the terms and ethics of the Lacanian field of psychoanalysis, the position of the analyst in that field, and the invitation to the child to discover a space for desire in the work of play. Drawing on the grounding work of Freud, Lacan, Dolto, Lefort, Mannoni, and Mathelin, I describe the mainsprings of the psychoanalytic clinic with the child. I then offer a child case and its trajectory from the development of a phobia to a symptom, and show how the primal scene fantasy and its articulation can open a space for desire in a child's play. What is particular to this work of playing is the emergence of signifiers that chain across generations, and move into new metaphors that foreground the Real of the child's experience and desire.
Riccardo, Flavia; Shigematsu, Mika; Chow, Catherine; McKnight, C Jason; Linge, Jens; Doherty, Brian; Dente, Maria Grazia; Declich, Silvia; Barker, Mike; Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Donachie, Alastair; Mawudeku, Abla; Blench, Michael; Arthur, Ray
The Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project, launched in 2008, is aimed at improving global early alerting and risk assessment and evaluating the feasibility and opportunity of integrating the analysis of biological, chemical, radionuclear (CBRN), and pandemic influenza threats. At a time when no international collaborations existed in the field of event-based surveillance, EAR's innovative approach involved both epidemic intelligence experts and internet-based biosurveillance system providers in the framework of an international collaboration called the Global Health Security Initiative, which involved the ministries of health of the G7 countries and Mexico, the World Health Organization, and the European Commission. The EAR project pooled data from 7 major internet-based biosurveillance systems onto a common portal that was progressively optimized for biological threat detection under the guidance of epidemic intelligence experts from public health institutions in Canada, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The group became the first end users of the EAR portal, constituting a network of analysts working with a common standard operating procedure and risk assessment tools on a rotation basis to constantly screen and assess public information on the web for events that could suggest an intentional release of biological agents. Following the first 2-year pilot phase, the EAR project was tested in its capacity to monitor biological threats, proving that its working model was feasible and demonstrating the high commitment of the countries and international institutions involved. During the testing period, analysts using the EAR platform did not miss intentional events of a biological nature and did not issue false alarms. Through the findings of this initial assessment, this article provides insights into how the field of epidemic intelligence can advance through an
Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…
Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of
Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia
African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.
Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B
Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy change to address insufficient sleep in this population and potentially to improve students' academic performance, reduce engagement in risk behaviors, and improve health. This article reviews 38 reports examining the association between school start times, sleep, and other outcomes among adolescent students. Most studies reviewed provide evidence that delaying school start time increases weeknight sleep duration among adolescents, primarily by delaying rise times. Most of the studies saw a significant increase in sleep duration even with relatively small delays in start times of half an hour or so. Later start times also generally correspond to improved attendance, less tardiness, less falling asleep in class, better grades, and fewer motor vehicle crashes. Although additional research is necessary, research results that are already available should be disseminated to stakeholders to enable the development of evidence-based school policies. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz
Based on findings of Stevens and Vollebergh , who analyzed cross-cultural topics, this review considers the current prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems of native children and adolescents in comparison with children with a migration background in European countries. 36 studies published from 2007 up to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included and analyzed in their perspective design in detail. Previous studies showed great differences in their results: Especially in Germany, many studies compare the heterogeneous group of immigrant children with native children to analyze an ethnic minority or migration process effect. Only a British and Turkish study demonstrates the selection effect in migration. Most Dutch or British studies examined different ethnic groups, e.g. Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Pakistani, Indian or Black migrant children and adolescents. Migrant childhood in Europe could be declared a risk in increasing internalizing problem behavior while the prevalent rate in externalizing problem behavior was comparable between native and migrant children. A migration status itself can often be postulated as a risk factor for children's mental condition, in particular migration in first generation. Furthermore, several major influence factors in migrant children's mental health could be pointed out, such as a low socio-economic status, a Non-European origin, an uncertain cultural identity of the parents, maternal harsh parenting or inadequate parental occupation, a minority status, the younger age, gender effects or a specific culture declaration in diseases.
Mohr, David C; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael
A technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health was charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs refers to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. This study on the findings of the technical expert panel. Videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been well validated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes. Social media such as online support groups have produced disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received little work in mental health. Research focused on understanding reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. Improvements in the collection, storage, analysis and visualization of big data will be required. New theoretical models and evaluation strategies will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jolly, John B; Fluet, Norman R; Reis, Michael D; Stern, Charles H; Thompson, Alexander W; Jolly, Gillian A
The integration of behavioral health services in primary care has been referred to in many ways, but ultimately refers to common structures and processes. Behavioral health is integrated into primary care because it increases the effectiveness and efficiency of providing care and reduces costs in the care of primary care patients. Reimbursement is one factor, if not the main factor, that determines the level of integration that can be achieved. The federal health reform agenda supports changes that will eventually permit behavioral health to be fully integrated and will allow the health of the population to be the primary target of intervention. In an effort to develop more integrated services at Baylor Scott and White Healthcare, models of integration are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each model are discussed. Recommendations to increase integration include adopting a disease management model with care management, planned guideline-based stepped care, follow-up, and treatment monitoring. Population-based interventions can be completed at the pace of the development of alternative reimbursement methods. The program should be based upon patient-centered medical home standards, and research is needed throughout the program development process.
Roberta Meneses Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work. METHOD An integrative review carried out in the theoretical phase of a qualitative research substantiated by the theoretical framework of the Hybrid Model of Concept Development. The search for articles was conducted in the CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, PubMed and SciVerse Scopus databases in 2013. RESULTS 70 scientific articles answered the guiding question and lead to attributes of disruptive behavior, being: incivility, psychological violence and physical/sexual violence; with their main antecedents (intrapersonal, interpersonal and organizational being: personality characteristics, stress and work overload; and consequences of: workers' moral/mental distress, compromised patient safety, labor loss, and disruption of communication, collaboration and teamwork. CONCLUSION Analysis of the disruptive behavior concept in healthcare work showed a construct in its theoretical stage that encompasses different disrespectful conduct adopted by health workers in the hospital context, which deserve the attention of leadership for better recognition and proper handling of cases and their consequences.
