WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior analysts review

  1. Behavior analysts in the war on poverty: A review of the use of financial incentives to promote education and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Jarvis, Brantley P; Silverman, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Poverty is a pervasive risk factor underlying poor health. Many interventions that have sought to reduce health disparities associated with poverty have focused on improving health-related behaviors of low-income adults. Poverty itself could be targeted to improve health, but this approach would require programs that can consistently move poor individuals out of poverty. Governments and other organizations in the United States have tested a diverse range of antipoverty programs, generally on a large scale and in conjunction with welfare reform initiatives. This paper reviews antipoverty programs that used financial incentives to promote education and employment among welfare recipients and other low-income adults. The incentive-based, antipoverty programs had small or no effects on the target behaviors; they were implemented on large scales from the outset, without systematic development and evaluation of their components; and they did not apply principles of operant conditioning that have been shown to determine the effectiveness of incentive or reinforcement interventions. By applying basic principles of operant conditioning, behavior analysts could help address poverty and improve health through development of effective antipoverty programs. This paper describes a potential framework for a behavior-analytic antipoverty program, with the goal of illustrating that behavior analysts could be uniquely suited to make substantial contributions to the war on poverty.

  2. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  3. The personal life of the behavior analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostow, Darrel E

    2011-01-01

    The human species faces crises of critical proportions. Excessive population, global warming, and the anticipated descent from peak fossil-fuel extraction promise to change our future in far-reaching ways. Operant conditioning prepares the individual for a world similar to the selecting past, but our world is changing more rapidly than our adaptation. As individuals, we cannot make substantial changes in the world at large because we do not control enough reinforcers, but we can turn to the sources of our personal behavior and manipulate them. We will need help. Better organized social networks and the self-management techniques they support can promote immediate changes in consumption at home, work, and moving about in our personal worlds. Surprisingly, consuming less can lead to more satisfying and happier lives, but a better understanding of reinforcement contingencies is necessary. We can recover the strengthening effects of personal daily accomplishments that are eroded when conditioned generalized reinforcers intervene. When we get our own personal lives in order we can reduce our carbon footprints, restore the connections between our behavior and its strengthening effects, and become models worthy of imitation.

  4. INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE HEALTH: UNPRECEDENTED OPORTUNITIES FOR BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KURTI, ALLISON N.; DALLERY, JESSE

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one’s diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health. PMID:25774070

  5. INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE HEALTH: UNPRECEDENTED OPORTUNITIES FOR BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse

    2014-09-01

    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one's diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health.

  6. A Review of Domestic Dogs' ("Canis Familiaris") Human-Like Behaviors: Or Why Behavior Analysts Should Stop Worrying and Love Their Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A. R.; Wynne, C. D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs likely were the first animals to be domesticated and as such have shared a common environment with humans for over ten thousand years. Only recently, however, has this species' behavior been subject to scientific scrutiny. Most of this work has been inspired by research in human cognitive psychology and suggests that in many ways dogs are…

  7. Bridging the Marketing Gap: A Review of How to Think Like a Behavior Analyst: Understanding the Science That Can Change Your Life by Jon Bailey and Mary Burch

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Jennifer L; Marshall, Jason A.

    2008-01-01

    The field of applied behavior analysis has suffered from a relative dearth of user-friendly books appropriate to a lay audience. Bailey and Burch's book fills this niche with a work that is both entertaining and informative. The book is reviewed in terms of the strengths and limitations of its content, as well as in the context of the importance of effective marketing of behavior analysis.

  8. Behavior analysts and cultural analysis: Troubles and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagodi, E. F.; Jackson, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    Three strategic suggestions are offered to behavior analysts who are concerned with extending the interests of our discipline into domains traditionally assigned to the social sciences: (1) to expand our world-view perspectives beyond the boundaries commonly accepted by psychologists in general; (2) to build a cultural analytic framework upon the foundations we have developed for the study of individuals; and (3) to study the works of those social scientists whose views are generally compatible with, and complementary to, our own. Sociologist C. Wright Mills' distinction between troubles and issues and anthropologist Marvin Harris's principles of cultural materialism are related to topics raised by these three strategies. The pervasiveness of the “psychocentric” world view within psychology and the social sciences, and throughout our culture at large, is discussed from the points of view of Skinner, Mills, and Harris. It is suggested that a thorough commitment to radical behaviorism, and continuation of interaction between radical behaviorism and cultural materialism, are necessary for maintaining and extending an issues orientation within the discipline of behavior analysis and for guarding against dilutions and subversions of that orientation by “deviation-dampening” contingencies that exist in our profession and in our culture at large. PMID:22478014

  9. A Resource on Behavioral Terminology: An Annotated Bibliography of "On Terms" Articles in "The Behavior Analyst"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James E.; Briggs, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    An annotated bibliography that summarizes the "On Terms" articles on behavior-analytic terminology from "The Behavior Analyst" is provided. Thirty-five articles published between 1979 and 2010 were identified, annotated, and classified using common behavior analysis course content frameworks. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. Accounting standard changes and foreign analyst behavior:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao Wang; Yu Hou; Xiaolin Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates changes in foreign analyst behavior before and after Chinese New Accounting Standards was implemented during 2007.The empirical results show that after the new accounting standards were implemented,forecast error among foreign analysts decreased in both absolute and relative terms in comparison with domestic analysts,and foreign analysts forecast earnings more frequently than they did before the new accounting standards.These results imply that the implementation of new accounting standards in the Chinese capital market helped mitigate both information asymmetry between listed firms in China and foreign investors,and the "home bias" of foreign analysts.It also increased the attractiveness of listed firms and facilitated international communication and cooperation.This study also has significant implications for how resource allocation efficiency in the Chinese capital market can be raised and how the "introducing in" policy should be assessed.

  11. 23 CFR 636.305 - Can price information be provided to analysts who are reviewing technical proposals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can price information be provided to analysts who are reviewing technical proposals? 636.305 Section 636.305 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Proposal...

  12. Building a Better Strategic Analyst: A Critical Review of the U.S. Army’s All Source Analyst Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-15

    suggesting a familiar explanation. An example is two shipping manifests, one with lemons and oranges shipped from Venezuela to Florida and the other showing... carnations shipped from Delaware to Colombia. An analyst using abductive reasoning may ask why citrus fruit is being sent to the world’s primary

  13. Analyst Coverage and Tax Reporting Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    McInerney, Megan Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The role of analysts in corporate governance has been examined extensively in the accounting literature. Two conflicting representations of the influence of analysts have emerged. Analysts are either viewed as external monitors of corporate behavior, thereby reducing agency costs; or they are viewed as exerting additional pressure on management to meet earnings forecasts, which may contribute to aggressive corporate behavior. Studies exist that examine the impact of analyst coverage in a f...

  14. IMPROVED GROUND TRUTH IN SOUTHERN ASIA USING IN-COUNTRY DATA, ANALYST WAVEFORM REVIEW, AND ADVANCED ALGORITHMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engdahl, Eric, R.; Bergman, Eric, A.; Myers, Stephen, C.; Ryall, Floriana

    2009-06-19

    A new catalog of seismicity at magnitudes above 2.5 for the period 1923-2008 in the Iran region is assembled from arrival times reported by global, regional, and local seismic networks. Using in-country data we have formed new events, mostly at lower magnitudes that were not previously included in standard global earthquake catalogs. The magnitude completeness of the catalog varies strongly through time, complete to about magnitude 4.2 prior to 1998 and reaching a minimum of about 3.6 during the period 1998-2005. Of the 25,722 events in the catalog, most of the larger events have been carefully reviewed for proper phase association, especially for depth phases and to eliminate outlier readings, and relocated. To better understand the quality of the data set of arrival times reported by Iranian networks that are central to this study, many waveforms for events in Iran have been re-picked by an experienced seismic analyst. Waveforms at regional distances in this region are often complex. For many events this makes arrival time picks difficult to make, especially for smaller magnitude events, resulting in reported times that can be substantially improved by an experienced analyst. Even when the signal/noise ratio is large, re-picking can lead to significant differences. Picks made by our analyst are compared with original picks made by the regional networks. In spite of the obvious outliers, the median (-0.06 s) and spread (0.51 s) are small, suggesting that reasonable confidence can be placed in the picks reported by regional networks in Iran. This new catalog has been used to assess focal depth distributions throughout Iran. A principal result of this study is that the geographic pattern of depth distributions revealed by the relatively small number of earthquakes (~167) with depths constrained by waveform modeling (+/- 4 km) are now in agreement with the much larger number of depths (~1229) determined using reanalysis of ISC arrival-times (+/-10 km), within their

  15. 证券分析师盈余预测羊群行为的理性分析%Analysis of the Rationality of Herd Behavior of Securities Analysts in Earnings Forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙东梅; 姚禄仕; 王丽娜

    2014-01-01

    Faced with complicated interest conflicts and asymmetric information ,the herd behavior of the securities analysts brings new challenges to the global capital market development .Taking the ini-tial samples of earnings forecast of listed banks released by securities analysts from 2010 to 2012 in Chinese securities market as the research object ,an empirical analysis of the influence of herd behavior of securities analysts on the accuracy of earnings forecast is carried out .The results show that the herd behavior of securities analysts in earnings forecast exists ,and the higher the degree of herding , the higher the accuracy of earnings forecast .The herd behavior of securities analysts in earnings fore-cast is a rational herd behavior .%由于复杂的利益冲突和信息不对称,证券分析师羊群行为对当前全球资本市场规范发展带来了新的挑战。文章以2010-2012年间中国证券市场上分析师对上市银行发布的盈余预测样本为研究对象,实证分析了证券分析师羊群行为对盈余预测准确性的影响。研究表明,证券分析师在盈余预测中的羊群行为存在,并且羊群倾向程度越高,盈余预测的准确性越高;分析师盈余预测的羊群行为是一种理性羊群行为。

  16. Skinner's ethical system and consequences for behavior analysts' practice / O sistema ético skinneriano e conseqüências para a prática dos analistas do comportamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dittrich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a critical analysis of Skinner's ethical system, this paper points to some consequences out of this system for the practice of behavior analysis. Skinner's writings and its conceptual categories are the main source of the arguments presented. Initially, the paper draws an outline of the relation between Skinner's ethical system and selection by consequences as a causal model, proceeding, then, to the analysis of both the descriptive and prescriptive aspects of that system. The paper finishes discussing the implications of these precedent considerations for the professional exercise of behavior analysis. This last part of the paper gives special attention to the role of the behavior analyst as a political agent, and to the need to develop collaborative practices in order to deal with possible tensions between the radical behaviorist ethical system and the values of the people with which the analyst works.

  17. Essays on financial analysts' forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation contains three self-contained chapters dealing with specific aspects of financial analysts' earnings forecasts. After recent accounting scandals, much attention has turned to the incentives present in the career of professional financial analysts. The literature points to several reasons why financial analysts behave overoptimistically when providing their predictions. In particular, analysts may wish to maintain good relations with firm management, to please the underwriter...

  18. Research on the Impact of Institutional Holdings on Analysts'Herd Behavior%机构投资持股对分析师羊群行为影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚禄仕; 童宣群; 任诚

    2013-01-01

    分析师作为资本市场上连接公司和投资者的重要信息中介,其盈余预测的羊群行为很大程度上会影响到投资者的投资价值判断。因此,对我国分析师盈余预测羊群行为与上市公司机构投资持股的关系进行理论和实证的研究,有助于强化我国投资者的理性投资。从上市公司的角度出发,以2008-2012年我国所有上市公司的盈余预测报告和各年季报为研究对象,通过运用excel、spss等软件进行相关性分析和回归统计分析,结果表明证券分析师盈余预测存在羊群行为以及机构持股信息对分析师羊群行为具有显著影响。%Analyst is the important information intermediary between companies and investors in the capital market ,and analysts'herd behavior in earnings forecasts will largely affect the investors'in-vestment judgments .In this paper ,a theoretical and empirical research on the relationship between the analysts'herding of earnings forecasts and the institutional investors with holdings in listed compa-nies is carried out ,w hich can provide a reference for the investors'rational investment in China .From the perspective of listed companies ,and taking the earnings forecast reports and quarterly reports of all listed companies in China from 2008 to 2012 as the research object ,the correlation analysis and the regression analysis are conducted by using the excelland spss software .The results show that the herd behavior of securities analysts in earnings forecasts exists and the institutional ow nership information has a significant influence on the herd behavior of securities analysts .

  19. Brain and Behavior: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Urbina, Guadalupe N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of many scientific disciplines allows us to know surprising aspects of the relationship between the brain and its functions. Current technology and the convergence of these disciplines are essential to understand the complex brain mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper will be described some scientific disciplines whose studies help to understand the biological substrates of normal and altered behavior. We will describe some pathologies or neuropsychological disorders and, in addition, we will review some of the known neurobiological mechanisms that control our brain functions. This allows us to conclude that the behavior and brain functions depend on complex biological mechanisms, many of which are still to be elucidated.

  20. Analyst-to-Analyst Variability in Simulation-Based Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Vicente J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes findings from the culminating experiment of the LDRD project entitled, "Analyst-to-Analyst Variability in Simulation-Based Prediction". For this experiment, volunteer participants solving a given test problem in engineering and statistics were interviewed at different points in their solution process. These interviews are used to trace differing solutions to differing solution processes, and differing processes to differences in reasoning, assumptions, and judgments. The issue that the experiment was designed to illuminate -- our paucity of understanding of the ways in which humans themselves have an impact on predictions derived from complex computational simulations -- is a challenging and open one. Although solution of the test problem by analyst participants in this experiment has taken much more time than originally anticipated, and is continuing past the end of this LDRD, this project has provided a rare opportunity to explore analyst-to-analyst variability in significant depth, from which we derive evidence-based insights to guide further explorations in this important area.

  1. Do Sell-Side Stock Analysts Exhibit Escalation of Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Milkman, Katherine L

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents evidence that when an analyst makes an out-of-consensus forecast of a company's quarterly earnings that turns out to be incorrect, she escalates her commitment to maintaining an out-of-consensus view on the company. Relative to an analyst who was close to the consensus, the out-of-consensus analyst adjusts her forecasts for the current fiscal year's earnings less in the direction of the quarterly earnings surprise. On average, this type of updating behavior reduces forecasting accuracy, so it does not seem to reflect superior private information. Further empirical results suggest that analysts do not have financial incentives to stand by extreme stock calls in the face of contradictory evidence. Managerial and financial market implications are discussed.

  2. Security Analysts Earning Forecasting Behaviors Based on Investor Sentiment%基于投资者情绪的证劵分析师盈利预测行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓青; 庄新田

    2016-01-01

    通过固定效应模型对沪深两市2005~2013年的面板数据进行了实证分析,考察了投资者情绪对证劵分析师盈利预测的影响。研究结果表明,当投资者情绪高涨时,分析师盈利预测相对乐观,准确度较高,分歧度也较大;而当投资者情绪低落时,反之。作为理性人代表的证券分析师,其盈利预测结果除了受微观层面的企业自身因素影响之外,还受到宏观层面的投资者情绪的影响,从而在行为金融学的角度上论证了分析师的盈利预测行为。%The fixed effects model was used to analyze empirically the panel data of Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets in 2005~2013 ,and the effect of investor sentiment on earning forecast of security analyst was investigated. The results showed that in the high investor sentiment period, earning forecast is relatively optimistic,the accuracy is higher and the divergence degree is bigger also,which are opposite in the low investor sentiment period. The prediction of security analyst-rational represent is affected not only by enterprise factors in micro-level,but also by the investor sentiment in macro-level. It demonstrates that the profit forecast behavior from the view of behavioral finance.

  3. Analyst workbenches state of the art report

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, R

    1987-01-01

    Analyst Workbenches examines various aspects of analyst workbenches and the tasks and data that they should support. The major advances and state of the art in analyst workbenches are discussed. A comprehensive list of the available analyst workbenches, both the experimental and the commercial products, is provided. Comprised of three parts, this book begins by describing International Computers Ltd's approach to automating analysis and design. It then explains what business analysis really means, outlines the principal features of analyst workbenches, and considers the ways in which they can

  4. The analyst's knowledge and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A

    1998-01-01

    Current controversies about the nature of the knowledge analysts offer their patients and the kinds of authority they can legitimately claim are of central importance in the evolution of psychoanalytic ideas. These controversies reflect deep differences regarding basic assumptions about both epistemology and the nature of mind. An approach to these issues is offered which, it is argued, is closer to broad cultural shifts in thinking about knowledge in general than is the traditional psychoanalytic stance. Implications for theory and clinical practice are explored.

  5. Improving the information environment for analysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and analyst following for biotechnology firms listed at the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: Intellectual capital disclosure wa...... regarding their intellectual capital in financial statements. Originality/value: Our findings shed light on the importance of intellectual capital in biotechnology sector for analysts....... was computed from financial statements, while analyst following data was retrieved from I/B/E/S. Findings: The results show that analysts are more likely to follow firms with high intellectual capital disclosure. This finding is consistent with the fact that analysts wish to follow those firms for which...... they have more information. Our results also show that intellectual capital disclosure related to employees and strategic statements are the most important disclosures for analysts. Research limitations/implications: More relevant methods, such as survey or interviews with management, may be used to improve...

  6. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  7. Perspectives on Vocational Behavior, 1986: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaney, Robert B.; Russell, Joyce E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Based on perspectives of counseling psychology and industrial/organizational psychology, this article reviews publications relevant to vocational behavior that appeared during 1986. Of the over 700 articles and 70 books or book chapters located, slightly less than one-half are reviewed. (Author/NB)

  8. Conditioning and sexual behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, J G; Kippin, T E; Centeno, S

    2001-09-01

    Sexual behavior is directed by a sophisticated interplay between steroid hormone actions in the brain that give rise to sexual arousability and experience with sexual reward that gives rise to expectations of competent sexual activity, sexual desire, arousal, and performance. Sexual experience allows animals to form instrumental associations between internal or external stimuli and behaviors that lead to different sexual rewards. Furthermore, Pavlovian associations between internal and external stimuli allow animals to predict sexual outcomes. These two types of learning build upon instinctual mechanisms to create distinctive, and seemingly "automated," patterns of sexual response. This article reviews the literature on conditioning and sexual behavior with a particular emphasis on incentive sequences of sexual behavior that move animals from distal to proximal with regard to sexual stimuli during appetitive phases of behavior and ultimately result in copulatory interaction and mating during consummatory phases of behavior. Accordingly, the role of learning in sexual excitement, in behaviors that bring about the opportunity to mate, in courtship and solicitation displays, in sexual arousal and copulatory behaviors, in sexual partner preferences, and the short- and long-term influence of copulatory experience on sexual and reproductive function is examined. Although hormone actions set the stage for sexual activity by generating the ability of animals to become sexually excited and aroused, it is each animal's unique experience with sexual behavior and sexual reward that molds the strength of responses made toward sexual incentives.

  9. "Changed face" phenomena of security analysts' forecasting behaviors: A reputation game model and evidences%证券分析师预测“变脸”行为研究——基于分析师声誉的博弈模型与实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游家兴; 邱世远; 刘淳

    2013-01-01

    The analysts' forecasting behavior often has bias.In the stock market bubble period,the analysts are often irrational and over-optimistic.When the bubble crashes,the analysts issue the opposite earnings forecasts and downgrade stock recommendations.Traditional theories can't explain this fact clearly.This paper tries to introduce the catering theory and applies a reputation game model to analyze the analysts' catering behavior.The theoretical model shows that,because investors can't obtain the feedback timely,they will infer analysts' reputation according to their prior beliefs and the analysts' forecasts.In order to build a good reputation,the analysts are likely to cater investors' prior beliefs and issue biased forecasts.The evidence based on China also shows that analysts' forecasts are affected by the investors' prior beliefs,i.e.,sentiment,which exhibits obvious catering behavior.This supports the theoretical expectations of the reputation game model.%在金融市场上,证券分析师的预测行为通常会发生偏差.在股市高涨时,分析师随波逐流,常常发表过度乐观的预测;而当泡沫消退时,分析师则会掉头转向,发布与之前形成强烈反差的盈余预期或股票推荐.对于这种分析师基于市场状态而发布忽高忽低预测的“变脸行为”,传统的理论观点无法做出完整清晰的解释.本文试图将行为金融理论中日渐兴起的迎合理论纳入分析框架,运用声誉博弈分析的方式建立分析师迎合行为模型.该理论模型表明:为了提高自己的声誉以获得更多的利益,分析师会迎合投资者的先验信念而故意发布有偏的信息.基于中国的实证研究则为上述理论预期提供了有力的证据,表明了该模型的合理性和有用性,有助于认识激励机制扭曲下分析师预测行为发生系统性偏差的现象.

  10. Behaviorism and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Krapfl, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and...

  11. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  12. When are Analyst Recommendation Changes Influential?

    OpenAIRE

    Roger K. Loh; Stulz, René M.

    2009-01-01

    Not all stock recommendation changes are equal. In a sample constructed to minimize the impact of confounding news, relatively few analyst recommendation changes are influential in the sense that they impact investors' beliefs about a firm in a way that could be noticed in that firm's stock returns. More than one-third of the stock-price reactions to analyst recommendation changes have the wrong sign and only approximately 10% have significant stock-price reactions at the 5% level using an ex...

  13. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  14. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  15. Understanding the health care business model: the financial analysts' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Nielsen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on how financial analysts understand the strategy of a health care company and which elements, from such a strategy perspective, they perceive as constituting the cornerstone of a health care company's business model. The empirical part of this study is based on semi-structured interviews with analysts following a large health care company listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. The authors analyse how the financial analysts view strategy and value creation within the framework of a business model. Further, the authors analyze whether the characteristics emerging from a comprehensive literature review are reflected in the financial analysts' perceptions of which information is decision-relevant and important to communicate to the financial markets. Among the conclusions of the study is the importance of distinguishing between the health care companies' business model and the model by which the payment of revenues are allocated between end users and reimbursing organizations.

  16. Superstitious behavior in sport: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Zsuzsanna; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Szabo, Attila

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this first literature review, in this area, is to unveil the current status of knowledge on superstition in sport. Its outcome reveals that superstitious behaviors vary with the type of sport, athletic level, as well as athletic role. In agreement with past theories, they increase with the level of challenge, as reflected by the importance of the competition, as well as with the level of uncertainty. Cultural factors, in conjunction with the education level, as well as gender, have a strong influence on superstitious behaviors in sports. Based on current thoughts, religiosity and superstition are different psychological constructs used as psychological aids by several athletes. Personality factors appear to mediate the manifestation of the behavior. Elite athletes are clearly more superstitious than non-elite athletes, An interaction between athletic skill and task-difficulty emerges to be another strong predictor of superstition in sport. It is evident that a set of complex personal and situational factors interact in the manifestation of superstitious behavior in sport that is used for the regulation of emotions in a quest for optimal performance. It is concluded that the objective benefits (i.e., success) of superstition in sport may be ascribed to the placebo effect that yields an increased sense of control and mental reassurance in unpredictable contest situations.

  17. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  18. Through the Eyes of Analysts: A Content Analysis of Analyst Report Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    reporting, taking the point of departure in some of the capital market actors that follow companies the closest, namely the sell-side analysts, will reveal which types of information companies should be disclosing through their corporate reports. By focusing on the reports disclosed in connection...... with the analysts' fundamental analyses of a company, this paper constitutes an important contribution to business reporting but also to the study of the capital market actors' perceptions of relevant information. A medium-sized medico-tech company, internationally renowned for its state-of-the-art business...... reporting, was chosen as the basis for the study. An analysis of the latest fundamental analyst report on this company by each investment bank actively following it was conducted using a content analysis methodology. The results illustrate the extent to which analysts consider certain types of voluntary...

  19. 羊群行为的叠加及其市场影响——基于证券分析师与机构投资者行为的实证研究%Overlapping of Herding and Its Impact on the Market Empirical Study Based on the Behavior of Security Analysts and Institutional Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡庆丰; 杨侃; 林剑波

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies on recommendation revision of security analysts. By using 3222 samples dated from Jan 2005 to Jun 2010, we find that there is obvious herding when security analysts are making revision. On this basis, this paper constructs adjusted herding measure to adapt to panel data models and find that analysts' recommendation revision cast significant influence on the herding of funds and the herding behavior of analysts will aggravate the herding of institutional investors. Based on the empirical results, we think that the overlapping herding of security analysts and institutional investors may exacerbate the market volatility, cause the liquidity depletion, information-blockade and pricing-inefficiencies, or even lead to asset bubbles. Finally, we analysis and discuss the potential reasons of herding-overlapping and the relative governance mechanisms.%本文以证券分析师评级调整事件为研究对象,通过对2005年1月到2010年6月期间3222个样本的研究发现.我国证券分析师的评级调整行为存在明显的羊群行为。在此基础上,本文构建“修正羊群行为指标”,运用面板数据模型研究发现:证券分析师评级调整对证券投资基金的羊群行为具有显著影响.且证券分析师的羊群行为会进一步加剧机构投资者的羊群行为。在实证研究基础上.本文研究认为证券分析师和机构投资者羊群行为的叠加会加剧市场波动性、可能导致流动性枯竭,容易引发市场信息阻塞、定价效率低下甚至引发资产泡沫。论文的最后对我国导致羊群行为叠加的相关诱发原因及其相应的治理机制进行分析和探讨。

  20. Essays on Online Reviews: Reviewers' Strategic Behaviors and Contributions over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenqi

    2010-01-01

    Online reviews play an important role in consumers' purchasing decisions. Researchers are increasingly interested in studying the dynamic impact of online reviews on product sales. However, the antecedent of online reviews, online reviewers' behaviors, has not been fully explored. Understanding how online reviewers make review decisions can assist…

  1. Transference to the analyst as an excluded observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, John

    2008-02-01

    In this paper I briefly review some significant points in the development of ideas on transference which owe so much to the discoveries of Freud. I then discuss some of the subsequent developments which were based on Freud 's work and which have personally impressed me. In particular I mention Melanie Klein's elaboration of an internal world peopled by internal object and her description of the mechanisms of splitting and projective identification, both of which profoundly affect our understanding of transference. Using some clinical material I try to illustrate an important transference situation which I do not think has been sufficiently emphasized although it is part of the 'total situation' outlined by Klein. In this kind of transference the analyst finds himself in an observing position and is no longer the primary object to whom love and hate are directed. Instead he is put in a position of an excluded figure who can easily enact rather than understand the role he has been put in. In this situation he may try to regain the position as the patient's primary object in the transference or avoid the transference altogether and make extra-transference interpretations and in this way enact the role of a judgemental and critical super-ego. If he can tolerate the loss of a central role and understand the transference position he has been put in, the analyst can sometimes reduce enactments and release feelings to do with mourning and loss in both himself and his patient.

  2. Implementation of the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhalter, E Eugene

    2000-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  3. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. E. Hochhalter

    2000-04-28

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  4. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  5. Organizational Behavior: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, H. Randolph, Jr.; Behling, Orlando C.

    1981-01-01

    Organizational behavior is defined and its micro and macro subdivisions described. Leavitt's model for organizational change (task, technology, structure, and people) is employed to extract meanings from the organizational behavior literature. A diagnostic approach is suggested for applying organizational behavior to the practice of higher…

  6. Performance Evaluation of Analyst Recommendations in Chinese Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinYang; ZhaoxueTeng; XiaoqiangLi

    2004-01-01

    Using the samples from every Monday's column 'the Most Promising Stocks Recommended by Analysts This Week' on Shanghai Securities News during the period from Sep.2000 to Dec.2003, this paper analyzes the performance of the stocks recommended by analysts during the following week. Firstly, the analysts are inclined to recommend the stocks with better performance in the latest week. Secondly, the portfolios formed by the analyst recommendations have remarkably positive abnormal returns on Monday, while they do not outperform the market from Tuesday to Friday, even have remarkably negative abnormal returns.

  7. Behavioral Therapies for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Cooper, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: There is limited evidence that physical behavioral techniques for PE improve IELT and other outcomes over waitlist and that behavioral therapies combined with drug treatments give better outcomes than drug treatments alone. Further RCTs are required to assess psychotherapeutic approaches to PE. Cooper K, Martyn‐St James M, Kaltenthaler E, Dickinson K, Cantrell A, Wylie K, Frodsham L, and Hood C. Behavioral therapies for management of premature ejaculation: A systematic review. Sex Med 2015;3:174–188.

  8. Multi-Intelligence Analytics for Next Generation Analysts (MIAGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Waltz, Ed

    2016-05-01

    Current analysts are inundated with large volumes of data from which extraction, exploitation, and indexing are required. A future need for next-generation analysts is an appropriate balance between machine analytics from raw data and the ability of the user to interact with information through automation. Many quantitative intelligence tools and techniques have been developed which are examined towards matching analyst opportunities with recent technical trends such as big data, access to information, and visualization. The concepts and techniques summarized are derived from discussions with real analysts, documented trends of technical developments, and methods to engage future analysts with multiintelligence services. For example, qualitative techniques should be matched against physical, cognitive, and contextual quantitative analytics for intelligence reporting. Future trends include enabling knowledge search, collaborative situational sharing, and agile support for empirical decision-making and analytical reasoning.

  9. A Review of Baum's Review of Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    Baum expressed numerous concerns about my Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism in his review. If his review were an independent submission and I were an independent referee, I would recommend that his review be rejected and that he be encouraged to revise and resubmit, once he has studied the field a bit more and clarified for himself and journal readers several important matters. I outline two sets of concerns that he might usefully clarify in his revision: (a) the important contributions of B. F. Skinner to a book about radical behaviorism, and (b) the nature of private behavioral events. In particular, the methodological behaviorism inherent in Baum's position needs to be resolved.

  10. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  11. Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1983: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Heesacker, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature related to vocational behavior and career development published during 1983, including 445 articles in 42 journals. The review is organized around issues pertinent to the counseling psychology perspective (career development, vocational choice, assessment, intervention) and the industrial/organizational psychology…

  12. Sedentary behavior and health outcomes: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende

    Full Text Available 1 To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2 To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found.Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase; PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers.This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted.

  13. The Role of Neuropeptides in Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Serafini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY, which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper.

  14. The role of neuropeptides in suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Pompili, Maurizio; Lindqvist, Daniel; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper.

  15. The multifactorial nature of human homosexual behavior: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barona, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non hereditary factors determine homosexual behavior, explaining its persistence despite its apparent disadvantages in relation to reproductive fitness.

  16. A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Steeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1–12 years. Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50% significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (−0.44 to −3.1 h/day and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  17. Neuroimaging of Psychopathy and Antisocial Behavior: A Targeted Review

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide a selective and targeted review of the neuroimaging literature on psychopathic tendencies and antisocial behavior and to explore the extent to which this literature supports recent cognitive neuroscientific models of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. The literature reveals that individuals who present with an increased risk for reactive, but not instrumental, aggression show increased amygdala responses to emotionally evocative stimuli. This is consis...

  18. The analyst's authenticity: "if you see something, say something".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, George; Suzuki, Jessica Y

    2015-05-01

    The history of authenticity in psychoanalysis is as old as analysis itself, but the analyst's authenticity in particular has become an increasingly important area of focus in recent decades. This article traces the development of conceptions of analytic authenticity and proposes that the analyst's spontaneous verbalization of his or her unformulated experience in session can be a potent force in the course of an analysis. We acknowledge that although analytic authenticity can be a challenging ideal for the analyst to strive for, it contains the power to transform the experience of the patient and the analyst, as well as the meaning of their work together. Whether it comes in the form of an insight-oriented comment or a simple acknowledgment of things as they seem to be, a therapist's willingness to speak aloud something that has lost its language is a powerful clinical phenomenon that transcends theoretical orientation and modality.

  19. Credibility and cheap talk of securities analysts: theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies how investors react to public messages that may be optimistically biased. We first construct a communication game between an investor and a (possibly) biased securities analyst. We find an equilibrium characterised by the following properties: first, the investor reacts more to bad news than to good news, and second, the difference in this reaction is higher when the investor has a greater prior suspicion that the analyst is a biased type. We then use nonparametric techniqu...

  20. CT-Analyst GIS Data Processing Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6040--14-9480 CT-Analyst GIS Data Processing Guidance Document April 30, 2014 Approved...NUMBER (include area code) b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT CT-Analyst GIS Data Processing Guidance Document Adam...Information File 7 3) Gathering GIS Data 8 1. Explanation 8 2. Coordinate Systems 8 3. Typical File Types 9 1

  1. COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH OVER THE PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT OF THE FINANCIAL ANALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Mirela ŞTEFAN-DUICU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The professional judgment is emblematical at a decisional level. This paper aims to highlight the valences of the professional judgment of the financial analyst by describing the components of its activity and also through highlighting the typologies of the mechanisms involved. Within this paper we have presented the types of financial analysts, the responsibilities that guide the professional judgment and also the interdependent elements of their activity.

  2. Review of: Theories of information behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, information behaviour is one of the richest research areas in the field of library and information science (LIS. Since the calls for conceptual enrichment within the field of information behaviour in the post-1978 literature, which was emphasised in the Dervin and Nilan's seminal review chapter in ARIST (1986, much effort has been expended to generate new theories and develop new models of human information behaviour. There has also been a paradigm shift from focus on the system to focus on the user. During the sixties and seventies the focus of the studies was rather on the system and researchers tried to understand the users and their needs through the study of the system or the resources used. Since the paradigm shift researchers have paid more attention to the user and their characteristics. Different approaches have been adopted for the study of information behaviour of different user groups and new methodologies have been developed or adopted from other fields such as social sciences. However, most of the literature in this field of study has been scattered in research papers and book chapters. There has been a real need to bring the core of all this literature together in a monograph.

  3. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  4. Market Liquidity, Analysts Coverage, and Ownership Concentration: Evidence From ASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Iskandrani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the association between analyst coverage, ownership concentration and market liquidity in Amman Stock Exchange (ASE. Using a unique dataset about information asymmetry, several proxies related to the information asymmetry are used to clarify certain aspects of market liquidity. In a sample of 131 companies with comprehensive data collected from company guides and Datastream, information asymmetry measured by analysts’ coverage is found to be an important determinant of market liquidity. In particular, market liquidity is lower where firms have larger analysts coverage and where firms are denoted with high degree of ownership concentration. The effect of analysts coverage is, however, found to be more marked in firms with high levels of ownership concentration. The study provides theoretical and empirical improvement of market liquidity literature towards an understanding of the information asymmetry proxies in ASE. Policymakers, after the 2007-2009 scandal have formed governance codes that highlight the importance of disclosure requirements as key responsibility of financial analysts. The link between analysts coverage and market liquidity established in this research provides evidence for insider investors on the roles and potential effectiveness of analysts in carrying this responsibility.

  5. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  6. 75 FR 38080 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative review. See Memorandum to the File from Alexis Polovina, Case Analyst, through Alex Villanueva... Analyst, through Alex Villanueva, Program Manager, regarding: Withdrawal of Request for NSR from...

  7. What does the analyst want? Free association in relation to the analyst's activity, ambition, and technical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Axel

    2006-03-01

    The author traces the history of free association, the "fundamental rule," through the Freud-Ferenczi relationship and controversy. The use of "activity," first proposed by Freud in 1910 with phobic and compulsive patients, was then championed by Ferenczi in the early twenties. The goal of activity was to enhance-or, more accurately, "to force"--the associations into the analysis. Subsequently, Ferenczi reversed himself, concluding that his analysis was re-creating the traumatic parental environment which originally caused the patient's neurosis. The far-reaching results of Ferenczi's change of heart included a redefinition of countertransference and added the techniques of "indulgence" and "relaxation" to soften Freud's emphasis on "abstinence" and "frustration. A vignette from the analysis of a dangerously self-destructive bulimic patient illustrates the value of free association in helping a patient feel understood by the analyst without pressure to give up her symptoms. Constantly monitoring his therapeutic ambition, the analyst demonstrates the value of free association in enhancing the patient's understanding of herself and of the survival value of her symptoms. This vignette highlights the fact that the analyst's therapeutic ambition makes freedom to associate even more difficult for the patient and inevitably intrudes on the analyst's evenly hovering attention. Of course for the analyst to have a therapeutic wish is necessary and desirable but for the analyst to demand change promotes compliance and hidden rebellion which limits the analysis.

  8. INSTRUMENTS OF HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human’s life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. Methods: we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of “risky sexual behavior assessment”, “sexual risk assessment”, “high risk sexual behavior”, “sexual risk taking”. By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Results: Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Conclusion: Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended. PMID:27047267

  9. A Review of Baum's Review of Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Baum expressed numerous concerns about my Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism in his review. If his review were an independent submission and I were an independent referee, I would recommend that his review be rejected and that he be encouraged to revise and resubmit, once he has studied the field a bit more and clarified for himself and journal readers several important matters. I outline two sets of concerns that he might usefully clarify in his revision: (a) the important contrib...

  10. Trade Space Analysis: Rotational Analyst Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    CPR Capabilities Portfolio Review DAU Defense Acquisition University DCO Defense Connect Online DoD Department of Defense DoE Design of... perspective of systems increases total system performance and minimizes total ownership costs. Optimization occurs in defense acquisitions, starting...NPS graduate student worked on developing a methodology for the DOTMLPF assessment of the Army’s Land Warrior System, a TRAC-WSMR study. The work

  11. Religious holidays and analysts forecast optimism: Evidence from MENA countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harit Satt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of religious holidays on analyst recommendation on stock markets in MENA countries stock markets (Morocco, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Algeria, Bahrain for the period of 2004 to 2015. The result shows that on pre-holidays, analysts tend to issue pessimistic recommendations, and issue optimistic recommendations on post-holidays[1]. Prior literature on day-of –the week effect is consonant with our results which document an increase in stock prices during the week, and a decrease in stock prices over the weekend. We argue that analysts can benefit from the upward trend in stock prices during Post-Holidays by issuing an optimistic recommendation. Analysts may as well benefit from the downward trend in stock prices by issuing pessimistic recommendations on pre-holidays. We also exhibit that our results are more consistent among less experienced analysts and in firms with greater information uncertainty. [1] Post holidays are the period before Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha and Eid-al Mawlid;  three terms relating to Muslims holy-festival.

