WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior addictive

  1. [Addictive behavior disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Fukui, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    "Addiction" used to remind anyone of the use or abuse of chemical substances. In recent years, however, researchers and clinicians have begun to classify other excessive behaviors including gambling, eating shopping and self-injury into the addictive behavior. Above all, pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients often make trouble for psychiatrists and psychologists, not only for their family. On the other hand, the neural substrata underlying substance dependence have been revealed. Especially, it is implicated that the mesolimbic neuron plays a crucial role on the reward system. The recent studies suggest that reduced activation of the reward system might be related to the addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, binge eating and sexual behavior. Further biological researches about the addictive behavior would help our deeper understanding of its disorders. As to the pharmacotherapy, many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating the addictive behaviors.

  2. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.; Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  3. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  4. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research.

  5. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.

  6. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management.

  7. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  8. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  9. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  10. Treatment of addiction to ethanol and addictive-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating alcohol addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from alcohol addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increase central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of alcohol.

  11. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  12. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  13. [Food addiction - substance use disorder or behavioral addiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Özgür; Kliewer, Josephine; Föcker, Manuel; Antel, Jochen; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    This article looks at food addiction as a subject situated between psychiatry, neurobiology, nutritional science, internal medicine, food industry, and public health. Essentially, the question is whether or not individual nutritional components can induce physical dependence, similar to the well-known effects of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, or whether food addiction is rather a behavioral addiction. The literature describes many overlaps as well as differences of substance-based and non-substance-based addiction in both clinical and neurobiological terms. Until recently it was argued that food addiction appears only in the realms of obesity and eating disorders (e.g., binge-eating disorder, BED). Some studies, however, described the prevalence of food addiction symptoms and diagnoses independent of overweight or that they were in subjects who do not fulfill the criteria for BED. This article sums up the controversial discussion about the phenomenological and neurobiological classification of food addiction. Implications of food addiction for children and adolescents as well as public-health-related issues are also discussed.

  14. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  15. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...

  16. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  17. The neurobiology of substance and behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Brewer, Judson A; Potenza, Marc N

    2006-12-01

    Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, represent significant public health concerns and are associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity and mortality. Although research into the biology of these behaviors is still in the early stages, recent advances in the understanding of motivation, reward, and addiction have provided insight into the possible pathophysiology of these disorders. Biochemical, functional neuroimaging, genetic studies, and treatment research have suggested a strong neurobiological link between behavioral addictions and substance use disorders. Given the substantial co-occurrence of these groups of disorders, improved understanding of their relationship has important implications not only for further understanding the neurobiology of both categories of disorders but also for improving prevention and treatment strategies.

  18. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  19. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Similar to substance abuse prevention, programs aimed at addicted individuals and specialized training can educate adolescents about the warning signs of online addiction, in order to assist the early detection of this disorder. For prevention of behavioral addiction (such as internet addiction authorities, cultural institutions and parents should monitor the use of internet and teach to the adolescent and children, the useful and appropriate methods of internet use.

  20. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. Keywords: food addiction, evolution, drugs, gambling

  1. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M.; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although…

  2. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle - from which our genetic endowment had its origins - because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive.

  3. [Pertinence of the addiction concept in eating behavior disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcos, M; Girardon, N; Nezelof, S; Bizouard, P; Venisse, J L; Loas, G; Lang, F; Halfon, O; Flament, M; Jeammet, P

    2000-10-01

    From a psychodynamic perspective, dependence disorders, irrespective of the object of addiction, can be seen as the expression of the subject's neurobiological, psychopathological, cultural and social vulnerability. Since vulnerability strengthens and reorganizes the personality, it can drive these subjects to perpetuate pathological behaviors. In this light, behavior disorders belong to the field of addiction diseases, especially considering that the underlying psychopathological structures are close to those observed in addiction, that depression plays a central role, and that their development into toxic addictive behavior (drugs, alcohol, psychotrope) is frequent.

  4. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although there is a fundamental discrepancy between these two approaches, the emerging neuroscience of reinforcement and choice behavior eventually may shed li...

  5. [The place of cyber addiction in teenagers' addictive behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleur, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The easy access which modern teenagers have to new technologies favours their excessive use of video games, as they seek to escape potential existential difficulties. This harmful aspect should not mask the creative potential of games for the majority of teenagers. Treatment for young people with a gaming addiction is based on psychotherapy and takes into account the family dimension of the problem. This article presents an interview with Marc Valleur, a psychiatrist and head physician at Marmottan hospital specialising in the care and support of people with addictions.

  6. Natural addiction: a behavioral and circuit model based on sugar addiction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Rada, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    The distinction between natural addiction and drug addiction is interesting from many points of view, including scientific and medical perspectives. "Natural addictions" are those based on activation of a physiobehavioral system, such as the one that controls metabolism, foraging, and eating to achieve energy balance. "Drug addictions" activate many systems based on their pharmacology. This review discusses the following questions: (1) When does food produce a natural addiction? Sugar causes signs of addiction if the scheduling conditions are appropriate to cause binge eating. (2) Why does addictive-like behavior result? Bingeing on a 10% sucrose solution repeatedly releases dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, and it delays the release of acetylcholine, thereby postponing satiety. Opioid involvement is shown by withdrawal caused by naloxone or food deprivation. Bingeing, withdrawal, and abstinence-induced motivation are described as the basis for a vicious cycle leading to excessive eating. (3) Which foods can lead to natural addiction? A variety of sugars, saccharin, and sham feeding are compared with bingeing on high-fat diets, which seem to lack sugar's opioid-withdrawal characteristic. (4) How does natural food addiction relate to obesity? Low basal dopamine may be a common factor, leading to "eating for dopamine." (5) In a neural model, the accumbens is depicted as having separate GABA output pathways for approach and avoidance, both controlled by dopamine and acetylcholine. These outputs, in turn, control lateral hypothalamic glutamate release, which starts a meal, and GABA release, which stops it.

  7. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Volkow, N.D.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-27

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  8. Violent Behaviors in Drug Addiction: Differential Profiles of Drug-Addicted Patients with and without Violence Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent behaviors in patients who are addicted to drugs. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed. Information on violent behaviors, sociodemographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the European version of the Addiction Severity Index…

  9. Stress psychobiology in the context of addiction medicine: from drugs of abuse to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we briefly review the basic biology of psychological stress and the stress response. We propose that psychological stress and the neurobiology of the stress response play in substance use initiation, maintenance, and relapse. The proposed mechanisms for this include, on the one hand, the complex interactions between biological mediators of the stress response and the dopaminergic reward system and, on the other hand, mediators of the stress response and other systems crucial in moderating key addiction-related behaviors such as endogenous opioids, the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, and endocannabinoids. Exciting new avenues of study including genomics, sex as a moderator of the stress response, and behavioral addictions (gambling, hypersexuality, dysfunctional internet use, and food as an addictive substance) are also briefly presented within the context of stress as a moderator of the addictive process.

  10. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for regular smokers. "The study results are largely positive, but there should be continued efforts to develop and evaluate effective treatments for marijuana addiction," Dr. Volkow adds. Summer 2006 Issue: Page 26

  11. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, pneuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and extraversion (β=0.10, p<0.01) were significantly associated with social networking addiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs.

  12. The effects of macro-level interventions on addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, R L; Chaloupka, F J

    2001-12-01

    Drug addictions are often viewed as compulsive behaviors, not sensitive to the typical rules of self-discipline or market forces. Nonetheless, many governments try to discourage consumption of addictive substances through macro policy tools, such as taxation, regulation and prohibition, in an effort to reduce the harmful consequences that result from their consumption. The government's ability to discourage this type of behavior through these macro policies depends critically on the responsiveness of addictive consumption to market interventions. This paper reviews the growing literature that applies economic principles to the analysis of "substance abuse." Specifically, we review the impact of prices and public policies on the demands for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The findings from these studies clearly demonstrate that even addictive behaviors are sensitive to changes in the price of substances being abused. When the full price of the addictive good rises, consumption of that good falls, even among abusers. Therefore, public policies that raise the full price of a drug to a consumer, particularly youth, are likely to result in long run reductions in rates of addiction.

  13. Cognitive behavior therapy with Internet addicts: treatment outcomes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S

    2007-10-01

    Research over the last decade has identified Internet addiction as a new and often unrecognized clinical disorder that impact a user's ability to control online use to the extent that it can cause relational, occupational, and social problems. While much of the literature explores the psychological and social factors underlying Internet addiction, little if any empirical evidence exists that examines specific treatment outcomes to deal with this new client population. Researchers have suggested using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for Internet addiction, and addiction recovery in general has utilized CBT as part of treatment planning. To investigate the efficacy of using CBT with Internet addicts, this study investigated 114 clients who suffered from Internet addiction and received CBT at the Center for Online Addiction. This study employed a survey research design, and outcome variables such as client motivation, online time management, improved social relationships, improved sexual functioning, engagement in offline activities, and ability to abstain from problematic applications were evaluated on the 3rd, 8th, and 12th sessions and over a 6-month follow-up. Results suggested that Caucasian, middle-aged males with at least a 4-year degree were most likely to suffer from some form of Internet addiction. Preliminary analyses indicated that most clients were able to manage their presenting complaints by the eighth session, and symptom management was sustained upon a 6-month follow-up. As the field of Internet addiction continues to grow, such outcome data will be useful in treatment planning with evidenced-based protocols unique to this emergent client population.

  14. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis C

    2014-01-01

    Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive ...

  15. Disordered gambling: the evolving concept of behavioral addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Luke

    2014-10-01

    The reclassification of gambling disorder within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) addictions category marks an important step for addiction science. The similarities between gambling disorder and the substance use disorders have been well documented. As gambling is unlikely to exert actively damaging effects on the brain, the cognitive sequelae of gambling disorder may provide insights into addictive vulnerabilities; this idea is critically evaluated in light of recent structural imaging data. The second part of the review analyzes a fundamental question of how a behavior can become addictive in the absence of exogenous drug stimulation. The relative potency of drug and nondrug rewards is considered, alongside evidence that cognitive distortions in the processing of chance (for example, the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy) may constitute an important added ingredient in gambling. Further understanding of these mechanisms at neural and behavioral levels will be critical for the classification of future behavioral addictions, and I consider the current research data for obesity and binge eating, compulsive shopping, and internet gaming disorder.

  16. Addictive Behaviors Amongst University Students: Contributing Factors, Student's Perception and Addiction Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Houri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors contributing to addictive behaviors affecting student health are analyzed in this study. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the use of illegal drugs are assessed in a sample of 290 university students. General averages indicate that 37.2% of students smoke cigarettes, 49.8% drink alcohol regularly, and 17.9% have tried illegal drugs while 4.8% of them use it regularly. Age, academic achievement, gender, religion, family status and financial status were correlated to these addictive behaviors. Major findings show a clear relationship between smoking and most variables. The main factor involved in drinking was found to be religion, while illegal drug consumption was most clearly correlated to parents’ education and monthly income. Students’ self perception regarding smoking and tendency to use illegal drug was assessed showing that 11.7% of smokers consider themselves non-smokers while 11.8% considered trying illegal drugs acceptable. Addiction rates after initial consumption are analyzed showing 74.7% for alcohol, 51.7% for smoking cigarettes and 26.9% for drugs. A risk profile for each addiction type is presented.

  17. [Addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Jacques; Grivel, Jeremy; Tomei, Alexander; Falcheri, Jean-Phillipe; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-15

    The news in addiction medicine in 2013 are presented according to the new version of the DSM (DSM-5); new data on cannabinoid, highlight hypotheses on self-medication; a current status about treatment of the addiction via the internet is shown; and new therapeutic perspectives emerge from the knowledge on traumatic antecedents in addictive populations.

  18. Internet and video game addictions: a cognitive behavioral approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lins Lemos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background While several benefits are attributed to the Internet and video games, an important proportion of the population presents symptoms related to possible new technological addictions and there has been little discussion of treatment of problematic technology use. Although demand for knowledge is growing, only a small number of treatments have been described. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature, to establish Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT as a possible strategy for treating Internet and video game addictions. Method The review was conducted in the following databases: Science Direct on Line, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Clinical Trials Library, BVS and SciELO. The keywords used were: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; therapy; treatment; with association to the terms Internet addiction and video game addiction. Given the scarcity of studies in the field, no restrictions to the minimum period of publication were made, so that articles found until October 2013 were accounted. Results Out of 72 articles found, 23 described CBT as a psychotherapy for Internet and video game addiction. The manuscripts showed the existence of case studies and protocols with satisfactory efficacy. Discussion Despite the novelty of technological dependencies, CBT seems to be applicable and allows an effective treatment for this population.

  19. Internet addiction and antisocial internet behavior of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.

  20. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1 the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2 the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3 the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4 the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.

  1. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Irene Lai Kuen; Lam, Millicent Pui Sze

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addicti...

  2. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Lai Kuen Wong; Millicent Pui Sze Lam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gamin...

  3. Characteristics of self-identified sexual addicts in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéry, Aline; Vogelaere, Kim; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Poudat, François-Xavier; Caillon, Julie; Lever, Delphine; Billieux, Joël; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Research on sexual addiction flourished during the last decade, promoted by the development of an increased number of online sexual activities. Despite the accumulation of studies, however, evidence collected in clinical samples of treatment-seeking people remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics (socio-demographics, sexual habits, and comorbidities) of self-identified "sexual addicts." Methods The sample was composed of 72 patients who consulted an outpatient treatment center regarding their sexual behaviors. Data were collected through a combination of structured interviewing and self-report measures. Results Most patients were males (94.4%) aged 20-76 years (mean 40.3 ± 10.9). Endorsement of sexual addiction diagnosis varied from 56.9% to 95.8% depending on the criteria used. The sexual behaviors reported to have the highest degree of functional impairment were having multiple sexual partners (56%), having unprotected sexual intercourse (51.9%), and using cybersex (43.6%). Ninety percent of patients endorsed a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis, and 60.6% presented at least one paraphilia. Conclusions Results showed highly different profiles in terms of sexual preferences and behaviors, as well as comorbidities involved. These findings highlight the need to develop tailored psychotherapeutic interventions by taking into account the complexity and heterogeneity of the disorder.

  4. Sexually compulsive/addictive behaviors in women: a women's healthcare issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Cyndi Gale

    2007-01-01

    Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is a pattern of sexual behaviors that cause distress and/or impairment of social functioning. It is marked by obsessive thoughts, compulsive behaviors, and the individual's inability to stop the behaviors despite negative consequences. Women experiencing sexually compulsive/addictive behavior are preoccupied with sex not as a response to desire but rather as a behavior that serves the purpose of anxiety reduction. Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is associated with a number of health consequences, including sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and violence. It is important for providers to have an understanding of the addiction process, assessment, diagnosis, and interventions for these women.

  5. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and behavioral models of smoking addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige eFraser

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While few studies have applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to smoking addiction, existing work suggests that the intervention holds promise for altering the complex system by which environmental cues interact with cravings to drive behavior. Imaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS studies suggest that increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activation and integrity may be associated with increased resistance to smoking cues. Anodal tDCS of the DLPFC, believed to boost activation, reduces cravings in response to these cues. The finding that noninvasive stimulation modifies cue induced cravings has profound implications for understanding the processes underlying addiction and relapse. TDCS can also be applied to probe mechanisms underlying and supporting nicotine addiction, as was done in a pharmacologic study that applied nicotine, tDCS, and TMS paired associative stimulation to find that stopping nicotine after chronic use induces a reduction in plasticity, causing difficulty in breaking free from association between cues and cravings. This mini-review will place studies that apply tDCS to smokers in the context of research involving the neural substrates of nicotine addiction.

  6. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lai Kuen Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998 criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Results Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 % could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %. The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. Conclusions The study results throw light on prevention programs.

  7. The addictive model of self-harming (non-suicidal and suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario eBlasco-Fontecilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse. Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behavior (SB can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature and explore the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the addiction to self-harming behaviors.Method: This is a narrative review. The authors performed literature searches on PubMed and Google for suicidal behavior, self-harming, addiction, and major repeaters. Given the scarce literature on the topic, a subset of the most closely related studies was selected. The authors also focused on three empirical studies testing the hypothesis that major repeaters (individuals with ≥5 lifetime suicide attempts represent a distinctive suicidal phenotype, and are the individuals at risk of developing an addiction to SB. Results: The authors reviewed the concept of behavioral addictions and major repeaters, current empirical evidence testing concerning whether or not NSSI and SB can be understood as addictions, and the putative mechanisms underlying them.Conclusion: Our review suggests that both NSSI and SB can be conceptualized as addictions. This is relevant because if some individual’s self-harming behaviors are better conceptualized as an addiction, treatment approaches could be tailored to this addiction.

  8. Application of Neurolinguistic Programming for Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Addictive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…

  9. The behavioral economics of will in recovery from addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterosso, John; Ainslie, George

    2007-09-01

    Behavioral economic studies demonstrate that rewards are discounted proportionally with their delay (hyperbolic discounting). Hyperbolic discounting implies temporary preference for smaller rewards when they are imminent, and this concept has been widely considered by researchers interested in the causes of addictive behavior. Far less consideration has been given to the fact that systematic preference reversal also predicts various self-control phenomena, which may also be analyzed from a behavioral economic perspective. Here we summarize self-control phenomena predicted by hyperbolic discounting, particularly with application to the field of addiction. Of greatest interest is the phenomenon of choice bundling, an increase in motivation to wait for delayed rewards that can be expected to result from making choices in whole categories. Specifically, when a person's expectations about her own future behavior are conditional upon her current behavior, the value of these expectations is added to the contingencies for the current behavior, resulting in reduced impulsivity. Hyperbolic discounting provides a bottom-up basis for the intuitive learning of choice bundling, the properties of which match common descriptions of willpower. We suggest that the bundling effect can also be discerned in the advice of 12-step programs.

  10. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction.

  11. Molecular mechanism: ERK signaling, drug addiction and behavioral effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M.; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that results in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. PMID:26809997

  12. Addictive personality and maladaptive eating behaviors in adults seeking bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Michelle R; Swencionis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between addictive personality and maladaptive eating behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates. Ninety-seven bariatric surgery candidates completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Addiction Scale, the Overeating Questionnaire (OQ), binge-eating questions from the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP-R), and the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire. Participants with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) displayed addictive personality scores comparable to individuals addicted to substances (M=17.5, SD=5.3). Addictive personality was associated with Overeating (r=.45, p<.001), Cravings (r=.31, p=.005), Affective Disturbances (r=.62, p<.001) and Social Isolation (r=.53, p<.001). Addictive personality was associated with maladaptive eating behaviors, suggesting the potential for addictive eating.

  13. The association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use in adolescents: the problem behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Weng, Chih-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to a) evaluate the association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use; b) based on problem behavior theory, explore whether Internet addiction, as well as problematic alcohol use, correlated with the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors among adolescents. A total of 2,114 high school students (1,204 male and 910 female) were recruited to complete the questionnaire assessing Internet addiction, problematic alcohol use, and associated psychosocial variables. The result revealed that Internet addiction was associated with problematic alcohol use. Besides, the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors is associated with Internet addiction as well as problematic alcohol use in adolescents. These results suggest Internet addiction might be included in the organization of problem behavior theory, and it is suggested that prevention and intervention can best be carried out when grouped with other problem behaviors.

  14. Behavioral endophenotypes of drug addiction: Etiological insights from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Bianca; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in the elucidation of neurobehavioral endophenotypes associated with drug addiction made possible by the translational neuroimaging techniques magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Increasingly, these non-invasive imaging approaches have been the catalyst for advancing our understanding of the etiology of drug addiction as a brain disorder involving complex interactions between pre-disposing behavioral traits, environmental influences and neural perturbations arising from the chronic abuse of licit and illicit drugs. In this article we discuss the causal role of trait markers associated with impulsivity and novelty-/sensation-seeking in speeding the development of compulsive drug administration and in facilitating relapse. We also discuss the striking convergence of imaging findings from these behavioural traits and addiction in rats, monkeys and humans with a focus on biomarkers of dopamine neurotransmission, and highlight areas where further research is needed to disambiguate underlying causal mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  15. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.

  16. Is Sensation Seeking a correlate of excessive behaviors and behavioral addictions? A detailed examination of patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Dreier, M; Beutel, M E; Wölfling, K

    2016-08-30

    Sensation Seeking has repeatedly been related to substance use. Also, its role as a correlate of Gambling Disorder has been discussed although research has led to heterogeneous results. Likewise, first studies on Internet Addiction have indicated increased Sensation Seeking, to some extent contradicting clinical impression of patients suffering from internet addiction. We assessed Sensation Seeking in a clinical sample of n=251 patients with Gambling Disorder, n=243 patients with internet addiction, n=103 clients with excessive but not addictive internet use, and n=142 healthy controls. The clinical groups were further sub-divided according to the preferred type of addictive behavior (slot-machine gambling vs. high arousal gambling activities and internet gaming disorder vs. other internet-related addictive behaviors). Decreased scores in some subscales of Sensation Seeking were found among male patients compared to healthy controls with no differences between patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction. The type of preferred gambling or online activity was not related to differences in Sensation Seeking. Previous findings indicating only small associations between Sensation Seeking and Gambling Disorder were confirmed. Regarding Internet Addiction our results contradict findings from non-clinical samples. Sensation Seeking might be relevant in initiating contact to the health care system.

  17. Sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: Role in drug addiction and novel treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn E. Carroll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as: 1 using natural consequences such as nondrug rewards (e.g., exercise to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, 2 targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and 3 combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  18. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  19. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Nemati, Zeinab; Matlabi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with str...

  20. The effects of Internet addiction on the lifestyle and dietary behavior of Korean adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Byuk; Jung, In-kyung; Lim, Yun Sook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We performed this study to examine lifestyle patterns and dietary behavior based on the level of Internet addiction of Korean adolescents. Data were collected from 853 Korean junior high school students. The level of Internet addiction was determined based on the Korean Internet addiction self-scale short form for youth, and students were classified as high-risk Internet users, potential-risk Internet users, and no risk Internet users. The associations between the students' levels of Internet...

  1. Comparison of personality traits in pedophiles, abstinent opiate addicts, and healthy controls: considering pedophilia as an addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Grebchenko, Yuli F; Steinfeld, Matthew; Frenda, Steven J; Galynker, Igor I

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the model of pedophilia as a disorder of addictive behavior, pedophiles and chemically addicted individuals were compared on personality traits potentially associated with impaired behavioral inhibition. Twenty-nine pedophiles, 25 opiate addicts (OA's), and 27 healthy controls were administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II. OA's scored higher than either pedophiles or controls on the Barratt. Pedophiles and OA's scored higher than controls on all 3 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores but OA's scored marginally higher than pedophiles on factor 2 (behavioral) and total scores. On Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II, pedophiles scored higher than controls on paranoid and schizoid scores whereas OA's did so on paranoid scores. Thus, both pedophiles and OA's may have elevated psychopathic traits and propensity toward cognitive distortions, as reflected in cluster A traits. Such similarities support the conceptualization of pedophilia as a behavioral addiction. Pedophiles may be less impulsive than OA's, however, and more prone toward cognitive distortions.

  2. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.

  3. Individual resources for the pupil′s addictive behavior prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The expanding knowledge about psychology of addictive adolescents allows to develop innovative strategies and to set new accents in prevention activity among students. Now it is reinforcing the trend of individual preventive work, which is differentiated for ages and stages of the educational process. Such work is most relevant to group of risk for involvement –namely, for students, changing living environment, - who are at the first semester of college. Here is an overview of science concepts of individual preventive engagement, primarily in alcoholism, based on recovery of the spiritual realm, psychological well-being, spiritual potential of any age. On the example of concepts about cognitive behavioral strategies and risks of failure it is shown their potential effectiveness for the monitoring of chemical dependence among adolescents.

  4. Technology prevention of addictive behavior in children as part of a healthy lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotova A.D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop a technology of social and educational prevention of addictive behavior in children as part of the organization of a healthy lifestyle. Material : a theoretical analysis and compilation of more than 50 sources of scientific and methodological literature. Applied methods of modeling and design of social and educational activities. Results : the technology of social and educational prevention of addictive behavior of children in the territorial community. The main components of addictive behavior prevention technologies children are: diagnostic levels of addictive behavior of children in the territorial community; goal-prevention technologies, the choice of technology development or prevention of addictive behavior in children, preparation and planning of prevention, the introduction of technology, expertise and evaluation of the effectiveness of the technology deployed, summing outcomes. Conclusions . prevention of addictive behavior is an integral part of the organization of a healthy lifestyle for children. Procedural embodiment prevention of addictive behavior of children in the life of the territorial community is represented as a developed social and educational technology.

  5. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research.

  6. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.

  7. Reward/punishment sensitivities among internet addicts: Implications for their addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Hu, Yanbo; Lin, Xiao

    2013-10-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) has raised widespread public health concerns. In this study, we used a gambling task to simulate extreme win/lose situations to find the reward/punishment sensitivities after continuous wins and losses. FMRI data were collected from 16 IAD subjects (21.4±3.1years) and 15 healthy controls (HC, 22.1±3.6years). Group comparisons showed higher superior frontal gyrus activations after continuous wins for IAD subjects than for HC. The brain activities in IAD subjects were not disturbed by their losses. In addition, IAD participants showed decreased posterior cingulate activation compared to HC after continuous losses. These results indicated that IAD participants showed preference to win while neglecting their losses. Therefore they engaged less executive endeavor to control their frustration after continuous losses. Taken together, we concluded that IAD subjects showed enhanced sensitivity to win and decreased sensitivity to lose. This can help us understand why IAD subjects continue playing online even after noticing the severe negative consequences of their behaviors.

  8. Low startle magnitude may be a behavioral marker of vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marina G; Duncan, Erica; Davis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cocaine addicted men have low startle magnitude persisting during prolonged abstinence. Low startle rats show greater cocaine self-administration than high startle rats. Low startle may be a marker of a vulnerability to heightened cocaine-related behaviors in rats and similarly may be a marker of vulnerability to cocaine addiction in humans.

  9. Treating internet addiction with cognitive-behavioral therapy: a thematic analysis of the experiences of therapists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, A.J. van; Zinn, M.F.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program (‘Lifestyle Training’) to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates th

  10. Addictions Counselors' Credibility: The Impact of Interactional Style, Recovery Status, and Nonverbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriello, Paul J.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of addictions counselors' interactional style (confrontational vs. motivational), recovery status (recovering vs. nonrecovering), and nonverbal behavior (facilitative vs. neutral) on 116 clients' perceptions of addictions counselor credibility was examined in a fully crossed factorial design. Significant results were found, and…

  11. Treating Internet Addiction with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Thematic Analysis of the Experiences of Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Antonius J.; Zinn, Mieke F.; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program ("Lifestyle Training") to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates this pilot treatment program by providing…

  12. Internet Addiction: College Student Case Study Using Best Practices in Cognitive Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex S.; Parsons, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Internet Behavior Dependence (IBD), a form of Internet addiction, is a new disorder requiring informed response from addictions clinicians such as mental health counselors. Presents a working definition for IBD, overviews the prevalence rates and demographic profiles of dependent users, and reviews assessment criteria and treatment for IBD.…

  13. Treating Internet Addiction with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Thematic Analysis of the Experiences of Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Antonius J.; Zinn, Mieke F.; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program ("Lifestyle Training") to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates this pilot treatment program by providing a…

  14. Addictive behavior among young people in Ukraine: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linskiy, Igor V; Minko, Aleksandr I; Artemchuk, Anatoliy Ph; Grinevich, Eugenia G; Markova, Marianna V; Musienko, Georgiy A; Shalashov, Valeriy V; Markozova, Lyubov M; Samoilova, Elena S; Kuzminov, Valeriy N; Shalashova, Ilona V; Ponomarev, Vladimir I; Baranenko, Aleksey V; Minko, Aleksey A; Goltsova, Svetlana V; Sergienko, Oksana V; Linskaya, Ekaterina I; Vyglazova, Olga V; Zhabenko, Nataliya; Zhabenko, Olena

    2012-08-01

    The AUDIT-like tests system was created for complex assessment and evaluation of the addictive status of adolescents in a Ukrainian population. The AUDIT-like tests system has been created from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) developed by the World Health Organization. The AUDIT-like tests were minimally modified from the original AUDIT. Attention was brought to similarities between stages of different addictions (TV, computer games, the Internet, etc.) and alcohol addiction. Seventeen AUDIT-like tests were created to detect the different types of chemical and non-chemical addictions.