Burger, Kyle S; Berner, Laura A
Adequate energy intake is vital for the survival of humans and is regulated by complex homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms. Supported by functional MRI (fMRI) studies that consistently demonstrate differences in brain response as a function of weight status during exposure to appetizing food stimuli, it has been posited that hedonically driven food intake contributes to weight gain and obesity maintenance. These food reward theories of obesity are reliant on the notion that the aberrant brain response to food stimuli relates directly to ingestive behavior, specifically, excess food intake. Importantly, functioning of homeostatic neuroendocrine regulators of food intake, such as leptin and ghrelin, are impacted by weight status. Thus, data from studies that evaluate the effect on weight status on brain response to food may be a result of differences in neuroendocrine functioning and/or behavior. In the present review, we examine the influence of weight and weight change, exogenous administration of appetitive hormones, and ingestive behavior on BOLD response to food stimuli. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Finch, Emma; Copley, Anna; Cornwell, Petrea; Kelly, Crystal
To determine whether behavioral interventions are beneficial for adults with social communication difficulties after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Electronic databases were searched through October 2013 to find behavioral intervention trials. Keywords used in our search were intervention, therapy, treatment, and program combined with pragmatic disorder, pragmatic impairment, social communication disorder/impairment, conversation disorder/impairment, social disorder/impairment, cognitive-linguistic and cognitive-communication deficit; adult; and traumatic brain injury, head injury, and brain injury. Hand searches of the reference lists of relevant articles were also conducted. To be selected for detailed review, articles found in the initial search were assessed by 2 reviewers and had to meet the following criteria: (1) population (adults with TBI); (2) intervention (behavioral intervention); and (3) outcomes (changes in social communication). Articles needed to describe interventions that were delivered directly to adults with TBI with or without other people (such as significant others) involved. Of the 2181 articles initially identified, 15 were selected for detailed review. Data were independently extracted by members of the research team, then collated and reviewed by the team. Of the 15 publications that met the study criteria, 7 were single-case design studies, 3 were randomized controlled trials, 1 was a nonrandomized controlled trial, and 4 were cohort studies. The methodological qualities of eligible articles were examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database and Single-Case Experimental Design rating scales. The interventions described in the studies fell into 2 broad categories: those addressing a specific impairment in social communication, and context-specific interventions with a holistic focus on social communication skills. Studies using context-sensitive approaches had been published more recently and were generally group studies with higher
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks
Full Text Available Introduction. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF is spreading rapidly in intensive cattle farms. It is based on the monitoring of individuals using different kinds of sensors. Applied to grazing animals, PLF is mainly based on the recording of three parameters: the location, the posture and the movements of the animal. Until now, several techniques have been used to discriminate grazing and ruminating behaviors with accuracies over 90% on average, when compared to observations, providing valuable tools to improve the management of pasture and grazing animals. However, bites and jaw movements are still overlooked, even though they are of utmost importance to assess the animal grazing strategies for various pasture types and develop future techniques allowing better estimation of their intake. Literature. The goal of this review is to explore the possibility of monitoring the individual jaw movements and the differentiation of bites in grazing animals. For this purpose, (1 the mechanisms of forage intake in cattle are explained briefly in order to understand the movements performed by the cow, especially during grazing, (2 the various sensors that have been proposed to monitor jaw movements of ruminants such as mechanical sensors (pressure sensors, acoustic sensors (microphone and electromyography sensors are compared and (3 finally the relationship between jaw movements, biting behavior and forage intake is discussed. Conclusions. The review clearly demonstrated the abilities of mechanical, acoustic and electromyography sensors to classify the difference types of jaw movements. However, it also indicated a wide range of accuracies and different observation windows required to reach these accuracies when compared to the observed movement. This classification purpose could lead to a better detection of more specific behavior, e.g. bite detection, and their exact location on pasture.
Goesling, Brian; Colman, Silvie; Trenholm, Christopher; Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin
This systematic review provides a comprehensive, updated assessment of programs with evidence of effectiveness in reducing teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), or associated sexual risk behaviors. The review was conducted in four steps. First, multiple literature search strategies were used to identify relevant studies released from 1989 through January 2011. Second, identified studies were screened against prespecified eligibility criteria. Third, studies were assessed by teams of two trained reviewers for the quality and execution of their research designs. Fourth, for studies that passed the quality assessment, the review team extracted and analyzed information on the research design, study sample, evaluation setting, and program impacts. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the data extraction and analysis. The studies examined a range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Most studies had mixed-gender and predominately African-American research samples (70% and 51%, respectively). Randomized controlled trials accounted for the large majority (87%) of included studies. Most studies (76%) included multiple follow-ups, with sample sizes ranging from 62 to 5,244. Analysis of the study impact findings identified 31 programs with evidence of effectiveness. Research conducted since the late 1980s has identified more than two dozen teen pregnancy and STI prevention programs with evidence of effectiveness. Key strengths of this research are the large number of randomized controlled trials, the common use of multiple follow-up periods, and attention to a broad range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Two main gaps are a lack of replication studies and the need for more research on Latino youth and other high-risk populations. In addressing these gaps, researchers must overcome common limitations in study design, analysis, and reporting that have negatively affected prior research. Copyright
Carney, Patricia A.; Palmer, Ryan T.; Miller, Marissa Fuqua; Thayer, Erin K.; Estroff, Sue E.; Litzelman, Debra K.; Biagioli, Frances E.; Teal, Cayla R.; Lambros, Ann; Hatt, William J.; Satterfield, Jason M.
Purpose Behavioral and social science (BSS) competencies are needed to provide quality health care, but psychometrically validated measures to assess these competencies are difficult to find. Moreover, they have not been mapped to existing frameworks, like those from the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate the quality of assessment tools used to measure BSS competencies. Method The authors searched the literature published between January 2002 and March 2014 for articles reporting psychometric or other validity/reliability testing, using OVID, CINAHL, PubMed, ERIC, Research and Development Resource Base, SOCIOFILE, and PsycINFO. They reviewed 5,104 potentially relevant titles and abstracts. To guide their review, they mapped BSS competencies to existing LCME and ACGME frameworks. The final, included articles fell into three categories: instrument development, which were of the highest quality; educational research, which were of the second highest quality; and curriculum evaluation, which were of lower quality. Results Of the 114 included articles, 33 (29%) yielded strong evidence supporting tools to assess communication skills, cultural competence, empathy/compassion, behavioral health counseling, professionalism, and teamwork. Sixty-two (54%) articles yielded moderate evidence and 19 (17%) weak evidence. Articles mapped to all LCME standards and ACGME core competencies; the most common was communication skills. Conclusions These findings serve as a valuable resource for medical educators and researchers. More rigorous measurement validation and testing and more robust study designs are needed to understand how educational strategies contribute to BSS competency development. PMID:26796091
Bloom, Jill Myerow; Woodward, Eva N; Susmaras, Teresa; Pantalone, David W
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an empirically supported treatment for outpatients with borderline personality disorder. However, the utility of DBT strategies for inpatients with the disorder is unclear. This review summarizes and synthesizes findings from trials of DBT in inpatient settings. Multiple research databases were searched for articles published through June 2011 that reported on any implementation of DBT in an inpatient setting to address symptoms related to borderline personality disorder, including suicidal and self-injurious behavior. Eleven studies that reported pre- and posttreatment symptoms related to borderline personality disorder were evaluated. Studies indicated that many variations of standard DBT have been used in inpatient settings, including approaches that do not include phone consultation, that include group therapy only, and that vary in treatment duration (from two weeks to three months). Most studies reported reductions in suicidal ideation, self-injurious behaviors, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, whereas results for reducing anger and violent behaviors were mixed. Follow-up data indicated that symptom reduction was often maintained between one and 21 months posttreatment. On the basis of the evidence, the authors identify essential components of an inpatient DBT package and discuss its potential function as an "intensive orientation" to outpatient DBT services. There is considerable variation in the configuration and duration of DBT implementation for inpatients with borderline personality disorder. However, findings suggest that DBT may be effective in reducing symptoms related to borderline personality disorder in inpatient settings. Future research should standardize and systematically test inpatient DBT. (Psychiatric Services 63:881-888, 2012; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201100311).