  12. Behavior analytic studies of creativity: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, A S; Baker, J E

    1985-01-01

    Studies that treat creativity as operant behavior were critically reviewed. Of the twenty studies, most met minimal requirements for methodological adequacy; all provided at least some evidence for increased creative responding. Major difficulties involved potential confounds between instructions and contingencies, lack of an independent record of the training interaction, lack of social validation data, and very limited evidence for generalization. Several issues were discussed: problems in the behavioral definition of creativity, objections to the use of contingent reinforcement, and the need for empirical analysis of the creative process.

  13. Actor and analyst: a response to Coopmans and Button.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert

    2014-10-01

    We question the logic of Coopmans and Button's critique of our analysis of expertise on three grounds. First, their critique depends on a clear distinction between actor and analysts that we show cannot be maintained. Second, we question their reticence to allow the use of taxonomies in the analysis of expertise, suggesting that it is contradicted by their own descriptions of expert work, and we accuse them of making a mistake in the way they relate commonsense to specialist skills. Finally, we express our puzzlement at the antiseptic-like precautions that some ethnomethodologists apply to analysts' categories, especially given that--as we show--analysts' categories sometimes provide a superior resource for understanding and can change the actors' world as well as describing it.

  14. Instruction in Information Structuring Improves Bayesian Judgment in Intelligence Analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mandel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts’ probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem. Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target’s membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments.

  15. REDUCING THE COGNITIVE LOAD ON ANALYSTS THROUGH HAMMING DISTANCE BASED ALERT AGGREGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous work introduced the idea of grouping alert s at a Hamming distance of 1 to achieve lossless al ert aggregation; such aggregated meta-alerts were shown to increase alert interpretability. However, a mea n of 84023 daily Snort alerts were reduced to a still formidable 14099 meta-alerts. In this work, we add ress this limitation by investigating several approaches that all contribute towards reducing the burden on the analyst and providing timely analysis. We explore m inimizing the number of both alerts and data elemen ts by aggregating at Hamming distances greater than 1. We show how increasing bin sizes can improve aggregation rates. And we provide a new aggregation algorithm that operates up to an order of magnitud e faster at Hamming distance 1. Lastly, we demonstrat e the broad applicability of this approach through empirical analysis of Windows security alerts, Snor t alerts, netflow records, and DNS logs. The result is a reduction in the cognitive load on analysts by mini mizing the overall number of alerts and the number of data elements that need to be reviewed in order for an analyst to evaluate the set of original alerts.

  16. Ape language research: A review and behavioral perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hixson, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The ape language research of the Gardners, Fouts, Terrace, Rumbaugh, and Savage-Rumbaugh is reviewed. This research involved the raising of chimpanzees (and a bonobo) in human-like environments over extended time periods. The results indicate that apes are capable of learning small verbal repertoires in a fashion similar to that of human infants. The writings of the ape language researchers show an opposition to behavioral approaches to language. Although they characterize each other's work a...

  17. Meta-Analyst: software for meta-analysis of binary, continuous and diagnostic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Christopher H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new and challenging problems. In practice, most meta-analyses are performed in general statistical packages or dedicated meta-analysis programs. Results Herein, we introduce Meta-Analyst, a novel, powerful, intuitive, and free meta-analysis program for the meta-analysis of a variety of problems. Meta-Analyst is implemented in C# atop of the Microsoft .NET framework, and features a graphical user interface. The software performs several meta-analysis and meta-regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, as well as analyses for diagnostic and prognostic test studies in the frequentist and Bayesian frameworks. Moreover, Meta-Analyst includes a flexible tool to edit and customize generated meta-analysis graphs (e.g., forest plots and provides output in many formats (images, Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word-ready RTF. The software architecture employed allows for rapid changes to be made to either the Graphical User Interface (GUI or to the analytic modules. We verified the numerical precision of Meta-Analyst by comparing its output with that from standard meta-analysis routines in Stata over a large database of 11,803 meta-analyses of binary outcome data, and 6,881 meta-analyses of continuous outcome data from the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. Results from analyses of diagnostic and prognostic test studies have been verified in a limited number of meta-analyses versus MetaDisc and MetaTest. Bayesian statistical analyses use the OpenBUGS calculation engine (and are thus as accurate as the standalone OpenBUGS software. Conclusion We have developed and validated a new program for conducting meta-analyses that combines the advantages of existing software for this task.

  18. Sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; de Farias, José Cazuza; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the methodological characteristics of the studies selected and assess variables associated with sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS For this systematic review, we searched four electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, LILACS, SciELO. Also, electronic searches were applied in Google Scholar. A supplementary search was conducted in the references lists of the included articles and in non-indexed journals. We included observational studies with children and adolescents aged from three to 19 years developed in Brazil, presenting analyses of associations based on regression methods and published until September 30, 2014. RESULTS Of the 255 potential references retrieved by the searches, 49 met the inclusion criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. In this set, we identified a great number of cross-sectional studies (n = 43; 88.0%) and high methodological variability on the types of sedentary behavior assessed, measurement tools and cut-off points used. The variables most often associated with sedentary behavior were “high levels of body weight” (in 15 out of 27 studies; 55.0%) and “lower level of physical activity” (in eight out of 16 studies; 50.0%). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this review raise the following demands to the Brazilian agenda of sedentary behavior research geared to children and adolescents: development of longitudinal studies, validation of measuring tools, establishment of risk cut-offs, measurement of sedentary behavior beyond screen time and use of objective measures in addition to questionnaires. In the articles available, the associations between sedentary behavior with “high levels of body weight” and “low levels of physical activity” were observed in different regions of Brazil. PMID:27007685

  19. Que cherchent les analystes du discours ? What Do Discourse Analysts Look For?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Maingueneau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’efforce de décrire comment est structuré le champ de l’analyse du discours.  Dans un premier temps il considère la signification qui est donnée au terme « analyse », en revenant sur les principaux courants de l’analyse du discours française à la fin des années 1960. Il réfléchit ensuite sur la diversité des études de discours et propose une distinction entre les « études de discours » et les « disciplines du discours », qui ont chacune un point de vue spécifique sur le discours. Il souligne ensuite la diversité des chercheurs qui pratiquent des approches discursives ; il les divise en trois groupes : ceux dont l’approche est paraphilosophique, ceux pour qui l’étude du discours est une simple « méthode qualitative » des sciences humaines et sociales et ceux qui, s’appuyant en général sur la linguistique, s’efforcent de maintenir un équilibre entre conceptualisation et travaux empiriques. Les unités sur lesquelles travaillent ces spécialistes du discours peuvent être divisées en deux grandes catégories : des « unités topiques », prédécoupées par l’activité sociale (en particulier le genre de discours, et des « unités non-topiques » ; ces dernières peuvent être « transverses » (il s’agit alors de « registres » ou « construites » par le chercheur lui-même. Les deux dernières sections de l’article s’intéressent à la démarche de l’analyste du discours : elle peut être « herméneutique » ou non, « critique » ou non ; mais toute étude du discours possède par nature une dimension critique.The purpose of this article is to propose an overview of the field of discourse analysis. Firstly, it considers the meaning of the term “analysis” by taking into account the main trends of  French discourse analysis in the late 1960’s. . Then it reflects on the diversity of the field of discourse studies by making a distinction between

  20. Does Internal Capital Market Affect Behaviors of Securities Analysts?---Evidence from China’s Business Groups%内部资本市场影响证券分析师预测吗?--基于我国企业集团的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋德权; 徐巍

    2016-01-01

    Related transaction of internal capital market reduces the demand for high-quality public information and the intricate related transaction increases analyst’s cost in their efforts to understand the trade behaviors through public market in-formation. So, the bigger the internal capital market of enterprise groups is, the less information is disclosed by the stock prices of their member companies, which is reflected in a smaller number of analysts who would like to concern themselves with the performance of the companies and more errors in their forecast. With an analysis of the data of listed enterprises groups in 2004-2011, we provide empirical evidence to prove the above assumption. Our work not only expands the research scope of the influencing factors of analyst’ forecast, but also enhances the understanding of the internal capital market.%企业集团内部资本市场错综复杂的关联交易降低了内部交易各方对高质量公开信息的需求,也提高了证券分析师通过市场信息对交易行为进行类比解读的成本。因此,企业集团内部资本市场规模越大,其成员公司的股价中包含的特有信息越少,体现为更少的证券分析师关注度和更低的盈余预测准确度。通过对我国2004-2011年企业集团成员公司内部资本市场关联交易和分析师预测的考察,本文提供了支持上述推测的经验证据,拓宽了分析师盈余预测影响因素的研究范围,同时增进了实务界对企业集团内部资本市场的理解。

  1. LG-ANALYST: linguistic geometry for master air attack planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg

    2003-09-01

    We investigate the technical feasibility of implementing LG-ANALYST, a new software tool based on the Linguistic Geometry (LG) approach. The tool will be capable of modeling and providing solutions to Air Force related battlefield problems and of conducting multiple experiments to verify the quality of the solutions it generates. LG-ANALYST will support generation of the Fast Master Air Attack Plan (MAAP) with subsequent conversion into Air Tasking Order (ATO). An Air Force mission is modeled employing abstract board games (ABG). Such a mission may include, for example, an aircraft strike package moving to a target area with the opposing side having ground-to-air missiles, anti-aircraft batteries, fighter wings, and radars. The corresponding abstract board captures 3D air space, terrain, the aircraft trajectories, positions of the batteries, strategic features of the terrain, such as bridges, and their status, radars and illuminated space, etc. Various animated views are provided by LG-ANALYST including a 3D view for realistic representation of the battlespace and a 2D view for ease of analysis and control. LG-ANALYST will allow a user to model full scale intelligent enemy, plan in advance, re-plan and control in real time Blue and Red forces by generating optimal (or near-optimal) strategies for all sides of a conflict.

  2. Nowcasting GDP Growth: statistical models versus professional analysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. de Winter (Jasper)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis contains four chapters that cast new light on the ability of professional analysts and statistical models to assess economic growth in the current quarter (nowcast) and its development in the near future. This is not a trivial issue. An accurate assessment of the current

  3. The Pentagon's Military Analyst Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an investigatory overview of the Pentagon's military analyst program, what it is, how it was implemented, and how it constitutes a form of propaganda. A technical analysis of the program is applied using the theoretical framework of the propaganda model first developed by Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman. Definitions…

  4. The analyst's excitement in the analysis of perversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Stephen D

    2006-02-01

    The author believes that unconscious sexual excitement in the transference and countertransference is an especially problematic aspect of the analysis of perverse character pathology and that perverse sexual gratification deserves a more prominent position in the clinical theory of analyzing perversion than that which has been assigned tacitly through analysts' routine focus on the defensive and destructive dynamics of perversion. He presents clinical material from the analysis of a perverse patient that illustrates the role of excitement in the transference perversion established in this analysis; and he asserts that gratifying perverse enactments occurring in the transference perversion can appear not only as conscious or unconscious excitement in the transference but also, at times most clearly, as the analyst's excitement. The author suggests that using a clinical theory that supports the analyst in understanding his excited responses as perverse countertransferences--i.e. evoked excitement complementary to the sexual component of a perverse transference--will assist him in locating and thinking about gratifying, perverse excitement in the transference where it is most usefully analyzed. Finally, he discusses some of the reasons why analysts might deny, suppress or otherwise avoid perverse countertransferences and in so doing contribute to sustaining perverse resistances.

  5. The TIGER system: a Census Bureau innovation serving data analysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaugh, L W; Marx, R W

    1990-01-01

    This article describes the U.S. Census Bureau's TIGER (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing) system, an automated geographic data base. The emphasis is on the availability of file extracts and their usefulness to data analysts. In addition to describing the available files, it mentions various applications for the data, explains the data limitations, and notes problems encountered to date.

  6. Going for Gold : An Analysis of Morningstar Analyst Ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Armstrong (Will); E. Genc (Egemen); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn September 2011 Morningstar launched its qualitative forward-looking analyst ratings to supplement its widely followed backward-looking star ratings. This new system is designed to convey information about a mutual fund’s future performance using a five-tier scale: Gold, Silver, Bronze

  7. MetaboAnalyst 3.0--making metabolomics more meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianguo; Sinelnikov, Igor V; Han, Beomsoo; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    MetaboAnalyst (www.metaboanalyst.ca) is a web server designed to permit comprehensive metabolomic data analysis, visualization and interpretation. It supports a wide range of complex statistical calculations and high quality graphical rendering functions that require significant computational resources. First introduced in 2009, MetaboAnalyst has experienced more than a 50X growth in user traffic (>50 000 jobs processed each month). In order to keep up with the rapidly increasing computational demands and a growing number of requests to support translational and systems biology applications, we performed a substantial rewrite and major feature upgrade of the server. The result is MetaboAnalyst 3.0. By completely re-implementing the MetaboAnalyst suite using the latest web framework technologies, we have been able substantially improve its performance, capacity and user interactivity. Three new modules have also been added including: (i) a module for biomarker analysis based on the calculation of receiver operating characteristic curves; (ii) a module for sample size estimation and power analysis for improved planning of metabolomics studies and (iii) a module to support integrative pathway analysis for both genes and metabolites. In addition, popular features found in existing modules have been significantly enhanced by upgrading the graphical output, expanding the compound libraries and by adding support for more diverse organisms.

  8. Behavior of metal ions in bioelectrochemical systems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhihao; Chang, Dingming; Ma, Jingxing; Huang, Guangtuan; Cai, Lankun; Zhang, Lehua

    2015-02-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have been focused on by many researchers to treat wastewater and recover energy or valuable chemicals from wastes. In BESs, metal ions play an important role in the conductivity of solution, reactors' internal resistance, power generation, chemical production and activity of microorganisms. Additionally, the metal ions are also involved in anodic or cathodic reaction processes directly or indirectly in BESs. This paper reviews the behavior of metal ions in BESs, including (1) increase of the conductivity of electrolyte and decrease of internal resistance, (2) transfer for desalination, (3) enhancement or inhibition of the biocatalysis in anode, (4) improvement of cathodic performance by metal ions through electron acceptance or catalysis in cathodic process and (5) behavior of metal ions on membranes. Moreover, the perspectives of BESs removing heavy metal ions in wastewater or solid waste are discussed to realize recovery, reduction and detoxification simultaneously.

  9. Behavior of Poverty in Mexico: A Review of the Imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    Barrón-Pérez, María Antonieta

    2015-01-01

    Behavior of Poverty in Mexico: A Review of the Imbalances AbstractIntroduction: The persistence of poverty in Mexico leads to the question, what are the elements that keep 53.3 million people, accounting for 45.5% of the population, at some level of poverty? The purpose of this article is therefore to show how social spending in Mexico has been unable to reduce poverty levelsin the country’s most backward entities, which is directly related to the criteria for allocation of social spending an...

  10. Health and problem behavior among people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-01-01

    Good health significantly improves a person's quality of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities disproportionately have more health problems than the general population. Further complicating the matter is that people with more severe disabilities often cannot verbalize health complications they are experiencing, which leads to health problems being undiagnosed and untreated. It is plausible these conditions can interact with reinforcement contingencies to maintain problem behavior because of the increased incidence of health problems among people with intellectual disabilities. This paper reviews common health problems influencing problem behavior and reinforcement processes. A clear implication of this review is the need for comprehensive functional assessments of problem behavior involving behavior analysts and health professionals.

  11. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Catherine H Yu,1,2 Giuliana Guarna,1 Pamela Tsao,3 Jude R Jesuthasan,1 Adrian NC Lau,3,4 Ferhan S Siddiqi,1 Julie Anne Gilmour,3 Danyal Ladha,1 Henry Halapy,5 Andrew Advani1–3 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Health Network, 5Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases.Methods: The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included.Results: A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated.Conclusion: While the majority of

  12. Stocks’ pricing dynamics and behavioral finance: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritosh Chandra Sinha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In a brief review of the literature on stocks’ pricing, the study shows that information vis-à-vis noise serves critical roles in the equilibrium process. It is dynamic in nature and there are different infiltrating aspects from the standard finance to behavioral finance points of views. The aspects of market efficiency, fundamental risk, noise traders’ risk, and implementation costs make the stock markets noisy and thereby, limit the arbitrage opportunity of informed traders. Investors’ psychological bases viz., belief and preferences contribute more in the equilibrium process. Beliefs include representativeness, conservativeness, and anchoring, availability biases, optimism and wishful thinking, overconfidence, and herd behavior tendency on the part of the investors. On the preferences, investors are influenced by disposition effect, prospects based on reference points, mental accounting, ambiguity aversion, and self control.The study explores the empirical literature also and reviews the six puzzles in the standard finance. Finally, the work identifies a few research gaps to be addressed in the literature.

  13. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  14. Special Nuclear Material Gamma-Ray Signatures for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-29

    These are slides on special nuclear material gamma-ray signatures for reachback analysts for an LSS Spectroscopy course. The closing thoughts for this presentation are the following: SNM materials have definite spectral signatures that should be readily recognizable to analysts in both bare and shielded configurations. One can estimate burnup of plutonium using certain pairs of peaks that are a few keV apart. In most cases, one cannot reliably estimate uranium enrichment in an analogous way to the estimation of plutonium burnup. The origin of the most intense peaks from some SNM items may be indirect and from ‘associated nuclides.' Indirect SNM signatures sometimes have commonalities with the natural gamma-ray background.

  15. Sexual excitement and countertransference love in the analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, G O

    1994-01-01

    The psychoanalytic literature has been remarkably silent on the subject of erotic countertransference feelings. The recent emphasis on transference-countertransference enactments in the analytic setting has resulted in increased openness about development of such feelings. Several key themes appear to be involved in the analyst's sexual excitement, including loss of the "as-if" nature of transference and countertransference, a measure of hostility and contempt, the perception of a deficit state in the patient, a defense against loss and mourning, and oedipal and preoedipal enactments involving a variety of gender configurations. These themes are illustrated with clinical material. The differences between those analysts who contain and constructively process erotic countertransference and those who destructively act it out are also discussed. The crucial role of consultation with a colleague is emphasized as a valuable recourse.

  16. Teaching Bayesian Statistics To Intelligence Analysts: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemangni Deshmukh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Community must develop and integrate into regular use new tools that can assist analysts in filtering and correlating the vast quantities of information that threaten to overwhelm the analytic process…—Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States.Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (The WMD Report1Unlike the other social sciences and, particularly, the physical sciences, where scientists get to choose the questions they wish to answer and experiments are carefully designed to confirm or negate hypotheses, intelligence analysis requires analysts to deal with the demands of decision makers and estimate the intentions of foreign actors, criminals or business competitors in an environment filled with uncertainty and even deliberate deception.

  17. Development of a Comprehensive Database System for Safety Analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Alexander; Veeramisti, Naveen; Khanal, Indira; Baker, Justin; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed barriers associated with the use of Safety Analyst, a state-of-the-art tool that has been developed to assist during the entire Traffic Safety Management process but that is not widely used due to a number of challenges as described in this paper. As part of this study, a comprehensive database system and tools to provide data to multiple traffic safety applications, with a focus on Safety Analyst, were developed. A number of data management tools were developed to extract, collect, transform, integrate, and load the data. The system includes consistency-checking capabilities to ensure the adequate insertion and update of data into the database. This system focused on data from roadways, ramps, intersections, and traffic characteristics for Safety Analyst. To test the proposed system and tools, data from Clark County, which is the largest county in Nevada and includes the cities of Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, was used. The database and Safety Analyst together help identify the sites with the potential for safety improvements. Specifically, this study examined the results from two case studies. The first case study, which identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, included all roadway elements and used default and calibrated Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). The second case study identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, specifically regarding intersections; it used default and calibrated SPFs as well. Conclusions were developed for the calibration of safety performance functions and the classification of site subtypes. Guidelines were provided about the selection of a particular network screening type or performance measure for network screening.

  18. Development of a Comprehensive Database System for Safety Analyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed barriers associated with the use of Safety Analyst, a state-of-the-art tool that has been developed to assist during the entire Traffic Safety Management process but that is not widely used due to a number of challenges as described in this paper. As part of this study, a comprehensive database system and tools to provide data to multiple traffic safety applications, with a focus on Safety Analyst, were developed. A number of data management tools were developed to extract, collect, transform, integrate, and load the data. The system includes consistency-checking capabilities to ensure the adequate insertion and update of data into the database. This system focused on data from roadways, ramps, intersections, and traffic characteristics for Safety Analyst. To test the proposed system and tools, data from Clark County, which is the largest county in Nevada and includes the cities of Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, was used. The database and Safety Analyst together help identify the sites with the potential for safety improvements. Specifically, this study examined the results from two case studies. The first case study, which identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, included all roadway elements and used default and calibrated Safety Performance Functions (SPFs. The second case study identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, specifically regarding intersections; it used default and calibrated SPFs as well. Conclusions were developed for the calibration of safety performance functions and the classification of site subtypes. Guidelines were provided about the selection of a particular network screening type or performance measure for network screening.

  19. Mechanical behavior and stress effects in hard superconductors: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C. C.; Easton, D. S.

    1977-11-01

    The mechanical properties of type II superconducting materials are reviewed as well as the effect of stress on the superconducting properties of these materials. The bcc alloys niobium-titanium and niobium-zirconium exhibit good strength and extensive ductility at room temperature. Mechanical tests on these alloys at 4.2/sup 0/K revealed serrated stress-strain curves, nonlinear elastic effects and reduced ductility. The nonlinear behavior is probably due to twinning and detwinning or a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. The brittle A-15 compound superconductors, such as Nb/sub 3/Sn and V/sub 3/Ga, exhibit unusual elastic properties and structural instabilities at cryogenic temperatures. Multifilamentary composites consisting of superconducting filaments in a normal metal matrix are generally used for superconducting devices. The mechanical properties of alloy and compound composites, tapes, as well as composites of niobium carbonitride chemically vapor deposited on high strength carbon fibers are presented. Hysteretic stress-strain behavior in the metal matrix composites produces significant heat generation, an effect which may lead to degradation in the performance of high field magnets. Measurements of the critical current density, J/sub c/, under stress in a magnetic field are reported. Modest stress-reversible degradation in J/sub c/ was observed in niobium-titanium composites, while more serious degradation was found in Nb/sub 3/Sn samples. The importance of mechanical behavior to device performance is discussed.

  20. Mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Anisha; Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Singh, Yengkokpam Ibotomba

    2007-03-01

    Whether parasitic diseases-and in particular helminth infections because they are extensive and widespread--have an effect on mental functions and educational attainment is by no mean a new question. Concern about the possibility was evident in the early decades of the century, and the results of investigations designed to discover whether the effects of parasite infections had consequences on school children. Many species of helminth have been reported as causing infections in humans. Of the nematode infections, both soil transmitted helminthiasis and lymphatic filariasis are public health problem in the country. Any of these infections may result in morbidity, malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anaemia. Their possible contribution to impaired cognitive function and educational achievement is by the association between iron deficiency anaemia and malnutrition. Research on the effects of parasitic infection has focused on school-age children. Not only are these children the most vulnerable to parasitic infections--they are also the population group most likely to experience the impact of infection on cognitive function. This review paper discusses the mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infection on child's health. Infected children are less active; their behavior is said to be sluggish and both mental and physical activities and processes appear dulled and slow. A reduction in available energy is likely to cause a cascade of effects running through most aspects of the host's daily mental life and behavior.

  1. Information seeking and use behaviour of economists and business analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Thivant

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this paper is to deal with the information seeking and use problem in a professional context and understand how activity can influence practices, by taking as examples, the research undertaken by economic analysts. We analyse the relationship between the situational approach, described by Cheuk, the work environment complexity (with social, technological and personal aspects, and the information seeking and use strategies, which relied on Ellis and Wilson's model, with Bates's comments. Method. We interviewed eight economists, using a questionnaire and the SICIA (Situation, Complexity and Information Activity method. The SICAI method is a qualitative approach, which underlines the relationship between situations, professional contexts and strategies. Both methods allow better understanding of how investment analysts find out what they need for their job. We can clarify their information sources and practices of information seeking, which are very particular because of their activities. We complete our analysis by interviewing analysts from financial institutions. Analysis. A qualitative mode of analysis was used to interpret the interviewees' comments, within the research framework adopted. Results. We find similarity in information seeking and use strategies used by these two groups and environmental levels meet in most situations. But some differences can be also found, explained by the activity frameworks and goals. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that the activity and also the professional context (here the financial context can directly influence practices.

  2. Learning patterns of life from intelligence analyst chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael K.; Alford, Mark; Babko-Malaya, Olga; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Lingji; Crespi, Valentino; HandUber, Jason; Haney, Phil; Nagy, Jim; Richman, Mike; Von Pless, Gregory; Zhu, Howie; Rhodes, Bradley J.

    2016-05-01

    Our Multi-INT Data Association Tool (MIDAT) learns patterns of life (POL) of a geographical area from video analyst observations called out in textual reporting. Typical approaches to learning POLs from video make use of computer vision algorithms to extract locations in space and time of various activities. Such approaches are subject to the detection and tracking performance of the video processing algorithms. Numerous examples of human analysts monitoring live video streams annotating or "calling out" relevant entities and activities exist, such as security analysis, crime-scene forensics, news reports, and sports commentary. This user description typically corresponds with textual capture, such as chat. Although the purpose of these text products is primarily to describe events as they happen, organizations typically archive the reports for extended periods. This archive provides a basis to build POLs. Such POLs are useful for diagnosis to assess activities in an area based on historical context, and for consumers of products, who gain an understanding of historical patterns. MIDAT combines natural language processing, multi-hypothesis tracking, and Multi-INT Activity Pattern Learning and Exploitation (MAPLE) technologies in an end-to-end lab prototype that processes textual products produced by video analysts, infers POLs, and highlights anomalies relative to those POLs with links to "tracks" of related activities performed by the same entity. MIDAT technologies perform well, achieving, for example, a 90% F1-value on extracting activities from the textual reports.

  3. The Inefficient Use of Macroeconomic Information in Analysts' Earnings Forecasts in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents empirical evidence that security analysts do not efficiently use publicly available macroeconomic information in their earnings forecasts for emerging market stocks. Analysts completely ignore forecasts on political stability, while these provide valuable information

  4. The use of non-financial information by financial analysts: A content analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Orens, Raf; Lybaert, Nadine

    2004-01-01

    Although some studies are arguing that annual reports are less relevant or useful, other studies are providing evidence that annual reports are the most important source of corporate information for financial analysts. If it really seems to be true that all information in analyst reports is published in annual reports as well, the relevance and usefulness of analyst reports may be questioned. For this reason, our paper researches the extent to which analyst reports provide additional value to...

  5. Does Educational Preparation Match Professional Practice: The Case of Higher Education Policy Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Eduardo C.; Martinez, Mario C.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the extent to which higher education policy analysts and master's and doctoral faculty of higher education and public affairs programs match on a set of competencies thought to be important to higher education policy analysis. Analysts matched master's faculty in three competencies while analysts and doctoral faculty matched in…

  6. Philosophical behaviorism: a review of things that happen because they should: a teleological approach to action, by Rowland Stout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1999-09-01

    Mentalistic terms such as belief and desire have been rejected by behavior analysts because they are traditionally held to refer to unobservable events inside the organism. Behavior analysis has consequently been viewed by philosophers to be at best irrelevant to psychology, understood as a science of the mind. In this book, the philosopher Rowland Stout argues cogently that beliefs and desires (like operants such as rats' lever presses) are best understood in terms of an interaction over time between overt behavior and its overt consequences (a viewpoint called teleological behaviorism). This book is important because it identifies the science of the mind with the science of overt behavior and implies that the psychologists best equipped to study mental life are not those who purport to do so but those who focus on the experimental analysis of behavior.

  7. Cognition and behavior in Turner syndrome: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D S; Reiss, A L

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that Turner syndrome is associated with a distinct pattern of cognitive and neurophysiological characteristics. Typically this has been characterized by relative strengths in verbal skills, contrasting with relative weaknesses in arithmetic, visuospatial and executive function domains. Potential differences in social cognitive processing have also been identified. More recently, applications of neuroimaging techniques have further elucidated underlying differences in brain structure, function and connectivity in individuals with Turner syndrome. Ongoing research in this area is focused on establishing a unified mechanistic model incorporating genetic influences from the X chromosome, sex hormone contributions, neuroanatomical variation and differences in cognitive processes. This review broadly covers current understanding of how X-monosomy impacts neurocognitive phenotype both from the perspective of cognitive-behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Furthermore, relevant clinical aspects of identifying potential learning difficulties and providing anticipatory guidance for affected individuals with TS, are briefly discussed.

  8. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbala

  9. The analyst's desire in the clinic of anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Benatto Pereira da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the issue of the analyst's desire in the psychoanalytical treatment of anorexia. It analyzes important elements to establish transference in these cases, as the pursuit of death and the choice of refusing food as a way of controlling the demands of the Other. It then discusses the "analist's desire" function in this clinic. Rejecting the definition of a treatment model and the structural categorization of anorexia, we can find in the cases of the girl of Angouleme (Charcot and Sidonie (M. Mannoni present possible subjective ways to get out of this psychopathological impasse, by means of this function.

  10. Fuzzy VIKOR approach for selection of big data analyst in procurement management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Big data and predictive analysis have been hailed as the fourth paradigm of science. Big data and analytics are critical to the future of business sustainability. The demand for data scientists is increasing with the dynamic nature of businesses, thus making it indispensable to manage big data, derive meaningful results and interpret management decisions.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide a brief conceptual review of big data and analytics and further illustrate the use of a multicriteria decision-making technique in selecting the right skilled candidate for big data and analytics in procurement management.Method: It is important for firms to select and recruit the right data analyst, both in terms of skills sets and scope of analysis. The nature of such a problem is complex and multicriteria decision-making, which deals with both qualitative and quantitative factors. In the current study, an application of the Fuzzy VIsekriterijumska optimizacija i KOmpromisno Resenje (VIKOR method was used to solve the big data analyst selection problem.Results: From this study, it was identified that Technical knowledge (C1, Intellectual curiosity (C4 and Business acumen (C5 are the strongest influential criteria and must be present in the candidate for the big data and analytics job.Conclusion: Fuzzy VIKOR is the perfect technique in this kind of multiple criteria decisionmaking problematic scenario. This study will assist human resource managers and procurement managers in selecting the right workforce for big data analytics.

  11. The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy. A review of empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, G.P.J.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Empirical studies are reviewed, the aim being to investigate characteristics of the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and to identify therapist or patient interpersonal behavior that affects treatment outcome. CBT is characterized by a more active and directive stance on t

  12. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eCélino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior. The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  13. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célino, Amandine; Freour, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Frederic; Casari, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior). The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  14. Transformations in hallucinosis and the receptivity of the analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Bion describes transformation in hallucinosis (TH) as a psychic defence present in elusive psychotic scenarios in which there is a total adherence to concrete reality: as the hallucinatory activity which physiologically infiltrates perception and allows us to know reality, setting it off against a background of familiarity; and then, surprisingly, as the ideal state of mind towards which the analyst has to move in order to intuit the facts of the analysis. When hallucinosis is followed by 'awakening', the analyst gains understanding from the experience and goes through a transformation that will inevitably be transmitted to the analytic field and to the patient. In this paper I illustrate Bion's concept and underline its eminently intersubjective nature. Then I differentiate it from two other technical devices: reverie, which unlike hallucinosis does not imply the persistence of a feeling of the real, and Ferro's transformation in dreaming, i.e., purposeful listening to everything that is said in the analysis as if it were the telling of a dream. Finally, I try to demonstrate the practical utility of the concept of transformation in hallucinosis in order to read the complex dynamics of a clinical vignette. Though not well known (only two references in English in the PEP archive), TH proves to be remarkably versatile and productive for thinking about psychoanalytic theory, technique and clinical work.

  15. Aggregation Operators Review - Mathematical Properties and Behavioral Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. La Red Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem that humans must face very often is that of having to add, melt or synthesize information, that is, combine together a series of data from various sources to reach a certain conclusion or make a certain decision. This involves the use of one or more aggregation operators capable to provide a collective preference relation. These operators must be chosen according to specific criteria taking into account the characteristic properties of each operator. Some conditions to be taken into account to identify them are the following: axiomatic strength, empirical setting, adaptability, numerical efficiency, compensation and compensation range, added behavior and scale level required of the membership functions. It is possible to establish a general list of possible mathematical properties whose verification might be desirable in certain cases: boundary conditions, continuity, not decreasing monotony, symmetry, idempotence, associativity, bisymmetry, self-distributivity, compensation, homogeneity, translativity, stability, ϕ-comparability, sensitivity and locally internal functions. For analyze the attitudinal character of the aggregation operator the following measures are studied: disjunction degree (orness, dispersion, balance and divergence. In this paper, a review of these issues is presented.

  16. Foster Family Characteristics and Behavioral and Emotional Problems of Foster Children: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John G.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the foster family characteristics that are thought to contribute to the behavioral and emotional problems of foster children. The review is shaped by an understanding of the personal and familial factors associated with children's problem behaviors. Factors include parenting, family home environment, family functioning,…

  17. Social gradients in child and adolescent antisocial behavior: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Patrycja J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between social position and physical health is well-established across a range of studies. The evidence base regarding social position and mental health is less well developed, particularly regarding the development of antisocial behavior. Some evidence demonstrates a social gradient in behavioral problems, with children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds experiencing more behavioral difficulties than children from high-socioeconomic families. Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous concept that encompasses behaviors as diverse as physical fighting, vandalism, stealing, status violation and disobedience to adults. Whether all forms of antisocial behavior show identical social gradients is unclear from previous published research. The mechanisms underlying social gradients in antisocial behavior, such as neighborhood characteristics and family processes, have not been fully elucidated. This review will synthesize findings on the social gradient in antisocial behavior, considering variation across the range of antisocial behaviors and evidence regarding the mechanisms that might underlie the identified gradients. Methods In this review, an extensive manual and electronic literature search will be conducted for papers published from 1960 to 2011. The review will include empirical and quantitative studies of children and adolescents ( Discussion This systematic review has been proposed in order to synthesize cross-disciplinary evidence of the social gradient in antisocial behavior and mechanisms underlying this effect. The results of the review will inform social policies aiming to reduce social inequalities and levels of antisocial behavior, and identify gaps in the present literature to guide further research.

  18. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hashemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  19. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, F; Shafigh, F; Roohi, E

    2016-01-01

    In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents' libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  20. Automatic theory generation from analyst text files using coherence networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Steven C.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a three-phase process of extracting knowledge from analyst textual reports. Phase 1 involves performing natural language processing on the source text to extract subject-predicate-object triples. In phase 2, these triples are then fed into a coherence network analysis process, using a genetic algorithm optimization. Finally, the highest-value sub networks are processed into a semantic network graph for display. Initial work on a well- known data set (a Wikipedia article on Abraham Lincoln) has shown excellent results without any specific tuning. Next, we ran the process on the SYNthetic Counter-INsurgency (SYNCOIN) data set, developed at Penn State, yielding interesting and potentially useful results.

  1. The Age of Initiation of Drug Use and Sexual Behavior May Influence Subsequent HIV Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Patrick; Shrestha, Roman; Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-12-07

    Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk.

  2. Information environment, market-wide sentiment and IPO initial returns: Evidence from analyst forecasts before listing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the information environment of firms using analyst (price forecast bias and forecast dispersion before listing, we empirically examine the interactive influence of the information environment and market-wide sentiment on the initial returns of initial public offerings (IPOs. We find the smaller the analyst forecast bias/dispersion, the lower the effect market-wide sentiment has on IPO initial returns. This finding indicates that information asymmetry is a basic reason for noise trading occurs and demonstrates the positive effect of financial analysts during IPOs. In addition, the effect of analyst forecasts is more pronounced during periods of rising markets and when IPO prices are not regulated.

  3. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-rand...

  4. Canadian Women's Labor Force Behavior: A Forty Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Janet E.; Skrypnek, Berna J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three dimensions of labor force behavior: participation, attachment, and commitment. Presents a picture of trends in Canadian women's labor force behavior over the last 40 years using existing data. Discusses the implications of these trends for family life and corporate and public policy. (JOW)

  5. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options.

  6. Online Social Behavior in Twitter : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, O.A.J.; Maanen, P.P. van; Ouboter, T.; Schraagen, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review is aimed at examining state of the art research in the field of online social networks. The goal is to identify the current challenges within this area of research, given the questions raised in society. In this review we pay attention to three aspects of social networks: acto

  7. Analysis of Skills Requirement for Entry-Level Programmer/Analysts in Fortune 500 Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Kwon; Han, Hyo-Joo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the most up-to-date skill requirements for programmer/analyst, one of the most demanded entry-level job titles in the Information Systems (IS) field. In the past, several researchers studied job skills for IS professionals, but few have focused especially on "programmer/analyst." The authors conducted an extensive empirical…

  8. Review of AIDS Health Education and Behavioral Interventions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yumao(蔡于茂); ZENG Xuchun(曾序春); DONG Shifu(董时富)

    2002-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) isan infectious disease caused by HIV. It has been epidemic formore than 20 years, but there is no cure of it. Health educationand behavioral interventions are some of the most effectiveapproaches in the control and prevention of AIDS. China isone of the countries with the fastest growing HIVseroprevalence rate, and is facing a widespread epidemic ofAIDS. Currently, high-risk populations such as individualswith multiple sexual partners and intravenous drug users arethe main foci of health education and behavioral interventionsin China. Encouraging results have been observed in manyforms of health education and behavioral intervention. Theapplication of health education and behavioral interventionsmust emerge from scientific evidence, follow a series ofstrategies, be carried out from various perspectives, andrequire the participation of all societal communities.