  15. Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ...

  16. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Zeinab; Matlabi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS) were used for data collection. Results The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother’s literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students (p=0.009). Conclusion Concentrating on adolescents’ behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents’ health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital. PMID:28182139

  17. Perception of occupational competence and sexual risk behaviors in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Xavier de Melo Teixeira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to study/understand sexual risk behaviors and the perception of occupational competence in drug addicts, regarding the existence/absence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD. Method: We opted for a quantitative and transversal methodology that provided an exploratory and descriptive nature to the study. To this end, 166 drug addicts aged 34.6 years on average were assessed through the following questionnaires: “Occupational Self Assessment” and “HIV-KQ”. Results: Regarding sexual behaviors, drug addicts infected with HIV were the group using condoms more frequently and having a more comprehensive knowledge about HIV. On the other hand, drug addicts with no STDs presented higher median scores related to occupational competence, volition, and performance ability when compared with the other two groups. Conclusions: Sexual risk behaviors among drug addicts differ according to their serology. Drug addicts without STD maintain sexual risk behaviors. They seem to have no perception of how serious the fact of being infected with HIV is to their health and occupational ability. When a drug addict is confronted with his own seropositivity to HIV, there seems to be a common behavior related to the use of precautions (condoms, risk reduction in every type of sexual relation, and decreased perception of occupational competence.

  18. Longitudinal Associations between Anhedonia and Internet-Related Addictive Behaviors in Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Casey R; Bello, Mariel S; Tsai, Jennifer Y; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Sussman, Steve

    2016-09-01

    Internet addiction (including online gaming) has been associated with depression. However, most prior research relating internet addiction symptomatology to depressive symptoms has been cross-sectional, conducted with children and adolescents, and only examined depressive symptoms as a broad construct. The purpose of the current study was to examine potential longitudinal associations between anhedonia (i.e., difficulty experiencing pleasure, a key facet of depression) and internet-related addictive behaviors in 503 at-risk emerging adults (former attendees of alternative high schools). Participants completed surveys at baseline and approximately one year later (9-18 months later). Results indicated that trait anhedonia prospectively predicted greater levels of compulsive internet use and addiction to online activities as well as a greater likelihood of addiction to online/offline video games. These findings suggest that anhedonia may contribute to the development of internet-related addictive behaviors in the emerging adult population. Thus, interventions that target anhedonia in emerging adulthood (e.g., bupropion treatment or behavioral activation therapy) may help prevent or treat internet addiction.

  19. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2008-01-01

    [Avena, N.M., Rada, P., Hoebel B.G., 2007. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews XX(X), XXX-XXX]. The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. "Food addiction" seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. "Bingeing," "withdrawal," "craving" and "cross-sensitization" are each given operational definitions and demonstrated behaviorally with sugar bingeing as the reinforcer. These behaviors are then related to neurochemical changes in the brain that also occur with addictive drugs. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. The evidence supports the hypothesis that under certain circumstances rats can become sugar dependent. This may translate to some human conditions as suggested by the literature on eating disorders and obesity.

  20. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemati Z

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods: A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS were used for data collection. Results: The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother’s literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students (p=0.009. Conclusion: Concentrating on adolescents’ behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents’ health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital. Keywords: Internet, drug abuse, adolescence, addiction, behavior

  1. Experimental medicine in drug addiction: towards behavioral, cognitive and neurobiological biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, Theodora; Crombag, Hans S; Stephens, David N

    2011-09-01

    Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to understand putative processes and mechanisms involved in addiction. Whilst these 'theories of addiction' disagree about importance and/or nature of a number of key psychological processes (e.g. the necessity of craving and/or the involvement of drug-value representations), a number of commonalities exist. For instance, it is widely accepted that Pavlovian associations between cues and environmental contexts and the drug effects acquired over the course of addiction play a critical role, especially in relapse vulnerability in detoxified addicts. Additionally, all theories of addiction (explicitly or implicitly) propose that chronic drug exposure produces persistent neuroplastic changes in neurobiological circuitries underlying critical emotional, cognitive and motivational processes, although disagreement exists as to the precise nature of these neurobiological changes and/or their psychological consequences. The present review, rather than limiting itself to any particular theoretical stance, considers various candidate psychological, neurobiological and/or behavioral processes in addiction and outlines conceptual and procedural approaches for the experimental medicine laboratory. The review discusses (1) extinction, renewal and (re)consolidation of learned associations between cues and drugs, (2) the drug reward value, (3) motivational states contributing to drug seeking and (4) reflective (top-down) and sensory (bottom-up) driven decision-making. In evaluating these psychological and/or behavioral processes and their relationship to addiction we make reference to putative underlying brain structures identified by basic animal studies and/or imaging studies with humans.

  2. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy

    2013-06-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors.

  3. Cognitive-behavioral approaches to outpatient treatment of internet addiction in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D; Gradisar, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Excessive and potentially addictive use of the Internet among children and adolescents has emerged as a major concern in recent times. Internet addiction is often conceptualized as an impulse control disorder, with features similar to pathological gambling. However, there remains considerable debate about the core components, etiological processes, course, and maintaining factors of the disorder. This article presents a case study of a 16-year-old male with generalized pathological Internet use. Critical issues relevant to case conceptualization, assessment, and choice of therapy are examined. Although the evidence base is limited in this emerging area of clinical psychology, we provide a summary of empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques for Internet addiction.

  4. Sugar and fat bingeing have notable differences in addictive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2009-03-01

    Ingestion of different nutrients, such as fats and sugars, normally produces different effects on physiology, the brain, and behavior. However, they do share certain neural pathways for reinforcement of behavior, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. When these nutrients are consumed in the form of binges, this can release excessive DA, which causes compensatory changes that are comparable to the effects of drugs of abuse. In this article, we review data obtained with animal models of fat and sugar bingeing. The concept of "food addiction" is described and reviewed from both clinical and laboratory animal perspectives. Behavioral manifestations of addictive-like behavior and concomitant alterations in DA and opioid systems are compared for sugar and fat bingeing. Finally, in relation to eating disorders and obesity, we discuss how fat may be the macronutrient that results in excess body weight, and sweet taste in the absence of fat may be largely responsible for producing addictive-like behaviors that include a withdrawal syndrome.

  5. Multiple addictive behaviors in young adults: student norms for the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2010-03-01

    The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ; Christo, Jones, Haylett, Stephenson, Lefever & Lefever, 2003) is a multidimensional self report that measures 16 addictive behaviors. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SPQ and collected normative data from 948 students at two Canadian universities. Factor analysis confirmed the existence of two categories of addictive behavior, which Haylett and her colleagues (2004) labelled hedonistic and nurturant. The hedonistic categories included behaviors such as the use of prescription drugs, gambling, caffeine, illegal drugs, alcohol, tobacco and compulsive sex. The nurturant group included behaviors such as compulsive helping, work, relationships, shopping, disordered eating and exercise. Men (N=250) scored higher than women on dominant relationships, exercise, gambling, illegal drugs, alcohol, tobacco and sex. Women (N=698) scored higher on compulsive shopping, food binging and starving. These results suggest that the SPQ may be a useful index of multiple addictive behaviors in college-age people.

  6. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: shared associations with seasonality and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2013-12-27

    Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits - associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders [Ref. (1-3) for reviews], it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n = 412) of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of

  7. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the

  8. Epigenetic and Proteomic Expression Changes Promoted by Eating Addictive-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Samantha; Burokas, Aurelijus; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Gutiérrez-Martos, Miriam; Martín-García, Elena; Pucci, Mariangela; Falconi, Anastasia; D'Addario, Claudio; Maccarrone, Mauro; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    An increasing perspective conceptualizes obesity and overeating as disorders related to addictive-like processes that could share common neurobiological mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed at validating an animal model of eating addictive-like behavior in mice, based on the DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria, using operant conditioning maintained by highly palatable chocolate-flavored pellets. For this purpose, we evaluated persistence of food-seeking during a period of non-availability of food, motivation for food, and perseverance of responding when the reward was associated with a punishment. This model has allowed identifying extreme subpopulations of mice related to addictive-like behavior. We investigated in these subpopulations the epigenetic and proteomic changes. A significant decrease in DNA methylation of CNR1 gene promoter was revealed in the prefrontal cortex of addict-like mice, which was associated with an upregulation of CB1 protein expression in the same brain area. The pharmacological blockade (rimonabant 3 mg/kg; i.p.) of CB1 receptor during the late training period reduced the percentage of mice that accomplished addiction criteria, which is in agreement with the reduced performance of CB1 knockout mice in this operant training. Proteomic studies have identified proteins differentially expressed in mice vulnerable or not to addictive-like behavior in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex. These changes included proteins involved in impulsivity-like behavior, synaptic plasticity, and cannabinoid signaling modulation, such as alpha-synuclein, phosphatase 1-alpha, doublecortin-like kinase 2, and diacylglycerol kinase zeta, and were validated by immunoblotting. This model provides an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the vulnerability to develop eating addictive-like behavior.

  9. The influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction: a study of Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mike Z; He, Jing; Ko, Deborah M; Pang, Kaichung

    2014-02-01

    A survey of 2,095 college students in five major cities in China was conducted to examine the influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction. We found that psychoticism and neuroticism were both positively related to Internet addiction. The influence of parental behaviors on Internet addition was also significant. However, fathers' and mothers' behaviors had different impacts on their children's likelihood of being addicted to the Internet. Specifically, we found that fathers' rejection and overprotection, and mothers' rejection would increase the risk for Internet addiction. Furthermore, the influence of emotional warmth from parents on Internet addiction was partially mediated by self-esteem. Finally, we found that parental behaviors of mothers and fathers affected males and females differently in terms the risk of being addicted to the Internet.

  10. Mindfulness-based treatment to prevent addictive behavior relapse: theoretical models and hypothesized mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Harrop, Erin N; Douglas, Haley; Enkema, Matthew; Sedgwick, Carly

    2014-04-01

    Mindfulness-based treatments are growing in popularity among addiction treatment providers, and several studies suggest the efficacy of incorporating mindfulness practices into the treatment of addiction, including the treatment of substance use disorders and behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling). The current paper provides a review of theoretical models of mindfulness in the treatment of addiction and several hypothesized mechanisms of change. We provide an overview of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), including session content, treatment targets, and client feedback from participants who have received MBRP in the context of empirical studies. Future research directions regarding operationalization and measurement, identifying factors that moderate treatment effects, and protocol adaptations for specific populations are discussed.

  11. Neuroscience of opiates for addiction medicine: From stress-responsive systems to behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Opiate addiction, similarly to addiction to other psychoactive drugs, is chronic relapsing brain disease caused by drug-induced short-term and long-term neuroadaptations at the molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels. Preclinical research in laboratory animals has found important interactions between opiate exposure and stress-responsive systems. In this review, we will discuss the dysregulation of several stress-responsive systems in opiate addiction: vasopressin and its receptor system, endogenous opioid systems (including proopiomelanocortin/mu opioid receptor and dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor), orexin and its receptor system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A more complete understanding of how opiates alter these stress systems, through further laboratory-based studies, is required to identify novel and effective pharmacological targets for the long-term treatment of heroin addiction.

  12. The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and social toll on the country. The economic costs of substance abuse and addiction alone are estimated to exceed a half trillion dollars annually in the United States due to health care expenditures, lost productivity, and crime. "The National Institutes of Health is proud to ...

  13. Can Decision Making Research Provide a Better Understanding of Chemical and Behavioral Addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Anzhelika; Cáceda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the cognitive and neurobiological commonalities between chemical and behavioral addictions. Poor impulse control, limited executive function and abnormalities in reward processing are seen in both group of entities. Brain imaging shows consistent abnormalities in frontoparietal regions and the limbic system. In drug addiction, exaggerated risk taking behavior and temporal discounting may reflect an imbalance between a hyperactive mesolimbic and hypoactive executive systems. Several cognitive distortions are found in pathological gambling that seems to harness the brain reward system that has evolved to face situations related to skill, not random chance. Abnormalities in risk assessment and impulsivity are found in variety of eating disorders, in particularly related to eating behavior. Corresponding findings in eating disorder patients include abnormalities in the limbic system, i.e. orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), striatum and insula. Similarly, internet addiction disorder is associated with risky decision making and increased choice impulsivity with corresponding discrepant activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate and insula. Sexual addictions are in turn associated with exaggerated impulsive choice and suggestive evidence of abnormalities in reward processing. In sum, exploration of executive function and decision making abnormalities in chemical and behavioral addictions may increase understanding in their psychopathology and yield valuable targets for therapeutic interventions.

  14. Studying the factors in dependency to substances changing the mood and behavior and effective methods in drug addiction counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Addicts to alcohol and other substances changing the mood and behavior attempt to stop their addiction and avoid its relapse because they suffer mental and physical problems, they are under the pressure of family members, employer and other individuals who influence over their life as well as negative effects of drug addiction on their performance in family, work and social relations. Since drug addicts experience physical pain when they are not using drugs, they refer, at first, to physicians and then to psychiatrists. Although emerging and applying non-medical and non-pharmaceutical approaches models is not too old, arising various addictive drugs and increasing the number of drug addicts as well as individual/social destructive consequences of drug addiction have caused that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers to represent various non-pharmaceutical theories, models, methods and guidelines based on the conditions of their clients and their clinical experiences. The present article attempts to identify the reasons of drug addiction tendency, consumption patterns, models, theories of addiction to substances changing the mood and behavior, various methods of drug treatment, effective methods in drug addiction counseling and non-medical and non-pharmaceutical methods to give up drug addiction by using recent research findings. On this basis, the most effective methods to help those who suffer from alcohol and other drugs abuse and dependency are studied.

  15. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  16. On the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Aggression in Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahmood najafy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available : This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on aggression among addicts. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pre-posttest stages, control group, and follow-up was employed for the conduct of this study. The number of 24 addicts referring to rehabilitation clinics in Tehran was selected as the sample size of this study via convenience sampling method in accordance with the inclusion criteria. These participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In this study, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for data collection purposes. Results: Data analysis showed that group cognitive-behavioral therapy reduces verbal and physical aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. However, this therapy only led to the reduction of verbal aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. Conclusion: Since aggression has a high comorbidity with substance abuse, this factor can be as an obstacle to withdrawal. Therefore, it must be considered in addiction treatment.

  17. Recorded Behavior as a Valuable Resource for Diagnostics in Mobile Phone Addiction: Evidence from Psychoinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Montag

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on their smartphones, which recorded their phone usage for five weeks. The analyses revealed that weekly phone usage in hours was overestimated; in contrast, numbers of call and text message related variables were underestimated. Importantly, several associations between actual usage and being addicted to mobile phones could be derived exclusively from the recorded behavior, but not from self-report variables. The study demonstrates the potential benefit to include methods of psychoinformatics in the diagnosis and treatment of problematic mobile phone use.

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Addiction Measure for Video Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction.

  19. Internet addiction and physical and psychosocial behavior problems among rural secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Kamer; Yurt, Seher; Bulduk, Serap; Atagöz, Sinem

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine secondary school students' levels of Internet addiction and the physical and psychosocial behavior problems they face while using the Internet. This descriptive study was conducted in three state secondary schools in a rural area in the western part of Turkey. This study's sample consisted of 549 students who agreed to participate, with the consent of their families, and who had an Internet connection at home. The data were evaluated using t-tests and variance analyses. In this study the students' score of Internet addiction was at medium level (mean addiction score 44.51 ± 17.90). There were significant differences between the students' Internet addiction scores and the presence of physical behavior problems (going to bed late, skipping meals, eating meals in front of the computer) and psychosocial behavior problems (suffering from conditions such as restlessness, anger, heart palpitations, or tremors when they could not connect to the Internet, decreased relationships with family and friends, feelings of anger, arguing with parents, and finding life boring and empty without an Internet connection).

  20. Use of Motivational Interview Technique with Transtheoretical Model for Behavioral Change in Smoking Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Smoking addiction is an important problem and disease for public health. Researches show that transtheoretical model which is used as a guide to make behavior change easy is one of guide model which would provide that individuals would understand better the reasons of changing and/or not changing with motivational interviews focused on change steps and would make behavior change easy. The goal of this article is to present sample interview plans as to make core knowledge for researchers/nurse...

  1. Novelty Seeking and Drug Addiction in Humans and Animals: From Behavior to Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Taylor; Nesil, Tanseli; Choi, Jung-Seok; Li, Ming D

    2016-09-01

    Global treatment of drug addiction costs society billions of dollars annually, but current psychopharmacological therapies have not been successful at desired rates. The increasing number of individuals suffering from substance abuse has turned attention to what makes some people more vulnerable to drug addiction than others. One personality trait that stands out as a contributing factor is novelty seeking. Novelty seeking, affected by both genetic and environmental factors, is defined as the tendency to desire novel stimuli and environments. It can be measured in humans through questionnaires and in rodents using behavioral tasks. On the behavioral level, both human and rodent studies demonstrate that high novelty seeking can predict the initiation of drug use and a transition to compulsive drug use and create a propensity to relapse. These predictions are valid for several drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, and opiates. On the molecular level, both novelty seeking and addiction are modulated by the central reward system in the brain. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter involved in the overlapping neural substrates of both parameters. In sum, the novelty-seeking trait can be valuable for predicting individual vulnerability to drug addiction and for generating successful treatment for patients with substance abuse disorders.

  2. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael

    2016-10-26

    Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18-25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.

  3. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8% enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.

  4. High trait impulsivity predicts food addiction-like behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Ferragud, Antonio; Moore, Catherine F; Everitt, Barry J; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2014-09-01

    Impulsivity is a behavioral trait frequently seen not only in drug-addicted individuals but also in individuals who pathologically overeat. However, whether impulsivity predates the development of uncontrollable feeding is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that a high impulsivity trait precedes and confers vulnerability for food addiction-like behavior. For this purpose, we trained ad libitum-fed male Wistar rats in a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) task to select Low- and High-impulsive rats. Then, we allowed Low- and High-impulsive rats to self-administer a highly palatable diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow group) in 1-h daily sessions, under fixed ratio (FR) 1, FR3, FR5, and under a progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In addition, we tested the compulsiveness for food in Low- and High-impulsive rats by measuring the food eaten in the aversive, open compartment of a light/dark conflict test. Finally, we measured the expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the shell and the core of the nucleus accumbens, which is a marker for neuroadaptive changes following addictive drug exposure. The data we obtained demonstrate that impulsivity is a trait that predicts the development of food addiction-like behaviors, including: (i) excessive intake, (ii) heightened motivation for food, and (iii) compulsive-like eating, when rats are given access to highly palatable food. In addition, we show that the food addiction phenotype in high impulsive subjects is characterized by an increased expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens shell. These results reveal that impulsivity confers an increased propensity to develop uncontrollable overeating of palatable food.

  5. Attitudes of Lithuanian secondary school children toward addictive behaviors, their promoting and preventive factors with regard to the age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskauskas, Darius; Gudaitytė, Rima; Kiudulaitė, Inga; Adomaitienė, Virginija

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of Lithuanian secondary school children toward addictive behaviors, their promoting and preventive factors with regard to the age. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study sample consisted of all 5th-, 9th-, and 12th-grade schoolchildren of 6 secondary schools in Kaunas and Šakiai (N=856). Schoolchildren were surveyed with a questionnaire consisting of the questions about their attitudes and experience regarding addictive behaviors and factors promoting and preventing such behaviors. RESULTS. Smoking (82.8%), use of illegal drugs (81.0%), and consumption of strong alcoholic beverages (80.6%) were most often indicated as addictive behaviors. Consumption of light alcoholic beverages and computer gaming were least often indicated as addictive behaviors: by 67.2% and 57.1% of respondents, respectively. Less than one-third (32.7%) of respondents answered that they had one or more of potentially addictive behaviors: computer gaming (27.8%), consumption of light alcoholic beverages (24.6%), smoking (16.3%), and consumption of strong alcoholic beverages (12.1%). The most significant difference was observed between the answers of schoolchildren of 5th and 9th grades. Friends (38.4%), TV (37.9%), and Internet (24.6%) were most often mentioned as influencing a wish to try and abstain from addictive behaviors. Fear for one's health (74.4%) and possible impediment for the life (71.4%) were the most frequently mentioned reasons for abstaining from addictive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. Involvement in potentially addictive behaviors and acknowledgement of their risks were found to increase with the age of schoolchildren, most significantly from 5th to 9th grades. Consumption of light alcoholic beverages was the second most prevalent behavior among respondents, highly noticed in advertising, but least often acknowledged as addictive behavior. TV and Internet were most often mentioned by respondents as mass media influencing their wish to try

  6. Treatment of addictive behaviors in liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrieb, Robert M; Lucey, Michael R

    2007-11-01

    Very little addiction treatment research has been done concerning smoking cessation, illicit drugs, or even alcohol abuse in liver transplant patients. Our data suggest that a surprising number of patients who are awaiting a liver transplant for alcohol-related end-stage liver disease will return to drinking before transplantation. We found that motivational enhancement therapy afforded no marked benefit over treatment as usual for drinking, smoking, mood, or general health outcomes in alcoholics awaiting liver transplantation. Stably abstinent methadone-maintained opiate-dependent patients should not be tapered off methadone; are generally good candidates for liver transplant; show low relapse rates into illicit use of opiates; and may be at risk for more medical complications than their counterparts. Pre- and posttransplantation smoking rates are high and cause marked morbidity and mortality. Transplant teams should encourage smoking cessation treatments.Marijuana use in liver transplant recipients is not uncommon, and apart from the risk of developing aspergillosis, additional health risks have not yet been identified.

  7. Addressing the Question of Disorder-Specific Risk Factors of Internet Addiction: A Comparison of Personality Traits in Patients with Addictive Behaviors and Comorbid Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Müller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  8. Addressing the question of disorder-specific risk factors of internet addiction: a comparison of personality traits in patients with addictive behaviors and comorbid internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Koch, A; Dickenhorst, U; Beutel, M E; Duven, E; Wölfling, K

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  9. Individual differences in nucleus accumbens dopamine receptors predict development of addiction-like behavior: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piray, Payam; Keramati, Mohammad Mahdi; Dezfouli, Amir; Lucas, Caro; Mokri, Azarakhsh

    2010-09-01

    Clinical and experimental observations show individual differences in the development of addiction. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that dopamine receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predisposes drug reinforcement. Here, modeling striatal-midbrain dopaminergic circuit, we propose a reinforcement learning model for addiction based on the actor-critic model of striatum. Modeling dopamine receptors in the NAc as modulators of learning rate for appetitive--but not aversive--stimuli in the critic--but not the actor--we define vulnerability to addiction as a relatively lower learning rate for the appetitive stimuli, compared to aversive stimuli, in the critic. We hypothesize that an imbalance in this learning parameter used by appetitive and aversive learning systems can result in addiction. We elucidate that the interaction between the degree of individual vulnerability and the duration of exposure to drug has two progressive consequences: deterioration of the imbalance and establishment of an abnormal habitual response in the actor. Using computational language, the proposed model describes how development of compulsive behavior can be a function of both degree of drug exposure and individual vulnerability. Moreover, the model describes how involvement of the dorsal striatum in addiction can be augmented progressively. The model also interprets other forms of addiction, such as obesity and pathological gambling, in a common mechanism with drug addiction. Finally, the model provides an answer for the question of why behavioral addictions are triggered in Parkinson's disease patients by D2 dopamine agonist treatments.

  10. Mindfulness training applied to addiction therapy: insights into the neural mechanisms of positive behavioral change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eric L Garland,1,2 Matthew O Howard,3 Sarah E Priddy,1 Patrick A McConnell,4 Michael R Riquino,1 Brett Froeliger4 1College of Social Work, 2Hunstsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: Dual-process models from neuroscience suggest that addiction is driven by dysregulated interactions between bottom-up neural processes underpinning reward learning and top-down neural functions subserving executive function. Over time, drug use causes atrophy in prefrontally mediated cognitive control networks and hijacks striatal circuits devoted to processing natural rewards in service of compulsive seeking of drug-related reward. In essence, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs can be conceptualized as mental training programs for exercising, strengthening, and remediating these functional brain networks. This review describes how MBIs may remediate addiction by regulating frontostriatal circuits, thereby restoring an adaptive balance between these top-down and bottom-up processes. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs facilitate cognitive control over drug-related automaticity, attentional bias, and drug cue reactivity, while enhancing responsiveness to natural rewards. Findings from the literature are incorporated into an integrative account of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness-based therapies for effecting positive behavior change in the context of addiction recovery. Implications of our theoretical framework are presented with respect to how these insights can inform the addiction therapy process. Keywords: mindfulness, frontostriatal, savoring, cue reactivity, hedonic dysregulation, reward, addiction

  11. Involvement of protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system in opiate addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaly, Nicolas; Dahan, Lionel; Baudonnat, Mathieu; Hovnanian, Caroline; Rekik, Khaoula; Solinas, Marcello; David, Vincent; Pech, Stéphane; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Roullet, Pascal; Mouledous, Lionel; Frances, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Plastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a structure occupying a key position in the neural circuitry related to motivation, are among the critical cellular processes responsible for drug addiction. During the last decade, it has been shown that memory formation and related neuronal plasticity may rely not only on protein synthesis but also on protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). In this study, we assess the role of protein degradation in the NAcc in opiate-related behaviors. For this purpose, we coupled behavioral experiments to intra-accumbens injections of lactacystin, an inhibitor of the UPS. We show that protein degradation in the NAcc is mandatory for a full range of animal models of opiate addiction including morphine locomotor sensitization, morphine conditioned place preference, intra-ventral tegmental area morphine self-administration and intra-venous heroin self-administration but not for discrimination learning rewarded by highly palatable food. This study provides the first evidence of a specific role of protein degradation by the UPS in addiction.

  12. P300 change and cognitive behavioral therapy in subjects with Internet addiction disorder A 3-month follow-up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Ge; Xiuchun Ge; Yong Xu; Kerang Zhang; Jing Zhao; Xin Kong

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potential studies of cognitive function in addiction behaviors have focused on the P300 event-related potential component. The current study investigated the association between P300 component and Internet addiction disorder. We found that individuals with Internet addiction disorder exhibited significantly longer P300 latencies than controls (N2: P = 0.035; P3a: P = 0.031; P3b: P = 0.043) and similar P300 amplitudes compared to control participants. After 3 months of cognitive behavioral therapy, P300 latencies decreased significantly in the P3a and P3b (P3a: P = 0.045; P3b: P = 0.062). These results suggest that deficits in cognitive function may be involved in Internet addiction disorder, and that clinical psychological treatment may be effective.