Chalah, Moussa A; Ayache, Samar S
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly suffer from fatigue, a multidimensional symptom with physical, cognitive and psychosocial components that can drastically alter the quality of life. Despite its debilitating nature, the current treatment options are limited by their modest efficacy and numerous side effects. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) have been applied in MS patients and might be of help in relieving fatigue. This constitutes the main objective of the current review. Computerized databases (Medline/PubMed, Scopus) were consulted till January 2018, and a research was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines in order to identify original research articles published at any time in English and French languages on cognitive behavioral therapies and MS fatigue as a primary outcome. The following key terms were used: ('multiple sclerosis' OR 'MS') AND ('fatigue') AND ('cognitive behavioral therapy' OR 'CBT' OR 'cognitive therapy' OR 'CT' OR 'behavioral therapy' OR 'BT' OR 'psychotherapy'). Fourteen papers matched the above criteria (11 trials, 2 methods and 1 study addressing CBT mechanisms of action). CBT seems to have positive effects on MS fatigue. However, the onset and duration of effects varied across the studies. These data highlight the promising effects of CBT in MS fatigue. Admitting the limited number of studies, more protocols are needed before drawing any conclusion. Future works might benefit from combining CBT with emerging therapies such as non-invasive brain stimulation techniques which also yielded promising results in the setting of MS. This may help in long-term maintenance of fatigue relief. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rose, Taylor; Barker, Mary; Maria Jacob, Chandni; Morrison, Leanne; Lawrence, Wendy; Strömmer, Sofia; Vogel, Christina; Woods-Townsend, Kathryn; Farrell, David; Inskip, Hazel; Baird, Janis
Many adolescents have poor diet and physical activity behaviors, which can lead to the development of noncommunicable diseases in later life. Digital platforms offer inexpensive means of delivering health interventions, but little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of digital interventions to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in adolescents, to effective intervention components and to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Following a systematic search, abstracts were assessed against inclusion criteria, and data extraction and quality assessment were performed for included studies. Data were analyzed to identify key features that are associated with significant improvement in behavior. A total of 27 studies met inclusion criteria. Most (n = 15) were Web site interventions. Other delivery methods were text messages, games, multicomponent interventions, emails, and social media. Significant behavior change was often seen when interventions included education, goal setting, self-monitoring, and parental involvement. None of the publications reported cost-effectiveness. Due to heterogeneity of studies, meta-analysis was not feasible.It is possible to effect significant health behavior change in adolescents through digital interventions that incorporate education, goal setting, self-monitoring, and parental involvement. Most of the evidence relates to Web sites and further research into alternate media is needed, and longer term outcomes should be evaluated. There is a paucity of data on the cost-effectiveness of digital health interventions, and future trials should report these data. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caçola, Priscila; Miller, Haylie L; Williamson, Peace Ossom
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are developmental disorders that, since the DSM-5, can be diagnosed as co-occurring conditions. While some recent studies suggest that ASD and DCD have similar traits, others show clear behavioral distinctions between the two conditions. By gathering all studies that included (1) an ASD group and a DCD group, (2) an ASD+DCD group and a DCD group, or (3) ASD, ASD+DCD, and DCD groups, we aimed to identify similarities and differences in behaviors between the two disorders. We used a systematic search of PubMed (1946 -), Scopus (1970 -), PsycINFO (via EBSCO, 1600 -), CINAHL (via EBSCO, 1937 -), SportDiscus (via EBSCO, 1985 -), and WorldCat (via FirstSearch) in addition to reference list and author name searching PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SportDiscus, and WorldCat to identify original studies that met the following criteria: (1) an ASD group and a DCD group, (2) an ASD+DCD group and a DCD group, or (3) ASD, ASD+DCD, and DCD groups. From the 1,598 articles screened, 11 were included in the qualitative analysis. The articles included reported more differences than similarities in individuals with ASD and DCD, with clear distinctions for working memory ability, gestural performance, grip selection, and cortical thickness. Only two studies reported similarities in face processing abilities and perceived competence, and the interventional studies showed group similarities in behavior improvement, such as intelligence and attention. Based on the articles reviewed, we conclude that while DCD and ASD share some behavioral symptoms, the symptom profiles of each disorder are unique and separable. We recommend that the evaluation of potential DCD in individuals with ASD be performed systematically and thoroughly, so as to distinguish this co-occurring condition from sensorimotor symptoms associated with ASD.
Lutz, Julie; Fiske, Amy
Middle-aged and older adults have elevated rates of suicide around the globe, but there is a paucity of knowledge about risk factors for suicide in these age groups. One possible risk factor may be functional disability, which is more common at later ages. The current systematic critical review examined findings regarding the associations between functional disability and suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide) in middle-aged and older adults (i.e. age 50 and older). Forty-five studies were found that examined these associations. The majority of studies supported a significant association between functional disability and suicidal ideation. In addition, findings to date strongly suggest that depression serves as a mediator of the association between functional disability and suicidal ideation, though most studies did not directly test for mediation. Firm conclusions regarding suicide attempts and death by suicide, as well as mediation, cannot be drawn due to a relative lack of research in these areas. The association between functional disability and suicidal behavior suggests an important area for prevention and intervention among middle-aged and older adults, but additional research is necessary to clarify the specifics of these associations and examine appropriate intervention strategies. Important future directions for research in this area include the direct comparison of associations of risk factors with different types of suicidal behavior, greater use of longitudinal data with multiple time points, and further examination of potential mediators and moderators of the association between functional disability and suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R
With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Azeem, Eman; Gillani, Syed Wasif; Siddiqui, Ammar; Shammary H A, Al; Poh, Vinci; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Baig, Mirza
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Therefore, it is highly important for the public to be educated on breast cancer and to know the steps to detect it early on. Healthcare providers are in the prime position to provide such education to the public due to their high knowledge regarding health and their roles in healthcare. The present systematic review involved studies conducted in recent years to analyze the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Malaysian healthcare providers regarding breast cancer, in attempts to obtain an overall picture of how well equipped our healthcare providers are to provide optimal breast cancer education, and to see their perceptions and actual involvement in said education. The systematic review was conducted via a primary search of various databases and journal websites, and a secondary search of references used by eligible studies. Criteria for eligibility included being published from the year 2008 till present, being conducted in Malaysia, and being written in the English language. A total of two studies were eligible for this review. Findings show that Malaysian future and current healthcare providers have moderate knowledge on breast cancer, have a positive towards involvement of breast cancer education, but have poor actual involvement.