  9. HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF METALS: A PRIMER FOR THE FAILURE ANALYST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louthan, M

    2008-01-31

    Hydrogen reduces the service life of many metallic components. Such reductions may be manifested as blisters, as a decrease in fatigue resistance, as enhanced creep, as the precipitation of a hydride phase and, most commonly, as unexpected, macroscopically brittle failure. This unexpected, brittle fracture is commonly termed hydrogen embrittlement. Frequently, hydrogen embrittlement occurs after the component has been is service for a period of time and much of the resulting fracture surface is distinctly intergranular. Many failures, particularly of high strength steels, are attributed to hydrogen embrittlement simply because the failure analyst sees intergranular fracture in a component that served adequately for a significant period of time. Unfortunately, simply determining that a failure is due to hydrogen embrittlement or some other form of hydrogen induced damage is of no particular help to the customer unless that determination is coupled with recommendations that provide pathways to avoid such damage in future applications. This paper presents qualitative and phenomenological descriptions of the hydrogen damage processes and outlines several metallurgical recommendations that may help reduce the susceptibility of a particular component or system to the various forms of hydrogen damage.

  10. Should meta-analysts search Embase in addition to Medline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Margaret; Barrowman, Nicholas J; Moher, David; Klassen, Terry P; Pham, Ba'; Platt, Robert; St John, Philip D; Viola, Raymond; Raina, Parminder

    2003-10-01

    It is widely accepted that meta-analysts should search multiple databases. The selection of databases is ideally based on the potential contribution of each database to the project or on the potential for bias if a database is excluded, as supported by research evidence. We explore whether searching Embase yields additional trials that influence a meta-analysis. We identified meta-analyses that searched Medline and Embase. A random-effects weighted mean method was used to estimate the intervention effect in articles indexed only in Embase compared with those indexed elsewhere. On average, Embase-unique trials yielded significantly smaller estimates by 29% (ratio of odds ratio [ROR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.90) but influenced the pooled estimate by an average of only 6% (ROR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-0.99). Searching Medline but not Embase risks biasing a meta-analysis by finding studies that show larger estimates, but their prevalence seems low enough that the risk may be slight, provided the rest of the search is comprehensive.

  11. A review of parenting and adolescent sexual behavior: The moderating role of gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Sterrett, Emma; McKee, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the established link between parenting and adolescent sexual risk behavior, less is known about the role of adolescent gender as a potential moderator of this association. This literature review integrates findings from 24 studies to examine gender as a moderator of the link between parenting and youth sexual risk behavior. Despite the wide variability in methodology across the reviewed studies, findings suggest that monitoring may be more protective against sexual risk behavior for boys than girls, whereas parental warmth and emotional connection may be an especially salient factor for girls. The results of this review support further research on gender as an important factor in better understanding the role of parenting in the development of adolescent sexual behavior. Furthermore, the findings highlight the potential role of gender-specific, tailored family-focused prevention programs targeting sexual behavior. PMID:22366393

  12. How Does Observational Learning Affect the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders? A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Betty A.; Kauffman, James M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews research on observational learning, including model characteristics and observers' responses, vicarious reinforcement as implicit punishment, vicarious effects on students with problem behavior, observers' other characteristics and vicarious effects, and aggression and vicarious processes. Regular class placement of students…

  13. What is Radical Behaviorism? A Review of Jay Moore's Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    B. F. Skinner founded both radical behaviorism and behavior analysis. His founding innovations included: a versatile preparation for studying behavior; explicating the generic nature of stimulus and response; a pragmatic criterion for defining behavioral units; response rate as a datum; the concept of stimulus control; the concept of verbal behavior; and explicating the explanatory power of contingencies. Besides these achievements, however, Skinner also made some mistakes. Subsequent developments in radical behaviorist thought have attempted to remedy these mistakes. Moore's book presents a “party line” version of radical behaviorism. It focuses narrowly on a few of Skinner's concepts (mostly mentalism and verbal behavior) and contains no criticism of his mistakes. In fact, Moore adds a few mistakes of his own manufacture; for example, he insists that the mental realm does not exist—an unprovable and distracting assertion. The book's portrayal of behavior analysis would have been current around 1960; it mentions almost none of the developments since then. It also includes almost no developments in radical behaviorism since Skinner. Moore's book would give an unwary reader a highly distorted picture of contemporary behavior analysis and radical behaviorism.

  14. Behaviorism Makes Its Debut: A Review of Lattal and Chase's Behavior Theory and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G.E

    2005-01-01

    Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pragmatism, selectionism, analytic philosophy). Part II examines behavior-analytic interpretations of mentalistic concepts (intention, imagination, ethics, cognition). Part III presents extensions and applications of basic research in behavior analysis (verbal behavior, creativity, development, education, disability, and corporate culture). The publication of this book signals that behaviorism has developed mature philosophical foundations.

  15. The Role of Analysts as Gatekeepers: Enhancing Transparency and Curbing Earnings Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of analysts’ coverage, forecasting errors and earnings management. It corroborates the role of analysts as gatekeepers by finding that analysts enhance transparency and reduce the scope of earnings management. To identify analysts’ coverage we used the I/B/E/S, from where we also obtained information on the consensus projections of analysts for listed Brazilian companies. The results indicated a negative correlation between the number of analysts covering firms and the magnitude of their discretionary accruals in absolute terms, indicating that more scrutiny inhibits earnings management. We also found a negative correlation between analysts’ coverage and forecasting errors. Multivariate regressions showed statistically significant results in the same sense. Therefore, market analysts, despite the severe criticism they receive from the specialized press, actually have a beneficial effect on corporate governance by monitoring managers and inhibiting earnings management.

  16. The role of the analyst's facial expressions in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searles, H F

    This paper, while acknowledging implicitly the importance of transference-distortions in the patient's perceptions of the analyst's countenance, focuses primarily upon the real changes in the latter's facial expressions. The analyst's face has a central role in the phase of therapeutic symbiosis, as well as in subsequent individuation. It is in the realm of the analyst's facial expressions that the borderline patient, for example, can best find a bridge out of autism and into therapeutically symbiotic relatedness with the analyst. During this latter phase, then, each participant's facial expressions "belong" as much to the other as to oneself; that is, the expressions of each person are in the realm of transitional phenomena for both of them. The analyst's facial expressions are a highly, and often centrally, significant dimension of both psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy. Illustrative clinical vignettes are presented from work with both patients who use the couch and those who do not.

  17. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative ho...

  18. Sociodemographic Antecedent Validators of Suicidal Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Ismael; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Giner, Lucas; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    Suicidal behavior and its prevention constitute a major public health issue. Etiology of suicidal behavior is multifactorial. Whereas current research is mostly focused on clinical and biological risk factors, the sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior, first highlighted by Durkheim, have received less attention. Besides the well-known impact of age and gender, sociodemographic variables such as marital and parental status, education, occupation, income, employment status, religion, migration or minority status, and sexual orientation are repeatedly reported to play an important role in suicidal behavior. This narrative review aimed to summarize recent research on sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior and to elicit possible implications for suicide prevention.

  19. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions.

  20. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  1. Exposure to Metal Pollutants and Behavioral Disorders in Children: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike

    The paper reviews research on effects of metal pollutants on behavioral disorders in children. Methodological programs of studies conducted in the 1970's are described. Research since 1980 is then addressed in terms of general population studies and studies of behaviorally disordered populations. Findings of research on the latter subject group…

  2. College Students' Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors, 1974-1985: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spees, Emil R.

    1987-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on college students' sexual attitudes and behaviors from 1974 through 1985. Found a rise in sexual activity and in openness to discuss sexual issues, a relationship between soft drugs and sexual activity, greater concern for rape, and greater male student awareness of male responsibility for contraceptive behavior.…

  3. Types of Motivating Operations in Interventions with Problem Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo-Pinatella, David; Font-Roura, Josep; Planella-Morato, Joaquima; McGill, Peter; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Gine, Climent

    2013-01-01

    A motivating operation (MO) alters both the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that particular stimulus. This article reviews studies that have manipulated a MO during interventions with school-age participants with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. A…

  4. Ethical Decision Making in Academic Dishonesty with Application of Modified Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper studies the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) in academic dishonesty with the mediating variable of ethical ideologies. The study reviews literature on the Theory of Planned Behavior and past studies pertaining to academic dishonesty. The paper analyses the relationship of the variables of TPB on academic…

  5. Family-Level Factors and African American Children's Behavioral Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…

  6. Systematic Review of School-based Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior: Does Intervention Intensity Impact Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…

  7. Behavioral Stuttering Interventions for Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Chad; Vanryckeghem, Martine; Schwartz, Jamie B.; Herder, Carl; Turner, Herbert M., III.; Howard, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions designed to treat stuttering in children. Method: Studies were included for review if (a) the treatment was a behavioral intervention, (b) participants were between 2 and 18 years old, (c) the design was an experimental or quasi-experimental group design, and (d) the reported…

  8. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  9. BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH ASD IN INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS : A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased and more and more children with ASD are educated in inclusive classrooms. Although their inclusion can have several benefits, teachers face some challenges. The main reason is these students’ problem behavior or lack of a desirable behavior. The aim of this systematic literature review was to analyze interventions for behavior management of students with ASD, since the ratification of S...

  10. Behavioral Functionality of Mobile Apps in Health Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Josh; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior in...

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Theories Used to Explain Injection Risk Behavior among Injection Drug Users: A Review and Suggestions for the Integration of Cognitive and Environmental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla Dawn; Unger, Jennifer B.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and viral hepatitis, and risky injection behavior persists despite decades of intervention. Cognitive behavioral theories (CBTs) are commonly used to help understand risky injection behavior. The authors review findings from CBT-based studies of injection risk behavior among IDUs. An extensive…

  12. Measures of Consumer Satisfaction in Social Welfare and Behavioral Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark W.; Wu, Shiyou

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the origins, conceptual bases, psychometric properties, and limitations of consumer satisfaction measures in social welfare and behavioral health. Based on a systematic review of research reports published between 2003 and 2013, we identify 58 consumer satisfaction measures. On average, these measures have acceptable…

  13. Systematic Review of Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, Patricia; Magiati, Iliana; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews highlight limitations in the evidence base for early interventions for children with autism. We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of early intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI) for young children with autism. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria (including two randomized controlled trials). At group level,…

  14. 78 FR 60886 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; Quantification of Behavioral and Physiological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; Quantification of Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Drugs Using a Mobile Scalable Device SUMMARY: Under the... Budget (OMB) a request for review and approval of the information collection listed below. This...

  15. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  16. A Systematic Review of Factors Utilized in Preconception Health Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delissaint, Dieula; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review critically synthesizes the literature focusing on factors related to preconception health behaviors (PCHBs) among childbearing age women in the United States, developed countries, and developing countries. Ovid Medline and CINAHL databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2008 relating to…

  17. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Barnett, Lisa M.; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A.; Papadopoulos, Nicole V.; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children’s physical activity (34–166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126–558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428–750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors. PMID

  18. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J; Barnett, Lisa M; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A; Papadopoulos, Nicole V; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna; Hinkley, Trina

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children's physical activity (34-166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126-558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428-750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors.

  19. Training the next generation analyst using red cell analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Meghan N.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2016-05-01

    We have seen significant change in the study and practice of human reasoning in recent years from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. Ubiquitous communication coupled with advances in computing and a plethora of analytic support tools have created a push for instantaneous reporting and analysis. This notion is particularly prevalent in law enforcement, emergency services and the intelligence community (IC), where commanders (and their civilian leadership) expect not only a birds' eye view of operations as they occur, but a play-by-play analysis of operational effectiveness. This paper explores the use of Red Cell Analytics (RCA) as pedagogy to train the next-gen analyst. A group of Penn State students in the College of Information Sciences and Technology at the University Park campus of The Pennsylvania State University have been practicing Red Team Analysis since 2008. RCA draws heavily from the military application of the same concept, except student RCA problems are typically on non-military in nature. RCA students utilize a suite of analytic tools and methods to explore and develop red-cell tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs), and apply their tradecraft across a broad threat spectrum, from student-life issues to threats to national security. The strength of RCA is not always realized by the solution but by the exploration of the analytic pathway. This paper describes the concept and use of red cell analytics to teach and promote the use of structured analytic techniques, analytic writing and critical thinking in the area of security and risk and intelligence training.

  20. Software tools for assisting the multisource imagery analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privett, Grant J.; Harvey, Peter R. W.; Booth, David M.; Kent, Philip J.; Redding, Nick J.; Evans, Dean; Jones, K. L.

    2003-11-01

    Increasingly demanding military requirements and rapid technological advances are producing reconnaissance sensors with greater spatial, spectral and temporal resolution. This, with the benefits to be gained from deploying multiple sensors co-operatively, is resulting in a so-called data deluge, where recording systems, data-links, and exploitation systems struggle to cope with the required imagery throughput. This paper focuses on the exploitation stage and, in particular, the provision of cueing aids for Imagery Analysts (IAs), who need to integrate a variety of sources in order to gain situational awareness. These sources may include multi-source imagery and intelligence feeds, various types of mapping and collateral data, as well the need for the IAs to add their own expertise in military doctrine etc. This integration task is becoming increasingly difficult as the volume and diversity of the input increases. The first stage in many exploitation tasks is that of image registration. It facilitates change detection and many avenues of multi-source exploitation. Progress is reported on the automating this task, on its current performance characteristics, its integration into a potentially operational system, and hence on its expected utility. We also report on the development of an evolutionary architecture, 'ICARUS' in which feature detectors (or cuers) are constructed incrementally using a genetic algorithm that evolves simple sub-structures before combining, and further evolving them, to form more comprehensive and robust detectors. This approach is shown to help overcome the complexity limit that prevents many machine-learning algorithms from scaling up to the real world.

  1. Generalist analysts at the edge and distributed analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Gavin; Madahar, Bhopinder

    2015-05-01

    Joint Vision 2020 highlights that achievement of `full spectrum dominance rests upon information superiority' and that information capabilities are changing rapidly. Similarly the Eight Great Technologies and McKinsey Global Institute have highlighted the criticality of `Big Data' technologies. But most `Big Data' technologies are predicated on the availability of high quality/bandwidth distributed information Infrastructure and service rich systems, and much of the technology is designed for use by highly trained data scientists. In deployed military operations the context is radically different; many analysts are generalists as opposed to highly trained data scientists, and the information infrastructure is frequently significantly smaller, sparse and brittle but nevertheless complex. Further operations are highly dynamic, temporally challenging, and in an unfamiliar sociocultural environment. As Joint Vision 2020 states `the need to shape ambiguous situations at the low end of the range of operations will present special challenges'. This paper outlines the S&T challenges associated with adapting `Big Data' technologies to build a distributed analytic capability for the deployed operations. In particular we will discuss issues associated with: a) The adoption of data analytic platforms and the need for adaption to a distributed coalition environment and tactical information infrastructures; b) The Volume, Velocity, Variety, Veracity, Viscosity and Value of information and information processing, storage and distribution capabilities; c) The nature of the situations to be understood and the resulting impact on abstract representations and synergistic human-machine teams; d) The role of the human in collaboratively extracting understanding from information and directing the information system.

  2. Understanding Pica Behavior: A Review for Clinical and Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Lillian N.

    2005-01-01

    Pica is defined as the compulsive, recurrent consumption of nonnutritive items. Pica behavior often occurs in individuals with developmental disabilities; therefore, education and clinical professionals may be required to participate in various aspects of management, including identification, assessment, and treatment. This article will discuss…

  3. Contextual Behavior Therapies in the Treatment of PTSD: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Landers, Sara J.; Kanter, Jonathan W.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical evidence supports cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), with exposure therapy typically being the most frequently utilized. While the success of exposure treatments is well established there are factors which may hinder their use in "real-world" settings (e.g., poor treatment…

  4. Fetal Behavior and Heart Rate in Twin Pregnancy : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendais, Iva; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Figueiredo, Barbara; Montenegro, Nuno; Mulder, Eduard J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal movements and fetal heart rate (FHR) are well-established markers of fetal well-being and maturation of the fetal central nervous system. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the available knowledge on fetal movements and heart rate patterns in twin pregnancies. There is some evi

  5. Intranasal administration of oxytocin: Behavioral and clinical effects, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Olivier, B.

    2013-01-01

    The intranasal (IN-) administration of substances is attracting attention from scientists as well as pharmaceutical companies. The effects are surprisingly fast and specific. The present review explores our current knowledge about the routes of access to the cranial cavity. 'Direct-access-pathways'

  6. Using the living laboratory framework as a basis for understanding next-generation analyst work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeese, Michael D.; Mancuso, Vincent; McNeese, Nathan; Endsley, Tristan; Forster, Pete

    2013-05-01

    The preparation of next generation analyst work requires alternative levels of understanding and new methodological departures from the way current work transpires. Current work practices typically do not provide a comprehensive approach that emphasizes the role of and interplay between (a) cognition, (b) emergent activities in a shared situated context, and (c) collaborative teamwork. In turn, effective and efficient problem solving fails to take place, and practice is often composed of piecemeal, techno-centric tools that isolate analysts by providing rigid, limited levels of understanding of situation awareness. This coupled with the fact that many analyst activities are classified produces a challenging situation for researching such phenomena and designing and evaluating systems to support analyst cognition and teamwork. Through our work with cyber, image, and intelligence analysts we have realized that there is more required of researchers to study human-centered designs to provide for analyst's needs in a timely fashion. This paper identifies and describes how The Living Laboratory Framework can be utilized as a means to develop a comprehensive, human-centric, and problem-focused approach to next generation analyst work, design, and training. We explain how the framework is utilized for specific cases in various applied settings (e.g., crisis management analysis, image analysis, and cyber analysis) to demonstrate its value and power in addressing an area of utmost importance to our national security. Attributes of analyst work settings are delineated to suggest potential design affordances that could help improve cognitive activities and awareness. Finally, the paper puts forth a research agenda for the use of the framework for future work that will move the analyst profession in a viable manner to address the concerns identified.

  7. Family influences on adolescent gambling behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Jennifer L; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2010-12-01

    Gambling, and gambling related problems, are recognized as an emerging health issue among adolescents. Adolescent gambling is associated with numerous individual, social, and family characteristics. This paper provides a review of 21 empirical studies published between 1997 and 2008 that examine family influences on adolescent gambling behavior. Family influences on gambling behavior are conceptualized in the following five domains: (1) family sociodemographic factors, (2) general family climate, (3) family members' attitudes and behaviors, (4) parenting practices, and (5) family relationship characteristics. Based on the review of extant literature, there is empirical evidence that family characteristics are associated with adolescent gambling and further examination of family system influences on gambling behavior is needed. Gaps in the current literature and recommendations for future research are discussed to help inform the study of family influences on adolescent gambling behavior.

  8. A comparison of family interventions to address adolescent risky behaviors: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui; Gibbs, Marilyn Beth; Clemen-Stone, Susan; Duffy, Sonia

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to describe, compare, and synthesize traditional and computer-based family interventions that aim to change adolescents' risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse. Family interventions have been shown to generate protective effects for preventing adolescents from risky behaviors. It is not clear, however, whether there are significant differences or similarities in the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. An integrative literature review was conducted to describe and compare the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. Both interventions have generated significant effects on reducing risky behavior among adolescents. Interventions guided by theory, tailored to participants' culture/gender, and which included sufficient boosting dosages in their designs demonstrated significant short- or long-term effects in terms of reducing adolescents' risky behaviors. Regardless of delivery method, well-designed family interventions are noted to maximize familial protective effects and reduce risky behaviors.

  9. TAKING PRAGMATISM SERIOUSLY: A REVIEW OF WILLIAM BAUM'S UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIORISM: BEHAVIOR, CULTURE, AND EVOLUTION (SECOND EDITION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard; Frankel, Marvin

    2009-01-01

    This important book has two main purposes. The first is to present, in a non-technical way, accessible to intelligent laypeople, a scientific, behavioral approach to all aspects of human activity including choice, rule-governed behavior, self control, religious belief, linguistic interaction, ethics, and culture. Its scope equals that of Skinner's nontechnical writings, but Baum's approach is more molar and more pragmatic than Skinner's. The book's second purpose is to embed behavioral science firmly in the context of Darwinian evolution. Baum is generally successful, we believe, in both of these ambitious purposes.

  10. The role of testosterone and estrogen in consumer behavior and social & economic decision making: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Steven J

    2016-11-11

    This manuscript reviews the current literature on the actions of the steroid hormones testosterone and estradiol in shaping humans' behavior within two applied contexts, specifically consumer behavior and decision making (both social and economic). The theoretical argument put forth is that steroids shape these everyday behaviors and choices in service to being more competitive in achieving long-term goals related to resource acquisition, mating success, and social dominance. In addition, a discussion of the increased research focus on the role of steroids in other applied business domains will highlight the relevant applications of basic science discoveries in behavioral endocrinology.

  11. Dynamic mechanical behavior magnetorheological nanocomposites containing CNTs: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Rozaina; Ibrahim, Azmi; Hamid, Hanizah Ab.; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Adnan, Azlan

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based polymer composites have variety of engineering applications due to their excellent mechanical, electrical, chemical, magnetic, etc. properties. This paper is an attempt to present a coherent yet concise review of as many of these publications as possible on the mechanical aspect of the Magnetorheological Elastomer (MRE) composites with the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The dynamic mechanical response of the MR nanocomposites to applied magnetic fields has been investigated through dynamic mechanical analysis. It is found that a small amount of carbon nanotubes can effectively improve the mechanical performance of conventional MR elastomers. In summary, multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced magnetorheological composite has been developed to take advantage of both the smart MR technology and outstanding properties of carbon nanotubes. Furthermore review is also carried out on the capability of carbon nanotubes to impart the stiffness and damping performance encountered with the properties of CNT based Natural Rubber.

  12. Social influences and eating behavior in later life: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnaver, Elisabeth; Keller, Heather H

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is often poor within the older population and many are at nutritional risk. Food intake is complex, as there are multiple individual, social, and environmental determinants that may interact and change over time. Social isolation has long been recognized as a key factor predicting nutrition risk in this population. However, the mechanisms by which social relationships influence diet among older adults remain poorly understood. The purpose of this review is two-fold: ( 1 ) to identify and, where possible, clarify the social concepts used in older adult nutrition research over the past two decades, specifically, the concepts of social integration, social support, companionship and commensality; and ( 2 ) to provide a review and summary of the empirical literature on social factors and diet among cognitively well older adults living in the community. Finally, challenges to studying social concepts in older adult nutrition and areas of future research will be discussed.

  13. Behavioral Strategies: Building Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Charles J.

    Using a construction building analogy, this guide provides a plan for building a system of behavior strategies. These strategies are designed to assist behavior analysts of contracted provider agencies in the construction and maintenance of procedures which will help monitor and reduce the frequency of problematic behaviors in individuals with…

  14. Book review: The ecology and behavior of amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    This state‐of‐the‐art book has made its timely emergence amid a crisis of global magnitude: that of population declines, range reductions, and extinctions of numerous species of amphibians. A clear understanding of the fundamental concepts in amphibian biology is crucial to the success of any conservation effort. This volume compiles the information necessary to acquire that basic understanding. It is a comprehensive synthesis of both traditional and contemporary facets of amphibian biology, spanning a breadth of topics ranging from phylogeny, physiology, behavior, population and community ecology, and conservation. As such, it undoubtedly takes its place among contemporary volumes as the single, authoritative source for basic topics relevant to amphibian life.

  15. Perseverative Cognition and Health Behaviors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye Clancy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in stress theory have emphasized the significance of perseverative cognition (worry and rumination in furthering our understanding of stress-disease relationships. Substantial evidence has shown that perseverative cognition (PC is associated with somatic outcomes and numerous physiological concomitants have been identified (i.e., cardiovascular, autonomic and endocrine nervous system activity parameters. However, there has been no synthesis of the evidence regarding the association between PC and health behaviors. This is important given such behaviors may also directly and/or indirectly influence health and disease outcomes (triggered by PC. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to synthesise available studies that have explored the relationship between worry and rumination and health behaviors (health risk: behaviors which, if performed, would be detrimental to health; health promoting: behaviors which, if performed, would be beneficial for health. A systematic review and meta-analyses of the literature were conducted. Studies were included in the review if they reported the association between PC and health behavior. Studies identified in MEDLINE or PsycINFO (k = 7504 were screened, of which19 studies met the eligibility criteria. Random-effects meta-analyses suggested increased PC was generally associated with increased health risk behaviors but not health promoting behaviors. Further analyses indicated that increases in rumination, (r = .122, but not reflection (r = -.080, or worry, r = .048 were associated with health risk behaviors. In conclusion, these results showed that increases in PC are associated with increases in health risk behaviors (substance use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating and smoking that are driven primarily through rumination. These findings provide partial support for our hypothesis that in Brosschot and colleagues (2006 original perseverative cognition hypothesis, there may be scope

  16. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB, obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case-control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases.

  17. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case–control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases. PMID:26170586

  18. Review of recent behavioral interventions targeting older adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to older adults living with HIV over the past few years given the increasing prevalence of HIV in this age group. Yet, despite numerous studies documenting psychosocial and behavioral differences between older and younger HIV-infected adults, few evidence-based behavioral interventions have been developed for this population. This review found only 12 manuscripts describing behavioral intervention studies in older HIV-positive adults published between 2011 and 2014, and they reported on a total of six interventions. Despite promising findings, there is a clear need for large-scale clinical trials to replicate these initial results and further develop additional interventions to address important clinical issues such as depression, sexual risk behaviors, cognition, and other significant issues affecting this cohort. This represents an exciting opportunity for behavioral scientists and HIV specialists to develop interventions that combine the psychological and behavioral with medical aspects of the disease.

  19. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Risk in Older Adults: a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduk, Alexandra M; Chaudhry, Sarwat I

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may be particularly relevant to the cardiovascular health of older adults. This scoping review describes the existing literature examining the prevalence of sedentary time in older adults with CVD and the association of sedentary behavior with cardiovascular risk in older adults. We found that older adults with CVD spend >75 % of their waking day sedentary, and that sedentary time is higher among older adults with CVD than among older adults without CVD. High sedentary behavior is consistently associated with worse cardiac lipid profiles and increased cardiac risk scores in older adults; the associations of sedentary behavior with blood pressure, CVD incidence, and CVD-related mortality among older adults are less clear. Future research with larger sample sizes using validated methods to measure sedentary behavior are needed to clarify the association between sedentary behavior and cardiovascular outcomes in older adults.

  20. The impact of jackpots on EGM gambling behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockloff, Matthew J; Hing, Nerilee

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews literature on how jackpots influence Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) gambling behaviour. Most of the available evidence addresses the motivational effect of the mere presence of EGM jackpots on play, as actual wins are relatively rare for individual gamblers. The review identifies a distinction between rational, biased and irrational motivations that attract people to EGM jackpots. The evidence suggests that EGM jackpots should generate additional consumption on EGMs above machines that do not have such lottery-like features. Rational motivations are likely to lead to consumer surplus, whereas biased and irrational motivations are likely to contribute to excessive consumption. Moreover, there is evidence that excessive gambling consumption is strongly associated with gambling-related harm. Future research should identify how the structural features of different types of jackpots; such as progressive, deterministic, hidden, mystery, linked and wide-area jackpots; may differentially appeal to rational, biased and irrational gambling motivations. Jackpots are common feature of EGM games, and therefore it is important to have a better understanding of how jackpot features influence play on the machines.

  1. Management earnings forecasts and analyst forecasts:Evidence from mandatory disclosure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao; Wang; Yunsen; Chen; Juxian; Wang

    2015-01-01

    Distinct from the literature on the effects that management earnings forecasts(MEFs) properties, such as point, range and qualitative estimations, have on analyst forecasts, this study explores the effects of selective disclosure of MEFs.Under China’s mandatory disclosure system, this study proposes that managers issue frequent forecasts to take advantage of opportune changes in predicted earnings. The argument herein is that this selective disclosure of MEFs increases information asymmetry and uncertainty, negatively influencing analyst earnings forecasts. Empirical evidence shows that firms that issue more frequent forecasts and make significant changes in MEFs are less likely to attract an analyst following, which can lead to less accurate analyst forecasts. The results imply that the selective disclosure of MEFs damages information transmission and market efficiency, which can enlighten regulators seeking to further enhance disclosure policies.

  2. On the relation between forecast precision and trading profitability of financial analysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Carlo; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between earnings forecast accuracy and the expected profitability of financial analysts. Modeling forecast errors with a multivariate normal distribution, a complete characterization of the payoff of each analyst is provided. In particular, closed-form expressions for the ......We analyze the relation between earnings forecast accuracy and the expected profitability of financial analysts. Modeling forecast errors with a multivariate normal distribution, a complete characterization of the payoff of each analyst is provided. In particular, closed-form expressions...... for the probability density function, for the expectation, and, more generally, for moments of all orders are obtained. Our analysis shows that the relationship between forecast precision and trading profitability needs not be monotonic, and that the impact of the correlation between the forecasts on the expected...

  3. 77 FR 65581 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analyst, Service Program Delivery (SA-SPD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analyst, Service..., 2012, applicable to workers and former workers of Verizon Business Network Services, Inc., Senior... hereby issued as follows: ] All workers of Verizon Business Network Services, Inc., Senior...

  4. Predictors of Self-Medication Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAGHAGHI, Abdolreza; ASADI, Marzieh; ALLAHVERDIPOUR, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-medication with over the counter (OTC) and non OTC drugs may provoke serious consequences for users and societies. Recognition of its predictors therefore, is pivotal in plans to hinder the aggregating behavior. This study aimed to identify possibly all predictors of self-medication and the range of its prevalence among different populations. Methods Medline, Amed, Scopus, Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct, and super searcher of Google Scholar were scrutinized using “self-medication”, “self-prescription” and “self-treatment” key words without a time limit with special focus on Iranian studies. Authors independently assessed the title, abstract and full text of identified articles for inclusion and any disagreement was resolved with consensus. Results The range of reported self-medication in the 70 included publications was 8.5-98.0%. Having a minor illness (15 studies), health care costs (9 studies), lack of adequate time to visit a physician (11 studies), prior experience (7 studies) in using a drug and long waiting time to visit a qualified practitioner (5 studies) were most frequently reported reasons of self-medication. Conclusion The observed diversity in the reported prevalence and reasons of self-medication among different sub-groups of populations (e.g. males vs. females) and between developed and developing countries highlights the importance of explanatory behavioral chain analysis of self-medication in different population groups and countries. Even within a single country, predictors of this harmful practice could be inconsistent. Lack of sufficient quality re-search to identify precipitating factors of self-medication in developing countries is paramount. PMID:26060736

  5. Credibility and Cheap Talk of Securities Analysts:Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Blanes

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies how investors react to public messages that may be optimistically biased. We first construct a communication game between an investor and a (possibly) biased securities analyst. We find an equilibrium characterised by the following properties: first, the investor reacts more to bad news than to good news, and second, the difference in this reaction is higher when the investor has a greater prior suspicion that the analyst is a biased type. We then use nonparametric techniqu...

  6. HOW HEALTHY IS THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG ATHLETES? A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Diehl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the frequency of selected risk behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, use of illicit drugs, unhealthy nutrition, and doping in adolescent athletes. Two independent reviewers selected articles following the PRISMA Statement. Behavior frequency was assessed as was comparability of study design and methods. When possible, meta- analyses were performed using data from subgroups of studies in which operational indicators were comparable. Seventy-eight articles met eligibility criteria. Although report of risky behaviors varied across studies, we observed overall, that studies tend to report higher alcohol use, less smoking, less recreational drug use, and more smokeless tobacco use in (high-involved athletes. Considerable heterogeneity was noted in study design, definition of target groups and use of operational indicators (I² ranged from 93.2% to 100%. Especially the higher prevalence of using alcohol and smokeless tobacco needs more attention in interventions targeted to this group. Overall, greater consensus on methods used to assess risky behaviors in adolescent athletes

  7. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.

  8. A review of suicide behavior among Arab adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, Mohammed; Merrick, Efrat; Schwarz, Amir; Merrick, Joav

    2005-08-26

    Islam prohibits to take your own life, because this way you will interfere with the work of G-d (Allah), which is clear from several places in the Quran. Concerning individual suicide or suicide attempts in various Arab countries the literature is sparse and the incidence low. In this paper we present a review of research from Israel showing that suicide epidemiology among the Arab population of children and adolescents display a low incidence, but an increase has been observed over the past decade, but still much lower than the Jewish population. We believe that there is a need for the development of prevention and intervention strategies in order to keep this incidence low.

  9. A Review of Behavioral Treatments for Self-Injurious Behaviors of Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Lo Vullo, Santino V.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are considered to be among the most serious of the mental health conditions. Concomitant with many cases of ASD is intellectual disability. Further compounding the disability is the fact that both conditions are known risk factors for self-injurious behavior (SIB). To date, the most effective intervention methods,…

  10. Predicting pilot error: testing a new methodology and a multi-methods and analysts approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul; Harris, Don; Marshall, Andrew; Demagalski, Jason; Young, Mark S; Waldmann, Thomas; Dekker, Sidney

    2009-05-01

    The Human Error Template (HET) is a recently developed methodology for predicting design-induced pilot error. This article describes a validation study undertaken to compare the performance of HET against three contemporary Human Error Identification (HEI) approaches when used to predict pilot errors for an approach and landing task and also to compare analyst error predictions to an approach to enhancing error prediction sensitivity: the multiple analysts and methods approach, whereby multiple analyst predictions using a range of HEI techniques are pooled. The findings indicate that, of the four methodologies used in isolation, analysts using the HET methodology offered the most accurate error predictions, and also that the multiple analysts and methods approach was more successful overall in terms of error prediction sensitivity than the three other methods but not the HET approach. The results suggest that when predicting design-induced error, it is appropriate to use a toolkit of different HEI approaches and multiple analysts in order to heighten error prediction sensitivity.

  11. Using MetaboAnalyst 3.0 for Comprehensive Metabolomics Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianguo; Wishart, David S

    2016-09-07

    MetaboAnalyst (http://www.metaboanalyst.ca) is a comprehensive Web application for metabolomic data analysis and interpretation. MetaboAnalyst handles most of the common metabolomic data types from most kinds of metabolomics platforms (MS and NMR) for most kinds of metabolomics experiments (targeted, untargeted, quantitative). In addition to providing a variety of data processing and normalization procedures, MetaboAnalyst also supports a number of data analysis and data visualization tasks using a range of univariate, multivariate methods such as PCA (principal component analysis), PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis), heatmap clustering and machine learning methods. MetaboAnalyst also offers a variety of tools for metabolomic data interpretation including MSEA (metabolite set enrichment analysis), MetPA (metabolite pathway analysis), and biomarker selection via ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis, as well as time series and power analysis. This unit provides an overview of the main functional modules and the general workflow of the latest version of MetaboAnalyst (MetaboAnalyst 3.0), followed by eight detailed protocols. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future.

  13. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Anisul eIslam; Ana Beatriz Fagundo; Jon eArcelus; Zaida eAguera; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real; Francisco J Tinahones; Rafael eDe La Torre; Cristina eBotella; Gema eFrühbeck; Casanueva, Felipe F; Jose M Menchon; Fernando eFernandez-Aranda

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfac...

  14. Behavioral treatments for children and adults who stutter: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomgren M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Blomgren Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of stuttering followed by a synopsis of current approaches to treat stuttering in children and adults. Treatment is discussed in terms of multifactorial, operant, speech restructuring, and anxiolytic approaches. Multifactorial and operant treatments are designed for young children who stutter. Both of these approaches involve parent training and differ primarily in their focus on reducing demands on the child (multifactorial or in their use of response contingent stimulation (operant conditioning. Speech restructuring and anxiolytic approaches are used with adults who stutter. Speech restructuring approaches focus on the mechanics of speech production, and anxiolytic treatments tend to focus on the symptoms and social and vocational challenges of stuttering. The evidence base for these different approaches is outlined. Response contingent therapy (for children and speech restructuring therapy (for adults have the most robust empirical evidence base. Multifactorial treatments for children and stuttering management approaches for adults are popular but are based on theoretical models of stuttering; the evidence base is not robust and tends to be inferred from work in areas such as cognitive behavior therapy and desensitization. Comprehensive, or holistic, approaches to treating stuttering are also discussed. Comprehensive approaches for treating stuttering in adults address both improved speech fluency and stuttering management. Keywords: stuttering, treatment, stuttering management, speech restructuring, cognitive restructuring

  15. A review of family and environmental correlates of health behaviors in high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawman, Hannah G; Wilson, Dawn K

    2012-06-01

    Disparities in the prevalence of obesity in youth place minority and low socioeconomic status youth at increased risk for the development of chronic disease, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Contributing factors to the increases in obesity include a decline in positive health behaviors, such as making healthy dietary choices, engaging in physical activity, and limiting sedentary behaviors. Family and physical environmental contextual factors related to health behaviors are increasingly the focus of health behavior interventions in line with the bioecological model that encourages a system-focused perspective on understanding health behavior influences. Physical environmental characteristics, such as home and neighborhood characteristics and resources, provide the tangible means to support health behaviors and are important contextual variables to consider that may increase intervention effectiveness. Therefore, the current review seeks to highlight the importance of investigating influences of behavior beyond individual characteristics in understanding factors related to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in youth at high risk for developing chronic disease. The current study reviews the non-intervention literature on family and physical environmental factors related to health behaviors (i.e., diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) in youth who are considered to be at-risk for developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Results on 38 published articles of diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors showed support for the role of parenting and physical environmental factors, particularly parental monitoring and neighborhood context, such as social cohesion, as they relate to health behaviors in high-risk youth. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  16. 情报分析中证据证明问题研究--《情报分析证据与推理》评介%Research on the Proof of Evidence in Intelligence Analysis---Review of the Book Evidence and Inference for the Intelligence Analyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟伟; 阎宏瑞; 王万

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] The book Evidence and Inference for the Intelligence Analyst is one of the classical masterpieces on in-telligence analysis, because of its systemic introduction of the evidence proving method to intelligence analysis for the first time. The core of the book is about evidence proving. So the research on it not only offers the intelligence personnel deep learning and admission of the book, but also benefits the deconstruction and cognition of the analyzing process. [ Method/Process] The paper describes and analyzes the proof of evidence in intelligence analysis, based on the deep research of the book. First, the paper elaborates the classification of the evi-dences and analyzes the cause of difference. Then, the paper studies the evaluation of probative force in the dimensions of direction and strength. The emphasis is on three sorts of evaluation methods consisting of Bayes theory,Inductive probability method and Shafer system. Then the paper discusses the evaluation methods of multiple proofs in complicated situation. [ Result/Conclusion] Finally, the paper eval-uates the research on evidence proving in intelligence analysis by Schum. Under the premise of recognizing the value, the paper indicates the existed limitation.%[目的/意义]《情报分析证据与推理》由于首次系统的将证据证明方法引入情报分析领域而成为情报学的经典名著。证据证明问题是著作核心,对其进行研究既助于情报人员对经典的学习与吸纳,也助于情报人员对情报分析过程的解构和认知。[方法/过程]论文结合对戴维·舒姆《情报分析证据与推理》一书一、二两卷的研究,对情报分析中的证据证明问题进行了描述和分析。首先,对证据分类方法进行简单阐述,并分析了引起分类差异的原因;然后,将证明力视作矢量,从证明力方向和证明力大小两个方面研究证明力评估问题,重点介绍贝叶斯概

  17. Eating behaviors, diet quality, and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Eriksen, Whitney T; Souders, Margaret C; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their caregivers face unique challenges in the children's daily eating routines and food intake patterns. The aim of this brief review is to describe eating behaviors of children with ASD, including increased food neophobia and food selectivity, and review findings on children's diet quality, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Advancing knowledge about the interrelationships between these nutrition-related domains in children with ASD is expected to have important implications for clinical nursing practice and caregiver care.