  13. Update on treatment of craving in patients with addiction using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria da Silva Roggi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The craving is a strong desire to consume a psychotropic substance and is one of the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in drug addiction. As a theoretical construct, craving is complex and described by different authors, which results in various theoretical models, but there is a consensus on the importance of its treatment. This paper conducted a literature review to identify and describe the most widely used techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the management of craving and to verify the impact of applying these techniques on outcome variables, specifically the craving. Method: Searches were conducted in the databases of PubMed and PsycInfo using the following descriptors in association: “craving”, “cognitive therapy” “behavior therapy” and “cognitive behavior therapy”. Results: 198 papers were found, out of which thirty four were selected for analysis. The cognitive behavior therapy treatment includes various techniques such as Relapse Prevention, Psychoeducational, Humor and Stress Management, Motivational Interviewing, Exposure to the Relapse Prevention and Relaxation techniques. The manual for Project MATCH is one of the most cited and used for the treatment of drug addicts. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET, Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and newer “mindfulness” therapeutic methods are studied, and have shown promising results, but still need to be further investigated. Conclusion: Various treatments have been proposed and have allowed the achievement of significant improvements in the reduction of craving.

  14. Emotional and non-emotional pathways to impulsive behavior and addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ana; Catena, Andrés; Megías, Alberto; Maldonado, Antonio; Cándido, Antonio; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Perales, José C.

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is tightly linked to addiction. However, there are several pathways by means of which impulsive individuals are more prone to become addicts, or to suffer an addiction more intensely and for a longer period. One of those pathways involves an inadequate appraisal or regulation of positive and negative emotions, leading to lack of control over hazardous behaviors, and inappropriate decisions. In the present work, we assessed cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI; n = 20), pathological gamblers (PG; n = 21), and healthy controls (HC; n = 23) in trait impulsivity measures (UPPS-P model's dimensions), and decision-making tasks (Go/No-go; delay-discounting task). During the Go/No-go task, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded, and Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials (ERP) were extracted. Theory-driven ERP analyses focused on the No-go > Go difference in the N2 ERP. Our results show that negative urgency is one of the several psychological features that distinguish addicts from HC. Nevertheless, among the dimensions of trait impulsivity, negative urgency is unique at independently covarying with gambling over-pathologization in the PG sample. Cocaine-dependent individuals performed more poorly than gamblers in the Go/No-go task, and showed abnormal Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials. The difference between the No-go stimulus-evoked N2, and the Go one was attenuated by severity and intensity of chronic cocaine use. Emotional dimensions of impulsivity, however, did not influence Go/No-go performance. PMID:23441001

  15. Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Lederle

    Full Text Available The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ. We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touch screen based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach

  16. The role of galanin system in modulating depression, anxiety, and addiction-like behaviors after chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Seese, R R; Yun, K; Peng, T; Wang, Z

    2013-08-29

    There is high comorbidity between stress-related psychiatric disorders and addiction, suggesting they may share one or more common neurobiological mechanisms. Because of its role in both depressive and addictive behaviors, the galanin system is a strong candidate for such a mechanism. In this study, we tested if galanin and its receptors are involved in stress-associated behaviors and drug addiction. Mice were exposed to 21 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS); subsequently, mRNA levels of galanin, galanin receptors (GalRs), the rate-limiting enzymes for the synthesis of monoamines, and monoamine autoreceptors were measured in the nucleus accumbens by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, we tested the effects of this stress on morphine-induced addictive behaviors. We found that CRS induced anxiety and depression-like behaviors, impaired the formation and facilitated the extinction process in morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), and also blocked morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. These behavioral results were accompanied by a CRS-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of galanin, GalR1, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tryptophan hydroxylase 2, and 5-HT1B receptor. Interestingly, treatment with a commonly used antidepressant, fluoxetine, normalized the CRS-induced behavioral changes based on reversing the higher expression of galanin and TH while increasing the expression of GalR2 and α2A-adrenceptor. These results indicate that activating the galanin system, with corresponding changes to noradrenergic systems, following chronic stress may modulate stress-associated behaviors and opiate addiction. Our findings suggest that galanin and GalRs are worthy of further exploration as potential therapeutic targets to treat stress-related disorders and drug addiction.

  17. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation.

  18. Addiction treatment outcomes, process and change: Texas Institute of Behavioral Research at Texas Christian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D Dwayne; Joe, George W; Dansereau, Donald F; Flynn, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    For more than 40 years the Texas Institute of Behavioral Research (IBR) has given special attention to assessment and evaluation of drug user populations, addiction treatment services and various cognitive and behavioral interventions. Emphasis has been on studies in real-world settings and the use of multivariate methodologies to address evaluation issues within the context of longitudinal natural designs. Historically, its program of addiction treatment research may be divided into three sequential epochs-the first era dealt mainly with client assessment and its role in treatment outcome and evaluation (1969-89), the second focused upon modeling the treatment process and the importance of conceptual frameworks (1989-2009) in explaining the relationships among treatment environment, client attributes, treatment process and outcome, and the third (and current) era has expanded into studying tactical deployment of innovations and implementation. Recent projects focus upon adapting and implementing innovations for improving early engagement in adolescent residential treatment settings and drug-dependent criminal justice populations. Related issues include the spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other infectious diseases, organizational and systems functioning, treatment costs and process related to implementation of evidence-based practices.

  19. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: Converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eHahn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people regularly play so-called Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs. Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG World of Warcraft (WoW – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions – show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG World of Warcraft (WoW-players and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed 1 trait sensitivity to reward, 2 BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum and 3 ventral-striatal resting state dynamics. We find a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state. On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait sensitivity to reward, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers.

  20. Pavlovian conditioning and cross-sensitization studies raise challenges to the hypothesis that overeating is an addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, M R; Almeida, O F X

    2014-04-29

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels and sign tracking (ST) in Pavlovian conditioning are potential biomarkers of compulsive behaviors such as addiction. As overeating is sometimes viewed as a form of addictive behavior, we hypothesized that murine Pavlovian sign trackers would have a greater propensity to overeat and develop obesity. Using a food reward in the classical conditioning paradigm, we show that ST behavior is a robust conditioned response but not a predictor of eating and growth trajectories in mice, thus challenging the view that the development of obesity and drug addiction depend on identical mechanisms. This interpretation was supported by experiments which showed that overweight mice do not display cross-sensitization to an addictive drug (morphine), and conversely, that overweight morphine-sensitized animals do not overconsume a highly rewarding food. Although the rewarding/motivational effects of both food and drugs of abuse are mediated by similar neurochemical mechanisms, obesity and drug addiction represent a summation of other dysfunctional input and output pathways that lead to the emergence of two distinct disorders, each of which would deserve a specific pharmacotherapeutic approach.

  1. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW) - similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions - show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW-players) and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed (1) trait sensitivity to reward (SR), (2) BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum, and (3) ventral-striatal resting-state dynamics. We found a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state). On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait SR, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers.

  2. Does compulsive behavior in Anorexia Nervosa resemble an addiction? A qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godier, Lauren R; Park, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic relentless self-starvation behavior seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of parallels with addictive behavior. This study used a thematic qualitative analysis to investigate the parallels between compulsive behavior in AN and Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Forty individuals currently suffering from AN completed an online questionnaire reflecting on their experience of compulsive behavior in AN. Eight main themes emerged from thematic qualitative analysis; compulsivity as central to AN, impaired control, escalating compulsions, emotional triggers, negative reactions, detrimental continuation of behavior, functional impairment, and role in recovery. These results suggested that individuals with AN view the compulsive nature of their behavior as central to the maintenance of their disorder, and as a significant barrier to recovery. The themes that emerged also showed parallels with the DSM-V criteria for SUDs, mapping onto the four groups of criteria (impaired control, social impairment, risky use of substance, pharmacological criteria). These results emphasize the need for further research to explore the possible parallels in behavioral and neural underpinnings of compulsivity in AN and SUDs, which may inform novel treatment avenues for AN.

  3. Postmortem proteomic analysis in human amygdala of drug addicts: possible impact of tubulin on drug-abusing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, P; Vielsmeier, V; Büttner, A; Eisenmenger, W; Siedler, F; Scheffer, B; Möller, H-J; Bondy, B

    2011-03-01

    Besides the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens as the most investigated brain reward structures, several reports about the relation between volume and activity of the amygdala and drug-seeking behavior have emphasized the central role of the amygdala in the etiology of addiction. Considering its proposed important role and the limited number of human protein expression studies with amygdala in drug addiction, we performed a human postmortem proteomic analysis of amygdala tissue obtained from 8 opiate addicts and 7 control individuals. Results were validated by Western blot in an independent postmortem replication sample from 12 opiate addicts compared to 12 controls and 12 suicide victims, as a second "control sample". Applying 2D-electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, we detected alterations of beta-tubulin expression and decreased levels of the heat-shock protein HSP60 in drug addicts. Western blot analysis in the additional sample demonstrated significantly increased alpha- and beta-tubulin concentrations in the amygdala of drug abusers versus controls (P = 0.021, 0.029) and to suicide victims (P = 0.006, 0.002). Our results suggest that cytoskeletal alterations in the amygdala determined by tubulin seem to be involved in the pathophysiology of drug addiction, probably via a relation to neurotransmission and cellular signaling. Moreover, the loss of neuroprotection against stressors by chaperons as HSP60 might also contribute to structural alteration in the brain of drug addicts. Although further studies have to confirm our results, this might be a possible pathway that may increase our understanding of drug addiction.

  4. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole M Avena; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. “Food addiction” seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed....

  5. The study of cognitive – behavior training effectiveness on decreasing depresive symptoms in community therapy center resident addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Discussion: The results show that psychological interventions in cognitive behavioral approach played a very crucial role in reducing depression in the addict's resident at the therapeutic community. Therefore, depression, that is one of the relapse risk factors, could be obviated and more success gained.

  6. Feed-forward mechanisms: addiction-like behavioral and molecular adaptations in overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsiö, Johan; Olszewski, Pawel K; Levine, Allen S; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2012-04-01

    Food reward, not hunger, is the main driving force behind eating in the modern obesogenic environment. Palatable foods, generally calorie-dense and rich in sugar/fat, are thus readily overconsumed despite the resulting health consequences. Important advances have been made to explain mechanisms underlying excessive consumption as an immediate response to presentation of rewarding tastants. However, our understanding of long-term neural adaptations to food reward that oftentimes persist during even a prolonged absence of palatable food and contribute to the reinstatement of compulsive overeating of high-fat high-sugar diets, is much more limited. Here we discuss the evidence from animal and human studies for neural and molecular adaptations in both homeostatic and non-homeostatic appetite regulation that may underlie the formation of a "feed-forward" system, sensitive to palatable food and propelling the individual from a basic preference for palatable diets to food craving and compulsive, addiction-like eating behavior.

  7. Acetaldehyde, Motivation and Stress: Behavioral Evidence of an Addictive ménage à trois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Anna; Lavanco, Gianluca; Cavallaro, Angela; Plescia, Fulvio; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD) contributes to alcohol's psychoactive effects through its own rewarding properties. Recent studies shed light on the behavioral correlates of ACD administration and the possible interactions with key neurotransmitters for motivation, reward and stress-related response, such as dopamine and endocannabinoids. This mini review article critically examines ACD psychoactive properties, focusing on behavioral investigations able to unveil ACD motivational effects and their pharmacological modulation in vivo. Similarly to alcohol, rats spontaneously drink ACD, whose presence is detected in the brain following chronic self-administration paradigm. ACD motivational properties are demonstrated by operant paradigms tailored to model several drug-related behaviors, such as induction and maintenance of operant self-administration, extinction, relapse and punishment resistance. ACD-related addictive-like behaviors are sensitive to pharmacological manipulations of dopamine and endocannabinoid signaling. Interestingly, the ACD-dopamine-endocannabinoids relationship also contributes to neuroplastic alterations of the NPYergic system, a stress-related peptide critically involved in alcohol abuse. The understanding of the ménage-a-trois among ACD, reward- and stress-related circuits holds promising potential for the development of novel pharmacological approaches aimed at reducing alcohol abuse.

  8. Acetaldehyde, Motivation and Stress: Behavioral Evidence of an Addictive ménage à trois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Anna; Lavanco, Gianluca; Cavallaro, Angela; Plescia, Fulvio; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD) contributes to alcohol’s psychoactive effects through its own rewarding properties. Recent studies shed light on the behavioral correlates of ACD administration and the possible interactions with key neurotransmitters for motivation, reward and stress-related response, such as dopamine and endocannabinoids. This mini review article critically examines ACD psychoactive properties, focusing on behavioral investigations able to unveil ACD motivational effects and their pharmacological modulation in vivo. Similarly to alcohol, rats spontaneously drink ACD, whose presence is detected in the brain following chronic self-administration paradigm. ACD motivational properties are demonstrated by operant paradigms tailored to model several drug-related behaviors, such as induction and maintenance of operant self-administration, extinction, relapse and punishment resistance. ACD-related addictive-like behaviors are sensitive to pharmacological manipulations of dopamine and endocannabinoid signaling. Interestingly, the ACD-dopamine-endocannabinoids relationship also contributes to neuroplastic alterations of the NPYergic system, a stress-related peptide critically involved in alcohol abuse. The understanding of the ménage-a-trois among ACD, reward- and stress-related circuits holds promising potential for the development of novel pharmacological approaches aimed at reducing alcohol abuse. PMID:28232795

  9. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  10. Sex differences in impulsive and compulsive behaviors: a focus on drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Sex differences in inhibition and self-regulation at a behavioral level have been widely described. From an evolutionary point of view, the different selection pressures placed on male and female hominids led them to differ in their behavioral strategies that allowed our species to survive during natural selection processes. These differences reflect changes in neural and structural plasticity that might be the core of sex differences, and of the susceptibility towards one psychiatric condition rather than another. The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for such a dichotomy in impulsive and compulsive behavior with a focus on drug addiction. Sex-dependent differences in drug abuse and dependence will be examined in the context of pathophysiological regulation of impulse and motivation by neuromodulators (i.e. gonadal hormones) and neurotransmitters (i.e. dopamine). Advances in the understanding of the sex differences in the capability to control impulses and motivational states is key for the determination of efficacious biologically based intervention and prevention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders where loss of impulse control and compulsivity are the core symptoms.

  11. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pInternet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  12. A commentary on the "eating addiction" versus "food addiction" perspectives on addictive-like food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M; Potenza, Marc N; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2016-10-27

    The food addiction construct posits that vulnerable individuals may experience an addictive-like response to certain foods, such as those high in fat and refined carbohydrates. Recently, an alternative model to food addiction was proposed, suggesting that the act of eating may be a behavioral addiction that can trigger an addictive-like response in susceptible individuals. One major rationale for the eating addiction framework is that the assessment of food addiction is based on behavioral indicators, such as consuming greater quantities of food than intended and eating certain foods despite negative consequences. It is also suggested that the lack of investigation into which foods and food attributes (e.g., sugar) may have an addictive potential is evidence that food addiction does not parallel a substance-based addiction and more closely resembles a behavioral addiction. The present paper provides a commentary suggesting that the substance-based, food-addiction framework is more appropriate than the behavioral-addiction, eating-addiction perspective to conceptualize addictive-like food consumption. In order to illustrate this point, this manuscript will discuss behavioral components characteristic of all substance-use disorders, preliminary evidence to suggest that all foods are not equally associated with addictive-like eating, and key differences between the hypothesized eating addiction phenotype and the only existing behavioral addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder. Further, this paper will consider implications of applying an addiction label to food versus eating and suggest future research directions to evaluate whether food addiction is a valid and clinically useful construct.

  13. A Behavioral and Circuit Model Based on Sugar Addiction in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hoebel, Bartley G.; Nicole M Avena; Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Rada, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between natural addiction and drug addiction is interesting from many points of view, including scientific and medical perspectives. “Natural addictions” are those based on activation of a physiobehavioral system, such as the one that controls metabolism, foraging, and eating to achieve energy balance. “Drug addictions” activate many systems based on their pharmacology. This review discusses the following questions: (1) When does food produce a natural addiction? Sugar causes ...

  14. Oral health behavior of in-treatment female drug addicts in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ghane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health behaviors in women with addiction history. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in women drug treatment centers under the supervision of Welfare Organization of Tehran province in Iran. Data collection process was conducted in three centers including a questionnaire with an interview format, clinical examination, and Chi-Square test and MANOVA for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of 95 women participating in this study was less than forty, whereas the age of starting drugs was twenty two. A majority of the patients were unemployed (71% and more than that of two-third did not have a diploma education. Almost half of dentate participants had never or rarely brushed their teeth. Most of them had never used dental floss, while more than half had three or more times snacks or sweet drinks and more than three-fourth were daily smokers. The MANOVA analysis showed that the type of clinic to be visited, age, used stimulant, drug dependency length, the last time a dentist being visited and the brushing period had a statistically significant relationship with Decayed Teeth (DT, Missing Teeth (MT and Filled Teeth (FT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Women with the prior drug addiction history had an unpromising oral health status which was obvious in their self-perceived oral health. Taking the appropriate preventive and therapeutic actions aiming for promoting oral health status of them seems to be necessary.

  15. Linking Online Gaming and Addictive Behavior: Converging Evidence for a General Reward Deficiency in Frequent Online Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW) – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions – show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW-players) and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed (1) trait sensitivity to reward (SR), (2) BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum, and (3) ventral-striatal resting-state dynamics. We found a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state). On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait SR, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers. PMID:25426039

  16. Integrating Behavioral Economics and Behavioral Genetics: Delayed Reward Discounting as an Endophenotype for Addictive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James

    2013-01-01

    Delayed reward discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, referring to how much an individual devalues a reward based on its delay in time. As a behavioral process that varies considerably across individuals, delay discounting has been studied extensively as a model for self-control, both in the general population and in clinical…

  17. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Relation to Addictive Behaviors: A Moderated-Mediation Analysis of Personality Risk Factors and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research has shown that those with ADHD have an increased risk for addiction disorders like alcoholism and substance abuse. What is less clear is the mechanism(s whereby ADHD gives rise to increased engagement in addictive behaviors, and whether there are sex differences in the ADHD-addiction propensity. Both ADHD and addictions have also been associated with personality traits such as impulsivity, reward seeking, anxiousness, and negative affect. In this study, we tested a moderator-mediation model which predicted that both sex and ADHD-symptom status would make independent contributions to the variance in personality risk and in addictive behaviors, with males, and those with diagnosed ADHD, scoring higher on both dependent variables. Our model also predicted that the effect of sex and ADHD-symptom status on addictive behaviors would be via the mediating or intervening influence of personality risk factors. Methods: A community-based sample of young men and women took part in the study. Among these individuals, 46 had received a life-time diagnosis of ADHD. The non-diagnosed participants were dichotomized into a high-ADHD symptom group (n=83 and a low-symptom group (n=84. Results: We found that a high-risk personality profile may, in part, account for the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and the use/abuse of a broad range of addictive behaviors. However,we found no sex differences in personality risk for addiction or in the use of addictive behaviors; nor did sex moderate the relationships we assessed. Conclusions: While ADHD Status showed a strong relationship with both dependent variables in the model, we found no difference between those who had been diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulants, and their high-symptom non-diagnosed/non-treated counterparts. These results add support to claims that the treatment of ADHD with stimulant medication neither protects nor fosters the risk for substance abuse disorders.

  18. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Improving Quality of Life in Opiate Addicts under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Momeni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of cognitive- behavioral group therapy on improvement of quality of life in opiate patients under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: This was a semi experimental study using control group also pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Thirty six patients on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies within judgmental sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. They were all administered the WHOQOL-BREF. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions and the control group was registered in the waiting list for the CBGT. Findings: Data analysis revealed that the mean WHOQOL-BREF score in the experimental group had significant higher increase when compared with that of the control group. But it wasn’t significant in follow up. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive–behavior group therapy On improvement of quality of life of opiate addicts on MMT in short term but didn’t seem to be effective in long term.

  19. The Effectiveness of Healthy Behavior Training Program in Changing Attitude of Students towards Substance Abuse and Reduction of Addiction Vulnerability Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsar Khalili S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was developing the healthy behavior to change the attitude of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse and Reduction of Addiction Vulnerability Level. Method: This research was carried out by two methods of descriptive-analytic and quasi experimental design. First, 60 students of Shahid Beheshti University were selected randomly (of 2000 students from the University dormitory. Then, half of the students received the developing healthy behavior training program. The efficacy of this program was evaluated by the scales of “attitude towards substance abuse” and "addiction vulnerability". The data was analyzed by Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: The result showed significant difference attitude towards substance abuse total scores and addiction vulnerability subscales between experiential and control group. Conclusion: The result of this research indicated that healthy behavior training program develops the negative attitude towards substance abuse and Reduce the Addiction Vulnerability Level.

  20. The Classification of the Real-Time Interaction-Based Behavior of Online Game Addiction in Children and Early Adolescents in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Vachirapanang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study actual behaviors of Thai children and early adolescents with different levels of game addiction while playing online games from an angle of the interaction between a user and computer. Real-time interaction-based behavior data from a program agent installed in personal computers in 20 sample houses were screened along with consent given by children and their parents. Collection of data about game-playing periods, frequency, game-playing times, text-based chatting, mouse click and keyboard typing during the game was carried out over two months and four case study in-depth interviews for addicted players and their parents. The results revealed a novel method to classify online game addiction level of children and early adolescents by mouse click and keyboard typing data and also found relationship between the playing data recorded and game addiction risk conditions and risk behaviors as explained in the article.

  1. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Nemati Z; Matlabi H

    2017-01-01

    Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives: The aim of this study wa...

  2. Behavioral and Genetic Evidence for GIRK Channels in the CNS: Role in Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Jody; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are widely expressed throughout the brain and mediate the inhibitory effects of many neurotransmitters. As a result, these channels are important for normal CNS function and have also been implicated in Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and drug addiction. Knockout mouse models have provided extensive insight into the significance of GIRK channels under these conditions. This review examines the behavioral and genetic evidence from animal models and genetic association studies in humans linking GIRK channels with CNS disorders. We further explore the possibility that subunit-selective modulators and other advanced research tools will be instrumental in establishing the role of individual GIRK subunits in drug addiction and other relevant CNS diseases and in potentially advancing treatment options for these disorders.

  3. A Study With Special Emphasis On Applying Motivational Interviewing As a Clinical Approach to Change Addictive Behavior of Drug Abusers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghorbani

    2002-10-01

    The goals of present article are three – fold: In the first step, it introduces a brief form of motivational Interviewing for addictive behaviors. Its primary basis is the idea that most substance abusers seek medical treatment without being ready to change addictive behaviors. As a result, attempts the addicts to change often lead to their resistance. Therefore, the use of motivational interviewing (MI in which clients are directed towards realizing their own reasons and arguments for changing their behavior, seems to be most oppropriate to motivate and prepare them for change. In the second step, the article tries to discuss advantages of motivational interviewing approach to often opproaches (e.g, skills training approach, Indirect approach and confrontational – denial approach and suggests that (MI is the most appropriate strategy for the substance abusers, according to their degree of readiness for change. Finally in the third step, the article attempts to indicate the current dominant strategies of addiction treatment in Iran and concludes that due to dominance and commonality of medicine – based treatment strategies of addictive behaviors, (MI could be introduced as an alternative and appropriate treatment strategy for drug addicts in Iran.

  4. Is Overeating Behavior Similar to Drug Addiction? (427th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gene-Jack

    2007-09-27

    The increasing number of obese individuals in the U.S. and other countries world-wide adds urgency to the need to understand the mechanisms underlying pathological overeating. Research by the speaker and others at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere is compiling evidence that the brain circuits disrupted in obesity are similar to those involved in drug addiction. Using positron emission tomography (PET), the speaker and his colleagues have implicated brain dopamine in the normal and the pathological intake of food by humans. During the 427th Brookhaven Lecture, speaker will review the findings and implications of PET studies of obese subjects and then compare them to PET research involving drug-addicted individuals. For example, in pathologically obese subjects, it was found that reductions in striatal dopamine D2 receptors are similar to those observed in drug-addicted subjects. The speaker and his colleagues have postulated that decreased levels of dopamine receptors predisposed subjects to search for strongly rewarding reinforcers, be it drugs for the drug-addicted or food for the obese, as a means to compensate for decreased sensitivity of their dopamine-regulated reward circuits. As the speaker will summarize, multiple but similar brain circuits involved in reward, motivation, learning and inhibitory control are disrupted both in drug addiction and obesity, resulting in the need for a multimodal approach to the treatment of obesity.

  5. Counseling Compulsive Resume Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Marshall J.

    Compulsive Resume Addiction (CRA) is a condition where applicants become dependent on their written credentials to get new employment. It is similar to other addictions in that the person manifests short-term, gratification-seeking behavior with the long term cost in self-esteem and self-confidence. Applicants get stuck in thinking that a better…

  6. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Increasing of Self-Efficacy and Improving of Addiction Symptoms among Drug Dependency Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kamarzarin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy on increasing of self efficacy and improving of addiction symptoms among drug dependency patients. Method: For this purpose, 90 substance abusers were selected of private addiction center, Central Prison and drop in center by using of random sampling, and they were divided into two experimental (45 subjects and witness groups (45 subjects randomly. The members of experimental group were under 12 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy by Carol method, and control group only have taken Methadone and other physical drugs. All participants at the beginning of research, during the study (after three months and three months after treatment completed self-efficacy questionnaire and Maudsley addiction profile (Map by a psychologist were assessed. The symptoms of addiction recovery and addiction treatment process. Results: Analysis of covariance indicated the treatment effectiveness and its maintenance on increasing of efficacy and reducing of the symptoms of Maudsley addiction profile. Conclusion: Cognitive behavior therapy is effective to increase self-efficacy and improve symptoms in substance abusers.

  7. How addicts think about addiction and community problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meysamie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: addiction and drug abuse have many risk factors in community and individual attitude; also causes much diversity in community perception and attitude toward addiction. Methods: in this study we assessed attitude toward an addict in 42 addict men and asked about problems in their community and recreational behaviors. They were residents of a rural area in Babol city. In the control group we assessed the same parameters in 268 non addicts in the same area. All of the addicts have been using opium more than many times a week at least for recent 6 months. Data collected via a semi structured questionnaire through conversation. Results: There was a significant difference between addicts’ attitude toward toward addiction compare to non-addicts’. Both addicts and non-addicts indicated that the first three community problems in their area were unemployment, lack of recreational facilities and addiction, in respective order. Answering questions about recreational activities, both groups indicated that there were no recreational facilities in the community. Conclusion: In planning a preventive approach, there is a major role for attitude toward addiction in any community. The conflict seen in this study between addicts’ attitudes toward an addicted person and addiction as a community problem has it’s interesting feature. Recreation and physical and cultural facilities need to pay more attention as indicated by our study participants. This seems to have an important impact in prevention of many community problems as well as addiction.

  8. Neurogenetic and epigenetic correlates of adolescent predisposition to and risk for addictive behaviors as a function of prefrontal cortex dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Febo, Marcelo; Smith, David E; Roy, A Kenison; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Cronjé, Frans J; Femino, John; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James L; Pandey, Subhash C; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Gold, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    As addiction professionals, we are becoming increasingly concerned about preteenagers and young adults' involvement with substance abuse as a way of relieving stress and anger. The turbulent underdeveloped central nervous system, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), provides impetus to not only continue important neuroimaging studies in both human and animal models, but also to encourage preventive measures and cautions embraced by governmental and social media outlets. It is well known that before people reach their 20s, PFC development is undergoing significant changes and, as such, hijacks appropriate decision making in this population. We are further proposing that early genetic testing for addiction risk alleles will offer important information that could potentially be utilized by their parents and caregivers prior to use of psychoactive drugs by these youth. Understandably, family history, parenting styles, and attachment may be modified by various reward genes, including the known bonding substances oxytocin/vasopressin, which effect dopaminergic function. Well-characterized neuroimaging studies continue to reflect region-specific differential responses to drugs and food (including other non-substance-addictive behaviors) via either "surfeit" or "deficit." With this in mind, we hereby propose a "reward deficiency solution system" that combines early genetic risk diagnosis, medical monitoring, and nutrigenomic dopamine agonist modalities to combat this significant global dilemma that is preventing our youth from leading normal productive lives, which will in turn make them happier.