Du, Ziwen; Deng, Shubo; Bei, Yue; Huang, Qian; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have drawn great attention recently due to their wide distribution in aquatic environments and potential toxic to animals and human beings. Adsorption not only is an effective technology to remove PFCs from water or wastewater, but also affects PFC distribution at solid-liquid interfaces and their fate in aquatic environments. This article reviews the adsorption behavior of different PFCs (mainly perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate) on various adsorptive materials. Some effective adsorbents are introduced in detail in terms of their preparation, characteristics, effects of solution chemistry and PFC properties on adsorption. Adsorption mechanisms of PFCs on different adsorbents are summarized, and various interactions including electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, ligand exchange, and hydrogen bond are fully reviewed. The adsorbents with amine groups generally have high adsorption capacity for PFCs, and formation of micelles/hemi-micelles plays an important role in achieving high adsorption capacity of perfluorinated surfactants on some porous adsorbents. Hydrophobic interaction is mainly responsible for PFC adsorption, but the difference between PFCs and traditional hydrocarbons has not clearly clarified. This review paper would be helpful for the preparation of effective adsorbents for PFC removal and understanding interfacial process of PFCs during their transport and fate in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Donaldson, AL; Stahmer, AC; Stahmer, AC; Stahmer, AC
© American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and behavior analysts are key members of school-based teams that serve children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Behavior analysts approach assessment and intervention through the lens of applied behavior analysis (ABA). ABA-based interventions have been found effective for targeting skills across multiple domains for children with ASD. However, some SLPs may be unfamiliar with the breadth of ABA...
Hamilton, Clayon B; Wong, Ming-Kin; Gignac, Monique A M; Davis, Aileen M; Chesworth, Bert M
To identify validated measures that capture illness perception and behavior and have been used to assess people who have knee pain/osteoarthritis. A scoping review was performed. Nine electronic databases were searched for records from inception through April 19, 2015. Search terms included illness perception, illness behavior, knee, pain, osteoarthritis, and their related terms. This review included English language publications of primary data on people with knee pain/osteoarthritis who were assessed with validated measures capturing any of 4 components of illness perception and behavior: monitor body, define and interpret symptoms, take remedial action, and utilize sources of help. Seventy-one publications included relevant measures. Two reviewers independently coded and analyzed each relevant measure within the 4 components. Sixteen measures were identified that capture components of illness perception and behavior in the target population. These measures were originally developed to capture constructs that include coping strategies/skills/styles, illness belief, illness perception, self-efficacy, and pain behavior. Coding results indicated that 5, 11, 12, and 5 of these measures included the monitor body, define and interpret symptoms, take remedial action, and utilize sources of help components, respectively. Several validated measures were interpreted as capturing some components, and only 1 measure was interpreted as capturing all of the components of illness perception and behavior in the target population. A measure that comprehensively captures illness perception and behavior could be valuable for informing and evaluating therapy for patients along a continuum of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.
Robinson, Lisa A; Hammitt, James K
Behavioral economics has captured the interest of scholars and the general public by demonstrating ways in which individuals make decisions that appear irrational. While increasing attention is being focused on the implications of this research for the design of risk-reducing policies, less attention has been paid to how it affects the economic valuation of policy consequences. This article considers the latter issue, reviewing the behavioral economics literature and discussing its implications for the conduct of benefit-cost analysis, particularly in the context of environmental, health, and safety regulations. We explore three concerns: using estimates of willingness to pay or willingness to accept compensation for valuation, considering the psychological aspects of risk when valuing mortality-risk reductions, and discounting future consequences. In each case, we take the perspective that analysts should avoid making judgments about whether values are "rational" or "irrational." Instead, they should make every effort to rely on well-designed studies, using ranges, sensitivity analysis, or probabilistic modeling to reflect uncertainty. More generally, behavioral research has led some to argue for a more paternalistic approach to policy analysis. We argue instead for continued focus on describing the preferences of those affected, while working to ensure that these preferences are based on knowledge and careful reflection. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.
Spreckley, Michèle; Boyd, Roslyn
To review the effectiveness of applied behavior intervention (ABI) programs for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their cognitive, adaptive behavior, and language development. Systematic reviews, randomized or quasirandomized controlled trials (RCT) of ABI delivered to preschool children with ASD were reviewed. Quantitative data on cognitive, language, and behavior outcomes were extracted and pooled for meta-analysis (RevMan 4.2). Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Six of these were randomized comparison trials with adequate methodologic quality (PEDro >or= 6). Meta-analysis of 4 studies concluded that, compared with standard care, ABI programs did not significantly improve the cognitive outcomes of children in the experimental group who scored a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.38 (95%CI -0.09 to 0.84; P = .1). There was no additional benefit over standard care for expressive language; SMD of 0.37 (95%CI -0.09 to 0.84; P = .11), for receptive language; SMD of 0.29 (95%CI -0.17 to 0.74; P = .22) or adaptive behavior; SMD of 0.30 (95%CI -0.16 to 0.77; P = .20). Currently there is inadequate evidence that ABI has better outcomes than standard care for children with autism. Appropriately powered clinical trials with broader outcomes are required.
Jones, Jeanne M.; Ng, Peter; Wood, Nathan J.
Recent disasters such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami; the 2013 Colorado floods; and the 2014 Oso, Washington, mudslide have raised awareness of catastrophic, sudden-onset hazards that arrive within minutes of the events that trigger them, such as local earthquakes or landslides. Due to the limited amount of time between generation and arrival of sudden-onset hazards, evacuations are typically self-initiated, on foot, and across the landscape (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Although evacuation to naturally occurring high ground may be feasible in some vulnerable communities, evacuation modeling has demonstrated that other communities may require vertical-evacuation structures within a hazard zone, such as berms or buildings, if at-risk individuals are to survive some types of sudden-onset hazards (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2013). Researchers use both static least-cost-distance (LCD) and dynamic agent-based models to assess the pedestrian evacuation potential of vulnerable communities. Although both types of models help to understand the evacuation landscape, LCD models provide a more general overview that is independent of population distributions, which may be difficult to quantify given the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of populations (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Recent LCD efforts related to local tsunami threats have focused on an anisotropic (directionally dependent) path distance modeling approach that incorporates travel directionality, multiple travel speed assumptions, and cost surfaces that reflect variations in slope and land cover (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012, 2013). The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software implements this anisotropic path-distance approach for pedestrian evacuation from sudden-onset hazards, with a particular focus at this time on local tsunami threats. The model estimates evacuation potential based on elevation, direction of movement, land cover, and travel speed and creates a map showing travel times to safety (a
Contemporary child and adolescent psychoanalytic technique has evolved and changed a great deal in the last thirty years. This paper will describe the analysis of an adolescent girl from early in the author's career to demonstrate the ways in which technique has changed. The clinical material presented highlights six areas in which contemporary child and adolescent analysts practice and/or understand material and the clinical process differently than they did thirty years ago: (1) the contemporary perspective on mutative action, (2) the contemporary emphasis on mental organization, (3) the developmental lag in integrating the structural model, (4) the child analyst's multiple functions, (5) the child analyst's use of countertransference, and (6) the child analyst's work with parents. The author discusses how he would work differently with the patient now using his contemporary perspective. But he also wonders what might have been lost by not working in a more traditional manner, in particular the opportunity to analyze the patient's hypersensitivity to feeling hurt and mistreated so directly in the transference.