  18. Patterns of disordered eating behavior in women by sexual orientation: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; Pantalone, David W

    2014-01-01

    Most disordered eating research has focused on White, heterosexual women. More empirical work is needed to better understand disordered eating among women of diverse backgrounds. Given evidence of disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) women in other health behaviors (e.g., tobacco use) and outcomes (e.g., cardiovascular disease), it appears important to study disordered eating behaviors among sexual minority women. In this article, we review the extant literature on disordered eating behaviors in women across sexual orientations, with a focus on research examining potential mechanisms of disparities in disordered eating, including awareness and internalization of sociocultural norms.

  19. A systematic review of evidence-based interventions for students with challenging behaviors in school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M

    2011-05-01

    The author's systematic review of 2,294 articles from 10 journals in the fields of education, special education, school social work, school psychology, and school counseling identified 42 articles meeting search criteria of addressing evidence-based interventions for students with challenging behaviors in school settings. Interventions were considered evidence-based if they were (a) manualized or structured to facilitate replication; (b) evaluated with an experimental design; and (c) demonstrated to be effective. Current practices available to address students who require evidence-based interventions for challenging behaviors are summarized. Suggestions for intervention development to address the needs of students with difficult behaviors are offered.

  20. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-05-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV.

  1. Behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behavior: review and synthesis of meta-analytic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M

    2008-05-01

    Over the past 25 years, scores of behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behavior have been developed and evaluated. The purpose of the current study was to synthesize what is known about such interventions by systematically reviewing and synthesizing extant meta-analyses of the literature. Comprehensive search procedures resulted in a set of 18 meta-analyses that targeted HIV-related sexual risk behavior in a defined target population. The median meta-analysis in the review contained k = 19 primary studies with a cumulative N = 9,423 participants. All meta-analyses (11/11) that examined condom use found a statistically significant increase (median effect: OR = 1.34); 9/11 for reducing unprotected sex (median effect: OR = .76); 3/8 for reducing numbers of sexual partners (median effect: OR = .87); 4/6 for reduction of STDs (median effect: OR = .74); and 5/5 for reducing composite sexual risk (median effect: OR = .78). Summaries of moderator analyses suggested particular participant, intervention, and methodological characteristics that may influence the success of interventions. Implications include achieving a broader understanding of intervention moderators as well as increasing effectiveness trials and translation/dissemination of efficacious interventions to those populations most at risk.

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kacar Basaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94

  3. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions.

  4. A Review of Multiple Health Behavior Change Interventions for Primary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Prochaska, James O

    2011-05-01

    Most individuals engage in multiple unhealthy lifestyle behaviors with the potential for negative health consequences. Yet most health promotion research has addressed risk factors as categorically separate entities, and little is known about how to effectively promote multiple health behavior change (MHBC). This review summarizes the recent literature (January 2004 to December 2009) on randomized clinical trials evaluating MHBC interventions for primary prevention. Combining all the studies across all the reviews, fewer than 150 studies were identified. This is a fraction of the number of trials conducted on changing individual behavioral risks. Three primary behavioral clusters dominated: (1) the energy balance behaviors of physical activity and diet; (2) addictive behaviors like smoking and other drugs; and (3) disease-related behaviors, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer related. Findings were largely disappointing for studies of diet and physical activity, particularly with youth. Treating 2 addictions, including smoking, resulted in greater long-term sobriety from alcohol and illicit drugs. MHBC intervention effects were stronger and more consistent for cancer prevention than CVD prevention. MHBC interventions offer a new paradigm for broader, more comprehensive health promotion; however, the potential value in maximizing intervention impact is largely unmet.

  5. A systematic review of perceived risks, psychological and behavioral impacts of genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshka, Jodi T; Palleschi, Crystal; Howley, Heather; Wilson, Brenda; Wells, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    Genetic testing may enable early disease detection, targeted surveillance, and result in effective prevention strategies. Knowledge of genetic risk may also enable behavioral change. However, the impact of carrier status from the psychological, behavior, and perceived risk perspectives is not well understood. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the available literature on these elements. An extensive literature review was performed to identify studies that measured the perceived risk, psychological, and/or behavioral impacts of genetic testing on individuals. The search was not limited to specific diseases but excluded the impacts of testing for single gene disorders. A total of 35 articles and 30 studies were included. The studies evaluated hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, and Alzheimer disease. For affective outcomes, the majority of the studies reported negative effects on carriers but these were short-lived. For behavioral outcomes, an increase in screening behavior of varying rates was demonstrated in carriers but the change in behaviors was less than expected. With respect to perceived risk, there were generally no differences between carriers and noncarriers by 12 months after genetic testing and over time risk perception decreased. Overall, predispositional genetic testing has no significant impact on psychological outcomes, little effect on behavior, and did not change perceived risk. It seems as though better patient education strategies are required. Our data would suggest better knowledge among carriers would not have significant psychological impacts and therefore, it is worth pursuing improved educational strategies.

  6. Evaluating the results of a site-specific PSHA from the perspective of a risk analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Jens-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    From 1998 till 2015 Swiss Nuclear Power Plants sponsored a set of comprehensive site-specific PSHA-studies (PEGASOS, PEGASOS Refinement Project) to obtain the requested input for their plant specific probabilistic risk assessments following the US SSHAC procedures at their most elaborated level 4. The studies were performed by well-known earth scientists working completely independent from sponsors under participatory review of the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate. Risk analysts of Swiss Nuclear Power Plants recently have been mandated to implement the final results of the studies in their risk assessment studies. This triggered an in depth assessment of the results focussed on their practical applicability for risk studies. This assessment resulted in some important insights that are of interest for future PSHA studies performed for new nuclear power plants. The assessment included a review of the completeness of results with respect to risk applications as well as plausibility checks of hazard results based on Black Swan Theory and known historical events. The key lessons and recommendations for more detailed project output specifications for future projects are presented in the paper. It was established that future PSHA projects shall provide the joint probability distribution of ground motion hazard and the associated strong motion duration as the output to allow for a technically meaningful risk assessment. The recommendation of WENRA (West European Nuclear Regulators) published in their reference levels to perform natural hazard assessment preferably based on physical grounds (deterministic method) is also rationalized by recommending an holistic approach to hazard analysis comparing PSHA insights with the results of modelling deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis.

  7. The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy. A review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, G P; Schaap, C P; Hoogduin, C A

    2000-04-01

    Empirical studies are reviewed, the aim being to investigate characteristics of the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and to identify therapist or patient interpersonal behavior that affects treatment outcome. CBT is characterized by a more active and directive stance on the part of the therapists and higher levels of emotional support than are found in insight-oriented psychotherapies. Therapists express high levels of empathy and unconditional positive regard, similar to those expressed by insight-oriented psychotherapists. Two clusters of interpersonal behavior have been identified that are clearly associated with CBT outcome: (a) the Rogerian therapist variables--empathy, nonpossessive warmth, positive regard, and genuineness; and (b) therapeutic alliance. There is some evidence for the impact on outcome of three additional clusters of patient behavior: (a) the patients' perception of the therapist as being self-confident, skillful, and active; (b) the patients' openness to discuss their problems; and (c) the patients' pretreatment predisposition to change and to accept psychological treatment as a means of achieving this. It is further concluded that relationship factors in general have a consistent but moderate impact on CBT outcome.

  8. The Information Needs and Behavior of Mature Community College Students: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeit, Krystina

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a review of literature devoted to the unique information needs and information-seeking behavior of the growing nontraditional or mature community college student population. This underserved user group faces distinctive challenges that librarians, researchers, and administrators must recognize and address. Much of the existing…

  9. Emotional and Behavioral Aspects of Diabetes in American Indians/Alaska Natives: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Lisa J.; de Groot, Mary

    2017-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) bear a disproportionate burden of diabetes and associated long-term complications. Behavioral interventions play a vital role in promoting diabetes medical and psychological outcomes, yet the development of interventions for AI/AN communities has been limited. A systematic review was conducted of…

  10. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jessica S.

    2017-01-01

    Depression is common in individuals with intellectual disabilities, but evidence regarding treatment for this population is lacking. Through a systematic literature review of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals with intellectual disabilities, a total of six studies were identified that used pretest-post-test nonequivalent control…

  12. Train the Trainer Effectiveness Trials of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals with Autism: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…

  13. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for reducing anxiety sensitivity: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Berry, A.C.; Tart, C.D.; Powers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The present study meta-analytically reviewed the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) vs. control conditions in the reduction of anxiety sensitivity. A computerized search was conducted to indentify CBT outcome studies that included the Anxiety Sensitivity Index as a dependent variable. Of

  14. Social problem solving in adolescents with suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckens, A.E.M.; Hawton, K.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on deficiencies in problem solving as a vulnerability factor for suicidal behavior in general and hence a target for treatment in suicide attempters. In view of the uncertainty of evidence for this in adolescents we conducted a systematic review of the international rese

  15. Pharmacotherapy of Disruptive Behavior in Mentally Retarded Subjects: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…

  16. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Behavior Change: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…

  17. Sensory-Based Intervention for Children with Behavioral Problems: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Yunus, Farahiyah; Liu, Karen P.; Bissett, Michelle; Penkala, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Sensory-based intervention is a common approach used to address behavioral problems in children. Types of sensory-based intervention for children and details of the intervention effectiveness have not been systematically examined. This review examined the effectiveness and ideal types of sensory-based interventions for children with behavioral…

  18. Determinants of dietary behavior and physical activity among Canadian Inuit: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akande, V.O.; Hendriks, A.M.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased dependence on Western diets and low physical activity have largely contributed to weight gain and associated chronic diseases in the Canadian Inuit population. The purpose of this study was to systematically review factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviors to

  19. The Wealth of Nations and the Poverty of Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Irving Louis

    2012-01-01

    Now that Colonel Muammar Gaddafi is dead and his forty-two years as despotic ruler of Libya and fomenter of international disorder has come to a permanent halt, it is a good time for governments--both in and beyond the NATO alliance--to review accommodations and agreements made with his regime. It is also time for the academic social policy…

  20. Contemporary Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Review of Theory, History, and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed.

  1. A systematic review of social factors and suicidal behavior in older adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; van Orden, Kimberly A; Duberstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Suicide in later life is a global public health problem. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic analysis of studies with comparison groups that examined the associations between social factors and suicidal behavior (including ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, or deaths) among...... indicated that at least in industrialized countries, limited social connectedness is associated with suicidal ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, and suicide in later life. Primary prevention programs designed to enhance social connections as well as a sense of community could potentially decrease......), Singapore (n = 1), Sweden (n = 2), Taiwan (n = 1), the U.K. (n = 2), and the U.S. (n = 3). The majority of the social factors examined in this review can be conceptualized as indices of positive social connectedness-the degree of positive involvement with family, friends, and social groups. Findings...

  2. Factors underlying the success of behavioral HIV-prevention interventions for adolescents: a meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protogerou, Cleo; Johnson, Blair T

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this meta-review was to identify characteristics of successful HIV prevention interventions for adolescents based on quantitative (i.e., meta-analyses) and qualitative reviews published to date, and to inform intervention utilization and future development. To that end, we were guided by principles of triangulation. Searches of seven electronic bibliographic databases yielded five meta-analyses and six qualitative reviews that satisfied the selection criteria. Reviews were subjected to careful content analysis. All reviews reported that behavioral interventions had positive outcomes on at least one of the following outcomes: HIV-related knowledge, subjective cognitions and beliefs enabling safer sex, abstinence, delaying next sexual intercourse, decreasing number of sexual partners, and actual condom use. Four categories, suggesting factors more prominently linked to intervention success, emerged: behavior change techniques (e.g., cognitive-behavior and motivation enhancement skills training); recipient characteristics (e.g., age, vulnerability to contracting STIs/HIV); prominent design features (e.g., use of theory, formative research); and socio-ecological features (e.g., supportive school environment). Future interventions would benefit from conducting preliminary formative research in order to enable optimal implementation of all these factors.

  3. Contributing Factors to High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Iranian Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173

  4. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Huguet

    Full Text Available Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT or behavioural activation (BA. One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12 of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression.

  5. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prazeres AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review

  6. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  7. Accuracy and Consistency of Grass Pollen Identification by Human Analysts Using Electron Micrographs of Surface Ornamentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Mander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. Methods: We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. Results: Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. Discussion: The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.

  8. Nothing but the truth: self-disclosure, self-revelation, and the persona of the analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Susan S

    2007-01-01

    The question of the analyst's self-disclosure and self-revelation inhabits every moment of every psychoanalytic treatment. All self-disclosures and revelations, however, are not equivalent, and differentiating among them allows us to define a construct that can be called the analytic persona. Analysts already rely on an unarticulated concept of an analytic persona that guides them, for instance, as they decide what constitutes appropriate boundaries. Clinical examples illustrate how self-disclosures and revelations from within and without the analytic persona feel different, for both patient and analyst. The analyst plays a specific role for each patient and is both purposefully and unconsciously different in this context than in other settings. To a great degree, the self is a relational phenomenon. Our ethics call for us to tell nothing but the truth and simultaneously for us not to tell the whole truth. The unarticulated working concept of an analytic persona that many analysts have refers to the self we step out of at the close of each session and the self we step into as the patient enters the room. Attitudes toward self-disclosure and self-revelation can be considered reflections of how we conceptualize this persona.

  9. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-03-24

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  10. Innovative interventions to promote behavioral change in overweight or obese individuals: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-05-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.

  11. School-Based Interventions Targeting Challenging Behaviors Exhibited by Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose R.; Werch, Brittany L.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically examine and summarize the impact of school-based interventions designed to decrease challenging behaviors in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Reviewed studies employed a single-case experimental design, targeted challenging behaviors, included children 3-8 years old with ASD, and took…

  12. Assessing the Possibility of Leadership Education as Psychosocial-Based Problem Behavior Prevention for Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…

  13. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  14. Medical marijuana: review of the science and implications for developmental-behavioral pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E; Knight, John R; Harris, Sion K

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana policy is rapidly evolving in the United States and elsewhere, with cannabis sales fully legalized and regulated in some jurisdictions and use of the drug for medicinal purposes permitted in many others. Amidst this political change, patients and families are increasingly asking whether cannabis and its derivatives may have therapeutic utility for a number of conditions, including developmental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. This review examines the epidemiology of cannabis use among children and adolescents, including those with developmental and behavioral diagnoses. It then outlines the increasingly well-recognized neurocognitive changes shown to occur in adolescents who use cannabis regularly, highlighting the unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain and describing the role of the endocannabinoid system in normal neurodevelopment. The review then discusses some of the proposed uses of cannabis in developmental and behavioral conditions, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Throughout, the review outlines gaps in current knowledge and highlights directions for future research, especially in light of a dearth of studies specifically examining neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes among children and adolescents with developmental and behavioral concerns exposed to cannabis.

  15. Multi-Instance Learning Models for Automated Support of Analysts in Simulated Surveillance Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birisan, Mihnea; Beling, Peter

    2011-01-01

    New generations of surveillance drones are being outfitted with numerous high definition cameras. The rapid proliferation of fielded sensors and supporting capacity for processing and displaying data will translate into ever more capable platforms, but with increased capability comes increased complexity and scale that may diminish the usefulness of such platforms to human operators. We investigate methods for alleviating strain on analysts by automatically retrieving content specific to their current task using a machine learning technique known as Multi-Instance Learning (MIL). We use MIL to create a real time model of the analysts' task and subsequently use the model to dynamically retrieve relevant content. This paper presents results from a pilot experiment in which a computer agent is assigned analyst tasks such as identifying caravanning vehicles in a simulated vehicle traffic environment. We compare agent performance between MIL aided trials and unaided trials.

  16. Behavioral Interventions to Improve Asthma Outcomes for Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnaim, Giselle S.; Pappalardo, Andrea A.; Resnick, Scott E.; Codispoti, Christopher D.; Bandi, Sindhura; Nackers, Lisa; Malik, Rabia N.; Vijayaraghavan, Vimala; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors at multiple ecological levels, including the child, family, home, medical care, and community, impact adolescent asthma outcomes. Objective This systematic review characterizes behavioral interventions at the child, family, home, medical system, and community level to improve asthma management among adolescents. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, SCOPUS, OVID, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and reference review databases was conducted from January 1, 2000 through August 10, 2014. Articles were included if the title or abstract included asthma AND intervention AND (Education OR self-management OR behavioral OR technology OR trigger reduction); and the mean/median age of participants was between eleven and sixteen years. We compared populations, intervention characteristics, study designs, outcomes, settings, and intervention levels across studies to evaluate behavioral interventions to improve asthma management for adolescents. Results Of 1230 articles identified and reviewed, 24 articles (21 unique studies) met inclusion criteria. Promising approaches to improving adherence to daily controller medications include: objective monitoring of inhaled corticosteroid adherence with allergist/immunologist feedback on medication taking behavior and school nurse directly observed therapy. Efficacy at increasing asthma self-management skills was demonstrated using group interactive learning in the school setting. This systematic review is not a meta-analysis, thus limiting its quantitative assessment of studies. Publication bias may also limit our findings. Conclusions Novel strategies to objectively increase controller medication adherence for adolescents include allergist/immunologist feedback and school nurse directly observed therapy. Schools, the most common setting across studies in this review, provide the opportunity for group interactive learning to improve asthma knowledge and self-management skills. PMID:26563672

  17. A Critical Review of Five Commonly Used Social-Emotional and Behavioral Screeners for Elementary or Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle K.; Wren, Nicole Smit; Secord, Stephanie M.; Lyell, Kelly M.; Magers, Amy M.; Setmeyer, Andrea J.; Rodelo, Carlota; Newcomb-McNeal, Ericka; Tennant, Jaclyn

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to critically review and evaluate five common social-emotional and behavioral screeners: Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (Kamphaus and Reynolds 2007), Behavior Intervention Monitoring Assessment System (McDougal et al. 2011), Social Skills Improvement System Performance Screening Guide (Elliott and Gresham…

  18. A Review of Computer-Based Human Behavior Representations and Their Relation to Military Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    the so-called “modal model of memory ” II-38 ( Atkinson and Shiffrin , 1968), which displayed recency and primacy effects. It has also been used to model...page]. Retrieved May 20, 2002, from Aptima Web site: http://www.aptima.com/Projects/Computer_Generated_Forces.html. Atkinson , R.C., and Shiffrin , R.M...Cognitive workload • Short-term memory (STM) • Emotional behavior • Long-term memory (LTM) • Social behavior. ES-2 Table ES-1. HBR Models Reviewed in the

  19. Social Capital Role in Managing High Risk Behavior: a Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Mansoure; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzeghardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social capital as a social context based concept is a new component in addition to the previous factors including the biologic–environmental, the genetic and the individual behavior factors that influence health and society. Social capital refers to the information that makes people believe being interesting & being paid attention to, & respected, valued, and belonging to a network of bilateral relations. Health issue is greatly affected by the existence of social capital. High risk behaviors refer to the ones enhancing the probability of negative and devastating physical, psychological and social consequences for an individual. Negative & overwhelming results mean keeping one’s distance from social norms as a result rejection and labeling (social stigma) and finally, to distance oneself from the benefits of social life in the individuals with high risk behaviors. The present study reviews social capital in the groups having high risk behaviors. Methods: The present study is a narrative review in which researchers conducted their computer search in public databases like Google Scholar, and more specifically in Pubmed, Magiran, SID, Springer, Science Direct, and ProQuest using the keywords: social capital, social support, risk behaviors, addicts, HIV, AIDS, and selected the articles related to the study subject from 2004 to 2014. Overall 96 articles have been searched. Researchers reviewed the summary of all articles searched, & ultimately, they applied the data from 20 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Article review results led to organizing the subjects into 6 general categories: Social capital and its role in health; Social capital in groups with high risk behaviors (Including: substance abusers, AIDS patients, the homeless and multi-partner women); Social capital in different social groups; measurement tools for social capital and risk behaviors; the role of health in helping people with risky behaviors with the focus on

  20. Financial Analysts' Forecast Accuracy : Before and After the Introduction of AIFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Seng Cheong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether financial analysts’ forecast accuracy differs between the pre- and post- adoption ofAustralian Equivalents to the International Financial Reporting Standards (AIFRS. We find that forecastaccuracy has improved after Australia adopted AIFRS. As a secondary objective, this paper also investigatesthe role of financial analysts in reducing information asymmetry in today’s Australian capital market. We findweak evidence that more analysts following a stock do not help to improve forecast accuracy by bringingmore firm-specific information to the market.

  1. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  2. General parenting, childhood overweight and obesity-inducing behaviors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2011-06-01

    Despite emerging efforts to investigate the influence parents have on their children's weight status and related dietary and activity behaviors, reviews regarding the role of general parenting are lacking. We performed a systematic review regarding the relationship between general parenting and these weight-related outcomes to guide observational research. In total, 36 studies were included. Discrepancies across studies were found, which may be explained by differences in conceptualization of parenting constructs. Overall, however, results suggest that children raised in authoritative homes ate more healthy, were more physically active and had lower BMI levels, compared to children who were raised with other styles (authoritarian, permissive/indulgent, uninvolved/neglectful). Findings of some moderation studies indicate that general parenting has a differential impact on children's weight-related outcomes, depending on child and parental characteristics. These findings underline the importance of acknowledging interactions between general parenting and both child and parent characteristics, as well as behavior-specific parenting practices.

  3. A Review of Empirical Studies Investigating Antecedents and Consequences of Collective Learning Behaviors in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina D. Spânu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a systematic review of the field research conducted in medical settings investigating collective learning behaviors. The review was driven by several research foci. Our main interest was in identifying antecedents and consequences of collective learning in hospitals. We also report results on the types of research questions addressed, research designs used, and types of medical teams investigated. Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. Our findings revealed that highly contextualized studies that use different ways of measuring learning, different ways of conceptualizing medical teams, and different research methodologies, discuss similar antecedents. Variables like leadership behaviors, unit interpersonal climate, and hierarchical position were found to play a role in explaining organizational learning in hospitals across studies. We also found that despite an intense public discourse on the link between collective learning processes and patients’ safety and medical organizations’ performance, few studies actually report empirical data supporting this relationship.

  4. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to promote intake of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Ravia, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in the United States remains below recommended levels despite evidence of the health benefits of regular consumption. Efforts to increase F/V intake include behavior-based interventions. A systematic review of MEDLINE PubMed and PsycINFO databases (2005-2010) was conducted to identify behavior-based intervention trials designed to promote F/V intake. Using predetermined limits and selection criteria, 34 studies were identified for inclusion. Behavior-based interventions resulted in an average increase in F/V intake of +1.13 and +0.39 servings per day in adults and children, respectively. Interventions involving minority adults or low-income participants demonstrated average increases in daily F/V consumption of +0.97 servings/day, whereas worksite interventions averaged +0.8 servings/day. Achieving and sustaining F/V intake at recommended levels of intake across the population cannot be achieved through behavior-based interventions alone. Thus, efforts to combine these interventions with other approaches including social marketing, behavioral economics approaches, and technology-based behavior change models should be tested to ensure goals are met and sustained.

  5. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Apter; Maya Amitai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk fa...

  6. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Zimmer; Baumann, Freerk T; Max Oberste; Peter Wright; Alexander Garthe; Alexander Schenk; Thomas Elter; Galvao, Daniel A.; Wilhelm Bloch; Sven T. Hübner; Florian Wolf

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results f...

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kar N

    2011-01-01

    Nilamadhab KarDepartment of Psychiatry, Wolverhampton City Primary Care Trust, Wolverhampton, UKBackground: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric sequel to a stressful event or situation of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been used in the management of PTSD for many years. This paper reviews the effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of PTSD following various types of trauma, its potential to prevent PTSD, methods us...

  8. HIV/AIDS Behavioral Interventions in China: A Literature Review and Recommendation for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, China has witnessed an alarming increase of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Meanwhile, a number of HIV prevention interventions have been conducted. This study reviews existing studies in literature on behavioral interventions on HIV/AIDS in China. Of 25 studies we identified, most have been concentrated in South and South–West China, mainly targeting injection drug users and female sex workers. The most commonly used intervention strategy was individual-oriented HIV-related knowl...

  9. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies.

  10. Social work research on African Americans and suicidal behavior: a systematic 25-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M

    2008-11-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed.

  11. Numerical Analysis of Cold Spray Particles Impacting Behavior by the Eulerian Method: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. Y.; Yang, K.; Yin, S.; Guo, X. P.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical simulations have been widely used to study particles impacting behavior in cold spraying. Among the used simulation methods, the Eulerian frame becomes increasingly attractive for its absence of mesh distortion which happens in the Lagrangian frame. It has been proved that particle deformation behaviors upon impacting calculated by the Eulerian method are well comparable to the experimental observations. In this review article, the literature on modeling particle impacting by the Eulerian method was summarized. In the second part, the Eulerian method was detailedly introduced. In the third part, the particle/substrate impacting behavior, and its influencing factors, i.e., mesh resolution, particle impacting velocity, preheating (particle or/and substrate) and oxide film, were summarized. Additionally, the prediction of critical velocity and residual stresses by using the Eulerian method was also discussed in detail. Finally, the current issues, problems and prospects existing in the Eulerian simulations of particle impacting were explored.

  12. Numerical Analysis of Cold Spray Particles Impacting Behavior by the Eulerian Method: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. Y.; Yang, K.; Yin, S.; Guo, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations have been widely used to study particles impacting behavior in cold spraying. Among the used simulation methods, the Eulerian frame becomes increasingly attractive for its absence of mesh distortion which happens in the Lagrangian frame. It has been proved that particle deformation behaviors upon impacting calculated by the Eulerian method are well comparable to the experimental observations. In this review article, the literature on modeling particle impacting by the Eulerian method was summarized. In the second part, the Eulerian method was detailedly introduced. In the third part, the particle/substrate impacting behavior, and its influencing factors, i.e., mesh resolution, particle impacting velocity, preheating (particle or/and substrate) and oxide film, were summarized. Additionally, the prediction of critical velocity and residual stresses by using the Eulerian method was also discussed in detail. Finally, the current issues, problems and prospects existing in the Eulerian simulations of particle impacting were explored.

  13. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  14. The motivating operation and negatively reinforced problem behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; Oliver, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The concept of motivational operations exerts an increasing influence on the understanding and assessment of problem behavior in people with intellectual and developmental disability. In this systematic review of 59 methodologically robust studies of the influence of motivational operations in negative reinforcement paradigms in this population, we identify themes related to situational and biological variables that have implications for assessment, intervention, and further research. There is now good evidence that motivational operations of differing origins influence negatively reinforced problem behavior, and that these might be subject to manipulation to facilitate favorable outcomes. There is also good evidence that some biological variables warrant consideration in assessment procedures as they predispose the person's behavior to be influenced by specific motivational operations. The implications for assessment and intervention are made explicit with reference to variables that are open to manipulation or that require further research and conceptualization within causal models.

  15. Effect of grain boundary on the mechanical behaviors of irradiated metals: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, XiaZi; Chu, HaiJian; Duan, HuiLing

    2016-06-01

    The design of high irradiation-resistant materials is very important for the development of next-generation nuclear reactors. Grain boundaries acting as effective defect sinks are thought to be able to moderate the deterioration of mechanical behaviors of irradiated materials, and have drawn increasing attention in recent years. The study of the effect of grain boundaries on the mechanical behaviors of irradiated materials is a multi-scale problem. At the atomic level, grain boundaries can effectively affect the production and formation of irradiation-induced point defects in grain interiors, which leads to the change of density, size distribution and evolution of defect clusters at grain level. The change of microstructure would influence the macroscopic mechanical properties of the irradiated polycrystal. Here we give a brief review about the effect of grain boundaries on the mechanical behaviors of irradiated metals from three scales: microscopic scale, mesoscopic scale and macroscopic scale.

  16. Efficacy of the third wave of behavioral therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Lars-Göran

    2008-03-01

    During the last two decades a number of therapies, under the name of the third wave of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been developed: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), and integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT). The purposes of this review article of third wave treatment RCTs were: (1) to describe and review them methodologically, (2) to meta-analytically assess their efficacy, and (3) to evaluate if they currently fulfil the criteria for empirically supported treatments. There are 13 RCTs both in ACT and DBT, 1 in CBASP, 2 in IBCT, and none in FAP. The conclusions that can be drawn are that the third wave treatment RCTs used a research methodology that was significantly less stringent than CBT studies; that the mean effect size was moderate for both ACT and DBT, and that none of the third wave therapies fulfilled the criteria for empirically supported treatments. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve future RCTs to increase the possibility of them becoming empirically supported treatments.

  17. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Salem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance.

  18. Mental Health Professionals and Behavioral Interventions for Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prost, Stephanie Grace; Ai, Amy L; Ainsworth, Sarah E; Ayers, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Adult obesity in the United States has risen to epidemic proportions, and mental health professionals must be called to action. The objectives of this article were to (a) synthesize outcomes of behavioral health interventions for adult obesity in recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews (MAs/SRs) as well as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and further, (b) evaluate the role of mental health professionals in these behavioral health interventions. Articles were included if published in English between January 1, 2004, and May 1, 2014, in peer-reviewed journals examining behavioral health interventions for adults with obesity. Data were subsequently extracted and independently checked by two authors. Included MAs/SRs utilized motivational interviewing, financial incentives, multicomponent behavioral weight management programs, as well as dietary and lifestyle interventions. Behavioral health interventions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were discussed across 3 major intervention types (educational, modified caloric intake, cognitive-based). Regarding the 1st study objective, multiple positive primary (e.g., weight loss) and secondary outcomes (e.g., quality of life) were found in both MAs/SRs and RCTs. However, the majority of included studies made no mention of interventionist professional background and little inference could be made regarding the effects of professional background on behavioral health intervention outcomes for adults facing obesity; an important limitation and direction for future research. Future studies should assess the effects of interventionist profession in addition to primary and secondary outcomes for adults facing obesity. Implications for mental health professionals' educational curricula, assessment, and treatment strategies are discussed.

  19. Analysts forecast error : A robust prediction model and its short term trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudt, Kris; de Goeij, Peter; Thewissen, James; Van Campenhout, Geert

    2015-01-01

    We examine the profitability of implementing a short term trading strategy based on predicting the error in analysts' earnings per share forecasts using publicly available information. Since large earnings surprises may lead to extreme values in the forecast error series that disrupt their smooth au

  20. Estimating Systematic Risk With Long-Term Growth Forecasts and Analyst Following

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Dowen

    1992-01-01

    According to the capital asset pricing model, a stockÕs required rate of return is determined by systematic risk, otherwise known as beta. Usually betas are estimated using historic data. It is shown here that future betas have a stronger relationship to analystsÕ long-term growth forecast than to historic betas.

  1. When is Analysis Sufficient? A Study of how Professional Intelligence Analysts Judge Rigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    to the domain of experts are now wielded by neophyte information analysts abound. The expanded access to data has impacted more than the casual...in Japan, South Korea and Europe , as well as in the United States, which currently has five import terminals (including Puerto Rico

  2. 78 FR 14359 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analysts-Order Management, Voice Over Internet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analysts-Order... Networks Services, Inc., Senior Coordinator-Order Management, Voice Over Internet Protocol, Small And... Assistance on January 18, 2013, applicable to workers of Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc.,...

  3. Review of IT/IS Adoption and Decision-Making Behavior in Small Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoping; FU Jing

    2008-01-01

    The increased use of information technologies has led to more research on information technology/information system (IT/IS) adoption and decision-making behavior in small businesses to improve information utilization. This paper presents an extensive review of the literature on IT/IS adoption to identify the key factors affecting small businesses based on comparison analysis. The review identifies the current interest in the adoption of Internet based IT and points out that the factors affecting different stages of the business lifecycle and research variables should be selected in terms of the different technology types. Especially, the review emphasizes the characteristics of external openings on the network in the research on e-commerce adoption. Future studies should focus on IT/IS adoption and implementation in small and medium-sized businesses during the development of small and medium-sized industrial clusters and specialty towns.

  4. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity.

  5. Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: a methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Monali; Benson, Betsey A

    2011-01-01

    The least-restrictive-alternative guideline for providing treatment emphasizes the use of non-aversive procedures to reduce maladaptive behaviors in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Differential reinforcement (DR) is an excellent example of such a non-aversive, reinforcement based behavioral intervention. The purpose of this literature review was to summarize and provide a methodological analysis of studies, conducted between 1980 and 2009, using a DR contingency to reduce problem behaviors in adults with ID. A total of 31 studies were located that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 15 reported DR to be an effective intervention when used independently. Of the remaining, 10 studies found DR to be useful as part of a treatment package, and six found a DR contingency used independently to be ineffective, and only observed treatment effects when an aversive component was added. Very few studies assessed the use of DR in older adults and in individuals with mild ID; these reflect areas of future research. A methodological analysis found that several studies did not report information on key methodological variables; for example, conducting a functional analysis and a stimulus preference assessment to guide choice of treatment and reinforcers, thinning very dense DR schedules, assessing collateral behaviors, generalization of behavior change across settings and implementers, and following up treatment outcomes over time. The overall positive findings about the effectiveness of DR are encouraging; however, more methodologically robust studies would serve to make such findings more conclusive and practically relevant for implementation in natural settings for adults with ID.

  6. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.

  7. Can fear extinction be enhanced? A review of pharmacological and behavioral findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J; Seemann, Jocelyn R; Maren, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable interest, from both a basic and clinical standpoint, in gaining a greater understanding of how pharmaceutical or behavioral manipulations alter fear extinction in animals. Not only does fear extinction in rodents model exposure therapy in humans, where the latter is a cornerstone of behavioral intervention for anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and specific phobias, but also understanding more about extinction provides basic information into learning and memory processes and their underlying circuitry. In this paper, we briefly review three principal approaches that have been used to modulate extinction processes in animals and humans: a purely pharmacological approach, the more widespread approach of combining pharmacology with behavior, and a purely behavioral approach. The pharmacological studies comprise modulation by: brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), d-cycloserine, serotonergic and noradrenergic drugs, neuropeptides, endocannabinoids, glucocorticoids, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and others. These studies strongly suggest that extinction can be modulated by drugs, behavioral interventions, or their combination, although not always in a lasting manner. We suggest that pharmacotherapeutic manipulations provide considerable promise for promoting effective and lasting fear reduction in individuals with anxiety disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'.

  8. 77 FR 65698 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel, Dating Violence and Marketing. Date... Clary, Program Analyst, Office of Federal Advisory Committee Policy. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  9. 78 FR 31954 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Microbiology Integrated Review Group; Drug Discovery and Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance Study Section...: May 21, 2013. Melanie J. Gray, Program Analyst, Office of Federal Advisory Committee Policy....

  10. Psychosocial correlates of eating behavior in children and adolescents: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroch Amy L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the correlates of dietary intake is necessary in order to effectively promote healthy dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A literature review was conducted on the correlates of the following categories of dietary intake in children and adolescents: Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary Consumption in children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective studies were identified from PubMed, PsycINFO and PsycArticles by using a combination of search terms. Quantitative research examining determinants of dietary intake among children and adolescents aged 3–18 years were included. The selection and review process yielded information on country, study design, population, instrument used for measuring intake, and quality of research study. Results Seventy-seven articles were included. Many potential correlates have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many hypothesized correlates substantial evidence is lacking due to a dearth of research. The correlates best supported by the literature are: perceived modeling, dietary intentions, norms, liking and preferences. Perceived modeling and dietary intentions have the most consistent and positive associations with eating behavior. Norms, liking, and preferences were also consistently and positively related to eating behavior in children and adolescents. Availability, knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and social support did not show consistent relationships across dietary outcomes. Conclusion This review examined the correlates of various dietary intake; Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary

  11. Behavioral risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home: a review of consumer food safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes human listeriosis, which is associated with the highest hospitalization and mortality rates of all foodborne illnesses. In recent years, the incidence of listeriosis has doubled in Europe, almost exclusively among older adults (≥ 60 years of age). Food safety factors associated with increased risk of listeriosis include lack of adherence to "use by" dates and ineffective refrigerated storage of foods. Consequently, older adult consumers' implementation of safe food practices should be evaluated. This article is a review of consumer food safety cognitive and behavioral data relating to risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home as reported in 165 consumer food safety studies. Overall, only 41% of studies included assessment of consumer cognitive or behavioral data associated with listeriosis; of these studies 59% included data on safe refrigeration, 54% included data on storage time for opened ready-to-eat foods, and 49% included data on adherence to use-by dates. In most (83%) of the studies, survey-based data collection methods (questionnaires/interviews) were used; thus, the majority of findings were based on self-report (74%) and knowledge (44%). Observation (31%) and focus groups (12%) were less commonly used, resulting in a lack of actual behaviors and attitudinal data relating to listeriosis risk factors. Only 7% of studies included food safety data for older adults. Although older adults may fail to implement recommended practices, this review reveals a need for in-depth research to determine food safety attitudes and actual behaviors of older adults in conjunction with knowledge and selfreport of practices linked to increased risks of listeriosis. Such data combined with review findings would inform targeted food safety education to reduce risks associated with listeriosis in the home.