  9. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  10. Addiction and Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eJohnson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ADDICTION AND WILLA hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING.The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted.Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  11. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  12. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  13. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. Methods The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. Discussion The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions. PMID:26690622

  14. Prevention des Toxicomanies Aupres des Filles avec des Problemes de Comportement: Effets a Court Terme (Prevention of Drug Addiction in Girls with Behavior Problems: Short-Term Effects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article, written in French, describes and evaluates the first phase of a program to prevent drug addiction among 110 fifth-grade girls with behavior problems in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Evaluation of the instructional program showed positive results for student knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors and supported program continuation…

  15. The relationship between addiction to internet and adolescence’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mowlaie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of adolescent period and impact of internet and virtual communication tools on high risk behaviors, this research was conducted to examine the relationship between addiction to internet and adolescent’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking. Methods: The population of this study included all (n=40597 junior and senior high school students (boys and girls in academic year 2014-2015 in Ardabil, Iran. 380 subjects were selected as the study sample by multistage cluster sampling. The instruments for data collection in this research were addiction to internet questionnaire, Iranian adolescent's risk-taking scale and the researcher-made tendency to chat and hacking questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS-22 software using correlation coefficient and simultaneous regression analysis. Results: The results showed a significantly positive correlation between addiction to internet and sexual behavior, tendency toward opposite sex, aggression, chatting and hacking (P<0.001, but there was no significant relationship between addiction to internet and alcohol. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that addiction to internet was able to significantly predict sexual behavior, tendency toward opposite sex, aggression, chatting and hacking.

  16. Addiction and will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud's concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  17. [The new types of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaille, P

    2009-09-01

    Addiction is characterized by the inability to control his consumption of product or control certain behaviors, and the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of its adverse effects. Addictions to substances like heroin, cocaine, etc., are well known. But other substances potentially addictive are getting more common in Belgium: MDMA, GHB / GBL, Cristal, etc. The existence of addictions without substance (called also behavioral addiction) is well recognized now: gambling addiction seems to be the most common and has been recognized as a disease by WHO, but we can also observe cyberaddiction, addiction to sex, workalholic, addiction to shopping, etc. The screening of poly-addiction or to one substance or one behavior should be systematized in the history of every patient. This screening should be facilitated through the development and validation of a cross scale. Particular attention will be paid to certain groups, both in primary prevention and screening: men, adolescents and young adults, university students or high schools, clubbers, sporting people, prisoners, ethnic minorities, people with mental disorders like depression. Primary care workers, and especially general practitioners, are at the first place to detect those different forms of addiction, can affort appropriate care according to patient's characteristics and type addiction, and to identify high-risk situations for relapse.

  18. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of sexual addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A

    1993-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to the concept of addiction, the definition of and diagnostic criteria for sexual addiction are presented. A theoretical framework for treatment of sexual addiction is then outlined, based on an understanding of the underlying addictive process: the compulsive dependence on external actions as a means of regulating one's internal states. Effective treatment addresses both addictive behavior and the addictive process. Addictive sexual behavior is addressed through behavioral symptom management, which includes relapse prevention and other cognitive-behavioral techniques. The addictive process is addressed by enhancing self-regulatory functions through individual psychotherapy, therapeutic group experience, and pharmacotherapy (medication treatment, when indicated). An integrated system for treatment of sexual addiction, which brings together these therapeutic methods in one theoretically coherent, clinically unified approach, is outlined.

  20. The Key to Individualized Addiction Treatment is Comprehensive Assessment and Monitoring of Symptoms and Behavioral Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Hilton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is available is the ability to quickly and precisely assess and monitor biopsychosocial variables known to vary during addiction recovery and which place addicts at increased risk of relapse. Monitoring a broad spectrum of biopsychosocial health enables providers to address diverse genome-specific changes that might trigger withdrawal from treatment or recovery relapse in time to prevent that from occurring. This paper describes modern measurement tools contained in the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS and the NIH Toolbox and suggests how they might be applied to support recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders in both pharmacological and abstinence-oriented modalities of care.

  1. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSauvaget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction. Study selection, data analysis and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines.Results.Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode / left prefrontal cathode reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli.ConclusionsDespite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders.

  2. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fang; Duan, Ying; Jin, Shubo; Sui, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews' behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM) injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA) paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  3. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eShen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  4. Mindfulness training applied to addiction therapy: insights into the neural mechanisms of positive behavioral change

    OpenAIRE

    Garl; EL; Howard MO; Priddy SE; McConnell PA; Riquino MR; Froeliger B

    2016-01-01

    Eric L Garland,1,2 Matthew O Howard,3 Sarah E Priddy,1 Patrick A McConnell,4 Michael R Riquino,1 Brett Froeliger4 1College of Social Work, 2Hunstsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: Dual-process models from neuroscience suggest that addiction is driven by dysregulated interact...

  5. Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van Alexander J.A.M.; Bolle, Colin L.; Hegner, Sabrina M.; Kommers, Piet A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of process and social oriented smartphone usage, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, gender, and age in relation to habitual and addictive smartphone behavior. We conducted an online survey among 386 respondents. The results revealed that h

  6. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions.

  7. Internet addiction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction. Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behavior. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.

  8. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena.

  9. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center in Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Teimouri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug addiction is one of the social health problems at the present century. The high risk sexual behaviors as well as drug abusing are factors of sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center. Methods: In this descriptive study, 76 women who have referred to Niloofar de-addiction center in Kermanshah-Western Iran, were recruited using convenience sampling method. Questionnaire was completed by all subjects and blood sample were taken to determine Hepatitis B, Syphilis, and Herpes simplex virus infection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t- test, Chi-2 and the Fisher exact test. Results: The mean age of women was 35.22±0.99 year. 51.3% of subjects were illiterate and 48.7% were supported by social welfare system. There were not common needle using and multiple sexual contacts in the subjects. None of the subjects had positive test for hepatitis B and syphilis but HSV antibody was determined in 91.6% of subjects.Conclusion: In this study, high-risk behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases were less than expected. This study was carried out in a state governmental clinic, future studies in different populations of addicted women referred to prison and private sectors are recommended.

  10. The relationship between addiction to internet and adolescence’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Mehri Mowlaie; Setareh Jani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the importance of adolescent period and impact of internet and virtual communication tools on high risk behaviors, this research was conducted to examine the relationship between addiction to internet and adolescent’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking. Methods: The population of this study included all (n=40597) junior and senior high school students (boys and girls) in academic year 2014-2015 in Ardabil, Iran. 38...

  11. Prevalence and association of perceived stress, substance use and behavioral addictions: a cross-sectional study among university students in France, 2009-2011.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: University students face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers as well as concerns about the future. Stress should not be considered on its own, but should be associated with potential risk behaviors leading to onset of substance use and related problems heightened during the university period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of main substance use and behavioral addictions am...

  12. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Mitchell

    Full Text Available Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions.

  13. Are adolescents with internet addiction prone to aggressive behavior? The mediating effect of clinical comorbidities on the predictability of aggression in adolescents with internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD.

  14. Steve Sussman on Matilda Hellman's "Mind the gap! Failure in understanding key dimensions of an addicted drug user's life" addictive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    "Addictive effects" are experiential states sought by individuals that underlie addictive behaviors. Consistent with ideas that addictive effects mimic satiation of appetitive motives, a literature search-derived heuristic catalogue of addictive behaviors is offered and contrasted across four general appetitive-like motives that have been posited as underlying addictive behaviors (dominance, submissiveness, self-pleasure, and nurturance). I suggest, in part, that addictive behaviors are misdirected attempts to satisfy appetitive motives.

  15. [Pathological gambling and computergame-addiction. Current state of research regarding two subtypes of behavioural addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, K; Müller, K W

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral addictions, like pathological gambling and computer game addiction (or internet addiction), have become a growing concern in research and public interest. Currently similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are controversially discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately a mismatch exists between the large number of people seeking treatment and the small number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and computer game addiction. Prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is estimated to be 0.2-0.5%. These estimations are comparable to prevalence rates reported for drug dependency. Latest research states that about 3% of German adolescents and young adults are believed to suffer from computer game addiction. Therefore, it is important to enhance investigations regarding the clinical and neuroscientific basis of computer game addiction. This review offers a summary of current results of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction. The phenomenological description of these two disorders is meant to allow a deeper understanding of behavioral addictions.

  16. The Effectiveness of Marlaat’s Cognitive Behavior Intervention and Group Treatment Based on Change Stages for Recovery and Relapse Prevention Rates in Male Heroin Crack Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khodadust

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the Study of effectiveness of Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention and group treatment based on change stages for recovery and relapse rates in male heroin crack addictions. Method: In a experimental research design, 45 men addictions, who were diagnosed as the dependence of the heroin crack on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, were chosen after successfully detoxified. They were divided two experimental groups (30 participants and a control group (15 participants that have been selected by random sampling. The first experimental group was undergone group treatment based on change stages underwent 16 sessions of 1.5 hours, totally 24 hours and the second experimental groups who were undergone Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention has been held 15 sessions of 2 hours, totally 24 hours. The control group were just received MMT without any psychotherapy. All participants were assessed by structured interview, urine test, before treatment, after treatment and after 3 months follow up. Results: Results showed that both psychotherapy treatments were affected on recovery and relapse rates. Conclusion: It seems that psychological problems and conflicts before addiction and after addiction could be caused for individuals’ tendency to narcotics consumption. Therefore, applying of psychotherapy could be useful in relapse prevention.

  17. PERSONALITY AND COMPUTER ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jurczyńska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work is to prove the relation between the personality traits and computer addicting. The research was carried out from 2006 to 2008 among the students of High School of Information Technology in Katowice. Material and methods: Research methods: Scale of Emotional Intelligens at Work, Social Competences Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Kimberly S. Young Test, Questionnaire to Assess the Level of Crises of Values, Directivity Scale and a questionnaire of 23 questions prepared for the research purposes. Results: 12.70% of the examined population met the criteria for computer addiction. In the own view, 76.34% considered themselves addicted to this medium. Conclusions: Personality traits such as emotional intelligence at work, inclination to authoritative behaviors as well as the value system may have influence on the addicting to a computer. No such relation was proven with reference to self – efficacy and anxious personality.

  18. Coexisting addiction and pain in people receiving methadone for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Marie, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the narratives of people who experience chronic pain (lasting 6 months or more) and were receiving methadone for the treatment of their opiate addiction through a major methadone clinic. This paper featured the pathway of how the participants developed chronic pain and addiction, and their beliefs of how prescription opioids would impact their addiction in the future. Thirty-four participants who experienced chronic pain and received methadone for treatment of opiate addiction were willing to tell the story of their experiences. The findings in three areas are presented: (a) whether participants experienced addiction first or pain first and how their exposures to addictive substances influenced their experiences, (b) the significance of recreational drug use and patterns of abuse behaviors leading to chronic pain, and (c) participants' experiences and beliefs about the potential for abuse of prescription opioid used for treatment of pain.

  19. Interactions between opioids and anabolic androgenic steroids: implications for the development of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, research on doping agents, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), has revealed that these compounds are often used in combination with other drugs of abuse. It seems that misuse of AAS probably involves more than a desire to enhance appearance or sports performance and studies have revealed that steroids are commonly connected with alcohol, opioids, tobacco, and psychotropic drugs. We have observed that AAS may interact with the endogenous opioids, excitatory amino acids, and dopaminergic pathways involved in the brain reward system. Furthermore, our studies provide evidence that AAS may induce an imbalance in these signal systems leading to an increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. In fact, studies performed in various clinics have shown that individuals taking AAS are likely to get addicted to opioids like heroin. This chapter reviews current knowledge on interactions between AAS and endogenous as well as exogenous opioids based not only on research in our laboratory but also on research carried out by several other clinical and preclinical investigators.

  20. Changes of Diagnosis Criteria for Gambling-Related Disorders and Psychoactive and Behavioral Addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Niewiadomska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autorki poruszają kwestię zmian w kryteriach diagnostycznych dotyczących zaburzeń związanych z hazardem oraz uzależnień chemicznych i czynnościowych w literaturze przedmiotu. Prezentują też krótki przegląd kolejnych edycji podręczników międzynarodowych klasyfikacji, zarówno Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – DSM, jak i The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems – ICD. W artykule przedstawiona jest również dyskusja badaczy na temat umiejscowienia zaburzeń związanych z hazardem w klasyfikacjach diagnostycznych. DSM-V umiejscawia zaburzenie hazardowe w kategorii „zaburzenia używania substancji i nałogów” (ang. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders, DSM-V, w podkategorii „zaburzenia niezwiązane z substancjami” (ang. Non-Substace Related Disorders, DSM-V. Natomiast według nadal obowiązującego ICD-10, zaburzenie hazardowe pozostaje w obszarze zaburzeń kontroli i impulsów, pod nazwą „hazard patologiczny”.

  1. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels......Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...

  2. The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management with Methadone to Reduce Stress and Voracity in Drug use among Addicts referring to Withdrawal Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Norouzpour Ahmadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim of examining the effect of cognitive-behavioral stress management with methadone to reduce stress and voracity in drug use among addicts referring to withdrawal camps. The design of the present study is quasi-empirical (quasi-experimental and pretest -posttest have been together with control group. Statistical population was all the addicts referring to one of the withdrawal camps in Bandar Abbas that among them 30 persons were selected to participate in group therapy. Scale of 21-question Das- form (DASS-21 from the subscale of the stress and the questionnaire for measuring voracity in drug use in a moment to collect data were used. Training workshop on cognitive - behavioral stress management in 10 sessions was conducted an hour and a half on the experimental group. Covariance analysis was utilized for data analysis. The results showed that cognitive-behavioral stress management with methadone therapy has been effective in reducing stress in addicts referring to withdrawal camps (P≤ 0.05. Also, the results showed that cognitive-behavioral stress management with methadone therapy has been effective in reducing willingness and intention to use drugs, reducing the propensity to consume and negative reinforcement and drug velocity in addicts referring to withdrawal camps (P≤ 0.05. In general, these findings show that this curriculum in addition to reduce the symptoms in three levels of physiological, cognitive and behavioral leads to the change in person's lifestyle that this factor plays an important role in reducing drug use and preventing the recurrence and fault.

  3. Internet Addiction: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bozkurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior. This paper aims to give a current review of the gradually evolving body of literature on Internet addiction. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 235-247

  4. Involvement of the brain histaminergic system in addiction and addiction-related behaviors: a comprehensive review with emphasis on the potential therapeutic use of histaminergic compounds in drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, Christian; Alleva, Livia; Quertemont, Etienne; Tirelli, Ezio

    2010-11-01

    Neurons that produce histamine are exclusively located in the tuberomamillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus and send widespread projections to almost all brain areas. Neuronal histamine is involved in many physiological and behavioral functions such as arousal, feeding behavior and learning. Although conflicting data have been published, several studies have also demonstrated a role of histamine in the psychomotor and rewarding effects of addictive drugs. Pharmacological and brain lesion experiments initially led to the proposition that the histaminergic system exerts an inhibitory influence on drug reward processes, opposed to that of the dopaminergic system. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on this topic and to discuss whether the inhibitory function of histamine on drug reward is supported by current evidence from published results. Research conducted during the past decade demonstrated that the ability of many antihistaminic drugs to potentiate addiction-related behaviors essentially results from non-specific effects and does not constitute a valid argument in support of an inhibitory function of histamine on reward processes. The reviewed findings also indicate that histamine can either stimulate or inhibit the dopamine mesolimbic system through distinct neuronal mechanisms involving different histamine receptors. Finally, the hypothesis that the histaminergic system plays an inhibitory role on drug reward appears to be essentially supported by place conditioning studies that focused on morphine reward. The present review suggests that the development of drugs capable of activating the histaminergic system may offer promising therapeutic tools for the treatment of opioid dependence.

  5. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  6. Psychological Aspects of Internet Addiction of Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkovnikova, Nataliya G.; Shchipanova, Dina Ye.; Uskova, Bella A.; Puzyrev, Viktor V.; Fedotovskih, Olga ?.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is due to the lack of elaborated theoretical approaches to addiction and addictive behavior factors among children and adolescents, as well as due to the need and demand for psychological and pedagogical work with Internet addicted children and young people or with those who are potentially prone to…

  7. Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Internet Addiction: A Clinical Pilot Study on the Effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wölfling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerous studies assessing clinical characteristics of patients with Internet addiction, the knowledge about the effectiveness of treatment programs is limited. Although a recent meta-analysis indicates that those programs show effects, more clinical studies are needed here. To add knowledge, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for IA. 42 male adults meeting criteria for Internet addiction were enrolled. Their IA-status, psychopathological symptoms, and perceived self-efficacy expectancy were assessed before and after the treatment. The results show that 70.3% of the patients finished the therapy regularly. After treatment symptoms of IA had decreased significantly. Psychopathological symptoms were reduced as well as associated psychosocial problems. The results of this pilot study emphasize findings from the only meta-analysis conducted so far.

  8. Treatment outcomes in patients with internet addiction: a clinical pilot study on the effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Dreier, M; Müller, K W

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerous studies assessing clinical characteristics of patients with Internet addiction, the knowledge about the effectiveness of treatment programs is limited. Although a recent meta-analysis indicates that those programs show effects, more clinical studies are needed here. To add knowledge, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for IA. 42 male adults meeting criteria for Internet addiction were enrolled. Their IA-status, psychopathological symptoms, and perceived self-efficacy expectancy were assessed before and after the treatment. The results show that 70.3% of the patients finished the therapy regularly. After treatment symptoms of IA had decreased significantly. Psychopathological symptoms were reduced as well as associated psychosocial problems. The results of this pilot study emphasize findings from the only meta-analysis conducted so far.

  9. MODAFINIL INDUCES RAPID-ONSET BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION AND CROSS-SENSTIZATION WITH COCAINE IN MICE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADDICTIVE POTENTIAL OF MODAFINIL

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Wuo-Silva; Daniela Fukushiro; André Hollais; Renan Baldaia; Elisa Kawamoto; Berro, Lais F. [UNIFESP; Thais Yokoyama; Leonardo Lopes-Silva; Carolina Bizerra; Roberta Procópio-Souza; Debora Hashiguchi; Lilian Figueiredo; Costa, José L; Roberto Frussa-Filho; Beatriz Monteiro Longo

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial controversy about the addictive potential of modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, proposed as pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, and used indiscriminately by healthy individuals due to its positive effects on arousal and cognition. The rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization (i.e., a type of sensitization that develops within a few hours from the drug priming administration) has been emerged as a valuable tool to study binge-like patterns of dru...

  10. Modafinil Induces Rapid-Onset Behavioral Sensitization and Cross-Sensitization with Cocaine in Mice: Implications for the Addictive Potential of Modafinil

    OpenAIRE

    Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Fukushiro, Daniela F.; Hollais, André W.; Santos-Baldaia, Renan; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Berro, Laís F.; Yokoyama, Thaís S.; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B.; Bizerra, Carolina S.; Procópio-Souza, Roberta; Hashiguchi, Debora; Figueiredo, Lilian A.; Jose L. Costa; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Longo, Beatriz M.

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial controversy about the addictive potential of modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, proposed as pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, and used indiscriminately by healthy individuals due to its positive effects on arousal and cognition. The rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization (i.e., a type of sensitization that develops within a few hours from the drug priming administration) has been emerged as a valuable tool to study binge-like patterns of dru...

  11. Clarifying Exercise Addiction: Differential Diagnosis, Co-occurring Disorders, and Phases of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn Freimuth; Kim, Shari R.; Sandy Moniz

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be attuned to other forms of excessive behavior, especially eating disorders that can co-occur with exercise. Finally in an effort to clarify exercise addictio...

  12. Addiction-as-a-kind hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ylikoski, Petri; Pöyhönen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    The psychiatric category of addiction has recently been broadened to include new behaviors. This has prompted critical discussion about the value of a concept that covers so many different substances and activities. Many of the debates surrounding the notion of addiction stem from different views concerning what kind of a thing addiction fundamentally is. In this essay, we put forward an account that conceptualizes different addictions as sharing a cluster of relevant properties (the syndrome...

  13. The effects of cannabinoid CB1, CB2 and vanilloid TRPV1 receptor antagonists on cocaine addictive behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Przemysław; Miszkiel, Joanna; McCreary, Andrew C; Filip, Małgorzata; Papp, Mariusz; Przegaliński, Edmund

    2012-03-20

    There is evidence that indicates that tonic activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors plays a role in extinction/reinstatement of cocaine seeking-behavior but is not involved in the maintenance of cocaine self-administration. To further explore the importance of other endocannabinoid-related receptors in an animal model of cocaine addiction, the present paper examines cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist N-((1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-yl)-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR144528) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) receptor antagonist N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamide (SB366791) on intravenous (i.v.) cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. For comparison and reference purposes, the effect of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) was also examined. Moreover, for comparison effects of those drugs on operant lever responding for artificial (cocaine) vs. natural (food) reward, food self-administration was also evaluated. Our findings show that AM251 (1-3mg/kg), SR144528 (0.1-1mg/kg) and SB366791 (0.3-1mg/kg) did not affect cocaine self-administration. However, AM251 (0.1-1mg/kg), SR144528 (0.1-1mg/kg) and SB366791 (0.1-1mg/kg) decreased cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, and AM251 (0.3-1mg/kg) decreased cue-induced reinstatement. Moreover, AM251 (3mg/kg), SR144528 (0.1-1mg/kg) and SB366791 (0.1-1mg/kg) slightly decreased food self-administration behavior, but only AM251 (3mg/kg) reduced food reward. In conclusion, our results indicate for the first time, that tonic activation of CB2 or TRPV1 receptors is involved in cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, but their activity is not necessary for the rewarding effect of this psychostimulant. In contrast to CB1 receptors, neither CB2 nor

  14. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Love

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  15. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-09-18

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  16. Locus-specific epigenetic remodeling controls addiction- and depression-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Elizabeth A; Cates, Hannah M; Peña, Catherine J; Sun, Haosheng; Shao, Ningyi; Feng, Jian; Golden, Sam A; Herman, James P; Walsh, Jessica J; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Ferguson, Deveroux; Knight, Scott; Gerber, Mark A; Nievera, Christian; Han, Ming-Hu; Russo, Scott J; Tamminga, Carol S; Neve, Rachael L; Shen, Li; Zhang, H Steve; Zhang, Feng; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse or stress regulates transcription factors, chromatin-modifying enzymes and histone post-translational modifications in discrete brain regions. Given the promiscuity of the enzymes involved, it has not yet been possible to obtain direct causal evidence to implicate the regulation of transcription and consequent behavioral plasticity by chromatin remodeling that occurs at a single gene. We investigated the mechanism linking chromatin dynamics to neurobiological phenomena by applying engineered transcription factors to selectively modify chromatin at a specific mouse gene in vivo. We found that histone methylation or acetylation at the Fosb locus in nucleus accumbens, a brain reward region, was sufficient to control drug- and stress-evoked transcriptional and behavioral responses via interactions with the endogenous transcriptional machinery. This approach allowed us to relate the epigenetic landscape at a given gene directly to regulation of its expression and to its subsequent effects on reward behavior.

  17. Non-substance-addictive behaviors in youth: pathological gambling and problematic Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezing, Christina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Potenza, Marc N

    2010-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by participation in multiple novel and potentially risky behaviors. Amongst these behaviors are gambling and use of the Internet, and excessive engagement in these activities (as seen in pathological gambling and problematic Internet use) may be accompanied by serious impairments in school, mental health, and social functioning. This article reviews the potential impact of pathological gambling and problematic Internet use in youth, the relevance of subsyndromal levels of participation, and how prevention and treatment strategies may be considered and tested within a developmental framework.

  18. [Exercise addiction: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kurimay, Tamás

    2008-01-01

    Exercise in appropriate quantity and of proper quality contributes significantly to the preserve our health. On the contrary, excessive exercise may be harmful to health. The term 'exercise addiction' has been gaining increasing recognition to describe the latter phenomenon. The exact definition of exercise addiction and its potential associations with other disorders is still under study, although according to the authors this phenomenon can be primarily described as a behavioral addiction. Accordingly, exercise addiction, among other behavioral and mental disorders, can be well describe within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum suggested by Hollander (1993). There are several tools used to assess exercise addiction. The authors here present the Hungarian version of the Exercise Dependence Scale (Hausenblas és Downs, 2002) and the Exercise Addiction Inventory (Terry, Szabo és Griffiths, 2004). Exercise addiction has many symptoms in common and also shows a high comorbidity with eating disorders and body image disorders. It may be more closely associated with certain sports but more data is needed to demonstrate this specificity with more certainty. Sel-evaluation problems seem to have a central role in the etiology from a psychological aspect. The relevance of neurohormonal mechanisms is less clear. The authors emphasize the importance of further research on exercise addiction. One important question to be answered is if this disorder is an independent entity to be classified as a distinct clinical disorder or is it rather a subgroup of another disorder.

  19. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan.

  20. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeila, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling.

  1. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  2. Interoception and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Martin P; Stewart, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The role of interoception and its neural basis with relevance to drug addiction is reviewed. Interoception consists of the receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals with external stimuli to affect ongoing motivated behavior. The insular cortex is the central nervous system hub to process and integrate these signals. Interoception is an important component of several addiction relevant constructs including arousal, attention, stress, reward, and conditioning. Imaging studies with drug-addicted individuals show that the insular cortex is hypo-active during cognitive control processes but hyperactive during cue reactivity and drug-specific, reward-related processes. It is proposed that interoception contributes to drug addiction by incorporating an "embodied" experience of drug uses together with the individual's predicted versus actual internal state to modulate approach or avoidance behavior, i.e. whether to take or not to take drugs. This opens the possibility of two types of interventions. First, one may be able to modulate the embodied experience by enhancing insula reactivity where necessary, e.g. when engaging in drug seeking behavior, or attenuating insula when exposed to drug-relevant cues. Second, one may be able to reduce the urge to act by increasing the frontal control network, i.e. inhibiting the urge to use by employing cognitive training. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  3. Towards an animal model of food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could

  4. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the...

  5. Ruminative Response Styles and Metacognitions in Internet Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Senormanci, Omer; Konkan, Ramazan; Guclu, Oya; Senormanci, Guliz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although cognitive behavioral model of Internet addiction has been well described, studies on metacognitions and ruminative response styles related with Internet addiction are very limited. The aim of the present study was to compare metacognitions and ruminative response style in Internet addicts with a healthy control group. Method: The study included 30 males who presented to our Internet Addiction Outpatient clinic, and diagnosed with Internet addiction, and a c...

  6. College Students Addictive Behavior and Learned Cognition on Today's Perspective%当今视角下对大学生成瘾行为及习得的认知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永鹏; 周子凤

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed at college students' variety of addictive behaviors under the influence of the Internet and big data era of discussion, such as phone addiction, social media addiction, online shopping addiction, game addiction, addiction browse porn sites, etc., the negative impact of this excessive behavior must not be used to bring undervalued, and seriously af-fected the physical and mental health of college students, resulting in all aspects of the body, learn, live, work, etc. are com-promised. This article is a summary of previous research, expand forth from college students learned addictive behavior and cognition, and provide the basis for future research on college students' addiction on this basis.%本文主要是针对大学生在互联网及大数据时代影响下的各种成瘾行为展开讨论,如手机成瘾、社交媒体成瘾、网购成瘾、游戏成瘾、浏览色情网站成瘾等等,这种过度使用的行为带来的负面影响绝不低估,且严重影响了大学生的身心健康,致使身体、学习、生活、工作等各方面都受到损害。此文章是对以往的研究进行总结,从大学生成瘾行为及其习得的认知展开阐述,并在此基础上探讨大学生成瘾行为及为未来的研究方向提供依据。

  7. Are Internet use and video-game-playing addictive behaviors? Biological, clinical and public health implications for youths and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Crowley, Michael J; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-09-01

    Internet use and video-game playing are experiencing rapid growth among both youth and adult populations. Research suggests that a minority of users experience symptoms traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. Mental health professionals, policy makers and the general public continue to debate the issue of Internet addiction (IA) and problematic video-game playing (PVG). This review identifies existing studies into the clinical and biological characteristics of these disorders that may help guide decisions as to whether or not IA and PVG should be grouped together with substance use disorders (SUDs).