Haga, Wayne; Moreno, Abel; Segall, Mark
In this paper, we compare the performance of Computer Information Systems (CIS) majors on the Information Systems Analyst (ISA) Certification Exam. The impact that the form of delivery of information systems coursework may have on the exam score is studied. Using a sample that spans three years, we test for significant differences between scores…
Fung, Jo Kamen K M; Tsang, Hector W H; Chung, Raymond C K
We aimed to fill the literature gap by identifying the clinical benefits of aromatherapy in older adults with dementia, and its efficacy in reducing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) based on available randomized controlled trials (RCT). A systematic review of 11 clinical trials shortlisted from electronic databases from 1995 to 2011 was carried out. The RCT showed that aromatherapy had positive effects on reduction of BPSD, improvement in cognitive functions, increasing quality of life, enhancing independence of activities of daily living and so on. However, adverse effects were noted in some studies. Limitations on methodology are discussed and suggestions on directions of further studies are made. It is recommended that aromatherapy shows the potential to be applied as a therapeutic and safe complementary and alternative therapy for the management of BPSD on more evidence collected from better designed RCT. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben
With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.
Suedfeld, Peter; Bootzin, Richard; Harvey, Allison; Leon, Gloria; Musson, David; Oltmanns, Thomas; Paulus, Martin
The first meeting of the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Standing Review Panel (SRP) was held in Houston, TX on November 1-3, 2009. Our task was to assess the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) related to the fields covered in the SRP charge (see section VIII). Having considered and discussed the extensive materials distributed prior to the meeting, and the highly informative briefings by the NASA BHP Human Research Program (HRP) personnel during the site visit, the SRP agreed that the IRP is comprehensive and was developed carefully. Question and answer periods with the presenters were particularly productive and helpful to the SRP. The presenters' willingness to share information and positive responses to the SRP's suggestions were greatly appreciated. Although the IRP and related documents are impressive, the SRP does have a number of recommendations regarding both the overall plan and its component parts.
Toh, Wei Quan; Tan, Xipeng; Bhowmik, Ayan; Liu, Erjia; Tor, Shu Beng
Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together. This article aims at reviewing the commonly used tribochemical methods adopted in the analysis of tribocorrosion and putting forward some of the models and environmental factors affecting the tribocorrosive behavior of CoCrMo alloys, a widely-used class of biomaterial for orthopedic implants.
Wei Quan Toh
Full Text Available Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together. This article aims at reviewing the commonly used tribochemical methods adopted in the analysis of tribocorrosion and putting forward some of the models and environmental factors affecting the tribocorrosive behavior of CoCrMo alloys, a widely-used class of biomaterial for orthopedic implants.
Skouteris, Helen; Morris, Heather; Nagle, Cate; Nankervis, Alison
The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity is increasing in developed countries, presenting significant challenges to acute care and public health. The aim of this study is to systematically review published controlled trials evaluating behavior modification interventions to prevent the development of GDM. Nine studies were identified involving such techniques as repetition of information, use of verbal and written educational information, goal setting, and planning, in addition to group and individual counseling sessions. Of the 3 trials with GDM incidence as a primary outcome, only 1 showed a significant reduction. GDM was a secondary outcome in 6 studies where the prevention of excessive gestational weight gain was the primary outcome and only 1 trial study determined an effective intervention. The small number of effective interventions highlights a significant gap in evidence to inform maternity health policy and practice.
Kearney, Christopher A
Absenteeism from school is a serious public health issue for mental health professionals, physicians, and educators. The prevalence of unexcused absences from school exceeds that of major childhood behavior disorders and is a key risk factor for violence, injury, substance use, psychiatric disorders, and economic deprivation. This article involves a contemporary research review on absenteeism prevalence, comorbid physical and psychiatric conditions, classification, contextual risk factors, cross-cultural variables, assessment, intervention, and outcome. Contextual risk factors include homelessness and poverty, teenage pregnancy, school violence and victimization, school climate and connectedness, parental involvement, and family variables, among others. A description of intervention includes medical, clinical, and systemic interventions. Medical professionals, community- and school-based mental health professionals, and educators are encouraged to fully understand the parameters of school absenteeism to develop better, consensual policies regarding definition, classification, assessment, and intervention of youths with problematic school absenteeism.
Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by the compulsive desire to use drugs and a loss of control over consumption. Cannabidiol (CBD, the second most abundant component of cannabis, is thought to modulate various neuronal circuits involved in drug addiction. The goal of this systematic review is to summarize the available preclinical and clinical data on the impact of CBD on addictive behaviors. MEDLINE and PubMed were searched for English and French language articles published before 2015. In all, 14 studies were found, 9 of which were conducted on animals and the remaining 5 on humans. A limited number of preclinical studies suggest that CBD may have therapeutic properties on opioid, cocaine, and psychostimulant addiction, and some preliminary data suggest that it may be beneficial in cannabis and tobacco addiction in humans. Further studies are clearly necessary to fully evaluate the potential of CBD as an intervention for addictive disorders.
Baek, S.O.; Field, R.A.; Goldstone, M.E.; Kirk, P.W.; Lester, J.N.; Perry, R.