  12. The philosophical terrain of behavior analysis: a review of B. A. Thyer (Ed.), The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamal, P A

    2000-09-01

    The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism, edited by Bruce A. Thyer, is a set of original contributions, each dealing, from a behavioral stance, with one of the following major topics of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, consciousness, language, free will and determinism, and self-control. Confusions about radical behaviorism and its similarities to, and differences from, other behavioral and non-behavioral approaches are described in the book, which provides a state-of-the-art description of the philosophical underpinnings of behavior analysis.

  13. A Brief Review of the Usefulness of "The Health Behavior Theory" in Changing Human Health Behavior for Good

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Eating, physical acting and resting behavior is considered as important health behavior to promote our health level. Several health behavior theories have been developed applying to change our health behaviors for good in counseling, health education and action programs. There are three types of health behavior theory, mainly utilizing to person, mainly applying to group and to population. The stages of behavior change theory is useful for groups as well as for people in health counseling, in...

  14. 78 FR 47778 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Birmingham...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Birmingham, Alabama; Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Service Program Delivery Division San Francisco, California; Verizon Business...

  15. Can Mobile Phone Apps Influence People’s Health Behavior Change? An Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Li, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, mobile phones have achieved wide reach at an unprecedented rate, and mobile phone apps have become increasingly prevalent among users. The number of health-related apps that were published on the two leading platforms (iOS and Android) reached more than 100,000 in 2014. However, there is a lack of synthesized evidence regarding the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in changing people’s health-related behaviors. Objective The aim was to examine the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in achieving health-related behavior change in a broader range of interventions and the quality of the reported studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive bibliographic search of articles on health behavior change using mobile phone apps in peer-reviewed journals published between January 1, 2010 and June 1, 2015. Databases searched included Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Embase, Health Technology Assessment, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research during that same period were hand-searched on the journal’s website. Behavior change mechanisms were coded and analyzed. The quality of each included study was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Results A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria, arranged under 11 themes according to their target behaviors. All studies were conducted in high-income countries. Of these, 17 studies reported statistically significant effects in the direction of targeted behavior change; 19 studies included in this analysis had a 65% or greater retention rate in the intervention group (range 60%-100%); 6 studies reported using behavior change theories with the theory of planned behavior being the most commonly used (in 3 studies). Self-monitoring was the most common behavior change technique applied (in 12 studies). The studies suggest that some features improve the

  16. The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew C; Chapman, Jason E; Forman, Evan M; Beck, Aaron T

    2006-01-01

    This review summarizes the current meta-analysis literature on treatment outcomes of CBT for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. A search of the literature resulted in a total of 16 methodologically rigorous meta-analyses. Our review focuses on effect sizes that contrast outcomes for CBT with outcomes for various control groups for each disorder, which provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy as quantified by meta-analysis. Large effect sizes were found for CBT for unipolar depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and childhood depressive and anxiety disorders. Effect sizes for CBT of marital distress, anger, childhood somatic disorders, and chronic pain were in the moderate range. CBT was somewhat superior to antidepressants in the treatment of adult depression. CBT was equally effective as behavior therapy in the treatment of adult depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Large uncontrolled effect sizes were found for bulimia nervosa and schizophrenia. The 16 meta-analyses we reviewed support the efficacy of CBT for many disorders. While limitations of the meta-analytic approach need to be considered in interpreting the results of this review, our findings are consistent with other review methodologies that also provide support for the efficacy CBT.

  17. A Systematic Review of Social Factors and Suicidal Behavior in Older Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Szanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide in later life is a global public health problem. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic analysis of studies with comparison groups that examined the associations between social factors and suicidal behavior (including ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, or deaths among individuals aged 65 and older. Our search identified only 16 articles (across 14 independent samples that met inclusion criteria. The limited number of studies points to the need for further research. Included studies were conducted in Canada (n = 2, Germany (n = 1, Hong Kong (n = 1, Japan (n = 1, Singapore (n = 1, Sweden (n = 2, Taiwan (n = 1, the U.K. (n = 2, and the U.S. (n = 3. The majority of the social factors examined in this review can be conceptualized as indices of positive social connectedness—the degree of positive involvement with family, friends, and social groups. Findings indicated that at least in industrialized countries, limited social connectedness is associated with suicidal ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, and suicide in later life. Primary prevention programs designed to enhance social connections as well as a sense of community could potentially decrease suicide risk, especially among men.

  18. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.

  19. Use of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies among College Students: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are specific behaviors one can utilize to minimize the harmful consequences of alcohol consumption. Recently, there has been an increasing amount of interest in use of PBS among college students, especially as an intervention target. The purpose of the present comprehensive review of the PBS literature was to examine the measurement of PBS and summarize the quantitative relationships between PBS use and other variables. The review found inconsistency across studies in terms of how use of PBS is operationalized and found only two PBS measures with good psychometric properties that have been replicated. Although several antecedents to PBS use were identified, most were only examined in single studies. Moderators of the predictive effects of PBS use on outcomes have similarly suffered from a lack of replication in the literature. Of all 62 published reports reviewed, 80% reported only cross-sectional data, which is unfortunate given that PBS use may change over time and in different contexts. In addition, only two attempted to minimize potential recall biases associated with retrospective assessment of PBS use, and only two used an approach that allowed the examination of both within-subject and between-subject effects. In terms of the gaps in the literature, there is a dearth of longitudinal studies of PBS use, especially intensive longitudinal studies, which are integral to identifying more specifically how, when, and for whom use of PBS can be protective. PMID:24036089

  20. A systematic review of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among police officers, firefighters, EMTs, and paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    First responders-police officers, firefighters, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and paramedics-experience significant job-related stressors and exposures that may confer increased risk for mental health morbidities (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], suicidal thoughts and behaviors) and hastened mortality (e.g., death by suicide). Inherent in these occupations, however, are also factors (e.g., camaraderie, pre-enlistment screening) that may inoculate against the development or maintenance of psychiatric conditions. Several reviews of the literature have documented the prevalence and potency of PTSD among first responders; the value of these extant reviews is considerable. Nonetheless, the literature has not been systematically described with regard to suicidality. In this systematic review, we present 63 quantitative studies examining suicidal thoughts, behaviors, and/or fatalities among first responders; identify population-specific risk and protective factors; and pinpoint strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature. Findings reveal elevated risk for suicide among first responders; however, studies utilizing more rigorous methodologies (e.g., longitudinal designs, probability sampling strategies) are sorely needed. First responders have an armamentarium of resources to take care of others; it is the duty of researchers, clinicians, and the public to aid in taking care of their health as well, in part by reducing suicide risk.

  1. T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal and human behavior: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S

    2015-01-15

    A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior.

  2. Systematic Review of Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments for Skin Picking Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Bartley, Christine A; Bloch, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) is a newly recognized psychiatric disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. A systematic review was conducted to assess the efficacy of pharmacological and behavioral interventions for SPD. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or uncontrolled trials involving at least 10 subjects that examined the efficacy of pharmacological and behavioral interventions for SPD. We examined the improvement associated with interventions compared with inactive control conditions in RCTs and improvement over time in uncontrolled trials and within the treatment arms of RCTs. We stratified studies on the basis of intervention type. Meta-analysis included 11 studies. All interventions (including inactive control conditions) demonstrated significant improvement over the course of short-term clinical trials in SPD. Only behavioral treatments demonstrated significant benefits compared with inactive control conditions. There was no evidence from RCTs that pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or lamotrigine were more effective at treating SPD than placebo. Our meta-analysis suggests that subjects with SPD show significant improvement during short-term trials, regardless of the efficacy of the underlying intervention. This finding suggests that uncontrolled trials are of particularly limited utility for assessing efficacy of treatments in SPD. Future research should concentrate on developing larger placebo-controlled RCTs to examine efficacy of novel pharmacological agents. In addition, research should focus on improving accessibility of behavioral treatments with demonstrated efficacy for SPD.

  3. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandclerc, Salome; De Labrouhe, Diane; Spodenkiewicz, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11–25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care. PMID:27089157

  4. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Grandclerc

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.

  5. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Apter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.

  6. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-11

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.

  7. A systematic evidence review of school-based group contingency interventions for students with challenging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggin, Daniel M; Johnson, Austin H; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Ruberto, Laura M; Berggren, Melissa

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject research revealed that the research investigating group contingencies demonstrated sufficient rigor, evidence, and replication to label the intervention as evidence-based. These findings were further supported across five quantitative indices of treatment effect. The results associated with the application of the WWC procedures and quantitative evaluations were supplemented with additional systematic coding of methodological features and study characteristics to evaluate the populations and conditions under which the effects of the group contingency best generalize. Findings associated with this coding revealed that the lack of detailed reporting across studies limited our ability to determine for whom and under what conditions group contingencies are best suited.

  8. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  9. A review of modeling techniques for advanced effects in shape memory alloy behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Cheikh; Zaki, Wael; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2016-10-01

    micro, micro-macro and macro scales focusing pseudoelastic and shape memory effects. The paper reviews and discusses various techniques used in the literature for modeling complex behaviors observed in shape memory alloys (SMAs) that go beyond the core pseudoelastic and shape memory effects. These behaviors, which will be collectively referred to herein as ‘secondary effects’, include mismatch between austenite and martensite moduli, martensite reorientation under nonproportional multiaxial loading, slip and transformation-induced plasticity and their influence on martensite transformation, strong thermomechanical coupling and the influence of loading rate, tensile-compressive asymmetry, and the formation of internal loops due to incomplete phase transformation. In addition, because of their importance for practical design considerations, the paper discusses functional and structural fatigue, and fracture mechanics of SMAs.

  10. Behavioral treatments for speech in Parkinson's disease: meta-analyses and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson-Clement, Cyril; Sadat, Jasmin; Pinto, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results from neurodegenerative processes leading to alteration of motor functions. Most motor symptoms respond well to pharmacological and neurosurgical treatments, except some axial symptoms such as speech impairment, so-called dysarthria. However, speech therapy is rarely proposed to PD patients. This review aims at evaluating previous research on the effects of speech behavioral therapies in patients with PD. We also performed two meta-analyses focusing on speech loudness and voice pitch. We showed that intensive therapies in PD are the most effective for hypophonia and can lead to some improvement of voice pitch. Although speech therapy is effective in handling PD dysarthria, behavioral speech rehabilitation in PD still needs further validation.

  11. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings.

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Children and Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Medicine Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Scott N.; March, John S.; Brent, David; Albano, Anne Marie; Weersing, V. Robin; Curry, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the cognitive-behavioral treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine. Method: The psychiatric and psychological literature was systematically searched for controlled trials applying cognitive-behavioral treatment to…

  13. Effects of Environmental Stimulation on Students Demonstrating Behaviors Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.; Miller, Faith

    2013-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often interfere with students' and their classmates' learning, and interventions targeting these behaviors may be particularly important in schools. This article reviews studies in which researchers manipulated environmental stimulation during task presentation…

  14. Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Eastern and Western Countries: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…

  15. Test Review: Michael H. Epstein and Lori Synhorst "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" Austin, TX--PRO-ED, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevon, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" (PreBERS), a 42-item family member--or school personnel--completed rating scale designed to measure the behavioral and emotional strengths of preschool children ages 3-0 to 5-11. According to the manual, results can be used to identify preschoolers with limited…

  16. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effective strategy is to prevent disordered eating attitudes in early childhood. Restriction and pressure are not effective strategies in developing healthy eating.

  17. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR INSOMNIA IN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Debora Aricò; Alberto Raggi; Raffaele Ferri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with breast ...

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Aricò, Debora; Raggi, Alberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with b...

  19. [Links between personality disorders, attachment disorders and violent behavior: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, Andrée-Anne; Mathieu, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Past research has established that personality disorders and attachment disorders are important risk factors for the perpetration of violent acts in a context of an intimate relationship. Very few studies have been conducted linking personality and attachment disorders to violent behaviors outside of the domestic violence context. This paper proposes to address this gap by reviewing the literature and linking these important concepts to general violence. This will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of violence and possibly open the door to new research and interventions taking into account both attachment and personality disorders as prodromic factors.

  20. Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This review covers experimental approaches to sound-symbolism-from infants to adults, and from Sapir's foundational studies to twenty-first century product naming. It synthesizes recent behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging work into a systematic overview of the cross-modal correspondences that underpin iconic links between form and meaning. It also identifies open questions and opportunities, showing how the future course of experimental iconicity research can benefit from an integrated interdisciplinary perspective. Combining insights from psychology and neuroscience with evidence from natural languages provides us with opportunities for the experimental investigation of the role of sound-symbolism in language learning, language processing, and communication. The review finishes by describing how hypothesis-testing and model-building will help contribute to a cumulative science of sound-symbolism in human language.

  1. Individual-Level Factors in Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Review of the Literature on the Relation of Individual-Level Health Behavior Constructs and Screening Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Bennett, Alyssa; Zaiter, Marie; Marshall, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Compliance with colorectal cancer screening recommendations requires considerable conscious effort on the part of the individual patient, making an individual's decisions about engagement in screening an important contributor to compliance or noncompliance. The objective of this paper was to examine the effectiveness of individual-level behavior theories and their associated constructs in accounting for engagement in colorectal cancer screening behavior. We reviewed the literature examining c...

  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Individuals with Disabilities: A Behavior Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events in Challenging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Contreras, Bethany P; Clay, Casey J; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior. In such cases, it may be beneficial for behavior analysts to consider additional philosophically aligned treatments for private events. One such treatment, acceptance and commitment therapy, may be a useful tool for behavior analysts to incorporate into their toolbox in order to help clients. The purpose of this paper is to introduce behavior analysts to a potential solution to the problem of effectively addressing private events in behavior analytic services. We then propose a model for thinking about private events in relation to clients with disabilities and present a guide for taking steps to address private events in the clinical setting. We conclude this paper with a call for research and present a possible research agenda for behavior analysts.

  3. Sexual risk behaviors and HIV risk among Americans aged 50 years or older: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilowsky DJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Pilowsky,1,2 Li-Tzy Wu3,41Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health New York City, NY, USA; 2Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Although HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have been studied extensively in adolescents and young adults, there is limited information about these behaviors among older Americans, which make up a growing segment of the US population and an understudied population. This review of the literature dealing with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV-infected found a low prevalence of condom use among older adults, even when not in a long-term relationship with a single partner. A seminal study by Schick et al published in 2010 reported that the prevalence of condom use at last intercourse was highest among those aged 50–59 years (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 15.6–35.8 and declined with age, with a 17.1% prevalence among those aged 60–69 years (17.1%; 95% confidence interval, 7.3–34.2. Studies have shown that older Americans may underestimate their risk of becoming HIV-infected. Substance use also increases the risk for sexual risk behaviors, and studies have indicated that the prevalence of substance use among older adults has increased in the past decade. As is the case with younger adults, the prevalence of HIV infections is elevated among ethnic minorities, drug users (eg, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men. When infected, older adults are likely to be diagnosed with HIV-related medical disorders later in the course of illness compared with their younger counterparts. Physicians are less likely to discuss sexual risk behaviors with older adults and to test them for HIV compared with younger adults. Thus, it is

  4. Storing and managing information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William A; Riensche, Roderick M; Best, Daniel M; Roberts, Ian E; Whyatt, Marie V; Hart, Michelle L; Carr, Norman J; Thomas, James J

    2012-09-18

    Systems and computer-implemented processes for storage and management of information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device. The processes and systems can capture a sequence of interactive operation elements that are performed by the information analyst, who is collecting an information artifact from at least one of the plurality of software applications. The information artifact can then be stored together with the interactive operation elements as a snippet on a memory device, which is operably connected to the processor. The snippet comprises a view from an analysis application, data contained in the view, and the sequence of interactive operation elements stored as a provenance representation comprising operation element class, timestamp, and data object attributes for each interactive operation element in the sequence.

  5. The Publication History of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management": An Objective Review and Analysis--1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStelle, Sarah E.; Vicars, Sara M.; Harr, Victoria; Miguel, Caio F.; Koerber, Jeana L.; Kazbour, Richard; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend into a third decade previous reviews conducted by Balcazar, Shupert, Daniels, Mawhinney, and Hopkins (1989) and Nolan, Jarema, and Austin (1999) of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" ("JOBM"). Every article published in "JOBM" between 1998 and 2009 was objectively reviewed and analyzed for…

  6. Parent Implementation of Function-Based Intervention to Reduce Children's Challenging Behavior: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Angel; Barton, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the research on parent-implemented functional assessment (FA)-based interventions for reducing children's challenging behaviors. Thirteen studies met the review inclusion criteria. These studies were analyzed across independent variables, types of parent coaching and support provided,…

  7. Operation Ajax: A Case Study on Analyst-Policymaker Tensions and the Challenges of Estimative Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    repeatedly downplayed the threat of Soviet intervention.108 Prime Minister Attlee, leader of the British Labour Party, was under increasing pressure...By October, the Labour Party had been voted out, and the Conservative Party returned to power in Great Britain, with Winston Churchill resuming the...analyst or manager avoids issues or omits data that will offend political officials.175 The absence of representatives from the Office of National

  8. THE EFFECTS OF AMBIENT SCENT ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLAHUT Meda Roxana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present an extended literature review of relevant empirical studies which examine the effect of ambient scent on consumers' perception, consumers' emotions and consumers' behavioral responses in the context of retailing. Compared with other atmospheric stimuli (such as background music, ambient scent has received little attention from researchers. This paper is also concentrated on identifying de principal dimensions of ambient scent (presence versus absence; congruity versus incongruity and pleasantness versus unpleasantness and examined how these dimensions of ambient scent have an impact on evaluation of a product, of a store or of a shopping mall and their impact on shopping behavior within a store. The paper also presented the Gulas and Bloch (1995 model, a complex conceptual framework on the influence of ambient scent on consumer responses, in their model the authors introduced the influence of mediating factors on behavioral responses to scent. Their model is a first step on the understanding the role of ambient scent in influencing consumer behavior. Davis, Kooijman and Ward (2003 extending and elaborating the Gulas and Bloch (1995 model by introducing concepts from cognate disciplines and examines mediating factors that help shape the emotional and behavioural responses that are stimulated to encompass current research on human olfaction and brings another specific points for future research. Based on the results of the relevant studies the authors of the present paper concludes by identifying gaps in the literature and suggest future research to explore how the use of scent help to create an overall store atmosphere which influence shopping behavior in the context of retailing.

  9. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  10. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  11. Will Financial Analysts Mistake Stocks of Good Companies for Good Stocks? Evidence from Taiwan Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the individual or institutional investors rely on the information provided by the financial analysts. A good stock recommended by financial experts is expected to make profit to the investors. However, due to the cognitive biases, the financial analysts or investors are probably confused in the firm characteristics between the good stocks and the stocks of good companies. Good companies are normally inferred to the company that have good managing and operating systems, however, it is usually though to have good returns as good stocks. The future earning forecasts of these good companies may be thus overestimated as compared with the others. Such cognitive biases probably results in improper investment and investment loss. In this study, the reputation survey results for the companies in Taiwan and the corresponding financial data are used to verify the proposed cognitive biases hypothesis. The empirical evidence in this study shows that financial analysts mistake stocks of good companies for good stocks. However, it is also shown that the average one-year buy-and-hold return of these sample firms (including good companies and good stocks is still higher than that of the chosen matching firms.

  12. Public health impact of disease-behavior dynamics. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Chad R.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2015-12-01

    In a loop of dynamic feedback, behavior such as the decision to vaccinate, hand washing, or avoidance influences the progression of the epidemic, yet behavior is driven by the individual's and population's perceived risk of infection during an outbreak. In what we believe will become a seminal paper that stimulates future research as well as an informative teaching aid, Wang et. al. comprehensively review methodological advances that have been used to incorporate human behavior into epidemiological models on the effects of coupling disease transmission and behavior on complex social networks [1]. As illustrated by the recent outbreaks of measles and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), here we highlight the importance of coupling behavior and disease transmission that Wang et al. address.

  13. Emergence of Relations and the Essence of Learning: A Review of Sidman's Equivalence Relations and Behavior: A Research Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1995-01-01

    Sidman addresses two very important questions in Equivalence Relations and Behavior: A Research Story: What are the bases of behavioral competence? And how do units of learning become related? The book recounts the story of how an understanding of emergent relations and competencies was achieved through studies in his teaching-research program with mentally retarded subjects. Although children normally accrue vast networks of relations between stimuli and events, those with mental retardation typically do not. Consequently, by learning how to establish those networks, Sidman and his students contribute richly both to the cultivation of competencies by their subjects and, more generally, to an understanding of real-world human behavior. The basic equivalence paradigm affords the subject feedback and reinforcement for very specific choices during training, but the test is not for those choices! Rather, tests for equivalence look for new choices, ones seemingly quite foreign to the training regimen. The tests for equivalence relations entail presentations of stimuli that were the options for conditional choice during reinforced training. In tests of equivalence, correct choices are novel; hence, they have never been reinforced during training. The study of equivalence relations can encourage the emergence of new perspectives that are more symbiotic than competitive. In full acknowledgment of the important role and contributions made by those who identify themselves as experimental analysts of behavior, it is timely that rapprochements be worked toward, as indeed they are, to meld that perspective with others of our time. Both our research methods and our expectations about the nature of the learning process and the abilities of our subjects can delimit what they might learn and what we, in turn, learn about their learning. The text will be of great value for instruction at the upper-division and graduate levels. Its impact will be substantial, for it defines an

  14. Reactive Aggression and Suicide-Related Behaviors in Children and Adolescents: A Review and Preliminary Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Chelsey M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Castellanos, Daniel

    2017-01-03

    The empirical literature on the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents was reviewed. A narrative review of seven studies that met inclusion/exclusion criteria is followed by a preliminary meta-analysis to provide insight into the strength of the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors. Each of the seven studies reported a statistically significant association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors, including suicide, nonfatal suicide attempt, and suicide ideation. Results from the meta-analysis indicated a consistent, medium-sized association (k = 7; N = 4,693; rbar = .25). The narrative review and results of the preliminary meta-analysis support the promise of pursuing future research on reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents. A theoretical model is proposed to guide the development of future research.

  15. Couples-focused behavioral interventions for prevention of HIV: systematic review of the state of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Jennifer; Darbes, Lynae A; Operario, Don

    2010-02-01

    HIV is frequently transmitted in the context of partners in a committed relationship, thus couples-focused HIV prevention interventions are a potentially promising modality for reducing infection. We conducted a systematic review of studies testing whether couples-focused behavioral prevention interventions reduce HIV transmission and risk behavior. We included studies using randomized controlled trial designs, quasi-randomized controlled trials, and nonrandomized controlled studies. We searched five electronic databases and screened 7,628 records. Six studies enrolling 1,084 index couples met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Results across studies consistently indicated that couples-focused programs reduced unprotected sexual intercourse and increased condom use compared with control groups. However, studies were heterogeneous in population, type of intervention, comparison groups, and outcomes measures, and so meta-analysis to calculate pooled effects was inappropriate. Although couples-focused approaches to HIV prevention appear initially promising, additional research is necessary to build a stronger theoretical and methodological basis for couples-focused HIV prevention, and future interventions must pay closer attention to same-sex couples, adolescents, and young people in relationships.

  16. HIV/AIDS behavioral interventions in China: a literature review and recommendation for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming

    2009-06-01

    In the past two decades, China has witnessed an alarming increase of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Meanwhile, a number of HIV prevention interventions have been conducted. This study reviews existing studies in literature on behavioral interventions on HIV/AIDS in China. Of 25 studies we identified, most have been concentrated in South and South-West China, mainly targeting injection drug users and female sex workers. The most commonly used intervention strategy was individual-oriented HIV-related knowledge education and behavioral skill training. All studies reported positive intervention effects including improved HIV-related knowledge, increased condom use, reduced needle sharing, and reduced STI. Literature also suggests a lack of intervention among other at-risk populations such as MSM, migrant workers, and non-injecting drug users, lack of studies with rigorous evaluation design, inadequate follow-up, limited outcome measurement, and lack of multi-faceted structural interventions. The existing intervention studies document strong evidence of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic through effective behavioral intervention. More efforts are needed to control the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methodology and incorporate environmental or structural factors for different populations at risk of HIV infection in China.

  17. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in Infertility: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Gocek Yorulmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to make a systematic review the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy which is designed to decrease psychological distress of individuals with infertility problem. The articles published between 2000 and 2015 (February were screened in the certain national and international scientific databases. Eleven studies that met the research criteria of inclusion and exclusion were evaluated in terms of the method, psychotherapeutic techniques and results. The findings of the current studies revealed that the cognitive behavioral group therapy designed for psychological distress in individuals with infertility is effective to reduce stress, anxiety, depression and relevant psychological problems. Moreover, this approach seems to be lead an increase in use of more adaptive ways of coping, optimism and resilience. In sum, it can be concluded that cognitive behavioral group therapy for infertile individuals has a positive impact on psychological well-being of those people. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 144-156

  18. Analyzing the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work: an integrative review*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Meneses Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work. METHOD An integrative review carried out in the theoretical phase of a qualitative research substantiated by the theoretical framework of the Hybrid Model of Concept Development. The search for articles was conducted in the CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, PubMed and SciVerse Scopus databases in 2013. RESULTS 70 scientific articles answered the guiding question and lead to attributes of disruptive behavior, being: incivility, psychological violence and physical/sexual violence; with their main antecedents (intrapersonal, interpersonal and organizational being: personality characteristics, stress and work overload; and consequences of: workers' moral/mental distress, compromised patient safety, labor loss, and disruption of communication, collaboration and teamwork. CONCLUSION Analysis of the disruptive behavior concept in healthcare work showed a construct in its theoretical stage that encompasses different disrespectful conduct adopted by health workers in the hospital context, which deserve the attention of leadership for better recognition and proper handling of cases and their consequences.

  19. Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Sheila N; Johnson, Jillian A; Savard, Josee; Gehrman, Philip; Perlis, Michael; Carlson, Linda; Campbell, Tavis

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with cancer are disproportionately affected by sleep disturbance and insomnia relative to the general population. These problems can be a consequence of the psychological, behavioral, and physical effects of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia often persists for years and, when combined with already high levels of cancer-related distress, may place cancer survivors at a higher risk of future physical and mental health problems and poorer quality of life. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), a non-pharmacological treatment that incorporates cognitive and behavior-change techniques and targets dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs, and habits involving sleep. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the efficacy of CBT-I on sleep and psychological outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. The search revealed 12 studies (four uncontrolled, eight controlled) that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in cancer patients or survivors. Results suggest that CBT-I is associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in subjective sleep outcomes in patients with cancer. CBT-I may also improve mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life, and can be successfully delivered through a variety of treatment modalities, making it possible to reach a broader range of patients who may not have access to more traditional programs. Future research in this area should focus on the translation of evidence into clinical practice in order to increase awareness and access to effective insomnia treatment in cancer care.

  20. Risky behavior in gambling tasks in individuals with ADHD--a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Groen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks

  1. A review on the use of sensors to monitor cattle jaw movements and behavior when grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriamandroso, ALH.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF is spreading rapidly in intensive cattle farms. It is based on the monitoring of individuals using different kinds of sensors. Applied to grazing animals, PLF is mainly based on the recording of three parameters: the location, the posture and the movements of the animal. Until now, several techniques have been used to discriminate grazing and ruminating behaviors with accuracies over 90% on average, when compared to observations, providing valuable tools to improve the management of pasture and grazing animals. However, bites and jaw movements are still overlooked, even though they are of utmost importance to assess the animal grazing strategies for various pasture types and develop future techniques allowing better estimation of their intake. Literature. The goal of this review is to explore the possibility of monitoring the individual jaw movements and the differentiation of bites in grazing animals. For this purpose, (1 the mechanisms of forage intake in cattle are explained briefly in order to understand the movements performed by the cow, especially during grazing, (2 the various sensors that have been proposed to monitor jaw movements of ruminants such as mechanical sensors (pressure sensors, acoustic sensors (microphone and electromyography sensors are compared and (3 finally the relationship between jaw movements, biting behavior and forage intake is discussed. Conclusions. The review clearly demonstrated the abilities of mechanical, acoustic and electromyography sensors to classify the difference types of jaw movements. However, it also indicated a wide range of accuracies and different observation windows required to reach these accuracies when compared to the observed movement. This classification purpose could lead to a better detection of more specific behavior, e.g. bite detection, and their exact location on pasture.

  2. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  3. Sources and environmental behaviors of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Haidong; Wang, Thanh; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Li, Yingming; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-03-01

    Although Dechlorane Plus (DP) has been used as a polychlorinated flame retardant for almost half a century, its detection in the environment was not reported until 2006. The subsequent intensive research has confirmed its global ubiquity. A few reviews have presented the properties, analytical methods and environmental occurrence of DP and related compounds in the past several years. The present review emphasizes on the environmental behavior of DP isomers which is assessed by the variation of the isomer ratio of DP in various matrices. Other aspects including the analytical methods, emission sources, general environmental occurrence and bioaccumulation of DP are also summarized. In this review, three typical emission sources in the environment are categorized after introducing the measurement method of DP. The temporal-spatial distribution is then evaluated at the global scale, which provides an integrated representation of the environmental occurrence of DP and potential impact on the human health and ecosystems. The variations of DP isomer ratio in various matrices reinforce its source related distribution and their stereoselective bioaccumulation. Thereafter, DP related compounds and dechlorinated analogs are briefly summarized in regards to their occurrence in various matrices, suggesting their ubiquity in the environment and bioavailability. Further studies are required to better assess the exposures and toxicological effects of DP and its analogs. A special concern is the serious contamination in e-waste recycling areas in developing countries, where long-term monitoring data on the association of DP exposure and adverse effects to human health and ecosystems is urgently needed.

  4. Engagement in Behavioral Parent Training: Review of the Literature and Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Jensen, Scott A; Lowry, Lynda S; Cornwell, Melinda; Chimklis, Alyssa; Chan, Elizabeth; Lee, Daniel; Pulgarin, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Engagement in behavioral parent training (BPT), including enrollment, attrition, attendance, within-session engagement, and homework completion, has long been a critical issue in the literature. Several estimates of various aspects of engagement have been suggested in the literature, but a systematic review of the available literature has never been accomplished. This review examines engagement data across 262 studies of BPT. Recruitment attrition, program attrition, attendance, and within-session engagement are examined across studies, with particular emphasis on the impact that SES, study purpose (efficacy vs. effectiveness), treatment format (individual vs. group), and age of child may have on those rates. Results of this review suggest that the significant amount of attrition occurs prior to enrollment in BPT, with at least 25 % of those identified as appropriate for BPT not enrolling in such programs. An additional 26 % begin, but drop out before completing treatment. Still the combined dropout rate of at least 51 % leaves at best half of identified parents completing treatment. While SES status had a small effect on attrition, other variables were not found to meaningfully impact engagement. Information on within-session engagement (homework and ratings of participation) was not often reported in studies. Key issues in this literature (e.g., varying definitions of engagement, limited attention to reporting key aspects of engagement) are discussed, and recommendations are made to further improve this important area of research and clinical practice.

  5. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: shared associations with seasonality and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2013-12-27

    Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits - associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders [Ref. (1-3) for reviews], it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n = 412) of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of

  6. A Case Study Using Visualization Interaction Logs and Insight Metrics to Understand How Analysts Arrive at Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua; Gomez, Steven R; Ziemkiewicz, Caroline; Laidlaw, David H

    2016-01-01

    We present results from an experiment aimed at using logs of interactions with a visual analytics application to better understand how interactions lead to insight generation. We performed an insight-based user study of a visual analytics application and ran post hoc quantitative analyses of participants' measured insight metrics and interaction logs. The quantitative analyses identified features of interaction that were correlated with insight characteristics, and we confirmed these findings using a qualitative analysis of video captured during the user study. Results of the experiment include design guidelines for the visual analytics application aimed at supporting insight generation. Furthermore, we demonstrated an analysis method using interaction logs that identified which interaction patterns led to insights, going beyond insight-based evaluations that only quantify insight characteristics. We also discuss choices and pitfalls encountered when applying this analysis method, such as the benefits and costs of applying an abstraction framework to application-specific actions before further analysis. Our method can be applied to evaluations of other visualization tools to inform the design of insight-promoting interactions and to better understand analyst behaviors.

  7. Information environment,market-wide sentiment and IPO initial returns:Evidence from analyst forecasts before listing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjun; Zhu; Cheng; Zhang; He; Li; Shimin; Chen

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the information environment of firms using analyst(price)forecast bias and forecast dispersion before listing,we empirically examine the interactive influence of the information environment and market-wide sentiment on the initial returns of initial public offerings(IPOs).We find the smaller the analyst forecast bias/dispersion,the lower the effect market-wide sentiment has on IPO initial returns.This finding indicates that information asymmetry is a basic reason for noise trading occurs and demonstrates the positive effect of financial analysts during IPOs.In addition,the effect of analyst forecasts is more pronounced during periods of rising markets and when IPO prices are not regulated.

  8. The relation between indoor environnemental quality (IEQ and energy consumption in building based on occupant behavior - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ is an important topic which impacts on occupant health, productivity and also energy consumption in buildings. The four main parameters for IEQ evaluation are: Thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual comfort and aural comfort. The occupant behavior in buildings defines as any direct or indirect act which an occupant selects to change the displeasure environmental condition into the comfort conditions. The selected behavior by human has a significant impact on the energy consumption in buildings. This paper reviews the methods which used to simulate IEQ parameters, energy consumption and human behavior in buildings. It aims to promote the idea of more consideration about the relation between occupant behavior and energy usage in buildings. This summary of existing studies about the importance of human behavior factor in energy simulation software helps to identify new methods and strategies for simulating IEQ, Energy and behavior.

  9. Behavior modification techniques used to prevent gestational diabetes: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; Morris, Heather; Nagle, Cate; Nankervis, Alison

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity is increasing in developed countries, presenting significant challenges to acute care and public health. The aim of this study is to systematically review published controlled trials evaluating behavior modification interventions to prevent the development of GDM. Nine studies were identified involving such techniques as repetition of information, use of verbal and written educational information, goal setting, and planning, in addition to group and individual counseling sessions. Of the 3 trials with GDM incidence as a primary outcome, only 1 showed a significant reduction. GDM was a secondary outcome in 6 studies where the prevention of excessive gestational weight gain was the primary outcome and only 1 trial study determined an effective intervention. The small number of effective interventions highlights a significant gap in evidence to inform maternity health policy and practice.

  10. A systematic review of the use of aromatherapy in treatment of behavioral problems in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Jo Kamen K M; Tsang, Hector W H; Chung, Raymond C K

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to fill the literature gap by identifying the clinical benefits of aromatherapy in older adults with dementia, and its efficacy in reducing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) based on available randomized controlled trials (RCT). A systematic review of 11 clinical trials shortlisted from electronic databases from 1995 to 2011 was carried out. The RCT showed that aromatherapy had positive effects on reduction of BPSD, improvement in cognitive functions, increasing quality of life, enhancing independence of activities of daily living and so on. However, adverse effects were noted in some studies. Limitations on methodology are discussed and suggestions on directions of further studies are made. It is recommended that aromatherapy shows the potential to be applied as a therapeutic and safe complementary and alternative therapy for the management of BPSD on more evidence collected from better designed RCT.

  11. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.

  12. Dissemination of drinking water contamination data to consumers: a systematic review of impact on consumer behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination. Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26-72% among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0-0.46] 6-12 months post intervention suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. CONCLUSION: Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal behavior: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2009-08-01

    There is a large literature investigating the underlying mechanisms, risk factors and demographics of suicidal thoughts and behaviors across a number of psychiatric disorders, such as, major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. However, less research has focused on the relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and suicide. There were two broad aims of this review. The first was to assess the extent to which PTSD is associated with suicide, and the second was to determine the effects of co-morbid disorders on this relationship. Overall, there was a clear relationship between PTSD and suicidal thoughts and behaviors irrespective of the type of trauma experienced. Very few studies directly examined whether depression was a mediating factor in the relationships reported. However, where this was investigated, the presence of co-morbid depression appeared to boost the effect of PTSD on suicidality. It was noteworthy that hardly any studies had investigated concepts thought to be key in other domains of research into suicidality, such as, feelings of entrapment, defeat and hopelessness.

  14. Personality disorders, violence, and antisocial behavior: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Geddes, John R; Fazel, Seena

    2012-10-01

    The risk of antisocial outcomes in individuals with personality disorder (PD) remains uncertain. The authors synthesize the current evidence on the risks of antisocial behavior, violence, and repeat offending in PD, and they explore sources of heterogeneity in risk estimates through a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of observational studies comparing antisocial outcomes in personality disordered individuals with controls groups. Fourteen studies examined risk of antisocial and violent behavior in 10,007 individuals with PD, compared with over 12 million general population controls. There was a substantially increased risk of violent outcomes in studies with all PDs (random-effects pooled odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.5). Meta-regression revealed that antisocial PD and gender were associated with higher risks (p = .01 and .07, respectively). The odds of all antisocial outcomes were also elevated. Twenty-five studies reported the risk of repeat offending in PD compared with other offenders. The risk of a repeat offense was also increased (fixed-effects pooled OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.2 to 2.7) in offenders with PD. The authors conclude that although PD is associated with antisocial outcomes and repeat offending, the risk appears to differ by PD category, gender, and whether individuals are offenders or not.