  8. Failing to diagnose and failing to treat an addicted client: Two potentially life-threatening clinical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Bruce S; Reis, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Psychotherapists risk making 2 types of errors with clients who struggle with addictive behaviors: failure to addictive behaviors and failure to effectively addictive behaviors. Given the high prevalence of addictive behaviors in clinical populations, therapists are in a unique position to assist individuals with these problems. It is assumed that therapists possess general diagnostic and treatment skills and yet many do not diagnose or do not treat addictive behaviors. Reasons for making these errors include prohibitive beliefs and limited knowledge about addictive behaviors. We offer specific recommendations to reduce these psychotherapy errors. These include: (a) more deliberate screening and diagnosis of addictive behaviors, (b) increased application of empirically supported addiction treatments, (c) required education and training in addictive behaviors, (d) modification of prohibitive attitudes about addressing addictive behaviors, and (e) increased attention paid to the addictive behaviors by professional psychotherapy organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. 网络成瘾者的行为冲动性——来自爱荷华赌博任务的证据%Internet Addicts' Behavior Impulsivity: Evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐四华

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction, defined as a maladaptive use of the Internet, is estimated to occur in 8-13% of college students (Chou, Condron, & Belland, 2005). It has become a serious mental health issue worldwide because addicts are impaired in various behavioral aspects including social interactions and academic performance (Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 2000; Scherer, 1997; Young, 1998). Some researchers consider Internet addiction as a kind of behavioral addiction. However, there are few experimental studies on the cognitive functions of Internet addicts and limited data are available to compare Internet addicts with other addictive behaviors, such as drug abuse and pathological gambling. In the present study, we examined internet addicts' function of decision making. Two groups of participants, 42 Internet addicts (18~22 years old, 32 male, M = 19.79, SD = 1.14) and 42 controls (18~22 years old, 26 male, M = 19.71, SD = 1.13), were compared on the cognitive function and impulsivity by using a Chinese computerized versions of the IGT and Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). In the IGT, subjects had to choose between four decks of cards. Unknown to the subjects, two piles offered larger short-term gains that are offset by greater risks of heavy losses, and hence were disadvantageous in the long run. The other two piles offered smaller short-term gains and a lower risk of loss that result in long-term maximization of the monetary payoff. The results of the present study showed that (1) compared with controls, sensation seeking of internet addicts was higher significantly, and internet addicts showed significantly higher scores on subscales of thrill and adventure seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility, and they selected significantly less net decks in the Iowa Gambling Task. Furthermore, Internet addicts made no progress in selecting strategy along with the time course of the decision making. (2) reaction patterns for pure win-cards were consistent between

  10. Alcoholics and drug addicts at the emergency room of the hospital. Analysis of the staff behavior and patients' progressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, P; Pelc, I

    1986-01-01

    The statistical analysis of a large sample (1.707 cases) was carried out using objective variables. These variables consist of the key points in the progression of alcoholics and drug addicts within two emergency departments situated in general hospitals. This study pinpoints a lack of therapeutic work at the emergency room where neither medical diagnoses nor psychopathological analyses seem to be done.

  11. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  12. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  13. The Factors Affecting Drug Abuse Among Addicted Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rahmati

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyse some background factors that has some effect on the formation and continuity of addictive behavior among a sample of 1500 addicted persons on the 10 provinces of Iran. The article explores the processes under which the addictive behavior occures. Based on the findings of a survey research on a sample of 1500 drug abusers, it is concluded that factors such as addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, drug type, and methods and situations of approaching and access to drugs are effective in beginning of addiction. At last , the article pays special attention to addiction among women as the drug abusers.

  14. Clarifying Exercise Addiction: Differential Diagnosis, Co-occurring Disorders, and Phases of Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Freimuth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be attuned to other forms of excessive behavior, especially eating disorders that can co-occur with exercise. Finally in an effort to clarify exercise addiction, this paper uses the four phases of addiction to examine the attributes of exercise that define it as a healthy habit distinct from an addiction. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications of these topics for effective assessment and treatment.

  15. Clarifying exercise addiction: differential diagnosis, co-occurring disorders, and phases of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Marilyn; Moniz, Sandy; Kim, Shari R

    2011-10-01

    This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be attuned to other forms of excessive behavior, especially eating disorders that can co-occur with exercise. Finally in an effort to clarify exercise addiction, this paper uses the four phases of addiction to examine the attributes of exercise that define it as a healthy habit distinct from an addiction. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications of these topics for effective assessment and treatment.

  16. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  17. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the topics 'food addiction', 'chocolate addiction' or 'sugar addiction' have been extensively covered in the popular press. The scientific community however, remains divided. Here we review the literatu...

  18. [Exercise addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  19. The Experimental Study of Behavioral Inhibition function of Drug Addicts%毒品依赖者的行为抑制功能的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 李欣娜; 毛金铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究美沙酮维持治疗者和强制戒毒人员的行为抑制功能,进一步探讨美沙酮作为一种替代性药物对于毒品依赖者的意义。方法:通过行为实验的方法,采用 E-prime 编制程序来了解海洛因依赖者的行为抑制功能,使用 SPSS17.0对数据进行统计分析。结果:强制戒毒者的行为抑制功能的表现明显弱于正常组和美沙酮组;美沙酮维持治疗者的行为抑制功能与正常人比较,没有显著差异;三组被试的反应正确率之间没有差异。结论:美沙酮维持治疗改善了毒品依赖者的行为抑制功能,对改变毒品依赖者的高危行为,减少与吸毒有关的违法犯罪等方面有重要的意义。%Objective:To study the behavioral inhibition of drug addicts treated with methadone maintenance and compulsory detox-ification,in order to explore the effects of methadone maintenance on the cognitive function of drug addicts. Methods:The core com-ponent of the executive function-response inhibition was investigated using a visual Oddball task programed by E-prime and then uses SPSS17. 0 for statistical analysis of the data. Results:The performance of behavioral inhibition was significantly weaker in addicts trea-ted in the compulsory detoxification center compared with normal control. There is no significant difference in the behavioral inhibition performance between methadone maintenance patient and the normal control,meanwhile,the mandatory groups have a better perform-ance than the methadone maintenance treatment. There is no difference among the three groups for response accuracy. Conclusion:Methadone maintenance therapy improves the behavioral inhibition function of drug dependent persons. This result shows important sig-nificance in the changing high-risk behaviors of drug dependent persons and reducing drug-related crimes.

  20. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  1. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  2. Prevalence and association of perceived stress, substance use and behavioral addictions: a cross-sectional study among university students in France, 2009–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background University students face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers as well as concerns about the future. Stress should not be considered on its own, but should be associated with potential risk behaviors leading to onset of substance use and related problems heightened during the university period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of main substance use and behavioral addictions among students in higher education in France and to examine the relationship with perceived stress. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by university student volunteers from Upper Normandy (France) either by anonymous online questionnaire or by paper questionnaire. Data collected included socio-economic characteristics, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis) and hazardous behaviors: alcohol abuse problems, smoking, consumption of cannabis, eating disorders, and cyber addiction. Results A total of 1876 students were included. Mean PSS score was 15.9 (standard deviation = 7.2). Highly stressed students (4th quartile) were compared with lesser stressed students (1st quartile). A positive relation was observed between female gender, regular smokers, alcohol abuse problems, risk of cyberaddiction and especially eating disorders (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI = 3.42-8.69), and increasing PSS score. PSS score however, was not significantly related to the curriculum, regular alcohol use, drunkenness or binge drinking even after additional controlling for use of other substances. We found a significant negative association between stress and practice of sport: students with the most physical activity were less likely to report perceived stress (4th quartile: AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39-0.80). Conclusions This cross-sectional study among university students in France revealed that perceived stress was associated not only with known risks such as

  3. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, pinternet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  4. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training by Cognitive-Behavioral Group in the Increase of Girls’ Self-Esteem and Assertiveness with Addicted Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Esmaeili

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the survey of social skills training by cognitive behavioral group in the increase of girls’ self-esteem and assertiveness with addicted parents in Isfahan. Method: 20 students with addicted parents who had the lowest rate of assertiveness were selected by semi-experimental method in third to fifth grades. Randomly research projects pre-test-post-test control group. Questionnaire to measure assertiveness and assertiveness Gmbryl and Richie Esteem Questionnaire to measure students' self-esteem was used. After the pre-test training program assertiveness over 10 weeks, each week, one session, lasting from one hour and half and at the end of the test was performed after 40 days in both groups re-testing were results using software spss case were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on one factor was used. Results: The results showed that participants in the program and self-assertiveness therapy increased. These results were confirmed in a follow up phase. Conclusion: the training of social skills speeds up assertiveness and self-esteem of students.

  5. [Game addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.

  6. Evaluation and treatment of sex addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Kenneth Paul; Carnes, Patrick; O'Connor, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    There have been several diagnostic labels for persistent, excessive sexual behaviors, often referred in the popular media as sex addiction. Two related diagnoses, Internet addictive disorder and hypersexual disorder, were considered for, but not included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, most clinicians, even those trained in sexual disorders or addiction medicine, have little to no training in treating sexual compulsivity and cybersex addiction. The authors present the historical context, proposed diagnostic criteria, evaluation protocols, comorbid disorders, speculations about the neuroscience, and treatment recommendations.

  7. Optogenetics in animal model of alcohol addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalberczak, Maria; Radwanska, Kasia

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the neuronal and molecular basis of alcohol addiction is still not satisfactory. As a consequence we still miss successful therapy of alcoholism. One of the reasons for such state is the lack of appropriate animal models which would allow in-depth analysis of biological basis of addiction. Here we will present our efforts to create the animal model of alcohol addiction in the automated learning device, the IntelliCage setup. Applying this model to optogenetically modified mice with remotely controlled regulation of selected neuronal populations by light may lead to very precise identification of neuronal circuits involved in coding addiction-related behaviors.

  8. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  9. Transition from 'model-based' to 'model-free' behavioral control in addiction: Involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucantonio, Federica; Caprioli, Daniele; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a complex and multidimensional process involving a number of behavioral and neural forms of plasticity. The behavioral transition from voluntary drug use to compulsive drug taking may be explained at the neural level by drug-induced changes in function or interaction between a flexible planning system, associated with prefrontal cortical regions, and a rigid habit system, associated with the striatum. The dichotomy between these two systems is operationalized in computational theory by positing model-based and model-free learning mechanisms, the former relying on an "internal model" of the environment and the latter on pre-computed or cached values to control behavior. In this review, we will suggest that model-free and model-based learning mechanisms appear to be differentially affected, at least in the case of psychostimulants such as cocaine, with the former being enhanced while the latter are disrupted. As a result, the behavior of long-term drug users becomes less flexible and responsive to the desirability of expected outcomes and more habitual, based on the long history of reinforcement. To support our specific proposal, we will review recent neural and behavioral evidence on the effect of psychostimulant exposure on orbitofrontal and dorsolateral striatum structure and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  10. Methadone Maintenance: The Addict's Family Recreated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, John; Bokos, Peter

    1979-01-01

    A study of four methadone clinics, the addicts treated at these clinics, and their families, reveals basic dissonances in treatment ideology and professional-paraprofessional relationships which, combined with the addict's particular mode of functioning, make significant change in his behavior improbable. (Author)

  11. [The Concept and Treatment of Internet Addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalhy, Muhammad; Muramatsu, Taro; Higuchi, Susumu; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-10-01

    The Internet now plays a very important role in our lives. However, for some people, Internet use can lead to a state that appears to meet the DSM definition for a mental disorder. In this review, we briefly discuss definition, symptoms, risk factors, prevalence, comorbidities, and personality traits of people who are susceptible to becoming addicts. In the second section of the article, various types of Internet addiction are discussed, focusing mainly on Internet Gaming Disorder and social networking survices (SNS) addiction. Regarding Internet Gaming Disorder, we discuss various types of the newly emerged Massive Multiplayer Online Games (MMO), as well as theories about why people become addicted to them. We do the same for the SNS Addiction for sites like Facebook and LINE; again, different types, as well as theories about why some people become addicts to such sites are discussed. Finally, preventive measures are introduced, focusing on a number of commonly used treatment methods, perticulary cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy.

  12. Romantic love v.s. drug addiction may inspire a new treatment for addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Zou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT system for romantic love and drug addiction. These indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial

  13. Romantic Love vs. Drug Addiction May Inspire a New Treatment for Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA) system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT) system for romantic love and drug addiction. These findings indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial behavior. It

  14. Heroin Addiction: Psychosocial Characteristics and Considerations for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, John K.

    This paper presents a review of relevant medical and psychological literature that addresses the psychological characteristics of heroin addiction and addicts: dependence (both physical and psychological); explanations of the phenomenon of addiction (both medical and behavioral); and other psychosocial views of causation including escapism,…

  15. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain's reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation-histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  16. Notions of Video Game Addiction and Their Relation to Self-Reported Addiction among Players of World of Warcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, Jean; Sammis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 438 players of the online video game, World of Warcraft, completed a survey about video game addiction and answered an open-ended question about behaviors they considered characteristic of video game addiction. Responses were coded and correlated with players' self-reports of being addicted to games and scores on a modified video…

  17. The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: A cross-cultural longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-12-01

    Aims Recent empirical studies investigating "study addiction" have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey. Results The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples. Conclusion Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter.

  18. Classifying Nomophobia as Smart-Phone Addiction Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Can people become addicted to using their smart phones? To explore this possibility, this literature review summarizes previous research on smart-phone addiction, nomophobia, and addictive personality disorders. Specifically, this review defines smart-phone addiction and its symptoms along with comorbid disorders and uses disciplines from a cognitive, behavioral, neurobiological, and anthropological disciplines as evidence of its existence. Although this review also found that there is little...

  19. Analysis on online behavior and influence of internet addiction on self-esteem among college students%大学生上网行为及其网络成瘾对自尊心影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙易蔓; 胡晓斌; 赵笑颜; 张梦菡

    2013-01-01

    -esteem score leads lower possibility to addiction, and men were easier to addiction than women. Addiction rates were decreased successively among urban, suburban and rural college students. Higher grades were more easier to be addictive; addiction rates were increased among science, arts, medicine, engineering, agricultural college students. Conclusions Online behavior and internet addiction status are of great importance to self-esteem among college students. Internet addicts' self-esteem is worse than others.

  20. 重度网络游戏成瘾者心理行为特征的研究%A study on psychology-behavior characteristics in serious internet game addicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔; 高文斌

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解重度网络游戏成瘾者的心理行为特征.方法 30名重度网络游戏成瘾者和43名对照组青少年,使用网络成瘾量表、EPQ人格问卷、社会支持评定量表、生活目的 测验、感觉寻求量表进行心理评估.结果 网瘾组在社会支持评定量表总分、主观支持分量表得分、生活目的 测验得分及感觉寻求危险冒险分量表得分方面显著低于对照组,依次为:(34.60±6.90)分Vs(39.60±6.30)分(P<0.01);(9.33±3.59)分Vs(9.09±3.09)分(P<0.01);(88.40±12.69)分Vs(96.14±12.56)分(P<0.05);(6.33±2.86)分Vs(7.58±2.21)分(P<0.05).社会支持中对支持的利用度得分、客观支持分量表得分及感觉寻求总分对网瘾组的网瘾程度有预测作用.网瘾组的EPQ掩饰分数明显低于对照组[(46.50±8.53)分Vs(53.40±8.28)分,(P<0.01)],同时网瘾组的神经质得分和感觉寻求得分负相关(r=-0.452,P<0.05).结论 重度网络游戏成瘾者具有社会支持度低、生活目的 感低、冒险特征低的心理特点;感觉寻求和社会支持对重度网络游戏成瘾者的网瘾程度有预测作用;神经质分低的重度网络游戏成瘾者具有高感觉寻求的特点.%Objective To explore the mental-behavior characteristics in serious internet game addicts.Methods To investigate internet addiction questionnaire, EPQ, social support questionnaire, purpose in life test and sensation seeking scale in 30 serious internet game addicts ( age from 16 ~ 25 years) and 43 non-addicts.Results Internet addicts have obviously lower social support questionnaire score, subjective support score, purpose in life test score and sensation seeking TAS score than non-addicts( P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). Objective support score, the use score for social support and sensation seeking score can forecast the internet addiction extent of the internet addict group. Internet addicts have obviously lower L score of EPQ than non-addicts ( P<0.01 ). There is the negative correlation

  1. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–MMPI-2. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. Conclusion: As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves. PMID:26236166

  2. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Llopis-Llacer, Juan-José; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user’s loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC) subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD) patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5). Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1) performance facilitation in both groups; (2) left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3) left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4) dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards. PMID:27907134

  3. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples.

  4. Using Meditation in Addiction Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark E.; DeLorenzi, Leigh de Armas; Cunningham, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Meditation has been studied as a way of reducing stress in counseling clients since the 1960s. Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and new wave behavior therapies incorporate meditation techniques in their programs. This article identifies meditation's curative factors and limitations when using meditation in addiction settings.

  5. The Shame of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a person-level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as “choice” and “responsibility” to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame. PMID:24115936

  6. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  7. Does food addiction exist? A phenomenological discussion based on the psychiatric classification of substance-related disorders and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Ozgür; Wölfle, Sebastian Mathias; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between overeating, substance abuse and (behavioral) addiction is controversial. Medically established forms of addiction so far pertain to substance use disorders only. But the preliminary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders V (DSM V) suggests replacing the previous category 'Substance-Related Disorders' with 'Addiction and Related Disorders', thus for the first time allowing the diagnosis of behavioral addictions. In the past psychiatrists and psychologists have been reluctant to systematically delineate and classify the term behavioral addiction. However, there is a broad overlap between chemical and behavioral addiction including phenomenological, therapeutic, genetic, and neurobiological aspects. It is of interest to point out that the hormone leptin in itself has a pronounced effect on the reward system, thus suggesting an indirect link between overeating and 'chemical' addiction. Thus, leptin-deficient individuals could be classified as fulfilling criteria for food addiction. In our overview we first review psychological findings in chemical (substance-based) and subsequently in behavioral addiction to analyze the overlap. We discuss the diagnostic validity of food addiction, which in theory can be chemically and/or behaviorally based.

  8. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Northrup

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  9. HEALTH ATTITUDES OF THE FEMALE STUDENTS FROM OLSZTYN, POLAND - THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, ADDICTIONS AND THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTH BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve the health of the population are now focused on promoting healthy lifestyle, improve living conditions and to reduce mortality. Health education activities include regular physical activity, optimal nutrition, reduce addictions and stress. The purpose of the survey conducted among 672 first-year female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland was to determine the attitudes of young women towards a healthy lifestyle. Using anonymous survey questionnaire asked students about the form of physical activity, nutrition, the presence of stressful situations, the use of drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the interest in deepening knowledge of public health. The majority of students have participated only in obligatory physical education classes in high school and college. They considered that physical activity during the studies should be voluntary. Only 4.24% of students were total abstinence from alcohol, but 79.10% was non-smoking. Many of the women declared the need to change the diet, reducing alcohol intake and give up smoking habit. The students felt that stress connected with attending university is unavoidable, and thus revealed an interest in reducing and limiting mental tension. Despite their young age, students expressed interest in topics such as: first aid course, nutrition, sexuality, and pregnancy problems.

  10. Response to "Nature fix: Addiction to outdoor activities"R. C. Buckley's commentary on Heirene, R. M., Shearer, D., Roderique-Davies, G., & Mellalieu, S. D. (2016). Addiction in extreme sports: An exploration of withdrawal states in rock climbers. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5, 332-341.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirene, Robert M; Shearer, David; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Roderique-Davies, Gareth

    2016-12-01

    Buckley's commentary on our study of rock climber's withdrawal experiences raises a number of important questions surrounding the concept of extreme or adventure sports addiction. Drawing on the few available investigations of this topic, we respond to Buckley's questions here, though emphasize the need for further studies of extreme sports addiction in order to provide more empirically informed answers.

  11. MODAFINIL INDUCES RAPID-ONSET BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION AND CROSS-SENSTIZATION WITH COCAINE IN MICE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADDICTIVE POTENTIAL OF MODAFINIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Wuo-Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial controversy about the addictive potential of modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, proposed as pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, and used indiscriminately by healthy individuals due to its positive effects on arousal and cognition. The rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization (i.e., a type of sensitization that develops within a few hours from the drug priming administration has been emerged as a valuable tool to study binge-like patterns of drug abuse and the neuroplastic changes that occur quickly after drug administration that ultimately lead to drug abuse. Our aim was to investigate the possible development of rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to modafinil and bidirectional rapid-onset cross-sensitization with cocaine in male Swiss mice. A priming injection of a high dose of modafinil (64 mg/kg induced rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to challenge injections of modafinil at the doses of 16 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg, and 64 mg/kg, administered 4h later. Furthermore, rapid-onset cross-sensitization was developed between modafinil and cocaine (64 mg/kg modafinil and 20 mg/kg cocaine, in a bidirectional way. These results were not due to residual levels of modafinil as the behavioral effects of the priming injection of modafinil were no longer present and modafinil plasma concentration was reduced at 4h post-administration. Taken together, the present findings provide preclinical evidence that modafinil can be reinforcing per se and can enhance the reinforcing effects of stimulants like cocaine within hours after administration.

  12. Modafinil Induces Rapid-Onset Behavioral Sensitization and Cross-Sensitization with Cocaine in Mice: Implications for the Addictive Potential of Modafinil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Hollais, André W; Santos-Baldaia, Renan; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Berro, Laís F; Yokoyama, Thaís S; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B; Bizerra, Carolina S; Procópio-Souza, Roberta; Hashiguchi, Debora; Figueiredo, Lilian A; Costa, Jose L; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Longo, Beatriz M

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial controversy about the addictive potential of modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, proposed as pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, and used indiscriminately by healthy individuals due to its positive effects on arousal and cognition. The rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization (i.e., a type of sensitization that develops within a few hours from the drug priming administration) has been emerged as a valuable tool to study binge-like patterns of drug abuse and the neuroplastic changes that occur quickly after drug administration that ultimately lead to drug abuse. Our aim was to investigate the possible development of rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to modafinil and bidirectional rapid-onset cross-sensitization with cocaine in male Swiss mice. A priming injection of a high dose of modafinil (64 mg/kg) induced rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to challenge injections of modafinil at the doses of 16, 32, and 64 mg/kg, administered 4 h later. Furthermore, rapid-onset cross-sensitization was developed between modafinil and cocaine (64 mg/kg modafinil and 20 mg/kg cocaine), in a bidirectional way. These results were not due to residual levels of modafinil as the behavioral effects of the priming injection of modafinil were no longer present and modafinil plasma concentration was reduced at 4 h post-administration. Taken together, the present findings provide preclinical evidence that modafinil can be reinforcing per se and can enhance the reinforcing effects of stimulants like cocaine within hours after administration.

  13. 广州市青少年精神成瘾行为分析%Analysis of addictive behaviors among adolescents in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟佳; 刘伟; 林蓉; 张维蔚; 吴家刚; 林琳; 杜琳

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广州市青少年电子游戏、网络成瘾及赌博等精神成瘾行为现况,为制定干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用“中国青少年健康相关行为调查问卷”对广州市66所学校11939名学生进行问卷调查.结果 青少年每天玩电子游戏≥4 h的比例为13.61%,男生(18.63%)远高于女生(9.30%),农村(14.56%)略高于城市(13.11%),职中生比例最高(25.65%),差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).青少年网络成瘾率为8.25%,男生(10.88%)明显高于女生(5.99%),职中生最高(10.25%),差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.01).青少年参加类似赌博的娱乐性活动的发生率为25.87%,男生(33.58%)高于女生(19.24%),城市(23.09%)低于农村(31.13%),职中生的发生率最高(38.63%),普通中学(24.26%)高于重点中学(20.84%),差异均有统计学意义.青少年上网的目的主要是:在线音乐、影视等的收听和收看(52.00%)、即时通讯(QQ,MSN等)(48.93%)、查阅资料(42.65%).结论 广州市青少年长时间玩电子游戏、上网及赌博等精神成瘾行为发生率较高,应通过学校、家庭及社会途径开展针对性干预.%Objective To understand the current status of addiction behaviors such as video or computer games, Internet addiction, gambling of adolescents in Guangzhou City, and to provide scientific evidence for intervention. Methods Questionnaire of Health Related Behaviors Among Adolescents in China was conducted among 11 939 students in 66 schools in Guangzhou. Results Among the adolescents, the proportion of students played video or computer games for more than 4 hours everyday was 13.61%, boys (18.63%) were higher than girls (9.30%), rural (14.56%) was slightly higher than urban (13. 11% ), vocational middle school students were of the highest (25. 65% ). The incidence of Internet addiction was 8. 25% , boys (10. 88% ) were significantly higher than girls (5.99% ) , and the highest one

  14. Sexual addiction or hypersexual disorder: different terms for the same problem? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Wéry, Aline; Weinstein, Aviv; Cottencin, Olivier; Petit, Aymeric; Reynaud, Michel; Billieux, Jöel

    2014-01-01

    Sexual addiction, which is also known as hypersexual disorder, has largely been ignored by psychiatrists, even though the condition causes serious psychosocial problems for many people. A lack of empirical evidence on sexual addiction is the result of the disease's complete absence from versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, people who were categorized as having a compulsive, impulsive, addictive sexual disorder or a hypersexual disorder reported having obsessive thoughts and behaviors as well as sexual fantasies. Existing prevalence rates of sexual addiction-related disorders range from 3% to 6%. Sexual addiction/ hypersexual disorder is used as an umbrella construct to encompass various types of problematic behaviors, including excessive masturbation, cybersex, pornography use, sexual behavior with consenting adults, telephone sex, strip club visitation, and other behaviors. The adverse consequences of sexual addiction are similar to the consequences of other addictive disorders. Addictive, somatic and psychiatric disorders coexist with sexual addiction. In recent years, research on sexual addiction has proliferated, and screening instruments have increasingly been developed to diagnose or quantify sexual addiction disorders. In our systematic review of the existing measures, 22 questionnaires were identified. As with other behavioral addictions, the appropriate treatment of sexual addiction should combine pharmacological and psychological approaches. Psychiatric and somatic comorbidities that frequently occur with sexual addiction should be integrated into the therapeutic process. Group-based treatments should also be attempted.