A review has been written to assess the sources, fate and behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmosphere. PAH are formed mainly by anthropogenic processes, especially the combustion of organic fuels. PAH concentration in air will reflect the location of source emitters, with high concentrations corresponding with urban and industrial areas. PAH are however ubiquitous contaminants of the environment having been detected in remote areas of the world. This is thought to be due to long term transport in the atmosphere. PAH can also be subjected to chemical and/or photochemical change whilst resident in the atmosphere prior to their removal by either wet or dry deposition. 146 refs., 5 tabs
Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas
Preparedness for disasters and emergencies at individual, community and organizational levels could be more effective tools in mitigating (the growing incidence) of disaster risk and ameliorating their impacts. That is, to play more significant roles in disaster risk reduction (DRR). Preparedness efforts focus on changing human behaviors in ways that reduce people's risk and increase their ability to cope with hazard consequences. While preparedness initiatives have used behavioral theories to facilitate DRR, many theories have been used and little is known about which behavioral theories are more commonly used, where they have been used, and why they have been preferred over alternative behavioral theories. Given that theories differ with respect to the variables used and the relationship between them, a systematic analysis is an essential first step to answering questions about the relative utility of theories and providing a more robust evidence base for preparedness components of DRR strategies. The goal of this systematic review was to search and summarize evidence by assessing the application of behavioral theories to disaster and emergency health preparedness across the world. The protocol was prepared in which the study objectives, questions, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and sensitive search strategies were developed and pilot-tested at the beginning of the study. Using selected keywords, articles were searched mainly in PubMed, Scopus, Mosby's Index (Nursing Index) and Safetylit databases. Articles were assessed based on their titles, abstracts, and their full texts. The data were extracted from selected articles and results were presented using qualitative and quantitative methods. In total, 2040 titles, 450 abstracts and 62 full texts of articles were assessed for eligibility criteria, whilst five articles were archived from other sources, and then finally, 33 articles were selected. The Health Belief Model (HBM), Extended Parallel Process Model
Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas
Background: Preparedness for disasters and emergencies at individual, community and organizational levels could be more effective tools in mitigating (the growing incidence) of disaster risk and ameliorating their impacts. That is, to play more significant roles in disaster risk reduction (DRR). Preparedness efforts focus on changing human behaviors in ways that reduce people’s risk and increase their ability to cope with hazard consequences. While preparedness initiatives have used behavioral theories to facilitate DRR, many theories have been used and little is known about which behavioral theories are more commonly used, where they have been used, and why they have been preferred over alternative behavioral theories. Given that theories differ with respect to the variables used and the relationship between them, a systematic analysis is an essential first step to answering questions about the relative utility of theories and providing a more robust evidence base for preparedness components of DRR strategies. The goal of this systematic review was to search and summarize evidence by assessing the application of behavioral theories to disaster and emergency health preparedness across the world. Methods: The protocol was prepared in which the study objectives, questions, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and sensitive search strategies were developed and pilot-tested at the beginning of the study. Using selected keywords, articles were searched mainly in PubMed, Scopus, Mosby’s Index (Nursing Index) and Safetylit databases. Articles were assessed based on their titles, abstracts, and their full texts. The data were extracted from selected articles and results were presented using qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: In total, 2040 titles, 450 abstracts and 62 full texts of articles were assessed for eligibility criteria, whilst five articles were archived from other sources, and then finally, 33 articles were selected. The Health Belief Model (HBM
Lucas, Patricia J.; Cabral, Christie; Colford, John M.
Background Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities) to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. Methods/Principal Findings A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination). Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26–72%) among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0–0.46] 6–12 months post intervention) suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. Conclusion Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of contamination data to
Patricia J Lucas
Full Text Available Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes.A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination. Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26-72% among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0-0.46] 6-12 months post intervention suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment.Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of contamination data to improve water management is currently
Li, Tim M H; Wong, Paul W C
Acute and/or severe social withdrawal behavior among youth was seen as a culture-bound psychiatric syndrome in Japan, but more youth social withdrawal cases in different countries have been discovered recently. However, due to the lack of a formal definition and diagnostic tool for youth social withdrawal, cross-cultural observational and intervention studies are limited. We aimed to consolidate existing knowledge in order to understand youth social withdrawal from diverse perspectives and suggest different interventions for different trajectories of youth social withdrawal. This review examined the current available scientific information on youth social withdrawal in the academic databases: ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and PubMed. We included quantitative and qualitative studies of socially withdrawn youths published in English and academic peer-reviewed journals. We synthesized the information into the following categories: (1) definitions of youth social withdrawal, (2) developmental theories, (3) factors associated with youth social withdrawal and (4) interventions for socially withdrawn youths. Accordingly, there are diverse and controversial definitions for youth social withdrawal. Studies of youth social withdrawal are based on models that lead to quite different conclusions. Researchers with an attachment perspective view youth social withdrawal as a negative phenomenon, whereas those who adopt Erikson's developmental theory view it more positively as a process of seeking self-knowledge. Different interventions for socially withdrawn youths have been developed, mainly in Japan, but evidence-based practice is almost non-existent. We propose a theoretical framework that views youth social withdrawal as resulting from the interplay between psychological, social and behavioral factors. Future validation of the framework will help drive forward advances in theory and interventions for youth social withdrawal as an emerging issue in developed
In his article, Critchfield ("Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior," "The Behavior Analyst," v34, p3-17, 2011) summarizes a previous call (Mace & Critchfield, 2010) for basic scientists to reexamine the inspiration for their research and turn increasingly to translational approaches. Interestingly, rather than…
Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela
We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.
Bartram, B.W.; Wilkinson, M.J.
Plutonium-fueled radioisotopic heat sources find application in a spectrum of space, terrestrial, and underseas applications to generate electrical power by thermoelectric or dynamic-cycle conversion. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population. The released radioactivity could be dispersed into various environmental media, such as air, soil, and water and interact with people through various exposure pathways leading to inhalation, ingestion, and external radiological doses and associated health effects. The authors developed short-term exposure (RISK II) and long-term exposure (RISK III) models for use in safety risk assessments of space missions utilizing plutonium-fueled electric power systems. To effectively use these models in risk assessments, representative input values must be selected for a spectrum of environmental transfer parameters that characterize the behavior of plutonium in the environment. The selection of appropriate transfer parameters to be used in a given analysis will depend on the accident scenarios to be modeled and the terrestrial and aquatic environments to be encountered. The authors reviewed the availability of plutonium environmental data for use in risk assessments and the status of research programs being conducted by various organizations related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment. This report summarizes the research programs presently being conducted at six Department of Energy Laboratories and makes recommendations on areas where further research is needed to fill gaps in the data necessary for risk assessments. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Kuroki, Toshihide; Ishibashi, Hiroki
A growing body of evidence suggests the significant efficacy of behavioral activation therapy (BA) for the treatment of depression, although BA had formerly been regarded as only a part of the techniques for cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT). The aim of this article is to review the effectiveness, indications, and limitations of BA for the psychosocial treatment of depression. The research group of Washington University in St. Louis, who previously suggested the marked efficacy of BA based on component analysis of CBT, performed a large-scale study to compare the effect of BA and cognitive therapy (CT) or antidepressant medication on the acute phase of depression. As the results, BA was superior to CT and comparable to antidepressant medication in acute-phase treatment for a subgroup of patients with relatively severe depression. Moreover, a long-term follow-up study revealed a benefit of BA compared to pharmacological treatment in regard to the persistence of the effect and cost-effectiveness. More recently, a number of meta-analyses have indicated no significant difference among BA and other psychotherapies regarding their efficacy for the treatment of depression. Because BA does not require patients or therapists to learn complex skills and is also time-efficient, it is recommended as the first-line treatment for mild or moderate depression. However, further studies are needed to consider indications, the timing of induction, and variation in BA techniques if it is applied for the treatment of depression in a general clinical setting in Japan.