  15. Physics of microswimmers--single particle motion and collective behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgeti, J; Winkler, R G; Gompper, G

    2015-05-01

    Locomotion and transport of microorganisms in fluids is an essential aspect of life. Search for food, orientation toward light, spreading of off-spring, and the formation of colonies are only possible due to locomotion. Swimming at the microscale occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where fluid friction and viscosity dominates over inertia. Here, evolution achieved propulsion mechanisms, which overcome and even exploit drag. Prominent propulsion mechanisms are rotating helical flagella, exploited by many bacteria, and snake-like or whip-like motion of eukaryotic flagella, utilized by sperm and algae. For artificial microswimmers, alternative concepts to convert chemical energy or heat into directed motion can be employed, which are potentially more efficient. The dynamics of microswimmers comprises many facets, which are all required to achieve locomotion. In this article, we review the physics of locomotion of biological and synthetic microswimmers, and the collective behavior of their assemblies. Starting from individual microswimmers, we describe the various propulsion mechanism of biological and synthetic systems and address the hydrodynamic aspects of swimming. This comprises synchronization and the concerted beating of flagella and cilia. In addition, the swimming behavior next to surfaces is examined. Finally, collective and cooperate phenomena of various types of isotropic and anisotropic swimmers with and without hydrodynamic interactions are discussed.

  16. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Empirical review and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Martin E; Kratz, Hilary E; Freeman, Jennifer B; Ivarsson, Tord; Heyman, Isobel; Sookman, Debbie; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A; March, John

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of much study over the past fifteen years. Building on a foundation of case studies and open clinical trials, the literature now contains many methodologically sound studies that have compared full CBT protocols to waitlist controls, pill placebo, psychosocial comparison conditions, active medication, combined treatments, and brief CBT. This review is part of a series commissioned by The Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (CIOCD) in an effort to publish in one place what is known about the efficacy of treatments for OCD. A total of fourteen studies were identified; collectively their findings support the efficacy of CBT for youth with OCD. CBT protocols that emphasized either strictly behavioral or cognitive conceptualizations have each been found efficacious relative to waitlist controls. Efforts to enhance CBT׳s efficacy and reach have been undertaken. These trials provide guidance regarding next steps to be taken to maximize efficacy and treatment availability. Findings from studies in community clinics suggest that significant treatment benefits can be realized and are not reported only from within academic contexts. These findings bode well for broader dissemination efforts. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.

  17. [Evidence for the Efficacy of Behavioral Activation against Depressive Disorder: A Literature Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Toshihide; Ishibashi, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests the significant efficacy of behavioral activation therapy (BA) for the treatment of depression, although BA had formerly been regarded as only a part of the techniques for cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT). The aim of this article is to review the effectiveness, indications, and limitations of BA for the psychosocial treatment of depression. The research group of Washington University in St. Louis, who previously suggested the marked efficacy of BA based on component analysis of CBT, performed a large-scale study to compare the effect of BA and cognitive therapy (CT) or antidepressant medication on the acute phase of depression. As the results, BA was superior to CT and comparable to antidepressant medication in acute-phase treatment for a subgroup of patients with relatively severe depression. Moreover, a long-term follow-up study revealed a benefit of BA compared to pharmacological treatment in regard to the persistence of the effect and cost-effectiveness. More recently, a number of meta-analyses have indicated no significant difference among BA and other psychotherapies regarding their efficacy for the treatment of depression. Because BA does not require patients or therapists to learn complex skills and is also time-efficient, it is recommended as the first-line treatment for mild or moderate depression. However, further studies are needed to consider indications, the timing of induction, and variation in BA techniques if it is applied for the treatment of depression in a general clinical setting in Japan.

  18. Weight loss maintenance in African American women: a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2013-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.

  19. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the

  20. Pollutants and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judith S. WEIS; Allison CANDELMO

    2012-01-01

    Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants.There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays,with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance.However,there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminatel environments.Therefore,we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites.The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus,is a non-migratory fish; those from more contaminated areas are poor predators and slower to capture active prey (grass shrimp,Palaemonetes pugio).In the field,they consume much detritus and sediment,which is not nutritious.They are less active than fish from cleaner sites and more vulnerable to predation.They have altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels,which may underlie altered behaviors.Fish from the reference site kept in tanks with sediment and food from the polluted site showed bioaccumulation and reduced prey capture after two months,although fish from the polluted site did not show significant improvement when maintained in a clean environment.Poor nutrition and predator avoidance may be responsible for their being smaller and having a shorter life span than reference fish.Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix,are a marine species in which the young-of-the-year spend their first summer in estuaries.We found bioaccumulation of contaminants and reduced activity,schooling,and feeding in young-of-the-year bluefish from a relatively unpolluted site that were fed prey fish from a contaminated site.They also had altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels.Many field-caught specimens had empty stomachs,which is rare in this species.In the fall,when they migrate back out to the ocean,they are smaller,slower,and more likely to starve or to be eaten than those that spent their summer in cleaner estuaries [Current Zoology 58 (1):9-20,2012].

  1. Pollutants and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. WEIS, Allison CANDELMO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants. There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays, with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance. However, there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminated environments. Therefore, we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites. The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus, is a non-migratory fish; those from more contaminated areas are poor predators and slower to capture active prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In the field, they consume much detritus and sediment, which is not nutritious. They are less active than fish from cleaner sites and more vulnerable to predation. They have altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels, which may underlie altered behaviors. Fish from the reference site kept in tanks with sediment and food from the polluted site showed bioaccumulation and reduced prey capture after two months, although fish from the polluted site did not show significant improvement when maintained in a clean environment. Poor nutrition and predator avoidance may be responsible for their being smaller and having a shorter life span than reference fish. Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, are a marine species in which the young-of-the-year spend their first summer in estuaries. We found bioaccumulation of contaminants and reduced activity, schooling, and feeding in young-of-the-year bluefish from a relatively unpolluted site that were fed prey fish from a contaminated site. They also had altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels. Many field-caught specimens had empty stomachs, which is rare in this species. In the fall, when they migrate back out to the ocean, they are smaller, slower, and more likely to starve or to be eaten than those that spent their summer in cleaner estuaries [Current Zoology 58 (1: 9-20, 2012].

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors of Hispanics in the United States and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Jeffrey H; Kay, Linda S; Passin, Warren F; Lyles, Cynthia M; Crepaz, Nicole; Marín, Barbara V

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review examines the overall efficacy of HIV behavioral interventions designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors or incident sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Hispanics residing in the United States or Puerto Rico. Data from 20 randomized and nonrandomized trials (N = 6,173 participants) available through January 2006 were included in this review. Interventions successfully reduced the odds of unprotected sex and number of sex partners, increased the odds of condom use, and decreased the odds of acquiring new STD infections. Interventions successful in reducing the odds of any sex risk behavior used non-peer deliverers; included >or=4 intervention sessions; taught condom use or problem solving skills; or addressed barriers to condom use, sexual abstinence, or peer norms. Interventions that included the Hispanic cultural belief of machismo or those developed based on ethnographic interviews were successful in reducing the odds of sex risk behaviors among non-drug users. Interventions targeting injection drug users (IDUs; N = 3,569) significantly reduced the odds of injection drug use and the odds of sharing cotton or cookers, but did not significantly reduce the odds of engaging in risky sex behavior or needle sharing. Further development of culturally appropriate HIV prevention interventions for Hispanic populations, particularly men and persons living with HIV, are warranted.

  3. Cultural identity, contrast and displacement: the "Analyst of Bagé" in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele Ramos Schweig

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes some elements for the analysis of one of the main characters of Luis Fernando Veríssimo: The Analyst of Bagé. It focuses, fundamentally, on the questions implicated in the humor of the text, which makes reference to the dilemma of gaucho’s identity constitution. Using theoretical references from Literary Theory and specially Social Anthropology, I aim to develop some interpretative hypotheses, as well as to map the questions that surround this peculiar character of Brazilian literature.

  4. Launch Processing System operations with a future look to Operations Analyst (OPERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1987-01-01

    The Launch Processing System architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle System engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter are described. The described ground operations are the culmination of eleven years of experience and redesign. Some of the 'lessons learned' are examined, and problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and Launch Processing Systems continue to grow in complexity are discussed. The Operational Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for the Launch Processing System Operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the Launch Processing System.

  5. Identifying the Education Needs of the Business Analyst: An Australian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Richards; Mauricio Marrone

    2014-01-01

    The Business Analyst (BA) plays a key role in ensuring that technology is appropriately used to achieve the organisation’s goals. This important mediating role is currently in high (unmet) demand in many English-speaking countries and thus more people need to be trained for this role. To determine the educational and/or training needs of a BA we conducted a survey in the Information and Communication Technology industry in Australia. The survey items are based on prior studies of information...

  6. Neural, psychophysiological, and behavioral markers of fear processing in PTSD: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvil, Erel; Rusch, Heather L; Sullivan, Gregory M; Neria, Yuval

    2013-05-01

    As presently defined, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an amalgam of symptoms falling into: re-experiencing of the trauma, avoidance of reminders of it, emotional numbing and hyperarousal. PTSD has a well-known proximate cause, commonly occurring after a life-threatening event that induces a response of intense fear, horror, and helplessness. Much of the advancement in understanding of the neurobiology of PTSD has emerged from conceptualizing the disorder as one that involves substantial dysfunction in fear processing. This article reviews recent knowledge of fear processing markers in PTSD. A systematic search was performed of reports within the specific three-year publication time period of January 2010 to December 2012. We identified a total of 31 studies reporting fear processing markers in PTSD. We further categorized them according to the following classification: (1) neural-activation markers (n=10), (2) psychophysiological markers (n=14), and (3) behavioral markers (n=7). Across most studies reviewed here, significant differences between individuals with PTSD and healthy controls were shown. Methodological, theoretical and clinical implications were discussed.

  7. Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheila N Garland,1 Jillian A Johnson,2 Josee Savard,3 Philip Gehrman,4 Michael Perlis,4 Linda Carlson,5 Tavis Campbell2 1Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3School of Psychology, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Individuals with cancer are disproportionately affected by sleep disturbance and insomnia relative to the general population. These problems can be a consequence of the psychological, behavioral, and physical effects of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia often persists for years and, when combined with already high levels of cancer-related distress, may place cancer survivors at a higher risk of future physical and mental health problems and poorer quality of life. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I, a non-pharmacological treatment that incorporates cognitive and behavior-change techniques and targets dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs, and habits involving sleep. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the efficacy of CBT-I on sleep and psychological outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. The search revealed 12 studies (four uncontrolled, eight controlled that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in cancer patients or survivors. Results suggest that CBT-I is associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in subjective sleep outcomes in patients with cancer. CBT-I may also improve mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life, and can be successfully delivered through a variety of treatment modalities, making it possible to reach a broader range of patients who may not have access to more traditional programs. Future

  8. Internet-based behavioral interventions for obesity: an updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Corti, Stefania; Molinari, Enrico; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2011-03-04

    The objective of this systematic review is to update a previous systematic review on the effectiveness of internet-based interventions for weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese people with new or additional studies. A literature search from 2008 to March 2010 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: participants were adults with a body mass index ≤ 25, at least one study arm involved an internet-based intervention and the primary aims were weight loss or maintenance. Eight additional studies over the eighteen included in the previous review met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on sample characteristics, attrition, weight loss, duration of treatment and maintenance of weight loss. Effect sizes (Hedges g) and relative 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all two-way comparisons within each study. No attempt was made to pool the data in a meta-analysis because of the great heterogeneity of designs among studies. An examination of effect sizes show that the higher significant effects pertain studies that found a superiority of behavioral internet-based programs enhanced by features such as tailored feedback on self-monitoring of weight, eating and activity over education only internet-based interventions. However, control groups are very different among studies and this heterogeneity probably accounts for much of the variance in effect sizes. Hence, questions still remain as to the effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss or maintenance. Implications for further research include using a "real" control group in order to make meta-analysis possible and developing multi-factorial design in order to separate components of interventions and identify which of them or patterns of them are keys to success.

  9. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  10. Behavior change interventions to prevent HIV infection among women living in low and middle income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sandra I; Kangwende, Rugare A; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-06-01

    We conducted a systematic review of behavioral change interventions to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV among women and girls living in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and other databases and bibliographies were systematically searched for trials using randomized or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate behavioral interventions with HIV infection as an outcome. We identified 11 analyses for inclusion reporting on eight unique interventions. Interventions varied widely in intensity, duration, and delivery as well as by target population. Only two analyses showed a significant protective effect on HIV incidence among women and only three of ten analyses that measured behavioral outcomes reduced any measure of HIV-related risk behavior. Ongoing research is needed to determine whether behavior change interventions can be incorporated as independent efficacious components in HIV prevention packages for women or simply as complements to biomedical prevention strategies.

  11. A Review of Intervention Programs to Prevent and Treat Behavioral Problems in Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L M

    2013-12-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at higher risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems than children in the general population. Effective prevention and treatment programs are necessary to reduce the burden of behavioral problems in this population. The current review identified 17 controlled trials of nine intervention programs for young children with developmental disabilities, with parent training the most common type of intervention in this population. Nearly all studies demonstrated medium to large intervention effects on child behavior post-intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests interventions developed for the general population can be effective for children with developmental disabilities and their families. A greater emphasis on the prevention of behavior problems in young children with developmental disabilities prior to the onset of significant symptoms or clinical disorders is needed. Multi-component interventions may be more efficacious for child behavior problems and yield greater benefits for parent and family adjustment. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.

  12. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buades-Rotger M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. Keywords: behavioral genetics, antisocial behaviors, monoamine oxidase A

  13. Behavior analysis and ecological psychology: past, present, and future. a review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K

    2009-09-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001)Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a means for understanding everyday human behavior. Although behavior analysis is excluded from this account, Heft's book warrants a review nonetheless: It describes ecological psychology in ways that are congruent and complementary with behavior analysis (e.g., nonmediational theorizing; the provinces of natural history and natural science). After introducing modern ecological psychology, I comment on (a) Heft's admirable, albeit selective, historiography; (b) his ecological psychology-past and present-as it relates to Skinner's science and system (e.g., affordances, molar behavior); (c) his misunderstandings of Skinner's behaviorism (e.g., reductionistic, mechanistic, molecular); and (d) the theoretical status of Heft's cognitive terms and talk (i.e., in ontology, epistemology, syntax). I conclude by considering the alliance and integration of ecological psychology and behavior analysis, and their implications for unifying and transforming psychology as a life science, albeit more for the future than at present.

  14. A survey of tools and resources for the next generation analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David L.; Graham, Jake; Catherman, Emily

    2015-05-01

    We have previously argued that a combination of trends in information technology (IT) and changing habits of people using IT provide opportunities for the emergence of a new generation of analysts that can perform effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) on a "do it yourself" (DIY) or "armchair" approach (see D.L. Hall and J. Llinas (2014)). Key technology advances include: i) new sensing capabilities including the use of micro-scale sensors and ad hoc deployment platforms such as commercial drones, ii) advanced computing capabilities in mobile devices that allow advanced signal and image processing and modeling, iii) intelligent interconnections due to advances in "web N" capabilities, and iv) global interconnectivity and increasing bandwidth. In addition, the changing habits of the digital natives reflect new ways of collecting and reporting information, sharing information, and collaborating in dynamic teams. This paper provides a survey and assessment of tools and resources to support this emerging analysis approach. The tools range from large-scale commercial tools such as IBM i2 Analyst Notebook, Palantir, and GeoSuite to emerging open source tools such as GeoViz and DECIDE from university research centers. The tools include geospatial visualization tools, social network analysis tools and decision aids. A summary of tools is provided along with links to web sites for tool access.

  15. Lecturer and Employee Performance Analysis in Department of Health Analyst, Health Polytechnic, Ministry of Health Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance is a concept that is often used in an organization to discuss about discussion and talks about the success of the organization or human resources. Moreover, this time an organization faced with the challenge of competition is high. Global market competition era, advances in information technology, as well as the community demands more and more critical. Performance becomes a very important issue in the organization as the organization and performance is a key statement of the effectiveness or success of an organization. The research is descriptive qualitative to describe the performance of teachers and employees of the Department of Health Analyst Polytechnic Makassar Ministry of Health of Health. The study population is all faculty and staff and selected as a sample of 10 respondents with the following conditions: 4 lecturers, 3 instructors and 3 administrative staff with data collection are interviews, observation, and documentation. Data were analyzed by descriptive qualitative and narrated. The results showed that the performance lecturers, instructors and employees at the Department of Health Analyst Health Polytechnic Makassar Ministry of Health has been good, however, are still in need of many efforts to make a better improve.

  16. Analyzing the Qualitative Data Analyst: A Naturalistic Investigation of Data Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Much qualitative research involves the analysis of verbal data. Although the possibility to conduct qualitative research in a rigorous manner is sometimes contested in debates of qualitative/quantitative methods, there are scholarly communities within which qualitative research is indeed data driven and enacted in rigorous ways. How might one teach rigorous approaches to analysis of verbal data? In this study, 20 sessions were recorded in introductory graduate classes on qualitative research methods. The social scientist thought aloud while analyzing transcriptions that were handed to her immediately prior the sessions and for which she had no background information. The students then assessed, sometimes showing the original video, the degree to which the analyst had recovered (the structures of the original events. This study provides answers to the broad question: "How does an analyst recover an original event with a high degree of accuracy?" Implications are discussed for teaching qualitative data analysis. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1503119

  17. Informing the judgments of fingerprint analysts using quality metric and statistical assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenburg, Glenn; Champod, Christophe; Genessay, Thibault

    2012-06-10

    The aim of this research was to evaluate how fingerprint analysts would incorporate information from newly developed tools into their decision making processes. Specifically, we assessed effects using the following: (1) a quality tool to aid in the assessment of the clarity of the friction ridge details, (2) a statistical tool to provide likelihood ratios representing the strength of the corresponding features between compared fingerprints, and (3) consensus information from a group of trained fingerprint experts. The measured variables for the effect on examiner performance were the accuracy and reproducibility of the conclusions against the ground truth (including the impact on error rates) and the analyst accuracy and variation for feature selection and comparison. The results showed that participants using the consensus information from other fingerprint experts demonstrated more consistency and accuracy in minutiae selection. They also demonstrated higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in the decisions reported. The quality tool also affected minutiae selection (which, in turn, had limited influence on the reported decisions); the statistical tool did not appear to influence the reported decisions.

  18. Using Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Clinical Work with African American Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Courtney J.; Cottone, R. Rocco

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature on clinical work with African American youth with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presented. The strengths and limitations of CBT in relation to this population are outlined. Although CBT shows promise in helping, research on the efficacy and effectiveness of CBT in this group is lacking. (Contains 3…

  19. Effects of Activity Schedules on Challenging Behavior Exhibited in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequia, Jenna; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy J.

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed studies implementing activity schedules to decrease challenging behavior of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 18 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of the effectiveness of activity schedules to…

  20. Basic Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia: Systematic Review of the Behavioral and Event-Related Potential/Field Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Salminen, Hanne K.; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    A review of research that uses behavioral, electroencephalographic, and/or magnetoencephalographic methods to investigate auditory processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia is presented. Findings show that measures of frequency, rise time, and duration discrimination as well as amplitude modulation and frequency modulation detection were…

  1. Behavior Analysis and Ecological Psychology: Past, Present, and Future. A Review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edward K

    2009-01-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a ...

  2. Measuring Homework Compliance in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression. Review, Preliminary Findings, and Implications for Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Scott T.; Lawrence, P. Scott; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the importance placed on completion of extra-session homework in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a review of the available literature suggests there is much about the nature of homework compliance that remains to be empirically evaluated. This is especially true among youth receiving CBT. The present study begins to address how best to…

  3. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  4. Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nilamadhab KarDepartment of Psychiatry, Wolverhampton City Primary Care Trust, Wolverhampton, UKBackground: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric sequel to a stressful event or situation of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT has been used in the management of PTSD for many years. This paper reviews the effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of PTSD following various types of trauma, its potential to prevent PTSD, methods used in CBT, and reflects on the mechanisms of action of CBT in PTSD.Methods: Electronic databases, including PubMed, were searched for articles on CBT and PTSD. Manual searches were conducted for cross-references in the relevant journal sites.Results: The current literature reveals robust evidence that CBT is a safe and effective intervention for both acute and chronic PTSD following a range of traumatic experiences in adults, children, and adolescents. However, nonresponse to CBT by PTSD can be as high as 50%, contributed to by various factors, including comorbidity and the nature of the study population. CBT has been validated and used across many cultures, and has been used successfully by community therapists following brief training in individual and group settings. There has been effective use of Internet-based CBT in PTSD. CBT has been found to have a preventive role in some studies, but evidence for definitive recommendations is inadequate. The effect of CBT has been mediated mostly by the change in maladaptive cognitive distortions associated with PTSD. Many studies also report physiological, functional neuroimaging, and electroencephalographic changes correlating with response to CBT.Conclusion: There is scope for further research on implementation of CBT following major disasters, its preventive potential following various traumas, and the neuropsychological mechanisms of action.Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, cognitive behavioral therapy

  5. A meta-analytic review of exposure in group cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, T L; Mott, J M; Hofstein, R F; Teng, E J

    2013-02-01

    Although the efficacy of exposure is well established in individual cognitive behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), some clinicians and researchers have expressed concerns regarding the use of in-session disclosure of trauma details through imaginal exposure in group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) for PTSD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the empirical support for GCBT in the treatment of PTSD and to compare GCBT protocols that encourage the disclosure of trauma details via in-session exposure to GCBT protocols that do not include in-session exposure. Randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of GCBT for PTSD were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 651 participants with PTSD were included in the 12 eligible GCBT treatment conditions (5 conditions included in-group exposure, 7 conditions did not include in-group exposure). The overall pre-post effect size of GCBT for PTSD (ES=1.13 [SE=0.22, 95% CI: 0.69 to 1.56, pPTSD. No significant differences in effect sizes were found between GCBT treatments that included in-group exposure and those that did not. Although the attrition rate was higher in treatments that included exposure in-group, this rate is comparable to attrition rates in individual CBT treatments and pharmacotherapy for PTSD. The results from this meta-analysis suggest that concerns about the potentially negative impact of group exposure may be unwarranted, and support the use of exposure-based GCBT as a promising treatment option for PTSD.

  6. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2012-12-04

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  7. Multimodal secondary prevention behavioral interventions for TIA and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Lawrence

    Full Text Available Guidelines recommend implementation of multimodal interventions to help prevent recurrent TIA/stroke. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of behavioral secondary prevention interventions.Searches were conducted in 14 databases, including MEDLINE (1980-January 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs testing multimodal interventions against usual care/modified usual care. All review processes were conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines.Twenty-three papers reporting 20 RCTs (6,373 participants of a range of multimodal behavioral interventions were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Meta-analyses were possible for physiological, lifestyle, psychosocial and mortality/recurrence outcomes. Note: all reported confidence intervals are 95%. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 4.21 mmHg (mean (-6.24 to -2.18, P = 0.01 I2 = 58%, 1,407 participants; diastolic blood pressure by 2.03 mmHg (mean (-3.19 to -0.87, P = 0.004, I2 = 52%, 1,407 participants. No significant changes were found for HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity-CR, BMI, weight or waist:hip ratio, although there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (-6.69 cm, -11.44 to -1.93, P = 0.006, I2 = 0%, 96 participants. There was no significant difference in smoking continuance, or improved fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a significant difference in compliance with antithrombotic medication (OR 1.45, 1.21 to 1.75, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%, 2,792 participants and with statins (OR 2.53, 2.15 to 2.97, P< 0.00001, I2 = 0%, 2,636 participants; however, there was no significant difference in compliance with antihypertensives. There was a significant reduction in anxiety (-1.20, -1.77 to -0.63, P<0.0001, I2 = 85%, 143 participants. Although there was no significant difference in odds of death or recurrent TIA/stroke, there was a significant reduction in the odds of cardiac events (OR 0.38, 0

  8. A Review of the Literature of a Dual Diagnosis: Mental Retardation and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a synthesis of the literature findings on the dual diagnosis of mental retardation and behavior disorders. Topics covered include: (1) behavior management techniques; (2) drug treatment; (3) family perspectives; (4) education; (5) behavioral treatment; and (6) behavior disorders and mental retardation as mild disabilities. (Author/CR)

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Debora; Raggi, Alberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with breast cancer and to assess the effect of CBT-I on their psychosocial functioning, sleep, quality of life, and mood. Methods: Empirical articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the earliest reports available until August 2015 were considered. The research on PubMed generated 18 papers, three of which did not meet the inclusion criteria. Another paper was retrieved by screening the reference list of the previously selected papers. Results: A total of 16 studies were found that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in breast cancer patients. CBT-I appears to be an effective therapy for insomnia in BCS, improving mood, general and physical fatigue, and global and cognitive dimensions of quality of life. CBT-I may also reduce menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweat problems, frequency of medicated nights, level of depression, and anxiety. Conclusions: CBT-I seems to be an eligible intervention for improving sleep in BCS. Improvements concerning insomnia and sleep quality are durable (usually up to 12 months) and statistically significant. PMID:27536265

  10. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR INSOMNIA IN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Aricò

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with breast cancer and to assess the effect of CBT-I on their psychosocial functioning, sleep, quality of life, and mood. Methods: Empirical articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the earliest reports available until August 2015 were considered. The research on PubMed generated 18 papers, three of which did not meet the inclusion criteria. Another paper was retrieved by screening the reference list of the previously selected papers. Results: A total of 16 studies were found that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in breast cancer patients. CBT-I appears to be an effective therapy for insomnia in breast cancer survivors, improving mood, general and physical fatigue and global and cognitive dimensions of quality of life. CBT-I may also reduce menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweat problems, frequency of medicated nights, level of depression, and anxiety. Conclusions: CBT-I seems to be an eligible intervention for improving sleep in breast cancer survivors. Improvements concerning insomnia and sleep quality are durable (usually up to 12 months and statistically significant.

  11. Finite element analysis of mechanical behavior of human dysplastic hip joints: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaeian, B; Zonoobi, D; Mabee, M; Hareendranathan, A R; El-Rich, M; Adeeb, S; Jaremko, J L

    2016-11-09

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common condition predisposing to osteoarthritis (OA). Especially since DDH is best identified and treated in infancy before bones ossify, there is surprisingly a near-complete absence of literature examining mechanical behavior of infant dysplastic hips. We sought to identify current practice in finite element modeling (FEM) of DDH, to inform future modeling of infant dysplastic hips. We performed multi-database systematic review using PRISMA criteria. Abstracts (n = 126) fulfilling inclusion criteria were screened for methodological quality, and results were analyzed and summarized for eligible articles (n = 12). The majority of the studies modeled human adult dysplastic hips. Two studies focused on etiology of DDH through simulating mechanobiological growth of prenatal hips; we found no FEM-based studies in infants or children. Finite element models used either patient-specific geometry or idealized average geometry. Diversities in choice of material properties, boundary conditions, and loading scenarios were found in the finite-element models. FEM of adult dysplastic hips demonstrated generally smaller cartilage contact area in dysplastic hips than in normal joints. Contact pressure (CP) may be higher or lower in dysplastic hips depending on joint geometry and mechanical contribution of labrum (Lb). FEM of mechanobiological growth of prenatal hip joints revealed evidence for effects of the joint mechanical environment on formation of coxa valga, asymmetrically shallow acetabulum and malformed femoral head associated with DDH. Future modeling informed by the results of this review may yield valuable insights into optimal treatment of DDH, and into how and why OA develops early in DDH.

  12. [Concordance among analysts from Latin-American laboratories for rice grain appearance determination using a gallery of digital images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Manuel; Graterol, Eduardo; Alezones, Jesús; Criollo, Beisy; Castillo, Dámaso; Kuri, Victoria; Oviedo, Norman; Moquete, Cesar; Romero, Marbella; Hanley, Zaida; Taylor, Margie

    2012-06-01

    The appearance of rice grain is a key aspect in quality determination. Mainly, this analysis is performed by expert analysts through visual observation; however, due to the subjective nature of the analysis, the results may vary among analysts. In order to evaluate the concordance between analysts from Latin-American rice quality laboratories for rice grain appearance through digital images, an inter-laboratory test was performed with ten analysts and images of 90 grains captured with a high resolution scanner. Rice grains were classified in four categories including translucent, chalky, white belly, and damaged grain. Data was categorized using statistic parameters like mode and its frequency, the relative concordance, and the reproducibility parameter kappa. Additionally, a referential image gallery of typical grain for each category was constructed based on mode frequency. Results showed a Kappa value of 0.49, corresponding to a moderate reproducibility, attributable to subjectivity in the visual analysis of grain images. These results reveal the need for standardize the evaluation criteria among analysts to improve the confidence of the determination of rice grain appearance.

  13. Can functional magnetic resonance imaging studies help with the optimization of health messaging for lifestyle behavior change? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Maxine E; Morgan, Paul S; Sherar, Lauren B; Orme, Mark W; Esliger, Dale W

    2017-02-15

    Unhealthy behaviors, including smoking, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles, are global risk factors for non-communicable diseases and premature death. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers a unique approach to optimize health messages by examining how the brain responds to information relating to health. Our aim was to systematically review fMRI studies that have investigated variations in brain activation in response to health messages relating to (i) smoking; (ii) alcohol consumption; (iii) physical activity; (iv) diet; and (v) sedentary behavior. The electronic databases used were Medline/PubMed, Web of Science (Core Collection), PsychINFO, SPORTDiscuss, Cochrane Library and Open Grey. Studies were included if they investigated subjects aged ≥10years and were published before January 2017. Of the 13,836 studies identified in the database search, 18 studies (smoking k=15; diet k=2; physical activity/sedentary behavior k=1) were included in the review. The prefrontal cortex was activated in seven (47%) of the smoking-related studies and the physical activity study. Results suggest that activation of the ventromedial, dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex regions were predictive of subsequent behavior change following exposure to aversive anti-smoking stimuli. Studies investigating the neurological responses to anti-smoking material were most abundant. Of note, the prefrontal cortex and amygdala were most commonly activated in response to health messages across lifestyle behaviors. The review highlights an important disparity between research focusing on different lifestyle behaviors. Insights from smoking literature suggest fMRI may help to optimize health messaging in relation to other lifestyle behaviors.

  14. Comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Matthew D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insomnia is common in primary care, can persist after co-morbid conditions are treated, and may require long-term medication treatment. A potential alternative to medications is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I. Methods In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register, and PsycINFO for randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing CBT-I to any prescription or non-prescription medication in patients with primary or comorbid insomnia. Trials had to report quantitative sleep outcomes (e.g. sleep latency in order to be included in the analysis. Extracted results included quantitative sleep outcomes, as well as psychological outcomes and adverse effects when available. Evidence base quality was assessed using GRADE. Results Five studies met criteria for analysis. Low to moderate grade evidence suggests CBT-I has superior effectiveness to benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine drugs in the long term, while very low grade evidence suggests benzodiazepines are more effective in the short term. Very low grade evidence supports use of CBT-I to improve psychological outcomes. Conclusions CBT-I is effective for treating insomnia when compared with medications, and its effects may be more durable than medications. Primary care providers should consider CBT-I as a first-line treatment option for insomnia.

  15. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Zimmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.

  16. Review of the social and environmental factors affecting the behavior and welfare of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, J; Watanabe, T T N; Ferrante, V; Estevez, I

    2013-06-01

    In modern rearing systems, turkey producers often face economic losses due to increased aggression, feather pecking, cannibalism, leg disorders, or injuries among birds, which are also significant welfare issues. The main underlying causes appear to relate to rapid growth, flock size, density, poor environmental complexity, or lighting, which may be deficient in providing the birds with an adequate physical or social environment. To date, there is little information regarding the effect of these factors on turkey welfare. This knowledge is, however, essential to ensure the welfare of turkeys and to improve their quality of life, but may also be beneficial to industry, allowing better bird performance, improved carcass quality, and reduced mortality and condemnations. This paper reviews the available scientific literature related to the behavior of turkeys as influenced by the physical and social environment that may be relevant to advances toward turkey production systems that take welfare into consideration. We addressed the effects that factors such as density, group size, space availability, maturation, lightning, feeding, and transport may have over parameters that may be relevant to ensure welfare of turkeys. Available scientific studies were based in experimental environments and identified individual factors corresponding to particular welfare problems. Most of the studies aimed at finding optimal levels of rearing conditions that allow avoiding or decreasing most severe welfare issues. This paper discusses the importance of these factors for development of production environments that would be better suited from a welfare and economic point of view.

  17. Agonistic display or courtship behavior? A review of contests over mating opportunity in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Male butterflies compete over mating opportunities. Two types of contest behavior are reported. Males of various butterfly species compete over a mating territory via aerial interactions until one of the two contestants retreats. Males of other butterfly species fly around larval food plants to find receptive females. Males of some species among the latter type can find a conspecific pupa, and they gather around it without expelling their rivals. Scramble competition over mating occurs when a female emerges from the pupa. Many studies have been performed on territorial species, and their contest resolution has often been understood from the point of view of contest models based on game theory. However, these models cannot explain why these butterflies perform contest displays despite the fact that they do not have the ability to attack their opponent. A recent study based on Lloyd Morgan's Canon showed that territorial contests of male butterflies are better understood as erroneous courtship between sexually active males. In this paper, I review research on contests over mating opportunity in butterflies, and show that the erroneous courtship framework can explain not only territorial contests of butterflies but also why males do not determine the owner of a conspecific pupa.

  18. Biochar: A review of its impact on pesticide behavior in soil environments and its potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Khorram, Mahdi; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Dunli; Zheng, Yuan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is produced from the pyrolysis of carbon-rich plant- and animal-residues under low oxygen and high temperature conditions and has been increasingly used for its positive role in soil compartmentalization through activities such as carbon sequestration and improving soil quality. Biochar is also considered a unique adsorbent due to its high specific surface area and highly carbonaceous nature. Therefore, soil amendments with small amounts of biochar could result in higher adsorption and, consequently, decrease the bioavailability of contaminants to microbial communities, plants, earthworms, and other organisms in the soil. However, the mechanisms affecting the environmental fate and behavior of organic contaminants, especially pesticides in biochar-amended soil, are not well understood. The purpose of this work is to review the role of biochar in primary processes, such as adsorption-desorption and leaching of pesticides. Biochar has demonstrable effects on the fate and effects of pesticides and has been shown to affect the degradation and bioavailability of pesticides for living organisms. Moreover, some key aspects of agricultural and environmental applications of biochar are highlighted.

  19. Face identity recognition in autism spectrum disorders: a review of behavioral studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Sarah; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-03-01

    Face recognition--the ability to recognize a person from their facial appearance--is essential for normal social interaction. Face recognition deficits have been implicated in the most common disorder of social interaction: autism. Here we ask: is face identity recognition in fact impaired in people with autism? Reviewing behavioral studies we find no strong evidence for a qualitative difference in how facial identity is processed between those with and without autism: markers of typical face identity recognition, such as the face inversion effect, seem to be present in people with autism. However, quantitatively--i.e., how well facial identity is remembered or discriminated--people with autism perform worse than typical individuals. This impairment is particularly clear in face memory and in face perception tasks in which a delay intervenes between sample and test, and less so in tasks with no memory demand. Although some evidence suggests that this deficit may be specific to faces, further evidence on this question is necessary.

  20. Additively Manufactured Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering and the Prediction of their Mechanical Behavior: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM, nowadays commonly known as 3D printing, is a revolutionary materials processing technology, particularly suitable for the production of low-volume parts with high shape complexities and often with multiple functions. As such, it holds great promise for the fabrication of patient-specific implants. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in implementing AM in the bio-fabrication field. This paper presents an overview on the state-of-the-art AM technology for bone tissue engineering (BTE scaffolds, with a particular focus on the AM scaffolds made of metallic biomaterials. It starts with a brief description of architecture design strategies to meet the biological and mechanical property requirements of scaffolds. Then, it summarizes the working principles, advantages and limitations of each of AM methods suitable for creating porous structures and manufacturing scaffolds from powdered materials. It elaborates on the finite-element (FE analysis applied to predict the mechanical behavior of AM scaffolds, as well as the effect of the architectural design of porous structure on its mechanical properties. The review ends up with the authors’ view on the current challenges and further research directions.

  1. Occurrence, fate and behavior of parabens in aquatic environments: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, Camille; Dauchy, Xavier; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, with an alkyl (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl or heptyl) or benzyl group. They are mainly used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceutical drugs. Parabens may act as weak endocrine disrupter chemicals, but controversy still surrounds the health effects of these compounds. Despite being used since the mid-1920s, it was only in 1996 that the first analytical results of their occurrence in water were published. Considered as emerging contaminants, it is useful to review the knowledge acquired over the last decade regarding their occurrence, fate and behavior in aquatic environments. Despite treatments that eliminate them relatively well from wastewater, parabens are always present at low concentration levels in effluents of wastewater treatment plants. Although they are biodegradable, they are ubiquitous in surface water and sediments, due to consumption of paraben-based products and continuous introduction into the environment. Methylparaben and propylparaben predominate, reflecting the composition of paraben mixtures in common consumer products. Being compounds containing phenolic hydroxyl groups, parabens can react readily with free chlorine, yielding halogenated by-products. Chlorinated parabens have been detected in wastewater, swimming pools and rivers, but not yet in drinking water. These chlorinated by-products are more stable and persistent than the parent species and further studies are needed to improve knowledge regarding their toxicity.