  15. Cocaine addiction as a homeostatic reinforcement learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Mehdi; Durand, Audrey; Girardeau, Paul; Gutkin, Boris; Ahmed, Serge H

    2017-03-01

    Drug addiction implicates both reward learning and homeostatic regulation mechanisms of the brain. This has stimulated 2 partially successful theoretical perspectives on addiction. Many important aspects of addiction, however, remain to be explained within a single, unified framework that integrates the 2 mechanisms. Building upon a recently developed homeostatic reinforcement learning theory, the authors focus on a key transition stage of addiction that is well modeled in animals, escalation of drug use, and propose a computational theory of cocaine addiction where cocaine reinforces behavior due to its rapid homeostatic corrective effect, whereas its chronic use induces slow and long-lasting changes in homeostatic setpoint. Simulations show that our new theory accounts for key behavioral and neurobiological features of addiction, most notably, escalation of cocaine use, drug-primed craving and relapse, individual differences underlying dose-response curves, and dopamine D2-receptor downregulation in addicts. The theory also generates unique predictions about cocaine self-administration behavior in rats that are confirmed by new experimental results. Viewing addiction as a homeostatic reinforcement learning disorder coherently explains many behavioral and neurobiological aspects of the transition to cocaine addiction, and suggests a new perspective toward understanding addiction. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Summary of College Students' Internet Addiction Disorder Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Research%大学生网络成瘾认知行为疗法研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2014-01-01

    College students are the direct beneficiaries of development of the Internet technology and the victims of devel-opment of the network media. College students who are long-term addicted to the virtual network prone to Internet addiction. The paper combed the genesis, classification and characteristics of college students' Internet addiction, compiled research re-sults Cognitive behavioral therapy based on college students' Internet addiction, and looked forward to more results for the future research.%大学生既是互联网技术发展的直接受益者,也是网络媒体发展的受害者。长期沉迷于虚拟网络的大学生容易出现网络成瘾症。本文重点梳理了大学生网络成瘾的成因、分类及特点,同时也整理了基于大学生网络成瘾的认知行为疗法研究成果,并对未来的研究进行了有效的展望。

  17. Genetic Similarities between Compulsive Overeating and Addiction Phenotypes: A Case for "Food Addiction"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Nina; Marshe, Victoria S; Cmorejova, Jana; Davis, Caroline; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    There exists a continuous spectrum of overeating, where at the extremes there are casual overindulgences and at the other a 'pathological' drive to consume palatable foods. It has been proposed that pathological eating behaviors may be the result of addictive appetitive behavior and loss of ability to regulate the consumption of highly processed foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, salt, and caffeine. In this review, we highlight the genetic similarities underlying substance addiction phenotypes and overeating compulsions seen in individuals with binge eating disorder. We relate these similarities to findings from neuroimaging studies on reward processing and clinical diagnostic criteria based on addiction phenotypes. The abundance of similarities between compulsive overeating and substance addictions puts forth a case for a 'food addiction' phenotype as a valid, diagnosable disorder.

  18. [Psychophysiology of sports addiction (exercises addiction)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshchekov, S G; Lushnikov, O N

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is a prevalent and growing concern in all aspects of our modern society. There are considerable concerns for the growing frequency of addictions to drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating, and even sex. Though exercise is generally accepted as a positive behaviour that has many benefits associated with enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing, there is an increasing awareness that exercise addiction is becoming a common phenomenon. Theories regarding how exercise can become addictive, and studies of withdrawal from exercise are reviewed. Several physiological mechanisms, including endogenous opioids, catecholamines, functional asymmetry of brain activity and thermoregulation have been implicated in exercise dependence.

  19. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Berner, Laura A; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-10-24

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet or a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was also not seen in rats fed a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize "food addiction" may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed.

  20. A new insight into food addiction in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Alev; Yüksel, Ayşegül; Yeşiltepe-Mutlu, Gül; Bayhan, Asuman; Özsu, Elif; Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled eating behavior in obese subjects is very similar to behavior in food addiction, suggesting a relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and food addiction and to determine the frequency of food addiction among obese children and adolescents. The study included 100 overweight and obese children. Food addiction was evaluated by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The cutoff value for food addiction was defined as the presence of 3 or more symptoms. Participants were between 10 and 18 years of age; 63% were girls. Of the participants, 71% had food addiction. The most addictive foods were chocolate, ice cream, carbonated beverages, French fries, white bread, rice, candy, chips and pasta, in decreasing order of frequency. Experiencing a frequent feeling of hunger was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in food addiction risk, while consumption of French fries ≥1-2 times per week was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (pfood addiction plays an important role in childhood obesity. Evaluation of food addiction in more detail may open a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  1. 网络游戏成瘾患者注意定向的行为学研究%Behavioral study of internet gaming addiction in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓东; 杨永信; 张云亭; 张权; 刘林祥; 杜贵金; 赵松涛; 吕宝涛

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨游戏经验对网络游戏成瘾者注意定向的影响.方法 采用改良的注意网络测试范式对17名网络游戏成瘾者进行测试,分析成瘾者的相应行为学表现.结果 1.网瘾组与对照组在有效和无效两种提示线索条件下的平均反应时(RTs)分别为[(614.27 ±85.25)ms,(645.46 ±80.24)ms],[(710.24 ±131.42)ms,(765.53 ±142.53)ms].组内平均RTs差异具有显著性(P<0.05);组间平均RTs差异具有显著性(P<0.01).2.网瘾组在3个提示线索水平上的RTs[网络游戏图片(643.65 ±90.82)ms,中性面孔图片(616.73 ±82.19)ms,中性风景图片(629.21 ±78.20)ms],短于对照组[网络游戏图片(744.54 ±140.42)ms,中性面孔图片(727.98 ±142.26)ms,中性风景图片(741.13 ±138.21)ms],差异具有显著性(P<0.05).3.网瘾组在三个提示线索图片水平上RTs从有效提示[网络游戏图片(619.02±91.00)ms,中性面孔图片(604.90 ±90.71)ms,中性风景图片(618.87 ±77.85)ms]至无效提示[网络游戏图片(668.28 ±86.27)ms,中性面孔图片(628.56 ±73.53)ms,中性风景图片(639.54 ±79.54)ms]的变化趋势(斜率)差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 网络游戏成瘾者在外源性和内源性注意定向两方面同时提升,其中内源性注意能力的提升权重可能大于外源性注意.%Objective To explore the facilitative mechanism of the behavioral improvement resulting from gaming experience in internet gaming addicts. Methods Seventeen gaming addicts and twenty normal subjects were involved in the study, and their behavioral performance were evaluated by using the revised paradigm of event-related design. Results 1. Mean reaction times (RTs) under valid and invalid cue conditions were ( (614.27 ± 85.25)ms,(645.4±80.24)ms)and ((710.24 ± 131.42)ms,(765.53 ± 142. 53)ms) respectively. There were statistically significant differences of mean RTs within each group (P < 0. 05 ) and between the two groups (P < 0.01 ). 2. There were statistically significant

  2. Can persons with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes benefit from technology delivered behavior therapy? A moderating role of treatment history at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C; Guarino, Honoria; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia

    2016-03-01

    A growing line of research has shown positive treatment outcomes from technology-based therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, little is known about the effectiveness of technology-based SUD interventions for persons who already had numerous prior SUD treatments. We conducted a secondary analysis on a 12-month trial with patients (N=160) entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Patients were randomly assigned to either standard MMT treatment or a model in which half of standard counseling sessions were replaced with a computer-based intervention, called Therapeutic Education System (standard+TES). Four treatment history factors at baseline, the number of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, detoxification episodes, and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes were categorized into three levels based on their tertile points, and analyzed as moderators. Dependent variables were urine toxicology results for opioid and cocaine abstinence for 52-weeks. The standard+TES condition produced significantly better opioid abstinence than standard treatment for participants with 1) a moderate or high frequency of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, and 2) those with all three levels (low, moderate and high) of detoxification and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes, pshistory, pstechnology-based behavioral therapy as part of treatment can be more effective than MMT alone, even among patients with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes.

  3. What Is Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? ... time. They can cause problems like mood swings, memory loss, even trouble thinking and making decisions. Addiction ...

  4. Molecular and Functional Imaging of Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA, which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. MRI studies demonstrate that structural changes in frontal cortex are associated with functional abnormalities in Internet addicted subjects. Nuclear imaging findings indicate that IA is associated with dysfunction of the brain dopaminergic systems. Abnormal dopamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC could underlie the enhanced motivational value and uncontrolled behavior over Internet overuse in addicted subjects. Further investigations are needed to determine specific changes in the Internet addictive brain, as well as their implications for behavior and cognition.

  5. Molecular and functional imaging of internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqi; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA), which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRI studies demonstrate that structural changes in frontal cortex are associated with functional abnormalities in Internet addicted subjects. Nuclear imaging findings indicate that IA is associated with dysfunction of the brain dopaminergic systems. Abnormal dopamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could underlie the enhanced motivational value and uncontrolled behavior over Internet overuse in addicted subjects. Further investigations are needed to determine specific changes in the Internet addictive brain, as well as their implications for behavior and cognition.

  6. Locus-Specific Epigenetic Remodeling Controls Addiction- and Depression-Related Behaviors (NN-A50213-T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Elizabeth A.; Cates, Hannah M.; Peña, Catherine J.; Sun, Haosheng; Shao, Ningyi; Feng, Jian; Golden, Sam A.; Herman, James P.; Walsh, Jessica J.; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Ferguson, Deveroux; Knight, Scott; Gerber, Mark A.; Nievera, Christian; Han, Ming-Hu; Russo, Scott J.; Tamminga, Carol S.; Neve, Rachael L.; Shen, Li; Zhang, H. Steve; Zhang, Feng; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse or stress regulates transcription factors, chromatin modifying enzymes, and histone posttranslational modifications in discrete brain regions. Due to the promiscuity of the enzymes involved, it has not yet been possible to obtain direct causal evidence to implicate the regulation of transcription and consequent behavioral plasticity by chromatin remodeling that occurs at a single gene. Here, we investigate the mechanism linking chromatin dynamics to neurobiological phenomena by applying engineered transcription factors to selectively modify chromatin at a specific gene in vivo. We found that histone methylation or acetylation at the FosB locus in nucleus accumbens—a brain reward region—is sufficient to control drug- and stress-evoked transcriptional and behavioral responses via interactions with the endogenous transcriptional machinery. This approach allows us to relate the epigenetic landscape at a given gene directly to regulation of its expression and to its subsequent effects on reward behavior. PMID:25347353

  7. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  8. Addictive eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, M

    1989-03-01

    Addictive eating disorders have been a part of history and have only recently been recognized as psychiatric disorders. Increased publicity has enabled family and friends of eating disordered individuals to recognize the disease and seek help for them from trained medical professionals. Everyone is "at risk," but certain subpopulations have been "coming out of the closet" in epidemic proportions. An ever-increasing number of high school-aged and college-aged females have developed some form of eating disorder, from fad diets to self-induced vomiting. In these individuals, the obsession with thinness takes priority over family, friends, schoolwork, or career. Strangely enough, the eating disordered person's addiction is not to food but to the feeling of numbness her behavior brings. Over time, the need to control is desperately sought and many patients transfer their obsession to other patterns of self-abuse. Nursing intervention should include setting the appropriate example in terms of the professional's relationship with food, while providing much needed emotional support. An innovative method of intervention available to nursing professionals includes the use of creative, visual imagery to repeatedly diffuse fear and anxiety about food until a level of personal autonomy over the disorder and other emotional concerns is achieved. Therefore, a system of recovery can be designed for the anorectic or bulimic patient and the experience of recovery from the eating disorder can be a lifelong process of personal growth.

  9. Computer addiction. When monitor becomes control center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M H; Orzack, M H; Babington, L M; Patsoaughter, C A

    2001-03-01

    Computer addiction is a newly recognized problem. While controversy exists about whether computer addiction should be considered a primary psychiatric disorder, clinicians are treating increasing numbers of clients experiencing problems caused by excessive computer use. Case studies are provided that include typical histories and symptoms. Behavioral cognitive therapy is discussed as a treatment approach. The stages of change theory is recommended as a strategy to help clients plan and implement change.

  10. Commentary on: Addiction in extreme sports: An exploration of withdrawal states in rock climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2016-12-01

    Individuals can display characteristics of behavioral addictions to nature and the outdoors as well as adventure activities. Research on mental health effects of nature exposure is relevant to research on nature and adventure addictions.

  11. Addiction and "Generation Me:" Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rebecca R.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Exline, Julie J.; Post, Stephen G.; Pagano, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were…

  12. Addictions and Personality Traits: Impulsivity and Related Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral tendencies that might be captured through self-report measures may provide insight into personality features that are associated with substance addictions. Recently, impulsivity and related constructs, such as sensation-seeking, have been examined to help better understand their relationships with addictions. Here, we review recent findings that show links over developmental epochs between addictive behaviors and impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and other constructs that are theoretically linked. These findings have significant implications for generating improved treatments and interventions aimed at preventing the development of addictive disorders. PMID:24772382

  13. Food cravings in food addiction: the distinct role of positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    Craving for a particular substance is an essential characteristic of addictive behavior. Increasing evidence suggests that food cravings and excessive food consumption could similarly be due to addictive processes. Recently, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was introduced for identifying individuals with addictive eating patterns. We conducted an online study (n=616, 75.8% female) in which participants filled out the YFAS and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T). Participants diagnosed as being addicted to food using the YFAS had higher scores on all food craving subscales except for anticipation of positive reinforcement that may result from eating. In a subsequent regression analysis, all food craving subscales positively predicted food addiction symptoms while positive reinforcement negatively predicted food addiction symptoms. Similar to other addictive behaviors, results indicate that individuals with addictive eating patterns experience more food cravings, but concurrently do not expect a positive reinforcement through eating.

  14. MEMORY SYSTEMS AND THE ADDICTED BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarid eGoodman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed twenty years ago (White, 1996 and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS. In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing.

  15. Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed 20 years ago (1) and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing. PMID:26941660

  16. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 104 men substance abusers (52 participants in each of the control and intervention groups referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan. Data collection tool was a questionnaire containing demographic information and the theory of planned behavior constructs. Before the educational program, questionnaires were completed by both groups. After the pretest in both groups, participants in the intervention group participated in four educational sessions designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Two months after the end of program, posttest was performed. Data was analyzed using independent T-test, chi-square, fisher exact test, McNemar’s test and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-16. Results: After educational intervention, the mean scores of the theory constructs (attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, behavioral control, behavioral intention and behaviors, in the intervention group increased significantly (P<0.05, despite the fact, changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Implementation of educational courses to encourage safe sexual behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior can be beneficial for substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers.

  17. Brain anatomy alterations associated with Social Networking Site (SNS) addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    This study relies on knowledge regarding the neuroplasticity of dual-system components that govern addiction and excessive behavior and suggests that alterations in the grey matter volumes, i.e., brain morphology, of specific regions of interest are associated with technology-related addictions. Using voxel based morphometry (VBM) applied to structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of twenty social network site (SNS) users with varying degrees of SNS addiction, we show that SNS addiction is associated with a presumably more efficient impulsive brain system, manifested through reduced grey matter volumes in the amygdala bilaterally (but not with structural differences in the Nucleus Accumbens). In this regard, SNS addiction is similar in terms of brain anatomy alterations to other (substance, gambling etc.) addictions. We also show that in contrast to other addictions in which the anterior-/ mid- cingulate cortex is impaired and fails to support the needed inhibition, which manifests through reduced grey matter volumes, this region is presumed to be healthy in our sample and its grey matter volume is positively correlated with one’s level of SNS addiction. These findings portray an anatomical morphology model of SNS addiction and point to brain morphology similarities and differences between technology addictions and substance and gambling addictions. PMID:28332625

  18. Locus-Specific Epigenetic Remodeling Controls Addiction- and Depression-Related Behaviors (NN-A50213-T)

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Elizabeth A.; Cates, Hannah M.; Peña, Catherine J.; Sun, Haosheng; Shao, Ningyi; Feng, Jian; Golden, Sam A; Herman, James P.; Walsh, Jessica J.; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Ferguson, Deveroux; Knight, Scott; Gerber, Mark A.; Nievera, Christian; Han, Ming-Hu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse or stress regulates transcription factors, chromatin-modifying enzymes and histone post-translational modifications in discrete brain regions. Given the promiscuity of the enzymes involved, it has not yet been possible to obtain direct causal evidence to implicate the regulation of transcription and consequent behavioral plasticity by chromatin remodeling that occurs at a single gene. We investigated the mechanism linking chromatin dynamics to neurobiologica...

  19. Food Addiction in the Light of DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Meule

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea that specific kind of foods may have an addiction potential and that some forms of overeating may represent an addicted behavior has been discussed for decades. In recent years, the interest in food addiction is growing and research on this topic lead to more precise definitions and assessment methods. For example, the Yale Food Addiction Scale has been developed for the measurement of addiction-like eating behavior based on the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence of the fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. In 2013, diagnostic criteria for substance abuse and—dependence were merged, thereby increasing the number of symptoms for substance use disorders (SUDs in the DSM-5. Moreover, gambling disorder is now included along SUDs as a behavioral addiction. Although a plethora of review articles exist that discuss the applicability of the DSM-IV substance dependence criteria to eating behavior, the transferability of the newly added criteria to eating is unknown. Thus, the current article discusses if and how these new criteria may be translated to overeating. Furthermore, it is examined if the new SUD criteria will impact future research on food addiction, for example, if “diagnosing” food addiction should also be adapted by considering all of the new symptoms. Given the critical response to the revisions in DSM-5, we also discuss if the recent approach of Research Domain Criteria can be helpful in evaluating the concept of food addiction.

  20. Addictive buying: causes, processes, and symbolic meanings. Thematic analysis of a buying addict's diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ureta, Irene

    2007-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold. On the one hand, to reach an understanding of, and to illustrate the experience of addictive buying and, on the other, to throw some light on the controversial subject of addicts' personal responsibility for their behavior. With these aims, a thematic analysis of an extensive diary written by a compulsive buyer is presented. Four themes emerge from the analysis: the defining characteristics of addiction to buying that determine the boundary separating it from other forms of impulsive or careless buying; several causal factors; the role that money and material objects play in family relationships and friendships through the symbolic meanings they adopt; and the relationship of personal values with impulsiveness and self-control. In view of the results, the moral model of addiction to buying is discussed, and an explanatory model of the ambivalence that is characteristic of addiction to buying is proposed, based on a personal hierarchy of values.

  1. Animal models of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Pardo, María Pilar; Roger Sánchez, Concepción; De la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; Aguilar Calpe, María Asunción

    2017-01-12

    The development of animal models of drug reward and addiction is an essential factor for progress in understanding the biological basis of this disorder and for the identification of new therapeutic targets. Depending on the component of reward to be studied, one type of animal model or another may be used. There are models of reinforcement based on the primary hedonic effect produced by the consumption of the addictive substance, such as the self-administration (SA) and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigms, and there are models based on the component of reward related to associative learning and cognitive ability to make predictions about obtaining reward in the future, such as the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In recent years these models have incorporated methodological modifications to study extinction, reinstatement and reconsolidation processes, or to model specific aspects of addictive behavior such as motivation to consume drugs, compulsive consumption or drug seeking under punishment situations. There are also models that link different reinforcement components or model voluntary motivation to consume (two-bottle choice, or drinking in the dark tests). In short, innovations in these models allow progress in scientific knowledge regarding the different aspects that lead individuals to consume a drug and develop compulsive consumption, providing a target for future treatments of addiction.

  2. Addiction and choice: Theory and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene M Heyman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word compulsive identifies patterns of behavior. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. Research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by age thirty, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  3. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment.

  4. 浅谈中医行为疗法对大学生网瘾的干预%A Brief Discussion on the Intervention of Behavior Thera―py of TCM on College Students' Internet Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩佩; 吴元洁; 张伟; 俞宁; 刘亚男; 陆瑶瑶

    2015-01-01

    With the popularity of computers and mobile phones, the situation of college students' Internet addiction has become very severe and has to be settled urgently, while the behavior therapy TCM based on thousands of years of accumulation of practice in China, has its originality in the treatment of psychoso-matic problems, and its emotional mutual-restriction theory, e-motional transference method, aversion therapy and imitation method are extremely suitable for the psychosomatic problems caused by Internet addiction, and they fit with today's biomedical model. The exploration on the theoretical basis for the interven-tion of behavior therapy of TCM on Internet addicts has provided a new idea and approach for medical researchers and made a contribution to the settlement of Internet addiction.%随着电脑和手机的普及,大学生沉迷于网络的形势十分严峻,亟待解决.而经过中国上下几千年实践积淀的中医行为疗法在治疗心身问题方面有其独到之处,其中的情志相胜法、移情易性法、厌恶法和模仿法等也极适应于网瘾所导致的一系列心身问题,且与当今生物医学模式相契合.本文通过探究中医行为疗法对网瘾者干预的理论基础, 为医学者提供新的思路和途径,也为解决网瘾问题贡献一份力量.

  5. 青少年网络成瘾与自杀行为的相关关系%Association between adolescent internet addiction and suicidal behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林胜; 张志华; 郝加虎; 孙业桓

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解网络成瘾与青少年自杀行为的相关关系,如果存在相关关系,并考察能否被抑郁以及冲动相关行为部分或全部解释.方法 合肥市3507名使用网络的中学生完成问卷调查.内容包括Young网络成瘾诊断量表,自杀行为、抑郁量表,冲动相关的行为以及不良经历等调查表.采用层次logistic回归模型在调整混杂因素的基础上,分析网络成瘾与青少年自杀行为的相关关系及抑郁和冲动相关行为在上述相关关系中的作用.结果 3507名学生有182名(5.2%)被诊断为网络成瘾;过去一年有自杀意念、计划和未遂的学生比例分别为27.4%、9.5%和2.6%.网络成瘾与自杀意念、计划和未遂的关联指标OR值分别为1.79(95%CI:1.32~2.44)、2.32(95%CI:1.57~3.42)和2.08(95%CI:1.03~4.22),调整人口学和不良经历变量后,网络成瘾与自杀未遂的关联无统计学意义.抑郁和冲动相关行为分别引入以网络成瘾为自变量的方程,网络成瘾与自杀意念和计划的关联出现不同程度的下降;相反,若将网络成瘾引入以抑郁或(和)冲动相关行为自变量的方程,抑郁或(和)冲动相关行为与自杀意念和计划的关联未见明显变化.结论 网络成瘾与自杀意念、自杀计划存在关联,且该关联的路径可能由抑郁和冲动相关行为介导.%Objective To examine the association between internet addiction and suicidal behaviors in adolescences and to explore whether the association could be partly or fully accounted by depression or/and behaviors related to the impulsity. Methods A total of 3507 urban adolescent students in Hefei were administered to complete the questionnaire concerning interact addiction disorder(IAD), suicidal behaviors during the 12 months preceding the survey, behaviors related to the impulsity, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and early childhood adversities,respectively. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used

  6. Picture as a creative metaphor of addicted person existence

    OpenAIRE

    Petrová, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    Bachelor work deals with drugs addiction problems. Theoretical part is focused on research of drug addicts{\\crq} personality features and motives of their behavior. Further on, it compares finding of emotional-cognitive development theories with the level of clients{\\crq} abilities of creative expression. Practical part looks for concrete non-displaced creative metaphors of instinctive wishes in the art-production of addicts. This part also tries to reveal unconscious and unaware motives and ...

  7. Extensive Internet Involvement—Addiction or Emerging Lifestyle?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing “addiction-like” behavioral disorders such as “Internet addiction” to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use—PIU), takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, ...

  8. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children Living With Addicted Family Members: Prevention Challenges in an Underprivileged Suburban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís dos Reis Vilela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children living with substance abusers are more likely to experience negative outcomes. Our goal was to compare caregivers' reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and a socioeconomic and risk form of psychological aspects of children exposed to substance abuse assisted versus not assisted by a preventive intervention program in an underprivileged community. This observational intervention study was conducted with 66 caregivers of children who attended the program and 35 caregivers of children from the same community who did not attend. Ages ranged between six and 11 years old. Chi-square and logistic regression tests indicate that children exposed to substance abusers have more mental health problems than the general population and those who did not participate in the preventive intervention program presented worse outcomes, with higher rates of behavioral/emotional problems and exposure to risk situations. Results suggest that preventive actions might be helpful to promote the mental health of children at risk, validating the need for public policies and services.

  9. Animal models of addiction: fat and sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Drake; Sizemore, Glen M

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "food addiction" is gaining acceptance among the scientific community, and much is known about the influence of various components of food (e.g. high-fat, sugar, carbohydrate, salt) on behavior and physiology. Most of the studies to date have studied these consequences following relatively long-term diet manipulations and/or relatively free access to the food of interest. It is suggested that these types of studies are primarily tapping into the energy regulation and homeostatic processes that govern food intake and consumption. More recently, the overlap between the neurobiology of "reward-related" or hedonic effects of food ingestion and other reinforcers such as drugs of abuse has been highlighted, contributing to the notion that "food addiction" exists and that various components of food may be the substance of abuse. Based on preclinical animal models of drug addiction, a new direction for this field is using self-administration procedures and identifying an addiction-like behavioral phenotype in animals following various environmental, genetic, pharmacological, and neurobiological manipulations. Here we provide examples from this research area, with a focus on fat and sugar self-administration, and how the sophisticated animal models of drug addiction can be used to study the determinants and consequences of food addiction.

  10. Addictive consumption of avatars in cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ook; Shin, Mincheol

    2004-08-01

    Avatars are a unique cyber product that hold much potential to be a market success because they provide consumers with various psychological benefits such as anonymous personalization and an artificial sense of well-being in cyberspace. However, due to the very nature of avatars, consumer psychology, and the way that they are marketed to teenage consumers, avatars may also pose considerable threat to unsuspecting teenagers through addictive consumption and associated negative social consequences causing harm to the teenagers and the general public. This study deals with Korean teenagers' addiction to avatar consumption. Korean teenagers can be very stressed due to the pressure to excel in school. Addictive avatar consumption is thought to be a behavior that might reduce stress. An empirical study was conducted to elucidate this claim. Self-control theory is suggested as an explanation for addictive consumption of avatars.

  11. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy of Impulse Control on Reduction of Impulsiveness, Crave of Usage and Addiction Severity among Crack Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohollah Hadadi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was done in order to study of the effectiveness of CBT of impulse control on the reduction of impulsiveness, crave of usage and addiction severity of Crack users. Method: In a quasi experimental design 30 Crack addict users who were treating with Methadone in a clinic selected by interview method and consideration of entrance criterions. Then they allocated to two groups (15 subjects for each group as a witness and experimental groups. The experimental group was under Methadone drug therapy and CBT of impulse control for 8 sessions, and 60 min for each session. But witness group was under Methadone drug therapy and there was not any other intervention. All participants in research were examined before and after treatment by three scales namely: Bart's Impulsiveness Scale, Tifani's Crave Usage, and Addiction Severity Index. MANCOVA was run for analyzing of data. Results: The results showed that significant difference between two groups on impulsiveness subscales crave usage, and addiction severity (except of medical status, job status, law status, and family status. Conclusion: It can say CBT of impulse control can be effective on the reduction of impulsiveness, crave usage and addiction severity in Crack users.