Granpeesheh, Doreen; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R
Autism is a disorder characterized by pervasive delays in the development of language and socialization, and the presence of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors or nonfunctional interests. Although a multitude of treatments for autism exist, very few have been the subject of scientific research. The only treatment that has been supported by substantial empirical research is treatment based on applied behavior analysis (ABA). This article describes components of comprehensive ABA treatment programs, reviews research on effectiveness, and discusses issues related to collaboration between ABA and psychiatry. ABA has been supported by several hundred single case experiments and an increasing number of between-groups studies. Comprehensive ABA treatment programs are comprised of multiple intervention procedures, such as discrete trial instruction and natural environment training, and are founded on basic principles of learning and motivation, such as positive reinforcement, extinction, stimulus control, and generalization. Clinicians in the fields of ABA and psychiatry have similar goals regarding client outcome, and several ABA measurement and analysis procedures produce information that may be useful to psychiatrists. ABA treatment programs for individuals with autism are supported by a significant amount of scientific evidence and are therefore recommended for use. Patient care would likely benefit from a greater degree of collaboration between practitioners in the fields of ABA and psychiatry.
Franklin, Martin E; Kratz, Hilary E; Freeman, Jennifer B; Ivarsson, Tord; Heyman, Isobel; Sookman, Debbie; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A; March, John
The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of much study over the past fifteen years. Building on a foundation of case studies and open clinical trials, the literature now contains many methodologically sound studies that have compared full CBT protocols to waitlist controls, pill placebo, psychosocial comparison conditions, active medication, combined treatments, and brief CBT. This review is part of a series commissioned by The Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (CIOCD) in an effort to publish in one place what is known about the efficacy of treatments for OCD. A total of fourteen studies were identified; collectively their findings support the efficacy of CBT for youth with OCD. CBT protocols that emphasized either strictly behavioral or cognitive conceptualizations have each been found efficacious relative to waitlist controls. Efforts to enhance CBT׳s efficacy and reach have been undertaken. These trials provide guidance regarding next steps to be taken to maximize efficacy and treatment availability. Findings from studies in community clinics suggest that significant treatment benefits can be realized and are not reported only from within academic contexts. These findings bode well for broader dissemination efforts. Recommendations for future research directions are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chaplais, Elodie; Naughton, Geraldine; Thivel, David; Courteix, Daniel; Greene, David
Traditional approaches for treating or managing children and adolescents with overweight or obesity have limited effectiveness. Current advances in smartphone technology may improve the attractiveness and accessibility of weight management support for children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. This systematic review aimed to provide a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of using smartphones in the multidisciplinary treatment of child and adolescent overweight or obesity, with a specific interest in behavior change. The databases of Medline complete, OVID, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies addressing behavioral change using smartphone technology, plus nutrition and/or physical activity, to treat or manage child and adolescent obesity. Only two RCTs have described the effectiveness of smartphone devices in pediatric overweight or obesity treatment. Within the limitation of the two studies, electronic contact (e-contact) appeared unsuccessful in achieving weight loss. However, smartphone usage was linked to improved engagement and reduced dropout rates during important sustainability phases of these long-term interventions. Smartphone technologies allow users to accomplish tasks anywhere and anytime and, as such, provide researchers with additional and generationally appropriate capacities to deliver health promotion. E-contact should be used for its significant capacity to prolong engagement and decrease withdrawal during sustainability phases that follow intensive intervention for weight management in young populations. Despite increasing popularity in published protocols of weight management trials, the effectiveness of the impact of smartphone technology in pediatric programs remains equivocal.
Igor Ferraz da Silva
Full Text Available The consequences of exposure to environmental contaminants have shown significant effects on brain function and behavior in different experimental models. The endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC present various classes of pollutants with potential neurotoxic actions, such as organotins (OTs. OTs have received special attention due to their toxic effects on the central nervous system, leading to abnormal mammalian neuroendocrine axis function. OTs are organometallic pollutants with a tin atom bound to one or more carbon atoms. OT exposure may occur through the food chain and/or contaminated water, since they have multiple applications in industry and agriculture. In addition, OTs have been used with few legal restrictions in the last decades, despite being highly toxic. In addition to their action as EDC, OTs can also cross the blood–brain barrier and show relevant neurotoxic effects, as observed in several animal model studies specifically involving the development of neurodegenerative processes, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this short review is to summarize the toxic effects of the most common OT compounds, such as trimethyltin, tributyltin, triethyltin, and triphenyltin, on the brain with a focus on neuronal damage as a result of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. We also aim to present evidence for the disruption of behavioral functions, neurotransmitters, and neuroendocrine pathways caused by OTs.
Rosland, Ann-Marie; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.
In general, social support from family members affects chronic illness outcomes, but evidence on which specific family behaviors are most important to adult patient outcomes has not been summarized. We systematically reviewed studies examining the effect of specific family member behaviors and communication patterns on adult chronic illness self-management and clinical outcomes. Thirty studies meeting inclusion criteria were identified, representing 22 participant cohorts, and including adults with arthritis, chronic cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and/or end stage renal disease. Family emphasis on self-reliance and personal achievement, family cohesion, and attentive responses to symptoms were associated with better patient outcomes. Critical, overprotective, controlling, and distracting family responses to illness management were associated with negative patient outcomes. Study limitations included cross-sectional designs (11 cohorts), however results from longitudinal studies were similar. Findings suggest that future interventions aiming to improve chronic illness outcomes should emphasize increased family use of attentive coping techniques and family support for the patient’s autonomous motivation. PMID:21691845
Lisa M. Tussing-Humphreys
Full Text Available We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.
Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas
There is a large literature investigating the underlying mechanisms, risk factors and demographics of suicidal thoughts and behaviors across a number of psychiatric disorders, such as, major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. However, less research has focused on the relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and suicide. There were two broad aims of this review. The first was to assess the extent to which PTSD is associated with suicide, and the second was to determine the effects of co-morbid disorders on this relationship. Overall, there was a clear relationship between PTSD and suicidal thoughts and behaviors irrespective of the type of trauma experienced. Very few studies directly examined whether depression was a mediating factor in the relationships reported. However, where this was investigated, the presence of co-morbid depression appeared to boost the effect of PTSD on suicidality. It was noteworthy that hardly any studies had investigated concepts thought to be key in other domains of research into suicidality, such as, feelings of entrapment, defeat and hopelessness.