  2. Board-invited review: the ethical and behavioral bases for farm animal welfare legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, C C; Millman, S T

    2007-02-01

    Concerns about farm animal welfare vary among individuals and societies. As people increasingly consider the values underlying current farm animal production methods, farm animal welfare policy debates have escalated. Recent food animal protection policies enacted in the European Union have fueled highly contentious discussions about the need for similar legislative activity in the United States. Policymakers and scientists in the United States are apprehensive about the scientific assessment, validation, and monitoring of animal welfare, as well as the unforeseen consequences of moving too hastily toward legislating farm animal welfare. The potential impact of such legislation on producers, food prices, animals, and concerned citizens must also be considered. Balancing the interests of all stakeholders has therefore presented a considerable challenge that has stymied US policymaking. In this review, we examine the roles of ethics and science in policy decisions, discuss how scientific knowledge relative to animal behavior has been incorporated into animal welfare policy, and identify opportunities for additional refinement of animal welfare science that may facilitate ethical and policy decisions about animal care.

  3. EEG-Neurofeedback as a Tool to Modulate Cognition and Behavior: A Review Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J.; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2017-01-01

    Neurofeedback is attracting renewed interest as a method to self-regulate one’s own brain activity to directly alter the underlying neural mechanisms of cognition and behavior. It not only promises new avenues as a method for cognitive enhancement in healthy subjects, but also as a therapeutic tool. In the current article, we present a review tutorial discussing key aspects relevant to the development of electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback studies. In addition, the putative mechanisms underlying neurofeedback learning are considered. We highlight both aspects relevant for the practical application of neurofeedback as well as rather theoretical considerations related to the development of new generation protocols. Important characteristics regarding the set-up of a neurofeedback protocol are outlined in a step-by-step way. All these practical and theoretical considerations are illustrated based on a protocol and results of a frontal-midline theta up-regulation training for the improvement of executive functions. Not least, assessment criteria for the validation of neurofeedback studies as well as general guidelines for the evaluation of training efficacy are discussed. PMID:28275344

  4. The role of cholecystokinin in the induction of aggressive behavior: a focus on the available experimental data (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsouni, E; Zarros, A; Skandali, N; Tsakiris, Stylianos; Lappas, D

    2013-12-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide that is (among others) reportedly involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. The excitatory role of CCK in negative affective emotions as well as in aversive reactions, antisocial behaviors and memories, has been indicated by numerous electrophysiological, neurochemical and behavioral methodologies on both animal models for anxiety and human studies. The current review article summarizes the existing experimental evidence with regards to the role of CCK in the induction of aggressive behavior, and: (a) synopsizes the anatomical circuits through which it could potentially mediate all types of aggressive behavior, as well as (b) highlights the potential use of these experimental evidence in the current research quest for the clinical treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.

  5. Effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training to modify disruptive and prosocial child behavior: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Ankie T A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2013-12-01

    The present meta-analytic review examined effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training (IYPT) regarding disruptive and prosocial child behavior, and aimed to explain variability in intervention outcomes. Fifty studies, in which an intervention group receiving the IYPT was compared to a comparison group immediately after intervention, were included in the analyses. Results showed that the IYPT is an effective intervention. Positive effects for distinct outcomes and distinct informants were found, including a mean effect size of d=.27 concerning disruptive child behavior across informants. For parental report, treatment studies were associated with larger effects (d=.50) than indicated (d=.20) and selective (d=.13) prevention studies. Furthermore, initial severity of child behavior revealed to be the strongest predictor of intervention effects, with larger effects for studies including more severe cases. Findings indicate that the IYPT is successful in improving child behavior in a diverse range of families, and that the parent program may be considered well-established.

  6. The variability of crater identification among expert and community crater analysts

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Stuart J; Kirchoff, Michelle R; Chapman, Clark R; Fassett, Caleb I; Herrick, Robert R; Singer, Kelsi; Zanetti, Michael; Lehan, Cory; Huang, Di; Gay, Pamela L

    2014-01-01

    The identification of impact craters on planetary surfaces provides important information about their geological history. Most studies have relied on individual analysts who map and identify craters and interpret crater statistics. However, little work has been done to determine how the counts vary as a function of technique, terrain, or between researchers. Furthermore, several novel internet-based projects ask volunteers with little to no training to identify craters, and it was unclear how their results compare against the typical professional researcher. To better understand the variation among experts and to compare with volunteers, eight professional researchers have identified impact features in two separate regions of the moon. Small craters (diameters ranging from 10 m to 500 m) were measured on a lunar mare region and larger craters (100s m to a few km in diameter) were measured on both lunar highlands and maria. Volunteer data were collected for the small craters on the mare. Our comparison shows t...

  7. The Analyst's Act and the Child's Desire: A Retrospective Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Annie G

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, I lay out a blueprint for a child analysis, stipulating the terms and ethics of the Lacanian field of psychoanalysis, the position of the analyst in that field, and the invitation to the child to discover a space for desire in the work of play. Drawing on the grounding work of Freud, Lacan, Dolto, Lefort, Mannoni, and Mathelin, I describe the mainsprings of the psychoanalytic clinic with the child. I then offer a child case and its trajectory from the development of a phobia to a symptom, and show how the primal scene fantasy and its articulation can open a space for desire in a child's play. What is particular to this work of playing is the emergence of signifiers that chain across generations, and move into new metaphors that foreground the Real of the child's experience and desire.

  8. The Stewardship Role of Analyst Forecasts, and Discretionary Versus Non-Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin

    2013-01-01

    timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation......, as opposed to leaving firms more choice over non-discretionary accrual policies, may lead firms to rationally respond by inducing costly earnings management. More generally, regulating both earnings persistence and the tightness of admissible auditing policies may not result in less equilibrium earnings......We examine the interaction between discretionary and non-discretionary accruals in a stewardship setting. Contracting includes multiple rounds of renegotiation based on contractible accounting information and non-contractible but more timely non-accounting information. We show that accounting...

  9. The Stewardship Role of Analyst Forecasts, and Discretionary Versus Non-Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin

    timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation......, as opposed to leaving firms more choice over non-discretionary accrual policies, may lead firms to rationally respond by inducing costly earnings management. More generally, regulating both earnings persistence and the tightness of admissible auditing policies may not result in less equilibrium earnings......We examine the interaction between discretionary and non-discretionary accruals in a stewardship setting. Contracting includes multiple rounds of renegotiation based on contractible accounting information and non-contractible but more timely non-accounting information. We show that accounting...

  10. Interfacing a biosurveillance portal and an international network of institutional analysts to detect biological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo, Flavia; Shigematsu, Mika; Chow, Catherine; McKnight, C Jason; Linge, Jens; Doherty, Brian; Dente, Maria Grazia; Declich, Silvia; Barker, Mike; Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Donachie, Alastair; Mawudeku, Abla; Blench, Michael; Arthur, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project, launched in 2008, is aimed at improving global early alerting and risk assessment and evaluating the feasibility and opportunity of integrating the analysis of biological, chemical, radionuclear (CBRN), and pandemic influenza threats. At a time when no international collaborations existed in the field of event-based surveillance, EAR's innovative approach involved both epidemic intelligence experts and internet-based biosurveillance system providers in the framework of an international collaboration called the Global Health Security Initiative, which involved the ministries of health of the G7 countries and Mexico, the World Health Organization, and the European Commission. The EAR project pooled data from 7 major internet-based biosurveillance systems onto a common portal that was progressively optimized for biological threat detection under the guidance of epidemic intelligence experts from public health institutions in Canada, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The group became the first end users of the EAR portal, constituting a network of analysts working with a common standard operating procedure and risk assessment tools on a rotation basis to constantly screen and assess public information on the web for events that could suggest an intentional release of biological agents. Following the first 2-year pilot phase, the EAR project was tested in its capacity to monitor biological threats, proving that its working model was feasible and demonstrating the high commitment of the countries and international institutions involved. During the testing period, analysts using the EAR platform did not miss intentional events of a biological nature and did not issue false alarms. Through the findings of this initial assessment, this article provides insights into how the field of epidemic intelligence can advance through an

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Couple Therapies: Review of the Evidence for the Treatment of Relationship Distress, Psychopathology, and Chronic Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melanie S; Baucom, Donald H; Cohen, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioral couple therapy (CBCT) is an approach to assisting couples that has strong empirical support for alleviating relationship distress. This paper provides a review of the empirical status of CBCT along with behavioral couple therapy (BCT), as well as the evidence for recent applications of CBCT principles to couple-based interventions for individual psychopathology and medical conditions. Several meta-analyses and major reviews have confirmed the efficacy of BCT and CBCT across trials in the United States, Europe, and Australia, and there is little evidence to support differential effectiveness of various forms of couple therapy derived from behavioral principles. A much smaller number of effectiveness studies have shown that successful implementation in community settings is possible, although effect sizes tend to be somewhat lower than those evidenced in randomized controlled trials. Adapted for individual problems, cognitive-behavioral couple-based interventions appear to be at least as effective as individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) across a variety of psychological disorders, and often more effective, especially when partners are substantially involved in treatment. In addition, couple-based interventions tend to have the unique added benefit of improving relationship functioning. Findings on couple-based interventions for medical conditions are more varied and more complex to interpret given the greater range of target outcomes (psychological, relational, and medical variables).

  12. Current Methods in Health Behavior Research Among U.S. Community College Students: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Little, Melissa A; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-01

    The majority of health behavior research involving college students in the United States has focused on 4-year college students. Two-year or community college students have been less studied, although a significant proportion of U.S. undergraduates, primarily those from disadvantaged socioeconomic and/or racial/ethnic background, are enrolled in community colleges. Thus, there is a need to enhance health behavior and health promotion research among community college students. This study systematically reviewed 42 published, peer-reviewed health behavior studies conducted among U.S. community college students in order to determine the current state of research in the area with regard to behaviors studied, research designs used, recruitment and data collection strategies practiced, rates of student participation, and characteristics of the participants represented. Findings identified the methodological limitations of current research and suggested optimal recruitment and data collection methods suitable for various research needs. Findings are discussed in the context of enhancing health behavior research among U.S. community college students.

  13. A Behavioral Look at the Training of Alex: A Review of Pepperberg's "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bruce E.; Potter, Bill

    2004-01-01

    "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots" by Irene Pepperberg is reviewed from a behavior analytic orientation. The results of the majority of her experiments are discussed in terms drawn from the general literature of behavior analysis and Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. We conclude that she has provided…

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors associated with female condoms in developing countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lizzie Moore,1 Mags Beksinska,1,2 Alnecia Rumphs,3 Mario Festin,4 Erica L Gollub3 1MatCH Research (Maternal, Adolescent and Child Health Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand, Westville, Durban, South Africa; 2Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 3Florida International University, Department of Epidemiology, Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Miami, FL, USA; 4World Health Organization, Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Abstract: Women in developing countries are at high risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unplanned pregnancy. The female condom (FC is an effective dual protective method regarded as a tool for woman's empowerment, yet supply and uptake are limited. Numerous individual, socioeconomic, and cultural factors influence uptake of new contraceptive methods. We reviewed studies of FC knowledge, attitudes, practices, and behaviors across developing countries, as well as available country-level survey data, in order to identify overarching trends and themes. High acceptability was documented in studies conducted in diverse settings among male and female FC users, with FCs frequently compared favorably to male condoms. Furthermore, FC introduction has been shown to increase the proportion of "protected" sex acts in study populations, by offering couples additional choice. However, available national survey data showed low uptake with no strong association with method awareness, as well as inconsistent patterns of use between countries. We identified a large number of method attributes and contextual factors influencing FC use/nonuse, most of which were perceived both positively and negatively by different groups and between settings. Male partner

  15. Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

  16. Cultural and Ethnic Bias in Teacher Ratings of Behavior: A Criterion-Focused Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin A.; Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Ney, Emilie A.

    2014-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are indirect measures of emotional and social functioning used for assessment purposes. Rater bias is systematic error that may compromise the validity of behavior rating scale scores. Teacher bias in ratings of behavior has been investigated in multiple studies, but not yet assessed in a research synthesis that focuses on…

  17. Aggression and Tantrums in Children with Autism: A Review of Behavioral Treatments and Maintaining Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    Aggression and tantrums are common co-occurring problems with autism. Fortunately, positive developments in the treatment of these challenging and stigmatizing behaviors have been made recently with psychologically-based interventions. Evidence-based methods employ behavior modification, which is also often described as applied behavior analysis…

  18. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  19. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescent: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesibe Olgun Kaval

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to review the articles on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In this systematic review, articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (March have been searched in the national and international databases. 20 studies that were met the search criteria were examined in terms of research method, therapy characteristics and results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive behavioral group therapy is effective for symptoms of social anxiety and the problems that accompany social anxiety (depression, anxiety, etc. in children and adolescents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 3-22

  20. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lima-Serrano

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed.

  1. Evasion, private events, and pragmatism: A Reply to Moore's response to my review of Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Moore's screed in response to my review of his book uses several rhetorical tricks to counter criticism without actually addressing it: he tries to preempt the transparency of his own orthodoxy by groundlessly accusing me of orthodoxy; he caricatures my criticisms to make them appear obviously wrong; he professes lack of understanding so as to dodge having to attempt a genuine response; and he engages in pejorative labeling to dismiss the criticisms without analysis. From a scientific and pragmatic point of view, private events are a mistake, precisely because they are private. They cannot serve as independent variables, as Moore suggests, because they cannot be measured; “private independent variable” is a contradiction in terms. When we carefully examine locutions like “observe” and “report on,” we discover that they entail only public verbal and nonverbal behavior, not objects and not private events as objects. A person in pain is not reporting on anything, is engaging in public verbal and nonverbal pain-behavior, and an infant or a dog may be considered to be in pain. The public behavior is all that matters, because determining whether a person is really in pain privately is impossible. The same is true of any private event, and the control of the public behavior on which the verbal community comments lies in the public environment. We cannot have two sets of principles, one for verbal behavior and one for nonverbal behavior or one for humans and one for other animals.

  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Current Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Controversy remains about the empirical status of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its presumably different characteristics relative to traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The current study aims to shed some light in this respect by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies that have empirically compared ACT versus CBT. Sixteen studies comparing differential outcomes (N= 954) of ACT versus CBT in diverse problems were identified following several s...

  3. Systemic Review of Clinical- and Cost-effectiveness of Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CCBT) for Adult Depression (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been increasing attention paid to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a treatment for depression, despite its limitations such as a shortage of therapists. Therefore, computerized-CBT (CCBT) was developed to overcome this issue. Within our meta-analysis of adult depression (So et al., 2013), a sub-analysis was conducted on 1) guidance, 2) generation, 3) the severity of depression, and 4) multimedia functions, followed by a systematic review of cost-benefit analyses. 1) Th...

  4. Long Term Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Gokdag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to conduct systematic review the articles on long term effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for treatment of major depressive disorder. Articles in English and Turkish published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (January were searched in national and international databases. The articles that did not include follow-up studies were excluded. Although the main aim of this study is to evaluate permanent effect of the cognitive behavioral group therapy, 21 articles that met the criteria were examined also in terms of some other variables such as research method, therapy characteristics and post test results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is effective for major depressive disorder and post therapy gains are maintained for a long time. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 23-38

  5. Monday-Morning Quarterbacking: A Senior Analyst Uses His Early Work to Discuss Contemporary Child and Adolescent Psychoanalytic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary child and adolescent psychoanalytic technique has evolved and changed a great deal in the last thirty years. This paper will describe the analysis of an adolescent girl from early in the author's career to demonstrate the ways in which technique has changed. The clinical material presented highlights six areas in which contemporary child and adolescent analysts practice and/or understand material and the clinical process differently than they did thirty years ago: (1) the contemporary perspective on mutative action, (2) the contemporary emphasis on mental organization, (3) the developmental lag in integrating the structural model, (4) the child analyst's multiple functions, (5) the child analyst's use of countertransference, and (6) the child analyst's work with parents. The author discusses how he would work differently with the patient now using his contemporary perspective. But he also wonders what might have been lost by not working in a more traditional manner, in particular the opportunity to analyze the patient's hypersensitivity to feeling hurt and mistreated so directly in the transference.

  6. The impact of education on sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Jukes, Matthew C H

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to determine the relationship between education and HIV status. However, a complete and causal understanding of this relationship requires analysis of its mediating pathways, focusing on sexual behaviors. We developed a series of hypotheses based on the differential effect of educational attainment on three sexual behaviors. We tested our predictions in a systematic literature review including 65 articles reporting associations between three specific sexual behaviors -- sexual initiation, number of partners, and condom use -- and educational attainment or school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa. The patterns of associations varied by behavior. The findings for condom use were particularly convergent; none of the 44 studies using educational attainment as a predictor reviewed found that more educated people were significantly less likely to use condoms. Findings for sexual initiation and number of partners were more complex. The contrast between findings for condom use on the one hand and sexual initiation and number of partners on the other supports predictions based on our theoretical framework.

  7. The Social and Behavioral Impacts of Information Systems in the Automated Office: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Computers in Human Behavior Computers and People 3. Thesis Restrictions It is the purpose of this paper to bring about a better understanding...34, Computers in Human Behavior , Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 167-179, 1987 Murljacic, T., "The Evolution of Automated Office Systems", Infosystems, Vol. 34 , p.48...Between Computers and Psychology: Towards a Psychology of Computerization", Computers in Human Behavior , Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 167-179, 1987

  8. A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND OVERCONFIDENCE ON DECISIONS OF INVESTORS, ANALYSTS AND INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS FROM THE BEHAVIORAL FINANCE POINT OF VIEW UN ESTUDIO SOBRE LA INFLUENCIA DE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS SOCIODEMOGRÁFICAS Y DEL EXCESO DE CONFIANZA SOBRE LAS DECISIONES DE LOS INVERSORES, ANALISTAS Y PROFESIONALES DE INVERSIÓN UM ESTUDO SOBRE A INFLUÊNCIA DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS SOCIODEMOGRÁFICAS E DO EXCESSO DE CONFIANÇA NAS DECISÕES DOS INVESTIDORES, ANALISTAS E PROFISSIONAIS DE INVESTIMENTO À LUZ DAS FINANÇAS COMPORTAMENTAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Paula Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a new field of study that counteracts the assumption of the rationality on the partof decision makers, which is adopted by modern finance. One of the aspects of studies in behavioral financeis to identify how emotions and cognitive failures may influence the decision making process ofindividuals. In  this context, this study aims to ascertain whether the decisions of investors, analysts andinvestment professionals are influenced by a bias of overconfidence and the socio-demographiccharacteristics of these individuals. As a methodology, it was decided to conduct a study with a descriptivequantitative and qualitative approach. Therefore a field survey was carried to out to collect data with anonline questionnaire. The method of sampling by judgment was applied, which is characterized by the nonprobabilistic collection of samples from individuals registered with the Association of Investment Analystsand Professionals of the Capital Market in Minas Gerais (APIMEC-MG, as well as individuals registeredwith TBC Investments. This group consisted of 810 individuals who provided 398 valid questionnaires. Datawas analyzed by using the estimation methods of Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS and Ordinary LeastSquares (OLS, with correction for finite population and the results were compared. They showed thatdi erences of opinion, style and perception of the reality, motivated by personal and investmentcharacteristics and the susceptibility to the bias of the overconfidence of the agents, exert a significantimpact on decision making.Las Finanzas comportamentales son un nuevo campo de estudios que se contraponen a la presuposición deracionalidad de los tomadores de decisión adoptada por las finanzas modernas. Una de las vertientes de losestudios en finanzas  conductuales es la identificación de la forma por la cual las emociones y las fallas cognitivas pueden influir en el proceso de decisión de los individuos. Considerándose ese

  9. NetworkAnalyst for statistical, visual and network-based meta-analysis of gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianguo; Gill, Erin E; Hancock, Robert E W

    2015-06-01

    Meta-analysis of gene expression data sets is increasingly performed to help identify robust molecular signatures and to gain insights into underlying biological processes. The complicated nature of such analyses requires both advanced statistics and innovative visualization strategies to support efficient data comparison, interpretation and hypothesis generation. NetworkAnalyst (http://www.networkanalyst.ca) is a comprehensive web-based tool designed to allow bench researchers to perform various common and complex meta-analyses of gene expression data via an intuitive web interface. By coupling well-established statistical procedures with state-of-the-art data visualization techniques, NetworkAnalyst allows researchers to easily navigate large complex gene expression data sets to determine important features, patterns, functions and connections, thus leading to the generation of new biological hypotheses. This protocol provides a step-wise description of how to effectively use NetworkAnalyst to perform network analysis and visualization from gene lists; to perform meta-analysis on gene expression data while taking into account multiple metadata parameters; and, finally, to perform a meta-analysis of multiple gene expression data sets. NetworkAnalyst is designed to be accessible to biologists rather than to specialist bioinformaticians. The complete protocol can be executed in ∼1.5 h. Compared with other similar web-based tools, NetworkAnalyst offers a unique visual analytics experience that enables data analysis within the context of protein-protein interaction networks, heatmaps or chord diagrams. All of these analysis methods provide the user with supporting statistical and functional evidence.

  10. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on psychological and behavioral outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heather Ann Hausenblas; Kacey Heekin; Heather Lee Mutchie; Stephen Anton

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Throughout the past three decades, increased scientiifc attention has been given to examining saffron’s (Crocus sativusL.) use as a potential therapeutic or preventive agent for a number of health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and depression. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to examine and categorize the current state of scientiifc evidence from randomized controled trials (RCTs) regarding the efifcacy of saffron on psychological/behavioral outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic and non-electronic systematic searches were conducted to identify al relevant human clinical research on saffron. The search strategy was extensive and was designed according to the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).” Reference lists of articles that met the inclusion criteria were searched. Only English language studies were reviewed. INCLUSION CRITERIA:Saffron trials in combination with other substances and saffron safety studies were considered, in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Included studies must have a control group. Included studies must measure a physiological and/or a behavioral outcome. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS:The methodological quality of al included studies was independently evaluated by two reviewers using the Jadad score. Mean scores andP-values of measures were compared both inter- and intra-study for each parameter (i.e., depression). RESULTS:Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies examined the effects of saffron on psychological/behavioral outcomes of: major depressive disorder (n = 6), premenstrual syndrome (n = 1), sexual dysfunction and infertility (n = 4), and weight loss/snacking behaviors (n = 1). The data from these studies support the efifcacy of saffron as compared to placebo in improving the folowing conditions:depressive symptoms (compared to anti-depressants and placebo), premenstrual symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. In addition

  11. A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Horst (Klazine); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel); G.C.W. Wendel-Vos (Wanda); K. Giskes (Katrina); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThere is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the developme

  12. Information Behavior and Information Practice: Reviewing the "Umbrella Concepts" of Information-Seeking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2007-01-01

    Information behavior and information practice, two major concepts denoting the general ways in which people deal with information, are analyzed. Because of their general nature, they may be conceived of as umbrella concepts drawing on "umbrella discourses" with similar names. Information behavior is currently the dominating umbrella concept, while…

  13. Antisocial Behavior in Children and Hans Eysenck's Biosocial Theory of Personality: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Dawn E.; Center, David B.

    This paper examines antisocial behavior in children and youth in relation to the biosocial personality theory of Hans Eysenck. It explains Eysenck's theory, which includes a significant role for biological factors in the development of antisocial behavior. The theory holds that three temperament traits--Psychoticism (P), Extroversion (E), and…

  14. Review of Video Modeling with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sonia D.; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often engage in behavior that is disruptive in the classroom, impedes educational progress, and inhibits peer relationships. Video modeling has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for other challenging populations (e.g., autism) and has been identified as a feasible intervention…

  15. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially stud

  16. Toward a Model of Explaining Teachers' Innovative Behavior: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Evers, Arnoud T.; Vermeulen, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Innovative behavior can be described as a process in which new ideas are generated, created, developed, applied, promoted, realized, and modified by employees to benefit role performance. Various reasons, such as rapid technological and social changes in society, underline the necessity for innovative behavior of employees and certainly of…

  17. Behavioral Nutrition Interventions Using e- and m-Health Communication Technologies: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-17

    e- and m-Health communication technologies are now common approaches to improving population health. The efficacy of behavioral nutrition interventions using e-health technologies to decrease fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake was demonstrated in studies conducted from 2005 to 2009, with approximately 75% of trials showing positive effects. By 2010, an increasing number of behavioral nutrition interventions were focusing on body weight. The early emphasis on interventions that were highly computer tailored shifted to personalized electronic interventions that included weight and behavioral self-monitoring as key features. More diverse target audiences began to participate, and mobile components were added to interventions. Little progress has been made on using objective measures rather than self-reported measures of dietary behavior. A challenge for nutritionists is to link with the private sector in the design, use, and evaluation of the many electronic devices that are now available in the marketplace for nutrition monitoring and behavioral change.

  18. Hofstede’s cultural Dimensions and tourist behaviors: A review and conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita A. Manrai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a conceptual framework for analyzing tourist behaviors and identifies three categories of behaviors based on the applications of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the processes underlying these influences. Our findings indicate that tourist behaviors in the Before-Travel, During-Travel, and After-Travel stages differ significantly in terms of the applicability and process through which Hofstede’s cultural dimensions operate. The results of our analysis suggest three categories of behavioral patterns, namely, "Social Interaction Driven Travel Behaviors," (SID, "Risk Tendencies Driven Travel Behaviors," (RTD, and "Collectivity Orientation Driven Travel Behaviors," (COD. SID relates to the evaluation of travel experiences in the after-travel stage. The dominant cultural values associated with SID are Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity, and Power Distance. These three values act either independently or in pairs or all three together. RTD relates to the consumption of travel products in the during-travel stage, and COD relates to the formation of travel preferences in the before-travel stage. Individualism/Collectivism and Uncertainty Avoidance are associated with both RTD and COD. However, the underlying processes differ for these two categories of travel behaviors. In addition to their independent influences on travel behaviors, these two values associated with RTD and COD also have an interactive effect. For RTD, the Uncertainty Avoidance motive determines the Individualism/Collectivism outcome, whereas, for COD, the opposite is true: the Individualism/Collectivism determines the Uncertainty Avoidance outcome. The paper also discusses the application of a fifth cultural dimension, Confucian Dynamism (short-term versus long-term orientation, for the study of tourists’ behaviors.

  19. Children's antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P; Sekol, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p < .01), corresponding to about 10% increased risk for antisocial behavior among children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children.

  20. Consequences and Possible Predictors of Health-damaging Behaviors and Mental Health Problems in Pregnancy – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, F.; Petermann, F.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the understanding of the short and longer term effects of health-damaging behaviors and mental health problems in pregnant women and the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors and illnesses has significantly increased. In contrast, little is known about the factors affecting individual pregnant women which contribute to health-damaging behaviors and mental illness. The aim of this paper was therefore to summarize the current state of research into the consequences of nicotine and alcohol consumption, malnutrition, excessive weight gain or obesity, and impaired mental health (depression and anxiety) during pregnancy. In addition, the characteristics of pregnant women which increase their risk of developing such behaviors or mental disorders are described. A better knowledge of these risks should make it easier for clinicians to identify cases at risk early on and put measures of support in place. A review of the literature has shown that certain characteristics of pregnant women (e.g. her relationship with her partner, a previous history of mental illness prior to pregnancy) are associated with various health-damaging behaviors as well as with impaired mental health. Affected women often show an accumulated psychosocial stress which was already present prior to the pregnancy and which may persist even after the birth of the child. PMID:27904164

  1. The contribution of the analyst's actions to mutative action: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The concept of action has evolved since Freud's initial attempts to adticdress the topic. It is no longer viewed as just serving a defensive function. Instead it is increasingly seen as a mode of experiencing and n, communicating, one that is less developmentally advanced than the verbal one usually emphasized in psychoanalysis. Research from many fields documents the view that experiencing, thinking, and communicating originate in bodily action. Hence psychoanalysts have learned to use the patient's actions to broaden their understanding of the patient and to deepen the analytic process. But they have been slower to apply this understanding to their own actions. This paper uses an extended clinical vignette of an action intervention by the analyst to demonstrate its importance in maintaining and deepening an analytic process. It then suggests a theoretical and clinical rationale that such action interventions are a common and necessary aspect of most analyses. Finally it raises the question of whether such interventions can be regarded as interpretations offered at the developmental level being used by the patient to communicate at particular moments in analysis. Can they be viewed as the initial interpretation in the process of interpretation?

  2. Launch processing system operations with a future look to operations analyst (OPERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    The launch processing system at Kennedy Space Center is used to process a Shuttle vehicle from its initial arrival in an Orbiter processing facility to a launch pad. This paper describes the launch processing system architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle system engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter. The described ground operations are the culmination of 11 years of experience and redesign. In this paper, I examine some of the "lessons learned" and discuss problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and launch processing systems continue to grow in complexity. As we strive to maintain the efficient level of support currently provided, some benefits have been gained through standard information management and automation techniques. However, problems requiring complex correlational analyses of information have defied resolution until artificial intelligence research developed expert system applications technology. The operational analyst for distributed systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for launch processing system operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the launch processing system.

  3. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Sean; Hughes, Gary

    2008-07-31

    Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed web-based data analysis and visualization tools such as the interactive plotting program NCVweb, various diagnostic plot browsers, and a datastream processing status application. These tools allow even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers. We have also embarked on a system to comprehensively generate long time-series plots, frequency distributions, and other relevant statistics for scientific and engineering data in most high-level, publicly available ARM data streams. Furthermore, frequency distributions categorized by month or by season are made available to help define valid data ranges specific to those time domains. These statistics can be used to set limits that when checked, will improve upon the reporting of suspicious data and the early detection of instrument malfunction. The statistics and proposed limits are stored in a database for easy reporting, refining, and for use by other processes. Web-based applications to view the results are also available.

  4. Between chaos and petrification: a summary of the Fifth IPA Conference of Training Analysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, R S

    1993-02-01

    The Fifth IPA Conference of Training Analysts was devoted to the problems in the integration of different theoretical and clinical perspectives in the formation of psychoanalysts, the dialectical tensions between rigidity and stultification on the one hand, and a chaotic 'anything goes' on the other. Seven presentations, from the three major geographical regions and representing a range of theoretical perspectives, though drawing upon common and shared clinical and training experiences, were widely divergent in both their descriptions and their prescriptions. The presentations by Janice de Saussure of Geneva, by Charles Kligerman of Chicago, by Marcio de Freitas Giovanetti of São Paulo, Raquel Zak de Goldstein of Buenos Aires, André Green of Paris, José Infante of Chile and André Lussier of Montreal, are arrayed along a spectrum from the most conservative to the most sweepingly radical critique of our organisations and our practices; what is shared by these seven quite disparate presentations from so many ideologically and geographically diverse quarters is a widespread dissatisfaction with so many aspects of, and so many consequences of, the operation or our extant tripartite training structure bequeathed to us by Eitingon and his colleagues almost 75 years ago and hardly changed at all ever since.

  5. Human Analysts at Superhuman Scales: What Has Friendly Software To Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godzaridis, Élénie; Boisvert, Sébastien; Xia, Fangfang; Kandel, Mikhail; Behling, Steve; Long, Bill; Sosa, Carlos P; Laviolette, François; Corbeil, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    As analysts are expected to process a greater amount of information in a shorter amount of time, creators of big data software are challenged with the need for improved efficiency. Ray, our group's usable, scalable genome assembler, addresses big data problems by using optimal resources and producing one, correct and conservative, timely solution. Only by abstracting the size of the data from both the computers and the humans can the real scientific question, often complex in itself, eventually be solved. To draw a curtain over the specific computational machinery of big data, we developed RayPlatform, a programming framework that allows users to concentrate on their domain-specific problems. RayPlatform is a parallel message-passing software framework that runs on clouds, supercomputers, and desktops alike. Using established technologies such as C++ and MPI (message-passing interface), we handle the genomes of hundreds of species, from viruses to plants, using machines ranging from desktop computers to supercomputers. From this experience, we present insights on making computer time more useful-and user time much more valuable.

  6. Advancing the discussion about systematic classroom behavioral observation, a product review of Tenny, J. (2010). eCOVE observation software. Pacific City, OR: eCOVE Software, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Smith, Liana

    2014-05-01

    Applied child psychologists and behavioral consultants often use systematic behavioral observations to inform the psychological assessment and intervention development process for children referred for attention and hyperactivity problems. This article provides a review of the 2010 version of the eCOVE classroom observation software in terms of its utility in tracking the progress of children with attention and hyperactive behaviors and its use in evaluating teacher behaviors that may impede or promote children's attention and positive behavior. The eCOVE shows promise as an efficient tool for psychologists and behavioral consultants who want to evaluate the effects of interventions for children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, mood disorders and learning disorders; however, some research-based improvements for future models are suggested. The reviewers also share their firsthand experience in using eCOVE to evaluate teacher and student behavior exhibited on a television show about teaching urban high school students and during a movie about an eccentric new kindergarten teacher. Rich examples are provided of using strategic behavioral observations to reveal how to improve the classroom environment so as to facilitate attention, motivation and positive behavior among youth. Broader implications for enhancing the use of systematic behavioral observations in the assessment of children and adolescents with attention disorders and related behavioral problems are discussed. Key issues are examined such as the use of behavioral observations during psychological consultation to prevent the previously found gender bias in referrals for ADHD. Using behavioral observations to enhance differential diagnosis is also discussed.

  7. A Review of Approaches for Sensing, Understanding, and Improving Occupancy-Related Energy-Use Behaviors in Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Nabizadeh Rafsanjani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings currently account for 30–40 percent of total global energy consumption. In particular, commercial buildings are responsible for about 12 percent of global energy use and 21 percent of the United States’ energy use, and the energy demand of this sector continues to grow faster than other sectors. This increasing rate therefore raises a critical concern about improving the energy performance of commercial buildings. Recently, researchers have investigated ways in which understanding and improving occupants’ energy-consuming behaviors could function as a cost-effective approach to decreasing commercial buildings’ energy demands. The objective of this paper is to present a detailed, up-to-date review of various algorithms, models, and techniques employed in the pursuit of understanding and improving occupants’ energy-use behaviors in commercial buildings. Previous related studies are introduced and three main approaches are identified: (1 monitoring occupant-specific energy consumption; (2 Simulating occupant energy consumption behavior; and (3 improving occupant energy consumption behavior. The first approach employs intrusive and non-intrusive load-monitoring techniques to estimate the energy use of individual occupants. The second approach models diverse characteristics related to occupants’ energy-consuming behaviors in order to assess and predict such characteristics’ impacts on the energy performance of commercial buildings; this approach mostly utilizes agent-based modeling techniques to simulate actions and interactions between occupants and their built environment. The third approach employs occupancy-focused interventions to change occupants’ energy-use characteristics. Based on the detailed review of each approach, critical issues and current gaps in knowledge in the existing literature are discussed, and directions for future research opportunities in this field are provided.

  8. "That word, cancer": breast care behavior of Hispanic women in new Mexico background and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; De Vargas, Felicia; Sanchez, Christina; Oetzel, John

    2010-01-01

    Despite international efforts, national and ethnic disparities in utilization of breast cancer (BC) screenings prevail. In the United States, Hispanic women have one of the lowest BC screening rates. The purpose of our study was to examine how Hispanic women in New Mexico described their breast care behavior (BCB; BC screening practices, motivation to act, and breast care information behavior). Analysis of focus groups revealed five types of approaches to BCB. These findings have global implications for health care practitioners in directing attention toward the complexity of BC preventive behavior. Implications for other ethnic groups are discussed.

  9. Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.

  10. The Impact of Ranking Information on Students’ Behavior and Performance in Peer Review Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the potential of usage and ranking information in increasing student engagement in a double-blinded peer review setting, where students are allowed to select freely which/how many peer works to review. The study employed 56 volunteering sophomore students majoring in Informatic...

  11. Teacher Behaviors--Do They Make a Difference? A Review of the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William R.

    1979-01-01

    The author highlights research findings on the behaviors and personal characteristics of teachers which raise student achievement. These include warmth, interpersonal communication skill, orderliness, flexibility, acceptance of students, and sincerity. (SJL)

  12. An Affective Events Model of Charismatic Leadership Behavior : A Review, Theoretical Integration, and Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Bruch, Heike

    2009-01-01

    Although research has long focused on the consequences of leaders' charismatic behavior, the antecedents of such leadership are increasingly gaining scholarly attention. Nevertheless, the antecedent-oriented literature on charismatic leadership has been fragmented to date and lacks theoretical integ

  13. Behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation and prevent weight gain: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Howe, Dorothea; Berendsen, Mark; McFadden, H. Gene; Hitchcock, Kristin; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Hitsman, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Aims The prospect of weight gain discourages many cigarette smokers from quitting. Practice guidelines offer varied advice about managing weight gain after quitting smoking, but no systematic review and meta-analysis have been available. We reviewed evidence to determine whether behavioral weight control intervention compromises smoking cessation attempts, and if it offers an effective way to reduce post-cessation weight gain. Methods We identified randomized controlled trials that compared combined smoking treatment and behavioral weight control to smoking treatment alone for adult smokers. English-language studies were identified through searches of PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Of 779 articles identified and 35 potentially relevant RCTs screened, 10 met criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Results Patients who received both smoking treatment and weight treatment showed increased abstinence (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.01,1.64) and reduced weight gain (g = -0.30, 95% CI=-0.63, -0.04) in the short term (6 months). Conclusions Findings provide no evidence that combining smoking treatment and behavioral weight control produces any harm and significant evidence of short-term benefit for both abstinence and weight control. However, the absence of long-term enhancement of either smoking cessation or weight control by the time-limited interventions studied to date provides insufficient basis to recommend societal expenditures on weight gain prevention treatment for patients who are quitting smoking. PMID:19549058

  14. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics-A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence.

  15. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Bariş O; Derksen, Jan J L

    2012-12-30

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially studies that use the 2D:4D ratio as a proxy for fetal testosterone. However, circulating testosterone consistently shows positive associations with antisocial behaviors throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, particularly in males. It is suggested that high fetal/circulating testosterone interactively influence the maturation and functionality of mesolimbic dopaminergic circuitry, right orbitofrontal cortex, and cortico-subcortical connectivity, resulting in a strong reward motivation, low social sensitivity, and dampened regulation of strong motivational/emotional processes. The link between these testosterone induced endophenotypes and actual display of antisocial behavior is strongly modulated by different social (e.g., social rejection, low SES) and genetic (e.g., MAOA, 5HTT) risk factors that can disturb socio-, psycho-, and biological development and interact with testosterone in shaping behavior. When these additional risk factors are present, the testosterone induced endophenotypes may increase the risk for a chronic antisocial lifestyle. However, behavioral endophenotypes induced by testosterone can also predispose towards socially adaptive traits such as a strong achievement motivation, leadership, fair bargaining behaviors, and social assertiveness. These adaptive traits are more likely to emerge when the high testosterone individual has positive social experiences that promote prosocial behaviors such as strong and secure attachments with his caregivers, affiliation with prosocial peers, and sufficient socioeconomic resources. A theoretical model is presented, various hypotheses are examined, and future venues for research are discussed.