  12. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  13. Ruminative Response Styles and Metacognitions in Internet Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer SENORMANCI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although cognitive behavioral model of Internet addiction has been well described, studies on metacognitions and ruminative response styles related with Internet addiction are very limited. The aim of the present study was to compare metacognitions and ruminative response style in Internet addicts with a healthy control group. Method: The study included 30 males who presented to our Internet Addiction Outpatient clinic, and diagnosed with Internet addiction, and a control group of 30 healthy males with similar sociodemographic characteristics. A sociodemographic data form, Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30, Ruminative Response Scale-short version (RRS-SV, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were used for data collection. Results: The MCQ-30 total, MCQ-30 uncontrollability and danger score, MCQ-30 need to control thoughts score and RRS-SV scores statistically significantly higher in study group compared the control group. After correcting for BDI by ANCOVA, the difference between MCQ-30 total score and RRS-SV disappeared. Conclusion: Internet addicts show ruminative responses instead of having an effective problem-solving attitude and defining problems; and this self-focused rumination leads an individual to recall more reinforced memories about the Internet so that the problem of Internet addiction becomes deeper. As a result of this study, although Internet addiction is accompanied by depression primarily or secondarily, manifestation of Internet addiction is exacerbated by depression through ruminative responses and metacognitions

  14. 在校护生手机依赖与冲动行为的相关性分析%Correlation analysis of mobile phone addiction and impulsive behavior among nursing students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史桂蓉; 金胜姬; 徐鑫鑫; 李海涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the current situation of mobile phone addiction and the relationship between mobile phone addiction and impulsive behavior among nursing students .Methods Using convenience sampling, 213 students from College of Nursing in Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine were investigated by the mobile phone addiction index scale ( MPAI) and Barratt impulsiveness scale ( Chinese version BIS-11) from May 2014 to November 2014.The correlation of mobile phone addiction and impulsive behavior among nursing students was analyzed.Results Among 213 students, 18.3 percent of the students were addicted to mobile phones (39/213).In the students who were addicted to mobile phones , the BIS score was (62.05 ±7.18) ;attentional impulsivity, exercising impulsivity and unplanned impulsivity were (15.62 ±2.22),(20.92 ±3.55)and(23.21 ± 3.87)respectively, which were all higher than those in the students who were not addicted to mobile phones .The significant differences existed in the BIS score , the scores of attentional impulsivity and exercising impulsivity (P0.05).Mobile phone addiction among nursing students was positively correlated with impulsive behavior , attentional impulsivity and exercising impulsivity(r=0.328,0.493,0.210;P<0.01).Impulsive behavior could effectively predict mobile phone addiction of nursing students .The forecast value was 10.3%.Conclusions Mobile phone addiction is common among nursing students .A higher level of impulsive behavior in nursing students often brings a higher level of mobile phone addiction .%目的:探讨在校护生手机依赖的现状及其与冲动行为的相关性。方法采用便利抽样法于2014年5—11月以手机依赖量表( MPAI)、冲动行为量表( BIS-11中文版)为调查工具对南京中医药大学护理学院213名学生进行调查。分析护生手机依赖与冲动行为的相关性。结果213名学生中,手机依赖者占18.3%(39/213)。手机

  15. Excessive computer game playing: evidence for addiction and aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüsser, S M; Thalemann, R; Griffiths, M D

    2007-04-01

    Computer games have become an ever-increasing part of many adolescents' day-to-day lives. Coupled with this phenomenon, reports of excessive gaming (computer game playing) denominated as "computer/video game addiction" have been discussed in the popular press as well as in recent scientific research. The aim of the present study was the investigation of the addictive potential of gaming as well as the relationship between excessive gaming and aggressive attitudes and behavior. A sample comprising of 7069 gamers answered two questionnaires online. Data revealed that 11.9% of participants (840 gamers) fulfilled diagnostic criteria of addiction concerning their gaming behavior, while there is only weak evidence for the assumption that aggressive behavior is interrelated with excessive gaming in general. Results of this study contribute to the assumption that also playing games without monetary reward meets criteria of addiction. Hence, an addictive potential of gaming should be taken into consideration regarding prevention and intervention.

  16. Causes of Internet Addiction Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Internet Addiction Disorder diagnostic manual approved by psychologists on November 8 divides Internet addiction into five categories,which are addiction to online games,pornography,social networking,Internet information and Internetshopping.

  17. Endocannabinoid signaling and food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, C; Micioni Di Bonaventura, M V; Pucci, M; Romano, A; Gaetani, S; Ciccocioppo, R; Cifani, C; Maccarrone, M

    2014-11-01

    Overeating, frequently linked to an increasing incidence of overweight and obesity, has become epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. To explain the development of this eating behavior, new hypotheses involve the concept that many people might be addicted to food by losing control over their ability to regulate food intake. Among the different neurotransmitter networks that partake in the reward circuitry within the brain, a large body of evidence supports the involvement of the endocannabinoid system. Indeed, its dysfunctions might contribute to food addiction, by regulating appetite and food preference through central and peripheral mechanisms. Here, we review and discuss the role of endocannabinoid signaling in the reward circuitry, and the possible therapeutic exploitation of strategies based on its fine regulation.

  18. A Review of the Research on Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Condron, Linda; Belland, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that maladaptive patterns of Internet use constitute behavioral addiction. This article explores the research on the social effects of Internet addiction. There are four major sections. The Introduction section overviews the field and introduces definitions, terminology, and assessments. The second section reviews research…

  19. Internet Addiction Phenomenon in Early Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age =12.59±0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age =13.50±0.75 years at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%, 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young’s 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out.

  20. Internet addiction phenomenon in early adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out.

  1. Impulsivity and emotion dysregulation as predictors of food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarunas, Bernadette; Conner, Bradley T

    2015-12-01

    Food addiction is the clinical occurrence in which individuals develop physical and psychological dependencies on high fat, high sugar, and highly palatable foods. Past research has demonstrated a number of similarities between food addiction and drug use disorders including the activation of specific brain regions and neurotransmitters, disrupted neuronal circuitry, and behavioral indicators of addiction such as continued use despite negative consequences. The present study examined the role of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in food addiction as both play salient roles in drug use disorders. Poisson regression analyses using data from 878 undergraduate students revealed negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively when under distress, and emotion dysregulation positively predicted symptom count on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2009) whereas a lack of premeditation negatively predicted symptom count (all psaddiction, elucidate causal mechanisms, and support an explanatory model of food addiction.

  2. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral couples therapy in alcohol use disorder: A comparative evaluation in community-based addiction treatment centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Vedel; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; G.M. Schippers

    2008-01-01

    Background: Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol consum

  3. Genetics of opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Butelman, Eduardo R; Yuferov, Vadim; Randesi, Matthew; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-11-01

    Addiction to MOP-r agonists such as heroin (and also addiction to prescription opioids) has reemerged as an epidemic in the twenty first century, causing massive morbidity. Understanding the genetics contributing to susceptibility to this disease is crucial for the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and also for discovery of genetic markers which would indicate relative protection or vulnerability from addiction, and relative responsiveness to pharmacotherapy. This information could thus eventually inform clinical practice. In this review, we focus primarily on association studies of heroin and opiate addiction, and further describe the studies which have been replicated in this field, and are thus more likely to be useful for translational efforts.

  4. Anti-addiction vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  5. A survey about effective factors on violence of addicted men against pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Navabakhsh

    2009-02-01

    The analysis of t-test indicat a thet the significant difference bet ween mean niolence experienced among addicted and non-addicteds wives.(p<0/01 Discussion: The findings show relationship between education and income of women and their husband age, kind of addiction and their violent behaviors.

  6. Addiction, adolescence, and innate immune gene induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton T Crews

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated drug use/abuse amplifies psychopathology, progressively reducing frontal lobe behavioral control and cognitive flexibility while simultaneously increasing limbic temporal lobe negative emotionality. The period of adolescence is a neurodevelopmental stage characterized by poor behavioral control as well as strong limbic reward and thrill seeking. Repeated drug abuse and/or stress during this stage increase the risk of addiction and elevate activator innate immune signaling in the brain. Nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB is a key glial transcription factor that regulates proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, oxidases, proteases, and other innate immune genes. Induction of innate brain immune gene expression (e.g., NF-κB facilitates negative affect, depression-like behaviors, and inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, innate immune gene induction alters cortical neurotransmission consistent with loss of behavioral control. Studies with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-depressant drugs as well as opiate antagonists link persistent innate immune gene expression to key behavioral components of addiction, e.g. negative affect-anxiety and loss of frontal cortical behavioral control. This review suggests that persistent and progressive changes in innate immune gene expression contribute to the development of addiction. Innate immune genes may represent a novel new target for addiction therapy.

  7. Deleuze and the theory of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Atte

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical article presents and applies the theories of the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. The article takes as its starting point the observation that current biomedical, social and psychological research does not provide a coherent view of the nature of addiction and there is a great deal of controversy in the field. The material philosophy of Deleuze provides the opportunity to introduce new ideas and bridge the gaps between different theories and approaches. Deleuze's philosophy is especially useful since neurological research on addiction has developed rapidly. Deleuzian concepts have implications not only for the general theory of addiction, but also for different theories on treatment and recovery. A Deleuzian theory, developed in this article, analyzes addictions as situational and interactional processes. Alcohol and drugs are used because they are connected with situations and interactions that enable the production of desire. They change and alter the body. Addiction alters the production of desire and life itself begins to be reduced to alcohol, drugs or a specific mode of behavior. Recovery from addictions is connected with the changes in life that offer subjects an open future. A recovering body must increase its capacity to be affected and be capable of creating new biopsychosocial connections of desire.

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Wen Wang; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Kwok-Kei Mak; Sai-Yin Ho; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in ...

  9. Analysis of attitudes toward computer networks and Internet addiction of Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C C; Lin, S S

    2001-06-01

    This study explored the interplay between young people's attitudes toward computer networks and Internet addiction. Ninety possible Internet addicts were selected for examination after analyzing the questionnaire responses of an initial sample of 753 Taiwanese high school adolescents. It was found that the subjects' attitudes toward computer networks could explain many aspects of Internet addiction. However, actual behaviors on Internet usage and perceptions on the usefulness of Internet were more important than affective responses toward computer networks in predicting adolescents' Internet addiction.

  10. Barriers to female sex addiction treatment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Background Over the last 20 years, behavioral addictions (e.g., addictions to gambling, playing video games, work, etc.) have become more accepted among both public and scientific communities. Addiction to sex is arguably a more controversial issue, but this does not take away from the fact that some individuals seek professional help for problematic excessive sex, irrespective of how the behavior is conceptualized. Empirical evidence suggests that among treatment seekers, men are more likely than women to seek help for sex addiction (SA). Methods Using the behavioral addiction literature and the authors' own expertise in researching female SA, this paper examines potential barriers to the treatment for female sex addicts. Results Four main types of barriers for female sex addicts not seeking treatment were identified. These comprised (a) individual barriers, (b) social barriers, (c) research barriers, and (d) treatment barriers. Conclusions Further research is needed to either confirm or disconfirm the identified barriers that female sex addicts face when seeking treatment, and if conformation is found, interested stakeholders should provide better awareness and/or see ways in which such barriers can be overcome to aid better uptake of SA services.

  11. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Term(s): Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you are. It’s what ... solve problems, and make decisions. How Does Your Brain Communicate? The brain is a complex communications network ...

  12. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  13. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  14. When is domestic violence a hidden face of addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, R; Schneider, J P

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews studies that address the comorbidity of domestic violence, addictive disorders, and sexual abuse, and presents a model in which domestic violence parallels the chief features of chemical dependency. Domestic violence and addictive disorders share a number of behavioral features, including loss of control, continuation of behavior despite adverse consequences, preoccupation or obsession, development of tolerance, and family involvement. Domestic violence predisposes the next generation to both domestic violence and addictive disorders. Sexual abuse within the family of origin and/or the couple relationship is a common feature of both domestic violence and substance addiction, and predisposes to both disorders in the next generation. Clinicians encountering patients who are perpetrators or victims of domestic violence or sexual trauma, or have addictive disorders, must assess for the presence of comorbid problems.

  15. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Craig, A.D.; Bechara, A.; Garavan, H.; Childress, A.R.; Paulus, M.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    2009-08-27

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such 'denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and self-awareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug-related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction.

  16. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544.

  17. Lormetazepam addiction: data analysis from an Italian medical unit for addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccini M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Faccini,1 Roberto Leone,2 Benedetta Pajusco,1 Gianluca Quaglio,1 Rebecca Casari,1 Anna Albiero,1 Monia Donati,2 Fabio Lugoboni11Department of Internal Medicine, Addiction Unit, 2Pharmacology Unit, Reference Center for Education and Communication within the World Health Organization Program for International Drug Monitoring, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine, in the context of a hospital addiction unit, which benzodiazepines were abused and to look for correlations with the characteristics of detoxified patients.Methods: A retrospective study was carried out using the database of hospital admissions to the addiction unit for detoxification from 2003 to 2010.Results: Of 879 admissions to the addiction unit during the seven-year period, 281 were for benzodiazepines. The percentage of patients addicted only to benzodiazepines was higher among females than males. Benzodiazepine consumption had started as a drug addiction behavior in only 10% of cases. The main sources of prescription identified were general practitioners (52% of cases or compliant pharmacists (25%. Overall, 15 different benzodiazepines were abused, with lormetazepam being the most commonly used (by 123 patients, 43.8% of the total.Conclusion: Our data show that, outside the population of multidrug addicts, there is an underestimated group of chronic benzodiazepine consumers who are often not referred to medical institutions for treatment. Even in the group of patients addicted to one substance only, we observed an abnormal number of requests for detoxification from lormetazepam, which appears to be more "popular" than other benzodiazepines. This drug should be prescribed according to stricter criteria and submitted to closer control.Keywords: lormetazepam, benzodiazepines, addiction, inpatient detoxification

  18. Shared brain vulnerabilities open the way for nonsubstance addictions: carving addiction at a new joint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascella, Joseph; Potenza, Marc N; Brown, Lucy L; Childress, Anna Rose

    2010-02-01

    For more than half a century, since the beginning of formal diagnostics, our psychiatric nosology has compartmentalized the compulsive pursuit of substance (e.g., alcohol, cocaine, heroin, nicotine) from nonsubstance (e.g., gambling, food, sex) rewards. Emerging brain, behavioral, and genetic findings challenge this diagnostic boundary, pointing to shared vulnerabilities underlying the pathological pursuit of substance and nonsubstance rewards. Working groups for the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V), are thus considering whether the nosologic boundaries of addiction should be redrawn to include nonsubstance disorders, such as gambling. This review discusses how neurobiological data from problem gambling, obesity, and "normal" states of attachment (romantic infatuation, sexual attraction, maternal bonds) may help us in the task of carving addictions "at a new joint." Diagnostic recarving may have a positive effect on addiction research, stimulating discovery of "crossover" pharmacotherapies with benefit for both substance and nonsubstance addictions.

  19. The process addictions and the new ASAM definition of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    Addiction is a primary, chronic disease involving brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry; it can lead to relapse, progressive development, and the potential for fatality if not treated. While pathological use of alcohol and, more recently, psychoactive substances have been accepted as addictive diseases, developing brain science has set the stage for inclusion of the process addictions, including food, sex, shopping and gambling problems, in a broader definition of addiction as set forth by the American Society of Addiction Medicine in 2011.

  20. 大学生网络成瘾与网络行为特征调查%Survey of internet addiction disorder and characteristics of online behavior among university students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智美; 俞雅英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze internet addiction disorder and characteristics of online behavior among college students so as to put forward suggestions to intervene and prevent internet addiction disorder. Methods Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to 889 college students in Guangzhou, who were from 11 universities falling into five categories. Results Online rate,normal online rate,dependency rate and addiction rate was 99.3% ,70.8% ,22.2% and 7.0% respectively. The remarkable characteristics of online behavior of internet addiction were as follows: using excessive; getting excitement and sense of accomplishment and escaping from the reality as the game purpose; playing action, simulation and role-playing games, and comparing game levels or achievements; getting to know the opposite sex as the chat purpose and meeting with net friends. The remarkable characteristics of online behavior of normal surfers were as follows: browsing all kinds of information,collecting and learning about the material,playing puzzle games and keeping in touch with friends as the chat purpose. Conclusion Different internet users showed different online behavior. According to characteristics of online behavior, to determine the primary focus of internet addiction and guide internet users to better use the Internet.%目的 调查分析大学生网络成瘾状况与网络行为特征,为预防干预网络成瘾提供依据.方法 对广州市五类十一所大学889名在校大学生,采用匿名问卷对网络行为与网络成瘾情况进行调查.结果 大学生上网率为 99.3%;正常上网率70.8%,依赖率22.2%,成瘾率7.0%.网络用时过长;以获得刺激感、成就感、逃避现实为游戏目的,玩动作扮演、模拟经验、角色扮演类游戏且攀比游戏等级或成果;以结识异性为聊天目的,约见网友等是网络成瘾者较为显著的网络行为特征.浏览各种信息、收集与学习有关资料、玩益智休闲类游

  1. Identifying the features of an exercise addiction: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Lucy; Owens, Glynn; Cruz, Borja Del Pozo

    2016-09-01

    Objectives There remains limited consensus regarding the definition and conceptual basis of exercise addiction. An understanding of the factors motivating maintenance of addictive exercise behavior is important for appropriately targeting intervention. The aims of this study were twofold: first, to establish consensus on features of an exercise addiction using Delphi methodology and second, to identify whether these features are congruous with a conceptual model of exercise addiction adapted from the Work Craving Model. Methods A three-round Delphi process explored the views of participants regarding the features of an exercise addiction. The participants were selected from sport and exercise relevant domains, including physicians, physiotherapists, coaches, trainers, and athletes. Suggestions meeting consensus were considered with regard to the proposed conceptual model. Results and discussion Sixty-three items reached consensus. There was concordance of opinion that exercising excessively is an addiction, and therefore it was appropriate to consider the suggestions in light of the addiction-based conceptual model. Statements reaching consensus were consistent with all three components of the model: learned (negative perfectionism), behavioral (obsessive-compulsive drive), and hedonic (self-worth compensation and reduction of negative affect and withdrawal). Conclusions Delphi methodology allowed consensus to be reached regarding the features of an exercise addiction, and these features were consistent with our hypothesized conceptual model of exercise addiction. This study is the first to have applied Delphi methodology to the exercise addiction field, and therefore introduces a novel approach to exercise addiction research that can be used as a template to stimulate future examination using this technique.

  2. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  3. Addiction and the Utilization of Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of different scales of addictive factors on the utilization of medical services in this paper using a two-part model. Data are from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and the claims data in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The results show that personal addictive behavior is significantly associated with both outpatient and inpatient utilization. Moreover, our result implies that those who smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day might not visit a doctor until the illness was severe. It suggests that the government can accomplish these goals by promotion and education in order to increase public awareness of personal health.

  4. Association between middle school students subject to bullying behavior and Internet addiction%江苏省中学生受欺侮行为与网络成瘾的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张熳; 潘晓群

    2012-01-01

    Objective To know about the association between middle school students who subject to bullying behavior and internet addiction and to provide reference for outlining intervention strategy. Methods A total of 24 649 middle school students were selected randomly in Jiangsu Province. A questionnaire survey was conducted and the results of the study were statistically analyzed. Results It was found that 57. 1% of the students subject to bullying behavior and 5.3% of which were Internet addiction by detection. The difference of detection rate with different demographic characteristics between suffering bully behavior and Internet addiction was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Internet addiction added with the increasing of frequencies and types of suffering bully behavior; step wise multiple logistic regressions results showed that 6 types of suffering bully behavior weie all closely associated with internet addition. Odds ratios ( OR) were 1.57 -2.55. Conclusion Students who subject to bullying behavior was a risk factor contributing to forming internet addition. Therefore high attention should be paid on suffering bully behavior in middle school students, and to be found timely as well as adopt intervention measure in order to avoid producing severe hazards.%目的 探讨中学生受欺侮行为与网络成瘾的关系,为采取有针对性的干预措施提供依据.方法 按江苏省不同地理位置和经济发展水平,在南京、苏州、徐州、盐城、宜兴、射阳、昆山、通州8个市(县),采用系统抽样方法抽取学校,再在每所学校中抽取班级,以抽中班级的所有学生为调查对象,共调查中学生24649名.采用“中国青少年健康相关行为调查问卷”进行调查,并对结果进行统计学分析.结果 江苏省中学生受欺侮检出率为57.1%,网络成瘾率为5.3%,两者在不同人口学特征中差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.01);随受欺侮频率和种数的增加,中学生网络成

  5. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  6. [Doping, sport and addiction--any links?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, J; Verbanck, P; Lebrun, P

    2015-01-01

    Sport is widely encouraged as it is beneficial for health. However, high-performance sport is more and more associated to rather suspicious practices; doping is one of the best example. From a physician point of view, the use of doping agents is obviously a major concern because taking such products often induce serious adverse effects on health. The present manuscript aims to inform physicians about the most frequent doping practices. It also points out that intensive sport can generate an "addictive" behavior sharing with "common"addictions a loss of practice control, a lack of interest in other activities and even a sport's practice detrimental to athlete's health. Analysis of the doping issue needs to take this reality into account as some doping products display an established " addictive" effect.

  7. [Online addictive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality.

  8. The Gender Effect on the Relationshiop between Internet Addiction and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescents%网络成瘾与青少年不良情绪行为关系的性别效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴; 王耘; 苑春永; 张兴慧; 黎亚军

    2014-01-01

    problems and indirect aggression,while in boys the internet addiction may be related to more behavioral problems.

  9. Does psychopathology in childhood predict internet addiction in male adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction.

  10. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Nabipour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy.

  11. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabipour, Sepideh; Ayu Said, Mas; Hussain Habil, Mohd

    2014-08-01

    Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy.

  12. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…

  13. Drug addiction in pregnancy: disease not moral failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Nurses have demonstrated concern for years about their interactions with pregnant women who abuse drugs. Reports of nurses' concern with substance abuse have been reported in the literature since the 1980s. As with any chronic disease, drug addiction causes physiologic changes, and the pathology that occurs in the brain drives characteristic behaviors. Research suggests that choices that addicts make are driven by pathology rather than by failure of a moral compass. This article reviews the theoretical explanations for addictive behaviors, describes the pathophysiology of drug addiction that is responsible for the predictable symptoms and behaviors exhibited by women who abuse prescription drugs and other opioids, and identifies nursing interventions to impact positive outcomes. Nurses who have a working knowledge of this disease will provide more effective nursing care to the women they encounter and are better prepared to make a difference in the lives of both women and their children.

  14. Is fast food addictive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  15. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens for the treatment of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulf J; Voges, Jürgen; Steiner, Johann; Galazky, Imke; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Möller, Michaela; Pisapia, Jared; Halpern, Casey; Caplan, Arthur; Bogerts, Bernhard; Kuhn, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Despite novel medications and other therapeutic strategies, addiction to psychotropic substances remains one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. In this review, beginning with an introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS), we highlight the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the context of the reward circuitry and addictive behavior. We will provide a short historic overview of other neurosurgical approaches to treat addiction and describe the experimental and preclinical data on DBS in addiction. Finally, we call attention to key ethical issues related to using DBS to treat addiction that are important for future research and the design of clinical trials.

  16. Pornography addiction - a supranormal stimulus considered in the context of neuroplasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Addiction has been a divisive term when applied to various compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs), including obsessive use of pornography. Despite a growing acceptance of the existence of natural or process addictions based on an increased understanding of the function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward systems, there has been a reticence to label CSBs as potentially addictive. While pathological gambling (PG) and obesity have received greater attention in functional and behavioral studies, ev...

  17. Conceptualizing Internet use disorders: Addiction or coping process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel

    2016-06-09

    This paper problematizes the tendency to study Internet use disorders from a perspective of addiction. It is argued that an addiction perspective, grounded in our understanding of substance use disorders, has not contributed much to an improved understanding of the antecedents and etiology of Internet use disorders. Despite this, researchers continue to frame Internet use disorders as an addiction, recently exemplified by the inclusion of Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5 research appendix as a behavioral addiction. This paper claims that the decision to use an addiction framework to study Internet use disorders has consequences for the way in which results are interpreted, which impacts the potential for theoretical and etiological contributions negatively. The paper argues that a perspective of addiction may not be the most useful approach because it causes a mismatch between theory and findings in empirical work: it is not uncommon to find that a study is positioned as a study of addiction, but presents findings more illustrative of coping behaviors. The paper draws on two examples from the literature to illustrate this mismatch and discusses how this hinders theoretical and etiological development. The question that is asked going forward is what alternative explanations we might identify by not exclusively adhering to an addiction framework for purposes of research. Recommendations are given for how to usefully approach the study of Internet use disorders outside a framework of addiction. It also discusses how scholars who still prefer a framework of addiction might strengthen their conceptual position to ensure improved contributions to etiology and theoretical development.

  18. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions.

  19. Revisiting the ‘self-medication’ hypothesis in light of the new data linking low striatal dopamine to comorbid addictive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Lakshmi L.N.P.

    2015-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia are at a high risk, almost 4.6 times more likely, of having drug abuse problems than persons without psychiatric illness. Among the influential proposals to explain such a high comorbidity rate, the ‘self-medication hypothesis’ proposed that persons with schizophrenia take to drugs in an effort to cope with the illness and medication side effects. In support of the self-medication hypothesis, data from our earlier clinical study confirmed the strong association between neuroleptic dysphoria and negative subjective responses and comorbid drug abuse. Though dopamine has been consistently suspected as one of the major culprits for the development of neuroleptic dysphoria, it is only recently our neuroimaging studies correlated the emergence of neuroleptic dysphoria to the low level of striatal dopamine functioning. Similarly, more evidence has recently emerged linking low striatal dopamine with the development of vulnerability for drug addictive states in schizophrenia. The convergence of evidence from both the dysphoria and comorbidity research, implicating the role of low striatal dopamine in both conditions, has led us to propose that the person with schizophrenia who develops dysphoria and comorbid addictive disorder is likely to be one and the same. PMID:26199720

  20. Analysis of online behavior characteristics and psychological risk factors of adolescents suffered internet addiction%网络成瘾青少年网络行为特点及心理风险因素探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐运; 陶然

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨网络成瘾青少年网络行为特点及心理风险因素. 方法 抽取2014 年9月至2015年3月在北京军区总医院青少年心理成长基地接受治疗的患者60例(实验组) ,及同期北京市某中学学生60名(对照组) ,均给予网络成瘾诊断问卷、网络行为问卷及UCLA孤独量表等调查,对比两组青少年的调查数据. 结果 实验组平均每天上网次数、每周上网次数、在线时间等均高于对照组,差异明显(P<0.05);网络消极评价、行为倾向上,差异明显(P<0.05);网络情感方面,实验组上网焦虑及网络满意度评分显著高于对照组,差异明显( P<0.05);Logistic回归分析显示,孤独感、内控性、是否独生子女、网络满意度及平均每天在线时间、单次在线时间可预测青少年是否网络成瘾. 结论 与非网络成瘾青少年相比,网络成瘾青少年在网络行为特点、心理风险因素等方面,均有显著的特点,研究为指导网络成瘾青少年诊治、预防青少年网络成瘾提供了指导价值.%Objective To study the network behavior characteristics and psychological risk factors of teenagers suffered internet addiction .Methods From September 2014 to March 2015, 60 cases of patients who received treatment in adolescent psychological development base in Beijing military region general hospital were enrolled as experimental group , and 60 healthy students from a Beijing high school were chose as control group , both groups were given Internet addiction diagnostic questionnaires , network behavior questionnaire and UCLA loneliness scale survey , investigation datas of teenagers of the two groups were compared .Results The average number of surf the internet every day , weekly online times , total online time of experimental group were higher than the control group , the differences were statistically significant ( P <0.05 ) .The differences of network negative evaluation and behavior prefer were obviously

  1. Pornography addiction – a supranormal stimulus considered in the context of neuroplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Hilton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Addiction has been a divisive term when applied to various compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs, including obsessive use of pornography. Despite a growing acceptance of the existence of natural or process addictions based on an increased understanding of the function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward systems, there has been a reticence to label CSBs as potentially addictive. While pathological gambling (PG and obesity have received greater attention in functional and behavioral studies, evidence increasingly supports the description of CSBs as an addiction. This evidence is multifaceted and is based on an evolving understanding of the role of the neuronal receptor in addiction-related neuroplasticity, supported by the historical behavioral perspective. This addictive effect may be amplified by the accelerated novelty and the ‘supranormal stimulus’ (a phrase coined by Nikolaas Tinbergen factor afforded by Internet pornography.

  2. Pornography addiction - a supranormal stimulus considered in the context of neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Addiction has been a divisive term when applied to various compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs), including obsessive use of pornography. Despite a growing acceptance of the existence of natural or process addictions based on an increased understanding of the function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward systems, there has been a reticence to label CSBs as potentially addictive. While pathological gambling (PG) and obesity have received greater attention in functional and behavioral studies, evidence increasingly supports the description of CSBs as an addiction. This evidence is multifaceted and is based on an evolving understanding of the role of the neuronal receptor in addiction-related neuroplasticity, supported by the historical behavioral perspective. This addictive effect may be amplified by the accelerated novelty and the 'supranormal stimulus' (a phrase coined by Nikolaas Tinbergen) factor afforded by Internet pornography.