Fliege, Herbert; Lee, Jeong-Ran; Grimm, Anne; Klapp, Burghard F
Deliberate self-harm behavior--without suicidal intent--is a serious health problem and may be studied as a clinical phenomenon in its own right. Empirical studies of sociodemographic and psychological correlates and risk factors are systematically reviewed. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX (German psychological literature), and reference lists. We targeted self-induced bodily harm without conscious suicidal intent. Studies on suicidal behavior or self-poisoning were only included if they also assessed nonsuicidal self-harm. Fifty-nine original studies met the criteria. Deliberate self-harm may occur at all ages, yet adolescents and young adults are at a higher risk. Evidence on gender is complex. Only 5 studies realize a prospective design (6 months to 10 years) and test predictors. The majority use cross-sectional and retrospective methods. No longitudinal study (separately) examines new incidence. Evidence of correlates encompasses distal/proximal, person/environment, and state/trait factors. Many studies report associations between current self-harm behavior and a history of childhood sexual abuse. Adolescent and adult self-harmers experience more frequent and more negative emotions, such as anxiety, depression, and aggressiveness, than persons who do not self-harm. Two studies yield specific interactions between childhood trauma and current traits and states such as low emotional expressivity, low self-esteem, and dissociation with respect to a vulnerability to self-harm. Evidence of distal, biographical stressors is fairly strong. Proximal stressors have rarely been investigated; protective factors, hardly at all. Despite many findings of correlates, the data do not yet justify terming them risk factors. Longitudinal studies are needed.
Tsirlin, Inna; Colpa, Linda; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F
New behavioral treatment methods, including dichoptic training, perceptual learning, and video gaming, have been proposed to improve visual function in adult amblyopia. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of these methods to investigate the factors involved in amblyopia recovery and their clinical significance. Mean and individual participant data meta-analyses were performed on 24 studies using the new behavioral methods in adults. Studies were identified using PubMed, Google Scholar, and published reviews. The new methods yielded a mean improvement in visual acuity of 0.17 logMAR with 32% participants achieving gains ≥ 0.2 logMAR, and a mean improvement in stereo sensitivity of 0.01 arcsec-1 with 42% of participants improving ≥2 octaves. The most significant predictor of treatment outcome was visual acuity at the onset of treatment. Participants with more severe amblyopia improved more on visual acuity and less on stereo sensitivity than those with milder amblyopia. Better initial stereo sensitivity was a predictor of greater gains in stereo sensitivity following treatment. Treatment type, amblyopia type, age, and training duration did not have any significant influence on visual and stereo acuity outcomes. Our analyses showed that some participants may benefit from the new treatments; however, clinical trials are required to confirm these findings. Despite the diverse nature of the new behavioral methods, the lack of significant differences in visual and stereo sensitivity outcomes among them suggests that visual attention-a common element among the varied treatment methods-may play an important role in amblyopia recovery.
Saab, Mohamad M; Reidy, Mary; Hegarty, Josephine; O'Mahony, Mairin; Murphy, Mike; Von Wagner, Christian; Drummond, Frances J
Preventive strategies are known to reduce cancer risk and incidence and improve prognosis. Men seldom seek medical information about cancer prevention and risk reduction. The aim of this meta-narrative systematic review was to critically appraise evidence from qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies that explored men's information-seeking behaviors in relation to cancer prevention and risk reduction. MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Education Full Text, and ERIC were systematically searched for studies published in English between January 1, 2006 and May 30, 2016. A total of 4117 titles were identified; of which, 31 studies were included (21 qualitative studies, 9 quantitative studies, and 1 mixed-methods study). The methodological quality of the studies was appraised by using different tools. Most studies focused on screening for prostate (n = 18) and colorectal cancer (n = 7). Most men were passive information-gatherers rather than active information-seekers. Key sources of information included the Internet for active information-seekers and health care professionals for passive information-gatherers. Barriers to information-seeking included information overload, embarrassment, and fear. Low literacy and health literacy levels were addressed in 3 studies and were identified as impediments to active information-seeking. Facilitators to information-seeking included family support, media, celebrity endorsements, and targeted information. Men's information-seeking behavior regarding cancer risk reduction, prevention, and screening is influenced by several factors. This necessitates targeted interventions aimed at raising awareness of cancer prevention and screening, while accounting for men's informational needs, preferred learning strategies, and literacy levels. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Judith S. WEIS, Allison CANDELMO
Full Text Available Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants. There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays, with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance. However, there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminated environments. Therefore, we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites. The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus, is a non-migratory fish; those from more contaminated areas are poor predators and slower to capture active prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In the field, they consume much detritus and sediment, which is not nutritious. They are less active than fish from cleaner sites and more vulnerable to predation. They have altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels, which may underlie altered behaviors. Fish from the reference site kept in tanks with sediment and food from the polluted site showed bioaccumulation and reduced prey capture after two months, although fish from the polluted site did not show significant improvement when maintained in a clean environment. Poor nutrition and predator avoidance may be responsible for their being smaller and having a shorter life span than reference fish. Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, are a marine species in which the young-of-the-year spend their first summer in estuaries. We found bioaccumulation of contaminants and reduced activity, schooling, and feeding in young-of-the-year bluefish from a relatively unpolluted site that were fed prey fish from a contaminated site. They also had altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels. Many field-caught specimens had empty stomachs, which is rare in this species. In the fall, when they migrate back out to the ocean, they are smaller, slower, and more likely to starve or to be eaten than those that spent their summer in cleaner estuaries [Current Zoology 58 (1: 9-20, 2012].
Physiological resistance and behavioral responses of mosquito vectors to insecticides are critical aspects of the chemical-based disease control equation. The complex interaction between lethal, sub-lethal and excitation/repellent ('excito-repellent’) properties of chemicals is typically overlooked in vector management and control programs. The development of “physiological” resistance, metabolic and/or target site modifications, to insecticides has been well documented in many insect groups and disease vectors around the world. In Thailand, resistance in many mosquito populations has developed to all three classes of insecticidal active ingredients currently used for vector control with a majority being synthetic-derived pyrethroids. Evidence of low-grade insecticide resistance requires immediate countermeasures to mitigate further intensification and spread of the genetic mechanisms responsible for resistance. This can take the form of rotation of a different class of chemical, addition of a synergist, mixtures of chemicals or concurrent mosaic application of different classes of chemicals. From the gathered evidence, the distribution and degree of physiological resistance has been restricted in specific areas of Thailand in spite of long-term use of chemicals to control insect pests and disease vectors throughout the country. Most surprisingly, there have been no reported cases of pyrethroid resistance in anopheline populations in the country from 2000 to 2011. The precise reasons for this are unclear but we assume that behavioral avoidance to insecticides may play a significant role in reducing the selection pressure and thus occurrence and spread of insecticide resistance. The review herein provides information regarding the status of physiological resistance and behavioral avoidance of the primary mosquito vectors of human diseases to insecticides in Thailand from 2000 to 2011. PMID:24294938