  16. Credibility and Consumer Behavior of Islamic Bank in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naufal BACHRI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept “credibility” has become significant attention from academics and practitioners because it played an important role in creating and maintaining consumer behavior. This study uses twenty- seven references relates to credibility, customer value, satisfaction, and loyalty. Several studies have discussed the relationship between credibility and consumer behavior and also elaborated dimensions of credibility. It also presented the shortcomings of current research and the trends for future study in Islamic banking.

  17. Life adversities and suicidal behavior in young individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Muzio, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Flouri, Eirini; Ferrigno, Gabriella; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Suicidal behavior in young people is a significant public health problem. However, it is not yet clear whether adversities (adverse life events) may be related to suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. This paper aimed to investigate systematically the association between the type/number of adverse life events and experiences and suicidal behavior in young people. We developed a detailed strategy to search relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Science Direct (January 1980-January 2015) about adverse life events and suicidal behavior. Adverse life events and experiences included maltreatment and violence, loss events, intra-familial problems, school and interpersonal problems. Studies were restricted to suicidal behavior in young people aged 10-25 years. The search yielded 245 articles, of which 28 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported a strong association between adversities and suicidality (both suicidal ideation and attempts). Based on the main results, the number of adversities or negative life events experienced seemed to have a positive dose-response relationship with youth suicidal behavior. However, the type of event experienced also appeared to matter: one of the most consistent findings was the association between suicidal behavior and experience of sexual abuse. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of risk accumulation and risk specificity for youth suicide.

  18. Behavior of reoccurring PARAFAC components in fluorescent dissolved organic matter in natural and engineered systems: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2012-02-21

    Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM). Characterization is based on the intensity and location of independent fluorescent components identified in models constructed from excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). Similar fluorescent components have been identified in PARAFAC studies across a wide range of systems; however, there is a lack of discussion regarding the consistency with which these similar components behave. The overall goal of this critical review is to compare results for PARAFAC studies published since the year 2000 which include one or more of three reoccurring humic-like components. Components are compared and characterized based on EEM location, characteristic ecosystems, and behavior in natural and engineered systems. This synthesis allows PARAFAC users to more confidently infer DOM characteristics based on identified components. Additionally, behavioral inconsistencies between similar components help elucidate DOM properties for which fluorescence spectroscopy with PARAFAC may be a weak predictive tool.

  19. Review of time-dependent fatigue behavior and life prediction for 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, M.K.; Majumdar, S.

    1982-01-01

    Available data on creep-fatigue life and fracture behavior of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel are reviewed. Whereas creep-fatigue interaction is important for Type 304 stainless steel, oxidation effects appear to dominate the time-dependent fatigue behavior of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. Four of the currently available predictive methods - the Linear Damage Rule, Frequency Separation Equation, Strain Range Partitioning Equation, and Damage Rate Equation - are evaluated for their predictive capability. Variations in the parameters for the various predictive methods with temperature, heat of material, heat treatment, and environment are investigated. Relative trends in the lives predicted by the various methods as functions of test duration, waveshape, etc., are discussed. The predictive methods will need modification in order to account for oxidation and aging effects in the 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. Future tests that will emphasize the difference between the various predictive methods are proposed.

  20. Identifying the Education Needs of the Business Analyst: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Richards

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Business Analyst (BA plays a key role in ensuring that technology is appropriately used to achieve the organisation’s goals. This important mediating role is currently in high (unmet demand in many English-speaking countries and thus more people need to be trained for this role. To determine the educational and/or training needs of a BA we conducted a survey in the Information and Communication Technology industry in Australia. The survey items are based on prior studies of information systems educational requirements and the internationally-developed Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA that has been endorsed by the Australian Computer Society. From the literature we identified three types of skills: soft, business and technical. With the increasing importance of GreenIT and the pivotal role that the BA could play in green decision making, we added a fourth type of skill: green. The survey considers 85 skills, their importance, the level of attainment of that skill, skill gaps and types of skills. Results show that all soft skills were considered to be important with the smallest knowledge gaps. Selected business skills and green skills were seen to be important. Technical skills were considered less important, but also where the largest knowledge gaps existed. Further we asked respondents whether each skill should be acquired via an undergraduate or postgraduate degree and/or industry training and experience. We found that the workplace was considered the most appropriate place to acquire and/or develop all skills, except the ability to innovate. While we found that softskills should be taught almost equally at the undergraduate and postgraduate level, business and green skills were more appropriate in a postgraduate degree. In contrast, technical skills were best acquired in an undergraduate program of study.

  1. The medical educator, the discourse analyst, and the phonetician: a collaborative feedback methodology for clinical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Stevens, Mary; Flynn, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    Frameworks for clinical communication assist educators in making explicit the principles of good communication and providing feedback to medical trainees. However, existing frameworks rarely take into account the roles of culture and language in communication, which can be important for international medical graduates (IMGs) whose first language is not English. This article describes the collaboration by a medical educator, a discourse analyst, and a phonetician to develop a communication and language feedback methodology to assist IMG trainees at a Victorian hospital in Australia with developing their doctor-patient communication skills. The Communication and Language Feedback (CaLF) methodology incorporates a written tool and video recording of role-plays of doctor-patient interactions in a classroom setting or in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) practice session with a simulated patient. IMG trainees receive verbal feedback from their hospital-based medical clinical educator, the simulated patient, and linguists. The CaLF tool was informed by a model of language in context, observation of IMG communication training, and process evaluation by IMG participants during January to August 2009. The authors provided participants with a feedback package containing their practice video (which included verbal feedback) and the completed CaLF tool.The CaLF methodology provides a tool for medical educators and language practitioners to work collaboratively with IMGs to enhance communication and language skills. The ongoing interdisciplinary collaboration also provides much-needed applied research opportunities in intercultural health communication, an area the authors believe cannot be adequately addressed from the perspective of one discipline alone.

  2. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seyffert

    Full Text Available Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings.We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials.Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis.We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001 with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017 compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004. The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013 in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to 48 weeks after post

  3. The relationship between sleep and behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Simonne; Conduit, Russell; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw; Cornish, Kim M

    2014-01-01

    Although there is evidence that significant sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that poor sleep exacerbates problematic daytime behavior, such relationships have received very little attention in both research and clinical practice. Treatment guidelines to help manage challenging behaviors in ASD fail to mention sleep at all, or they present a very limited account. Moreover, limited attention is given to children with low-functioning autism, those individuals who often experience the most severe sleep disruption and behavioral problems. This paper describes the nature of sleep difficulties in ASD and highlights the complexities of sleep disruption in individuals with low-functioning autism. It is proposed that profiling ASD children based on the nature of their sleep disruption might help to understand symptom and behavioral profiles (or vice versa) and therefore lead to better-targeted interventions. This paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current knowledge and proposes areas that are important for future research. Treating disordered sleep in ASD has great potential to improve daytime behavior and family functioning in this vulnerable population.

  4. Behavioral Competence as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral competence is delineated in terms of four parameters: (a Moral and Social Knowledge, (b Social Skills, (c Positive Characters and Positive Attributes, and (d Behavioral Decision Process and Action Taking. Since Ma’s other papers in this special issue have already discussed the moral and social knowledge as well as the social skills associated in detail, this paper focuses on the last two parameters. It is hypothesized that the following twelve positive characters are highly related to behavioral competence: humanity, intelligence, courage, conscience, autonomy, respect, responsibility, naturalness, loyalty, humility, assertiveness, and perseverance. Large-scale empirical future studies should be conducted to substantiate the predictive validity of the complete set of these positive characters. The whole judgment and behavioral decision process is constructed based on the information processing approach. The direction of future studies should focus more on the complex input, central control, and output subprocesses and the interactions among these sub-processes. The understanding of the formation of behavior is crucial to whole-person education and positive youth development.

  5. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients’ lifestyle behavior. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  6. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  7. The Use of Music and Its Effects on the Behavior and Academic Performance of Special Students: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Thomas; Cowell, Karol

    This literature review focuses upon research addressing the playing of music and its effects upon the academic performance and behavior of students with exceptionalities. Literature on music's effects on academic performance focuses primarily on mathematics, reading, and ability to attend to study materials. Behavioral research focused on the…

  8. ABA and PBS: The Dangers in Creating Artificial Dichotomies in Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary Jane; DelPizzo-Cheng, Eliza; LaRue, Robert H.; Sloman, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and independence of Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) within the context of behavioral intervention. Specifically, behavior analysts have argued over whether PBS is subsumed within Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) or whether it can be considered a separate…

  9. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use among women living with HIV: a systematic review update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonantzin Ribeiro Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract: Behavioral interventions have been essential components of HIV prevention approaches, especially those aimed to promote safe sexual practices. We conducted a comprehensive literature search without language restrictions between 1980 and July 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials or controlled studies investigating behavioral interventions which: included women living with HIV; focused on condom use promotion; presented/analyzed outcomes by gender; used a 3-month follow-up or more; and considered at least one HIV-related behavioral or biological outcome. Eight studies comprising a total of 1,355 women living with HIV were included in the meta-analyses, and 13 studies were qualitatively described. When compared to standard care or minimal support intervention, behavioral interventions did not demonstrate an effect on increasing consistent condom use at the 3-month follow-up (RR = 0.92; 95%CI: 0.73, 1.16; p = 0.48, 6-month follow-up (RR = 1.13; 95%CI: 0.96, 1.34; p = 0.15, and 12-month follow-up (RR = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.77, 1.08; p = 0.30. Behavioral interventions also failed to reach positive effect in reduction of unprotected sexual intercourse at 6-months (MD = -1.80; 95%CI: -4.21, 0.62; p = 0.14 and 12-months follow-up (MD = -1.39; 95%CI: -2.29, 0.21; p = 0.09. These findings should be interpreted with caution since they are based on a few small trials. New researches are needed to assess the potential gains from a combination of interventions that promote safe sexual behavior with a harm reduction and gender approach, particularly in developing countries where HIV infection rates remain high.

  10. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN INVESTORS' DECISION: STUDIES REVIEW FROM 2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Antônio Cabral de Ávila

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents a survey of researches that, through the employment of theoretical precepts, laboratory tests or empiric studies, in the period from 2006 to 2015, related themselves to the examination of anomalies' incidences or irrational effects which affect people's choices on investment decisions. Despite the temporal delimitation, it was set about the seminal study of Kahneman and Tversky, published in 1979, which brings considerations about Perspective Theory, in opposite to Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH. The used methodology is exploratory and bibliographic, employing a sample composed by international journals of Finances area, besides journals in Accounting and Management in Brazil. A subdivision in the format of findings presentation was carried out, separating those which treat theoretical precepts and laboratory tests, nevertheless linked to possible practical effects - depicted as studies of behavioral incidences, evidences and tendencies - from those which seek empirical evidences greatly related to market operations, identified as studies of behavioral precepts applied to market. In conclusion, it was possible to identify that international researches are more focused on the understanding of behavioral phenomena and their impacts in stock market, while Brazilian studies concentrate on replications of seminal study or identification of biases and specific samples, presenting low possibilities for results' generalization. This occurs due to the lack of deepening and narrow scope of the investigations. Therefore, it's open a great variety of possibilities for studies, notably in fields such as domestic finances, behavioral effects among Latin American countries, standardization of behavior inside organizations, correlation among several biases, identification of other behavioral effects which interfere financial and economic scenery, mainly if the researches involve real market data.

  11. [Speech behavior and neurotic personality structure (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeppert, S

    1976-02-27

    Speech behavior of the patient and the analyst is considered with regard to the psychoanalytic situation and its regulating factors such as transference and countertransference. If the psychoanalytic situation is regarded as a means to investigate the patient and his symptoms, his verbal behavior seems to depend on the unconscious motives forming his neurotic personality structure. On the other hand, if the psychoanalytic situation is regarded as a communicative situation, the verbal behavior of the patient as well as of the analyst depends rather on their "here-and-now" transference relationship in certain phase of the psychoanalytic process.

  12. Deployed Analyst History Report, Volume 2. Analytic Support to Combat Operations in the Philippines (2011-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    essentially 10-30 families bonded together to care for each other, living by agreed upon, oral laws. In the 13th century, the arrival of Muslim...media consumption habits . These questions were included in the fifth wave survey. The survey directly influenced communications strategy at the...physical stress from the long working hours and austere living and working conditions. Deployed ORSA analysts must take time to keep physically fit and

  13. Cyber Situation Awareness through Instance-Based Learning: Modeling the Security Analyst in a Cyber-Attack Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4666-0104-8 (hbk.) -- ISBN 978-1-4666-0105-5 ( ebook ) -- ISBN 978-1...be critical in problem solving, judg- ment, decision making, categorization, and cog- nition (Goldstone, Day, & Son, 2010; Vosniadou & Ortony, 1989...comes about as a result of his day-to-day experience and education , but there might be training interventions that could make analysts conscious of

  14. Suicide Behaviors in Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Update for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Weisler, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    Suicide behaviors (ideation, attempts, and completions) are unfortunately common in patients with bipolar disorder. It is estimated that 25 to 50% attempt suicide at least once during their lifetime, and 6% to 19% complete suicide. Risk factors include a family history of suicide, previous suicide attempts, younger age of onset, comorbid psychiatric illnesses, and psychological constructs like hopelessness. Pharmacologic treatment may impact suicidal behaviors, either increasing vulnerability or resilience. Clinicians need to be particularly sensitive to their patient's thoughts and beliefs about death, particularly during stressful times of life or when in a depressive/mixed episode of bipolar disorder.

  15. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

  16. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  17. Behavioral Treatment of Chronic Skin-Picking in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Mulloy, Austin; Regester, April; Pierce, Nigel; Kang, Soyeon

    2010-01-01

    Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in individuals with developmental disabilities, knowledge…

  18. The Concept of Employee Engagement: A Comprehensive Review from a Positive Organizational Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Chang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Employee engagement has been understood from various academic and practical perspectives, mainly due to its recent popularity. This study explores not only positive movements--positive psychology, positive organizational scholarship (POS), and positive organizational behavior (POB)--as a background of engagement but also the conceptualization,…

  19. Universals of Nonverbal Behavior: A Review of Literature and Statement of Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Patrick H.

    Universals in nonverbal behavior represent an important issue in the study of the cross-cultural communication. Perhaps the most well-known research in nonverbal universals was conducted by Paul Ekman, who examined literate and preliterate cultures from various language groups and identified six universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness,…

  20. The Association between Adolescent Sexting, Psychosocial Difficulties, and Risk Behavior: Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-01-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…

  1. A review of similarities between domain-specific determinants of four health behaviors among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.H. Peters; C.H. Wiefferink; F. Hoekstra; G.J. Buijs; G.T.M. ten Dam; T.G.W.M. Paulussen

    2009-01-01

    Schools are overloaded with health promotion programs that, altogether, focus on a broad array of behavioral domains, including substance abuse, sexuality and nutrition. Although the specific content of programs varies according to the domain focus, programs usually address similar concepts: knowled

  2. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  3. Treating Adaptive Living Skills of Persons with Autism Using Applied Behavior Analysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Belva, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Work, self-help, leisure, and hygiene skill deficits are often associated with Autistic Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in socialization, communication, and repetitive and restricted behaviors or interests. A number of interventions have been established to assist individuals with these impairments.…

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety and Phobic Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioural strategies used in the treatment of child-anxiety problems, emphasizing the need for exposure and caregiver involvement. Most of the paper focuses on developments in empirically supported cognitive-behavioral intervention protocols for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  5. Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles : A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.; van der Stouwe, T.; Spruit, A.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Martial arts are very popular among juveniles all over the world, but the relation between martial arts and externalizing behavior in juveniles remains unclear. The current multilevel meta-analysis of 12 studies, including 94 effect sizes and N = 5949 juveniles, was conducted to examine the relation

  6. Behavioral Interventions to Address Sleep Disturbances in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kylan S.; Johnson, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the adverse effects that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, these sleep problems also present significant challenges for the entire family. This article outlines the results of a…

  7. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy…

  8. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, S.AS.A.; Tromp, K.; Bunnik, E.M.; Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; Brayne, C.; Schermer, M.H.; Richard, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and so

  9. A Review on Breathing Behaviors of Metal-Organic-Frameworks (MOFs for Gas Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mays Alhamami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs are a new class of microporous materials that possess framework flexibility, large surface areas, “tailor-made” framework functionalities, and tunable pore sizes. These features empower MOFs superior performances and broader application spectra than those of zeolites and phosphine-based molecular sieves. In parallel with designing new structures and new chemistry of MOFs, the observation of unique breathing behaviors upon adsorption of gases or solvents stimulates their potential applications as host materials in gas storage for renewable energy. This has attracted intense research energy to understand the causes at the atomic level, using in situ X-ray diffraction, calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. This article is developed in the following order: first to introduce the definition of MOFs and the observation of their framework flexibility. Second, synthesis routes of MOFs are summarized with the emphasis on the hydrothermal synthesis, owing to the environmental-benign and economically availability of water. Third, MOFs exhibiting breathing behaviors are summarized, followed by rationales from thermodynamic viewpoint. Subsequently, effects of various functionalities on breathing behaviors are appraised, including using post-synthetic modification routes. Finally, possible framework spatial requirements of MOFs for yielding breathing behaviors are highlighted as the design strategies for new syntheses.

  10. In-Service Training of Teachers as Behavior Modifiers: Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eachus, Herbert Todd

    The basic principles of operant and classical conditioning are presented, and their applications for the in-service training of teachers are discussed. Certain classroom behaviors are analyzed and applied to the classic stimulus-response paradigm. Activities are generically classified as positive or negative reinforcers and these reinforcers, in…

  11. Moral disengagement among children and youth: a meta-analytic review of links to aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has demonstrated consistent links between Bandura's theory of moral disengagement and aggressive behavior in adults. The present meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the existing literature on the relation between moral disengagement and different types of aggressive behavior among school-age children and adolescents. Twenty-seven independent samples with a total of 17,776 participants (aged 8-18 years) were included in the meta-analysis. Results indicated a positive overall effect (r = .28, 95% CI [.23, .32]), supporting the hypothesis that moral disengagement is a significant correlate of aggressive behavior among children and youth. Analyses of a priori moderators revealed that effect sizes were larger for adolescents as compared to children, for studies that used a revised version of the original Bandura scale, and for studies with shared method variance. Effect sizes did not vary as a function of type of aggressive behavior, gender, or publication status. Results are discussed within the extant literature on moral disengagement and future directions are proposed.

  12. Behavioral treatment of chronic skin-picking in individuals with developmental disabilities: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.; Didden, H.C.M.; Machalicek, W.A.; Rispoli, M.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Mulloy, A.; Regester, A.; Pierce, N.; Kang, S.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in indiv

  13. Processing methods, characteristics and adsorption behavior of tire derived carbons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tawfik A; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The remarkable increase in the number of vehicles worldwide; and the lack of both technical and economical mechanisms of disposal make waste tires to be a serious source of pollution. One potential recycling process is pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process to produce porous activated carbons. Many researchers have recently proved the capability of such carbons as adsorbents to remove various types of pollutants including organic and inorganic species. This review attempts to compile relevant knowledge about the production methods of carbon from waste rubber tires. The effects of various process parameters including temperature and heating rate, on the pyrolysis stage; activation temperature and time, activation agent and activating gas are reviewed. This review highlights the use of waste-tires derived carbon to remove various types of pollutants like heavy metals, dye, pesticides and others from aqueous media.

  14. Don'T wag the dog: extending the reach of applied behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Matthew P; Kohn, Carolynn S

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the field of behavior analysis would be best served if behavior analysts worked to extend the reach of behavioral services into a more diverse range of settings and with more varied populations, with an emphasis on the establishment of new career opportunities for graduating students. This is not a new proposal, but it is a tall order; it is not difficult to see why many would choose a surer route to gainful employment. Currently, the most fruitful career path for behavior analysts in practice is in the area of autism and developmental disabilities. For the continued growth of the field of behavior analysis, however, it is important to foster new career opportunities for those trained as behavior analysts. Toward this end, we identify several fields that seem well suited to behavior analysts and summarize the training requirements and likely professional outcomes for behavior analysts who pursue education and certification in these fields. These fields require relatively little additional formal training in the hopes of minimizing the response effort necessary for individuals who have already completed a rigorous program of graduate study in behavior analysis.

  15. Exercise training for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in people with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Philipe de Souto; Demougeot, Laurent; Pillard, Fabien; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Rolland, Yves

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessed the effects of exercise on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, including depression) in people with dementia (PWD). Secondary outcomes for the effects of exercise were mortality and antipsychotic use. Twenty studies were included in this review (n=18 in the meta-analysis). Most studies used a multicomponent exercise training (n=13) as intervention; the control group was often a usual care (n=10) or a socially-active (n=8) group. Exercise did not reduce global levels of BPSD (n=4. Weighted mean difference -3.884; 95% CI -8.969-1.201; I(2)=69.4%). Exercise significantly reduced depression levels in PWD (n=7). Standardized mean difference -0.306; 95% CI -0.571 to -0.041; I(2)=46.8%); similar patterns were obtained in sensitivity analysis performed among studies with: institutionalized people (p=0.038), multicomponent training (p=0.056), social control group (p=0.08), and low risk of attrition bias (p=0.11). Exploratory analysis showed that the principal BPSD (other than depression) positively affected by exercise was aberrant motor behavior. Exercise had no effect on mortality. Data on antipsychotics were scarce. In conclusion, exercise reduces depression levels in PWD. Future studies should examine whether exercise reduces the use (and doses) of antipsychotics and other drugs often used to manage BPSD.

  16. Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia is not a unitary concept: A critical review with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Laks

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD is an important feature of dementia. However, this definition comprises a large array of symptoms and syndromes. This hampers understanding of the behavior of patients with dementia and the devising of strategies to ameliorate these symptoms. Objectives: This review aimed to describe the main factors and syndromes that comprise BPSD, as well as neuroimaging, psychopharmacological, and genetic data derived from studies of these factors. Methods: A search on the Medline, Scielo, and ISI databases was performed using the keyword BPSD for articles published within the last five years. Selected publications were favored, so this review should not be regarded as a systematic study on the subject. Results: The main factors and syndromes comprising BPSD were identified, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. Different ways of clustering symptoms were considered. The main manifestations of psychosis, apathy and depression were focused, relating phenomenology to neuroimaging and pharmacological issues. Conclusions: BPSD is a heterogeneous array of symptoms which can be better understood as clusters. At least three factors can be separated in BSPD, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. This division may offer guidance to clinicians regarding treatment management and follow up of the chosen therapeutic strategy.

  17. A literature review on how need-supportive behavior influences motivation in students with sensory loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haakma, Ineke; Janssen, Marleen; Minnaert, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the literature on the effects of need-supportive teaching on motivation, engagement, and educational outcomes of students with visual or hearing impairments or deafblindness. We searched literature for evidence relating to dimensions of need-supportive teaching, namely providing

  18. Emotion Knowledge, Social Competence, and Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Fine, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    The present meta-analytic review examined the magnitude of the relation between discrete emotion knowledge and three of its most commonly studied correlates in childhood and adolescence: social competence, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Emotion knowledge demonstrated small to medium-sized relations with each correlate.…

  19. Risky Behavior in Gambling Tasks in Individuals with ADHD : A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina; Lewis-Evans, Ben; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. Methods: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for r

  20. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Behavior Based Analysis and Detection of Mobile Malware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Analysis Methodology - Approach •Strace Android APK ...logcat, network information, apk and signature data - can run up to 30 minutes, average around 4 minutes to complete all activities 11 Fall

  1. Are Social Networking Sites Making Health Behavior Change Interventions More Effective? A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua

    2017-03-01

    The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) has drawn scholarly attention in recent years, and a large amount of efforts have been made in applying SNSs to health behavior change interventions. However, these interventions showed mixed results, with a large variance of effect sizes in Cohen's d ranging from -1.17 to 1.28. To provide a better understanding of SNS-based interventions' effectiveness, a meta-analysis of 21 studies examining the effects of health interventions using SNS was conducted. Results indicated that health behavior change interventions using SNS are effective in general, but the effects were moderated by health topic, methodological features, and participant features. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.

  2. [Environmental behavior and effect of biomass-derived black carbon in soil: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xue; Liu, Wei; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Zhong, Zhe-Ke; Chen, Ying-Xu

    2009-04-01

    Biomass-derived black carbon, also named biochar, has the characteristics of high stability against decay and high capability of adsorption, and can affect the environment through its interactions with climate and geology, playing a significant role in global climate change, carbon biogeochemical cycle, and environmental system. In recent years, more and more researchers in the fields of atmospheric sciences, geology, and environmental science focused on the environmental behavior and effect of biochar. As one possible source of the components with high aromatic structure in soil humus, biochar is of great importance in increasing soil carbon storage and improving soil fertility, and in maintaining the balance of soil ecosystem. This paper offered the latest information regarding the characteristics and biotic and abiotic oxidation mechanisms of biochar, its effects on global climate change, and the environmental effect of biochar in soil. Research prospects were briefly discussed on the environmental behavior and effect of biochar in soil ecosystem.

  3. Cognitive Behavioral Development in Children Following Maternal Postpartum Depression: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Mirhosseini, Hamid; Moosavipoor, Seyed Ahmad; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Sara; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Mothers’ constitute is a very important part of infants’ social environment and mediate their experience with the surrounding world. Postpartum depression, which is considered one of the most common and important psychiatric disorders, affects 10–15% of mothers, its causes are different. By investigating various sources, some effects of this disorder have been observed on the cognitive development of children, particularly among boys, such as language, intelligence quotient (IQ), and behavior...

  4. [Review of the approach to exercise behavior modification from the viewpoint of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takuo; Kouta, Munetsugu; Shigemori, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the approaches to behavior modification for exercise from the viewpoint of preventive medicine. Articles were searched according to the particular field of preventive medicine, i.e., primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and other fields of prevention. In the field of primary prevention for elderly people living at home, many fall prevention programs were found to have been carried out. In these studies, various programs were found to be effective if the exercise proved to be sufficient. Although some approaches were observed to be based on the productive aging theory and social capital, the number of such studies was small. In the field of secondary prevention, illness and functional disorders are prevented from becoming worse. It is therefore important for each individual to exercise by himself/herself and also acquire sufficient self-monitoring skills. Social capital is useful for learning good exercise habits. In the field of tertiary prevention, although exercise therapy is effective for improving physical functions and preventing disease recurrence in patients with chronic disease, some patients nevertheless find it difficult to continue such an exercise therapy. The approaches to behavior modification were extremely effective for patients with chronic disease. In other fields of preventive medicine, daily exercises such stair climbing are effective methods for reducing the risk of chronic disease and such a behavior modification may lead to a considerable public health gain. In the future, further studies with a many lines of evidence should be performed, and approaches based on behavioral science should be established.

  5. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area.

  6. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-08-15

    Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area.

  7. Fish behavior in relation to modeling fish passage through hydropower turbines: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Whitney, R.R.

    1997-06-01

    We evaluated the literature on fish behavior as it relates to passage of fish near or through hydropower turbines. The goal was to foster compatibility of engineered systems with the normal behavior patterns of fish species and life stages such that entrainment into turbines and injury in passage are minimized. We focused on aspects of fish behavior that could be used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of fish trajectories through turbine systems. Downstream-migrating salmon smolts are generally surface oriented and follow flow. Smolts orient to the ceilings of turbine intakes but are horizontally distributed more evenly, except as affected by intake-specific turbulence and vortices. Smolts often enter intakes oriented head-upstream. Non-salmonids are entrained episodically, suggesting accidental capture of schools (often of juveniles or in cold water) and little behavioral control during turbine passage. Models of fish trajectories should not assume neutral buoyancy throughout the time a fish passes through a turbine, largely because of pressure effects on swim bladders. Fish use their lateral line system to sense obstacles and change their orientation, but this sensory-response system may not be effective in the rapid passage times of turbine systems. A Effects of pre-existing stress levels on fish performance in turbine passage are not well known but may be important. There are practical limits of observation and measurement of fish and flows in the proximity of turbine runners that may inhibit development of information germane to developing a more fish-friendly turbine. We provide recommendations for CFD modelers of fish passage and for additional research. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  8. The role of parenting behaviors in childhood post-traumatic stress disorder: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria; Creswell, Cathy; Fearon, Pasco; Hiller, Rachel M; Walker, Jennifer; Halligan, Sarah L

    2017-01-20

    Studies that have examined the association between parenting behaviors and childhood post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded mixed findings. To clarify the role of parenting in childhood PTSD we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 studies that investigated the association between parenting and youth PTSD symptoms (total n=4010). Negative parenting behaviors (e.g. overprotection, hostility) accounted for 5.3% of the variance in childhood PTSD symptoms. Positive parenting behaviors (e.g. warmth, support) account for 2.0% of variance. The negative and positive parenting and child PTSD symptom associations did not statistically differ in magnitude. Moderator analyses indicated that methodological factors and trauma variables may affect the association between parenting and child PTSD. Most studies relied upon questionnaire measures of general parenting style, and studies were predominantly cross-sectional with weaker evidence found in longitudinal studies. Given the small number of high quality studies available, only provisional recommendations about the role of parenting in childhood PTSD are made.

  9. Special Care Units and Traditional Care in Dementia: Relationship with Behavior, Cognition, Functional Status and Quality of Life - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen S. Kok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Special care facilities for patients with dementia gain increasing attention. However, an overview of studies examining the differences between care facilities with respect to their effects on behavior, cognition, functional status and quality of life is lacking. Results: Our literature search resulted in 32 studies published until October 2012. Overall, patients with dementia who lived at special care units (SCUs showed a significantly more challenging behavior, more agitation/aggression, more depression and anxiety, more cases of global cognitive impairment and a better psychosocial functioning. There was a tendency towards a better functional status in specialized care facilities, and a better quality of life was found in favor of the SCU group compared to the traditional nursing home (n-SCU group. Longitudinal studies showed an increased number of neuropsychiatric cases, more patients displaying deteriorating behavior and resistance to care as well as less decline in activities of daily living (ADL in the SCU group compared to the n-SCU group. Patients in small-scale, homelike SCUs showed more agitation and less ADL decline compared to SCU patients. Conclusion: This review shows that the patient characteristics in SCU and n-SCU settings and, to a minor extent, in SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU settings are different. Over time, there are differences between n-SCU, SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU facilities for some variables.

  10. Dynamical Behavior of a Rigid Body with One Fixed Point (Gyroscope. Basic Concepts and Results. Open Problems: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Ganchev Nikolov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamic behavior of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope has a long history. A number of famous mathematicians and mechanical engineers have devoted enormous time and effort to clarify the role of dynamic effects on its movement (behavior – stable, periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. The main objectives of this review are: 1 to outline the characteristic features of the theory of dynamical systems and 2 to reveal the specific properties of the motion of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope.This article consists of six sections. The first section addresses the main concepts of the theory of dynamical systems. Section two presents the main theoretical results (obtained so far concerning the dynamic behavior of a solid with one fixed point (gyroscope. Section three examines the problem of gyroscopic stabilization. Section four deals with the non-linear (chaotic dynamics of the gyroscope. Section five is a brief analysis of the gyroscope applications in engineering. The final section provides conclusions and generalizations on why the theory of dynamical systems should be used in the study of the movement of gyroscopic systems.

  11. What are the active ingredients in cognitive and behavioral psychotherapy for anxious and depressed children? A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmans, Glen I; Pasek, Leigh F; McFall, Joseph P

    2007-06-01

    Prior meta-analytic reviews have indicated that cognitive and behavioral treatments are efficacious in treating child and adolescent depression and anxiety. Further, a meta-analysis has suggested that behavioral treatments are superior to nonbehavioral treatments for treating anxiety and depression in youth. However, the prior meta-analysis did not examine direct comparisons between cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT) and non-CBT treatments, leaving open the possibility that their results were artifactual. The present meta-analysis aggregated results of studies in which CBT treatments were compared with either other bona fide treatments (including other CBT therapies) or non-bona fide therapies. The heterogeneity of the distribution of differences between bona fide treatments as well as a comparison of full (e.g. CBT+Parent training) versus component treatments (e.g., CBT only) were examined. The results indicated that: (a) CBT was more efficacious than non-bona fide therapies; (b) CBT was no more efficacious than bona fide non-CBT treatments (c) the differences between bona fide treatments were homogenously distributed around zero; and (d) full CBT treatments offered no significant benefit over their components. The results strongly suggest that the theoretically purported critical ingredients of CBT are not specifically ameliorative for child and adolescent depression and anxiety.

  12. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of basic learning processes in sexual behavior, research on classical conditioning of the sexual response in humans is scarce. In the present paper, animal studies and studies in humans on the role of pavlovian conditioning on sexual responses are reviewed. Animal research shows robust, direct effects of conditioning processes on partner- and place preference. On the contrast, the empirical research with humans in this area is limited and earlier studies within this field are plagued by methodological confounds. Although recent experimental demonstrations of human sexual conditioning are neither numerous nor robust, sexual arousal showed to be conditionable in both men and women. The present paper serves to highlight the major empirical findings and to renew the insight in how stimuli can acquire sexually arousing value. Hereby also related neurobiological processes in reward learning are discussed. Finally, the connections between animal and human research on the conditionability of sexual responses are discussed, and suggestions for future directions in human research are given.

  13. When a clear strong voice was needed: A retrospective review of Watson's (1924/1930) behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John C; García-Penagos, Andrés

    2014-07-25

    Despite the attention given John B. Watson during the century since he introduced behaviorism, there remain questions about what he really contributed. He is still appropriately criticized for his arrogant self-promotion and especially for his perceived emphasis on a simple S-R reflexology. However, we argue that the former was necessary at the time and that criticism of Watson on the second count only diverts attention from the genuine contributions that he did make. In support of these contentions we examine several aspects of his contributions that warrant clarification, namely, his promotion of applied comparative psychology, his views on the nature of mind, his originality, criticism from and respect afforded by contemporaries, his relation to recent interest in "the embodiment of mind," his treatment of thinking, and his appreciation of Freud's work. We organize our discussion around specific chapters of the two editions of Behaviorism, but in support of our arguments we include publications of Watson that are less well known. Those works develop some important points that are only briefly treated in both editions of Behaviorism.

  14. Review of Behavior on a Disk from CMS Academic Software: instructional programs for teaching teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, J A

    1992-01-01

    The programs on BOAD represent a set of useful simulations and demonstrations of learning phenomena that successfully convey important practical and theoretical information to students. The most successful modules deal with shaping and the selective effect of positive reinforcement on behavior. The range of examples is sufficiently broad to convey the generality of these learning phenomena, but the graphics and particular examples are better suited to the college classroom (for which they were developed and in which they have received extensive field testing) than to the general public, where some users might be distracted by working with simulated animal "subjects" or bored by the simple graphics. There is a separate application on the disk that drills students on behavioral vocabulary, a useful resource for helping to assure that behavioral issues are discussed using consistent terminology. Although a single disk is initialized for a single user so that individual progress can be tracked accurately in printed reports, the cost of a disk is so low that no student who needs to learn about teaching would be discouraged from purchasing it. In truth, this is the best deal in instructional software I have seen yet.

  15. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  16. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C.O. Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words “anxiety”, “depression”, “implantable cardioverter”, “cognitive behavioral therapy” and “psychotherapy” was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011, and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  17. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A C C O; Braga, A A; Soares-Filho, G; Pereira, V; Nardi, A E; Silva, A C

    2014-04-01

    This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words "anxiety", "depression", "implantable cardioverter", "cognitive behavioral therapy" and "psychotherapy" was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011), and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  18. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigerland, Sarah; Lenhard, Fabian; Bonnert, Marianne; Lalouni, Maria; Hedman, Erik; Ahlen, Johan; Olén, Ola; Serlachius, Eva; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2016-12-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is a relatively novel treatment format with the potential to increase accessibility of evidence-based care. However, little is known about the feasibility and efficacy of ICBT in children and adolescents. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of ICBT for children and adolescents to provide an overview of the field and assess the efficacy of these interventions. A systematic literature search of six electronic databases was performed to identify ICBT intervention studies for children with a psychiatric condition, such as social anxiety disorder, or a somatic condition, such as chronic pain. Two reviewers independently rated study quality. Twenty-five studies, targeting 11 different disorders, were included in the review. Study quality and presentation of treatment variables, such as therapist time and treatment adherence, varied largely. Twenty-four studies (N=1882) were included in the meta-analysis and ICBT yielded moderate between-group effect sizes when compared with waitlist, g=0.62, 95% CI [0.41, 0.84]. The results suggest that CBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions in children and adolescents can be successfully adapted to an internet-delivered format.

  19. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Trenchard, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems including bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to ene...

  20. A REVIEW OF HUMAN ACTIVITY RECONGNITION AND BEHAVIOR UNDERSTANDING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.Revathi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey of activity recognition and understanding the behaviour of human activity in video sequence. The major goal of this paper is to provide a general review on the overall process of a surveillance system used in the current trend. Visual surveillance system is directed on automatic identification of events of interest, especially on tracking and classification of moving objects. The processing step of the video surveillance system includes the following stages: Surrounding model, object representation, object tracking, activity recognition and behaviour understanding. It describes techniques that use to define a general set of activities that are applicable to a wide range of scenes and environments in video sequence. The review methods used for real-time surveillance through a set of events for further analysis triggering, including virtual fencing, speed profiling, behaviour classification, anomaly detection, and object interaction.