  3. [Gambling and internet addiction: review and research agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, K; Bühler, M; Leménager, T; Mörsen, C; Mann, K

    2009-09-01

    Behavioral addictions, especially pathological gambling and internet addiction, have become a growing concern in research and health policy. Similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are currently being discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately the number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and internet addiction is still very low. The estimated prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is 0.2-0.5%. These numbers are comparable to prevalence rates reported for illegal drug dependency. About 1.5 million people, i.e. 3% of the German population, are believed to be at risk of internet addiction. Therefore, it is important to investigate in more detail the clinical and neuroscientific basis of pathological gambling and internet addiction. In this review we summarize the current status of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction and outline possible future research perspectives in the field of neuroimaging and genetics. The aim is to develop a multifactorial and explanatory model which helps to improve the quality of existing therapeutic approaches and prevention strategies. At present, parts of the research are funded by the federal states. The authors of this article, supported by scientific associations, have established a research platform called 'pathological gambling' in which research methods and strategies will be discussed which facilitate the implementation of different studies on pathological gambling.

  4. Allostasis as a conceptual framework linking Bipolar Disorder and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro ePettorruso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorders and addictions constitute reciprocal risk factors and are best considered under a unitary perspective. The concepts of allostasis and allostatic load may contribute to the understanding of the complex relationships between bipolar disorder and addictive behaviors. Allostasis entails the safeguarding of reward function stability by recruitment of changes in the reward and stress system neurocircuitry and it may help to elucidate neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to addiction in bipolar patients. Conceptualizing bipolar disorder as an illness involving the cumulative build-up of allostatic states, we hypothesize a progressive dysregulation of reward circuits clinically expressed as negative affective states (i.e. anhedonia. Such negative affective states may render bipolar disorder patients more vulnerable to drug addiction, fostering a very rapid transition from occasional drug use to addiction, through mechanisms of negative reinforcement. The resulting addictive behavior-related allostatic loads, in turn, may contribute to illness progression. This framework could have a heuristic value to enhance research on pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar disorder and addiction comorbidity.

  5. Allostasis as a Conceptual Framework Linking Bipolar Disorder and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorruso, Mauro; De Risio, Luisa; Di Nicola, Marco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Conte, Gianluigi; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorders (BDs) and addictions constitute reciprocal risk factors and are best considered under a unitary perspective. The concepts of allostasis and allostatic load (AL) may contribute to the understanding of the complex relationships between BD and addictive behaviors. Allostasis entails the safeguarding of reward function stability by recruitment of changes in the reward and stress system neurocircuitry and it may help to elucidate neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to addiction in BD patients. Conceptualizing BD as an illness involving the cumulative build-up of allostatic states, we hypothesize a progressive dysregulation of reward circuits clinically expressed as negative affective states (i.e., anhedonia). Such negative affective states may render BD patients more vulnerable to drug addiction, fostering a very rapid transition from occasional drug use to addiction, through mechanisms of negative reinforcement. The resulting addictive behavior-related ALs, in turn, may contribute to illness progression. This framework could have a heuristic value to enhance research on pathophysiology and treatment of BD and addiction comorbidity. PMID:25520673

  6. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors.

  7. [Addictions and action systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  8. Reward sensitivity and food addiction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxton, Natalie J; Tipman, Renée J

    2016-10-15

    Sensitivity to the rewarding properties of appetitive substances has long been implicated in excessive consumption of palatable foods and drugs of abuse. Previous research focusing on individual differences in reward responsiveness has found heightened trait reward sensitivity to be associated with binge-eating, hazardous drinking, and illicit substance use. Food addiction has been proposed as an extreme form of compulsive-overeating and has been associated with genetic markers of heightened reward responsiveness. However, little research has explicitly examined the association between reward sensitivity and food addiction. Further, the processes by which individual differences in this trait are associated with excessive over-consumption has not been determined. A total of 374 women from the community completed an online questionnaire assessing reward sensitivity, food addiction, emotional, externally-driven, and hedonic eating. High reward sensitivity was significantly associated with greater food addiction symptoms (r = 0.31). Bootstrapped tests of indirect effects found the relationship between reward sensitivity and food addiction symptom count to be uniquely mediated by binge-eating, emotional eating, and hedonic eating (notably, food availability). These indirect effects held even when controlling for BMI, anxiety, depression, and trait impulsivity. This study further supports the argument that high levels of reward sensitivity may offer a trait marker of vulnerability to excessive over-eating, beyond negative affect and impulse-control deficits. That the hedonic properties of food (especially food availability), emotional, and binge-eating behavior act as unique mediators suggest that interventions for reward-sensitive women presenting with food addiction may benefit from targeting food availability in addition to management of negative affect.

  9. Cyber addictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2015-04-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina 2012; Nadeau et al., 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant 2011). The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013; Coulombe 2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al., 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5 (Block, 2008), others question the operational and practical bases for the diagnostic criteria. Some see cyberaddiction as a problem linked more to time management, to brain deficits, to an impulse-control disorder or to psychosocial conditions while others consider it to be a pre-existing comorbidity. Considering that most addiction problems are generally understood more as individual and pathological problems rather than the result of psychosocial conditions (poverty, unemployment, weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, etc), the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for this emerging trend in cyberaddictions. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. A demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction.

  10. 成瘾行为消退性学习的研究进展%Progresses in extinct research of addictive behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文涛; 王维胜; 何玲; 刘景根

    2011-01-01

    药物成瘾被认为是一种异常的学习记忆,主要特征表现为强迫性用药和易复发;其中高复吸率一直是药物成瘾研究和治疗的难题,消退性学习可以明显增加成瘾动物的戒断时间.因此,深入研究消退性学习的机制成为神经科学家关注的重点,消退性学习被认为是形成了一种新的抑制性记忆.该文主要就消退性学习可能涉及的核团以及谷氨酸受体和表观遗传学机制在消退学习研究中的主要发现作了简单的综述;另外还对以消退性学习为原理的暴露疗法在临床治疗中的应用进行了综述,并对未来的研究工作进行了展望.%Drug addiction is considered as an abnormal learning and memory,Which is mainly characterized by compulsive drug use and easy to relapse. The high relapse rate has been the difficult problem of drug addiction treatments. Extinction can significantly increase the time of relapse to drug taking. Therefore, the mechanisms of extinction have become the focus of the addiction treatment research. Extinction is considered to form a new inhibitory memory. This review mainly discussed mechanisms involved in extinction, including brain regions, receptors and epigenetic regulation of the extinction. In addition, this review also briefly discussed the clinical application of exposure therapy based on extinction, and gave some perspectives to future research work in extinction.

  11. Meditation Awareness Training for the Treatment of Sex Addiction: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Background Sex addiction is a disorder that can have serious adverse functional consequences. Treatment effectiveness research for sex addiction is currently underdeveloped, and interventions are generally based on the guidelines for treating other behavioral (as well as chemical) addictions. Consequently, there is a need to clinically evaluate tailored treatments that target the specific symptoms of sex addiction. It has been proposed that second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) may be an appropriate treatment for sex addiction because in addition to helping individuals increase perceptual distance from craving for desired objects and experiences, some SG-MBIs specifically contain meditations intended to undermine attachment to sex and/or the human body. The current study conducts the first clinical investigation into the utility of mindfulness for treating sex addiction. Case presentation An in-depth clinical case study was conducted involving an adult male suffering from sex addiction that underwent treatment utilizing an SG-MBI known as Meditation Awareness Training (MAT). Following completion of MAT, the participant demonstrated clinically significant improvements in addictive sexual behavior, as well as reductions in depression and psychological distress. The MAT intervention also led to improvements in sleep quality, job satisfaction, and non-attachment to self and experiences. Salutary outcomes were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Discussion and conclusion The current study extends the literature exploring the applications of mindfulness for treating behavioral addiction, and findings indicate that further clinical investigation into the role of mindfulness for treating sex addiction is warranted.

  12. The somatic marker theory in the context of addiction: contributions to understanding development and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen VV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegard V Olsen,1 Ricardo G Lugo,1 Stefan Sütterlin1,2 1Section of Psychology, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Division of Surgery and Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital – Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway Abstract: Recent theoretical accounts of addiction have acknowledged that addiction to substances and behaviors share inherent similarities (eg, insensitivity to future consequences and self-regulatory deficits. This recognition is corroborated by inquiries into the neurobiological correlates of addiction, which has indicated that different manifestations of addictive pathology share common neural mechanisms. This review of the literature will explore the feasibility of the somatic marker hypothesis as a unifying explanatory framework of the decision-making deficits that are believed to be involved in addiction development and maintenance. The somatic marker hypothesis provides a neuroanatomical and cognitive framework of decision making, which posits that decisional processes are biased toward long-term prospects by emotional marker signals engendered by a neuronal architecture comprising both cortical and subcortical circuits. Addicts display markedly impulsive and compulsive behavioral patterns that might be understood as manifestations of decision-making processes that fail to take into account the long-term consequences of actions. Evidence demonstrates that substance dependence, pathological gambling, and Internet addiction are characterized by structural and functional abnormalities in neural regions, as outlined by the somatic marker hypothesis. Furthermore, both substance dependents and behavioral addicts show similar impairments on a measure of decision making that is sensitive to somatic marker functioning. The decision-making deficits that characterize addiction might exist a priori to addiction development; however, they may be worsened by ingestion of substances with

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94% reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6% identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  15. Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Internet Addiction in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in middle school students and to identify associated psychosocial risk factors and depression. Methods This study was part of a larger epidemiological study on childhood psychiatric disorders conducted in Osan, a city of Republic of Korea. We used IAS for internet addiction, K-YSR for subjects' emotional and behavioral problems and K-CDI for depressive symptoms. We used the data of n=1217 completed cases. We p...

  16. Circuit breakers for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, A

    2007-05-01

    The phenomenon of addiction is complex, although its expression clinically is relatively straightforward. There is a series of neurophysiological changes that mediate changes in the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems which in turn lead to disturbances in reward mechanisms. These then act to perpetuate the cycle of intoxication and reinforcement, withdrawal, craving and compulsive use. As our understanding of the pathophysiology of this process has improved, new pharmacological agents have been developed with the potential to moderate or even reverse it. This article briefly reviews the treatment of addiction with particular reference to emerging pharmaceutical agents.

  17. Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Corbin, William R; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-04-01

    Previous research has found similarities between addiction to psychoactive substances and excessive food consumption. Further exploration is needed to evaluate the concept of "food addiction," as there is currently a lack of psychometrically validated measurement tools in this area. The current study represents a preliminary exploration of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), designed to identify those exhibiting signs of addiction towards certain types of foods (e.g., high fat and high sugar). Survey data were collected from 353 respondents from a stratified random sample of young adults. In addition to the YFAS, the survey assessed eating pathology, alcohol consumption and other health behaviors. The YFAS exhibited adequate internal reliability, and showed good convergent validity with measures of similar constructs and good discriminant validity relative to related but dissimilar constructs. Additionally, the YFAS predicted binge-eating behavior above and beyond existing measures of eating pathology, demonstrating incremental validity. The YFAS is a sound tool for identifying eating patterns that are similar to behaviors seen in classic areas of addiction. Further evaluation of the scale is needed, especially due to a low response rate of 24.5% and a non-clinical sample, but confirmation of the reliability and validity of the scale has the potential to facilitate empirical research on the concept of "food addiction".

  18. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-09-05

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  19. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  20. Attack behavior of junior midge school students of violent online games addictive disorder%暴力网络游戏成瘾初中生攻击行为的特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙月吉; 周世昱; 董颖; 林媛; 阎楠; 王娜; 徐福山; 郑亚; 徐国庆; 李娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss some characteristics of aggressive behavior of junior middle school students addicted to violence online game.Methods From Aug.to Dec.at 2009,6000 volunteers have been investigated with the self-made violence online game survey scale and the Chen's were screen out by CIAS,and in which 71 violence game addicts,and 66 entertainment game addicts.They were divided into two groups matched as age and sex(male 55 and female 11 in every group),average age was 14.36±0.81 years old.66 no-play game students served as control group.The mean value and standard deviation of aggressive behaviors in each group were compared with one way ANOVA with SPSS12.0 version.Results There were significant different inter groups in the behavioral scores expressed in physiological attack((21.59±4.36),(18.10±6.10,(14.92±5.61)),spoken language attack((21.04±3.98),(18.36±6.26),(15.66±5.23)),angry mood((21.37±4.43),(18.72±5.90),(16.56±5.70)),hostility cognition((21.69±5.77),(20.06±7.74),(16.39±6.85))and the total score((85.56±13.71),(75.28±22.36),(63.54±20.32))(F1-4=25.07,17.35,3.25,10.40,21.81);Moat severity attack behaviors were observed in the violence online game addictive group,but less done in other two groups(t1-4=3.48,2.68,2.65,10.27,P<0.01;t 1-5=6.66,5.37,4.48,5.30,22.01,P<0.01);and secondary was found in Entertainment online game addicts(t1-5:3.18,2.69,2.16,3.66,11.74,P<0.01).Conclusion Higher attack behavior scores are found in the violence online game in junior middle students,and entertainment online game also induce attack behavior,but is not so notable.%目的 探讨游戏成瘾初中生攻击行为特点.方法 2008年8~12月随机整群抽取大连市4区8所初中6000名学生为调查对象,采用自制网络游戏调查表和陈氏网络成瘾量表(CIAS)筛查出149名(2.5%)网络游戏成瘾初中生为研究对象,其中暴力游戏成瘾者71名,娱乐游戏成瘾者66名.匹配两组性别与年龄,最终两组入组学生都是66

  1. A study on relationship of facebook and game addictive behaviour with personality traits among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Saini

    2016-08-01

    Results: Mean score of facebook addiction scale among medical students was 39.94 (S.D. 13.133 and mean score of Game addiction scale was 11.19 (S.D. 04.966. It was found that agreeableness (beta= -0.275, p=0.000 and extraversion (beta = -0.368, p = 0.000 displayed significant associations with FB Total. While neuroticism (beta=0.277, p=0.001 and agreeableness (beta= -0.177, p=0.029 displayed significant associations with game addictive behavior. Conclusions: In our study we conclude that students with high agreeableness, high neuroticism and low extraversion were more related with Facebook and game addictive behavior. Extraversion was the most powerful predictor of Facebook addiction and neuroticism for gaming addiction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3492-3497

  2. 网络成瘾研究概述%Review of researches on the Internet Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓; 司亚楠

    2013-01-01

    addiction is divided into physical and behavioral addictions in two categories, one of the important aspects of behavioral addiction research is the study of internet addiction. this paper analyzes the main index and method of network addiction defined, and summarizes the main findings of the current study of Internet addiction.%成瘾分为物质成瘾和行为成瘾两类,行为成瘾研究的一个重要方面是网络成瘾研究。本文主要分析了网络成瘾界定的主要指标与方法,并总结了对当前网络成瘾研究的主要发现。

  3. Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction.

  4. Symposium overview--Food addiction: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Rebecca L; Grigson, Patricia S

    2009-03-01

    Food addiction is a pervasive, yet controversial, topic that has gained recent attention in both lay media and the scientific literature. The goal of this series of articles is to use a combination of preclinical and clinical data to determine whether foods, like drugs of abuse, can be addictive, the conditions under which the addiction develops, and the underlying neurophysiological substrates. Operational definitions of addiction that have been used in the treatment of human disorders and to guide research in both humans and animals are presented, and an overview of the symposium articles is provided. We propose that specific foods, especially those that are rich in fat and/or sugar, are capable of promoting "addiction"-like behavior and neuronal change under certain conditions. That is, these foods, although highly palatable, are not addictive per se but become so following a restriction/binge pattern of consumption. Such consummatory patterns have been associated with increased risk for comorbid conditions such as obesity, early weight gain, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse as well as with relapse and treatment challenges. The topic of food addiction bears study, therefore, to develop fresh approaches to clinical intervention and to advance our understanding of basic mechanisms involved in loss of control.

  5. Internet café addiction of Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Shan; Cheng, Fei-Fei

    2007-04-01

    With the recent vigorous development, the Internet has become a part of life. And the Internet café has become an emerging industry under this new wave of Internet heat. However, the Internet café has also brought about many unexpected social problems and negative effects on society in Taiwan. For example, Internet café addiction (or pathological use) is a particular phenomenon derived from Internet café in Taiwan. But currently there are just a few scholars who attend to this problem. This study focuses mainly on the phenomenon of Internet café addiction among adolescents in Taiwan, the Internet café patronage behavior, and the cause of this phenomenon. Result of a questionnaire survey indicate that a significant difference exists between male and female adolescent in the following two aspects: "the stay hours for each visit in Internet café" and "Internet café addiction scores." Males' stay hours in Internet café are longer than females', and males also get higher Internet café addiction scores than females. The results also indicate that participants' degree of self-esteem and support from their social network can account for 30% of variance of Internet café addiction. Further, the results also suggest that social support is positively related to Internet café addiction score, whereas a negative relationship between self-esteem and Internet café addiction score is observed.

  6. Should Hypersexual Disorder be Classified as an Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Ariel; Fogel, Yehuda; Reid, Rory C; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-01-01

    Hypersexual behavior has been documented within clinical and research settings over the past decade. Despite recent research on hypersexuality and its associated features, many questions remain how best to define and classify hypersexual behavior. Proposed diagnostic criteria for Hypersexual Disorder (HD) have been proposed for the DSM-5 and a preliminary field trial has lent some support to the reliability and validity of the HD diagnosis. However, debate exists with respect to the extent to which the disorder might be categorized as a non-substance or behavioral addiction. In this article, we will discuss this debate in the context of data citing similarities and differences between hypersexual disorder, drug addictions, and pathological gambling. The authors of this paper conclude that despite many similarities between the features of hypersexual behavior and substance-related disorders, the research on HD at this time is in its infancy and much remains to be learned before definitively characterizing HD as an addiction at this time.

  7. Internet Addiction and Its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozden Arisoy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of new technologies, computer and internet use have become an unavoidable necessity in our daily lives. Internet was originally designed to facilitate communication and research. However the dramatic increase in use of internet in recent years has led to its pathologic use. Turkey, as a developing country with an increasing rate of internet access and computer use is at high risk for this disorder. In our country, this disorder is especially seen in young people who are more skilled in internet and computer use. And because their excessive internet use has led to negative consequences in their academic, social and family lives, patients and their families began search of treatment for this disorder. So clinicians must be aware of this newly emerging disorder and they should be able to apply the appropriate therapeutic interventions. This paper aims to summarize the pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatment of internet addiction.

  8. Correlation between depressive symptoms and network addiction, social support, and C behavior among vocational college students%高职学生抑郁与网络成瘾、社会支持、C型行为关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓丽; 刘春莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of network addiction, social support, and C behavior on depressive symptoms among vocational college students and to provide basis for mental health education among students. Methods Totally 1 662 vocational college students were investigated with stratified cluster sampling method. Results Among the students,46. 6% had depression symptoms(44. 6% for the males and 47. 3% for the females). Depression symptom detection rates were 64. 7% and 64. 1% in the students with network dependence and internet addiction. The depression symptom detection rates were 72. 9% and 90. 1% in the students with pro-C behavior and C behavior. Depression symptom detection rates were 67. 5% and 85.7% in the students with less social support and without social support. All the differences observed were statistically significant(P <0. 05 for all). Conclusion Depressive symptom detection rate is high in vocational college students in Ningxia. There are interactions among social support, network addiction, C behavior and depression.%目的 了解社会支持、网络成瘾与C型行为对高职学生抑郁的影响,为高职学生心理健康教育提供科学依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,抽取宁夏5所高职院校共1 662名在校学生进行自填式问卷调查.结果 宁夏高职学生抑郁发生率为46.6%,其中女生为47.3%,男生为44.6%;网络依赖与网络成瘾学生抑郁发生率分别为64.7%、64.1%,高于网络使用正常学生的43.7%;社会支持不足和社会支持缺乏学生的抑郁发生率分别为67.5%、85.7%,高于社会支持正常的学生;具有偏C和C型行为学生抑郁发生率分别为72.9%、90.1%,高于偏非C和非C型行为学生抑郁发生率,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);网络成瘾、C型行为、社会支持为抑郁发生的影响因素并与抑郁存在明显相关关系(r=0.193、r=0.453、r=-0.366).结论 宁夏高职学生抑郁发生率较高,与网络成瘾

  9. Dissecting impulsivity and its relationships to drug addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, J David; Ashenhurst, James R; Cervantes, M Catalina; Groman, Stephanie M; James, Alexander S; Pennington, Zachary T

    2014-10-01

    Addictions are often characterized as forms of impulsive behavior. That said, it is often noted that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, spanning several psychological domains. This review describes the relationship between varieties of impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, the nature of the causal relationship between the two, and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that promote impulsive behaviors. We conclude that the available data strongly support the notion that impulsivity is both a risk factor for, and a consequence of, drug and alcohol consumption. While the evidence indicating that subtypes of impulsive behavior are uniquely informative--either biologically or with respect to their relationships to addictions--is convincing, multiple lines of study link distinct subtypes of impulsivity to low dopamine D2 receptor function and perturbed serotonergic transmission, revealing shared mechanisms between the subtypes. Therefore, a common biological framework involving monoaminergic transmitters in key frontostriatal circuits may link multiple forms of impulsivity to drug self-administration and addiction-related behaviors. Further dissection of these relationships is needed before the next phase of genetic and genomic discovery will be able to reveal the biological sources of the vulnerability for addiction indexed by impulsivity.

  10. The impact of orbitofrontal dysfunction on cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucantonio, Federica; Stalnaker, Thomas A; Shaham, Yavin; Niv, Yael; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2012-01-22

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by poor judgment and maladaptive decision-making. Here we review evidence implicating the orbitofrontal cortex in such behavior. This evidence suggests that cocaine-induced changes in orbitofrontal cortex disrupt the representation of states and transition functions that form the basis of flexible and adaptive 'model-based' behavioral control. By impairing this function, cocaine exposure leads to an overemphasis on less flexible, maladaptive 'model-free' control systems. We propose that such an effect accounts for the complex pattern of maladaptive behaviors associated with cocaine addiction.

  11. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Laz, Tabassum H.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic sta...

  12. [Food addiction: Definition, measurement and limits of the concept, associated factors, therapeutic and clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathelain, Sarah; Brunault, Paul; Ballon, Nicolas; Réveillère, Christian; Courtois, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Addictions, which are characterized by the inability to control a behavior despite existence of physical or psychological consequences, have biological, psychological and social determinants. Although the possibility of developing an addiction to some psychoactive substances (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, cannabis) and to gambling (i.e., gambling disorder) is now well demonstrated, the possibility to develop a non-drug addiction (i.e., behavioral addiction) to certain behaviors which provide pleasure (e.g. eating, having sex, buying things) is still in debate. The concept of food addiction, which refers to people who exhibit substance dependence criteria in relation to some high-fat and high-sugar foods, was recently proposed by applying substance dependence DSM criteria to eating behavior. To assess food addiction, the Yale Food Addiction Scale is now the only self-administered questionnaire (diagnosis and estimate of the number of symptoms of food addiction). Prevalence for food addiction is higher in overweight and obese patients, and in patients with certain psychopathological characteristics (i.e., depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, high impulsivity), in patients who are single and in patients with neurobiological alterations in the reward system. However, it is still unclear whether food addiction is necessary associated with subsequent increase in body weight and/or obesity. An increasing number of studies demonstrated that drug addiction and food addiction shares some similar clinical, neurobiological and psychopathological and sociocultural risk factors. To test the pertinence to include food addiction as an addiction, it would be interesting to conduct future studies in patients who may experience harms related to their food addiction, including not only patients with obesity, but also patients with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, stroke, or coronary heart disease. Food addiction is a clinical

  13. Survey on the knowledge and behavior of AIDS, and serological analysis among drug addicts in Yichang City%宜昌市吸毒人群艾滋病知识行为调查及血清学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宇宙; 熊焱强; 李志红; 陈宏平; 毛丰益

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解宜昌市吸毒人群艾滋病知识和行为特征,以及该人群中HIV、丙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis C virus,HCV)和梅毒的流行状况,为制定针对该人群的综合防治措施提供依据.方法 对宜昌市社区和戒毒所的400名吸毒人员进行问卷调查和血清学检测.结果 吸毒人群以30~49岁(78.75%)、男性(76.50%)、初中文化(57.50%)、已婚(40.25%)为主;艾滋病知识总知晓率高达97.00%;吸毒者注射吸毒占73.00%,其中23.63%共用过针具;与配偶和商业性伴每次性行为都使用安全套的仅占7.41%和20.54%;梅毒和HCV阳性率分别为0.75%和76.50%,未发现HIV抗体阳性者.结论 吸毒人员艾滋病知识知晓率较高,但是安全套使用率较低,共用针具率较高,HCV的感染率很高.应继续加强艾滋病知识宣传教育和安全套推广等行为干预,提高预防效果.%Objective To know AIDS related knowledge, behavior and the epidemic status of HIV, heparitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis among drug addicts in Yichang City, and provide helpful information for prevention and control of AIDS. Methods Both questionnaire survey and serological detection were conducted among 400 drug addicts of community and drug rehabilitation center in Yichang City. Results Most of the drug addicts were 30~49 years old (78.75%), male (76.50 % ) , middle school educated (57.50%), married ( 40.25 % ), and fully a ware of AIDS-related knowledge (97.00% ). 73.00% of the interviewees took drug by injection, among which the proportion of sharing syringes was 23. 63 % . Noteworthily, only 7.41% and 20.54 % of them use condom with spouse or business partner every time, respectively. Syphilis infection rate and HCV infection rate were 0.75% and 76.50% , respectively. No positive result for anti-HIV has been detected. Conclusions Drug addicts know well about AIDS related knowledge, however, the usage of condom is still pretty infrequent, while the situation of

  14. 探讨网络成瘾青少年的网络相关行为特征%Discussion on the Characteristics of Internet-related Behaviors in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵新月; 王冲

    2015-01-01

    Objectiveto explore and analyze on the characteristics of Internet-related behaviors in adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder(IAD).Methods The Internet addiction test, the diagnosis questionnaire and the questionnaire survey are done by 1000 cases of randomly selected young people.Results 97 cases (9.7%) of IAD with a very young beginner, a long time and high frequcency. The teenagers with IAD spend more than 3 length of time than the normal ones. Such children always own a personal computer, easier to surf online. The Internet cafe and dormitory are good choices, mainly playing internet games, browsing pornographic websites, taking network two-way communication, ect. These teenagers prefer to the anxiety and pleasure of the internet with morenegative messagers on it.Conclusion Internet addiction has a significant difference in the perception of network emotion, cognition, and network activity compared with the normal, and it has a significant effect on the prediction of Internet addiction.%目的:本文主要是探讨和分析网络成瘾的青少年的网络相关行为特征。方法随机选择1000例青少年作为调研对象,通过网络成瘾测验、诊断问卷以及行为调查问卷等方式进行调查。结果其中网络成瘾共有97例(9.7%),这些网络成瘾的青少年中开始接触网络年龄相对较小、网龄较长、上网频率较高。成瘾组青少年每周上网时间为正常组青少年上网时间的3倍,拥有个人电脑、上网条件都要优于正常上网少年,成瘾组青少年大都选择在网吧或者宿舍上网。成瘾组青少年少年内容大都集中在网络游戏、色情网站、网络双向沟通等,网络成瘾组青少年更倾向于上网的焦虑以及快感等,对于网络的消极评价更多。结论网络成瘾青少年对于网络情感、认知以及网络活动存在的认知和正常使用者相比较存在一定的差异,其网络内容偏好对于网络成瘾的预测具有显著的影响。

  15. Cognitive interventions for addiction medicine: Understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilverstand, Anna; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides a tool for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive interventions in addiction. The aim of this review was to describe the brain circuits that are recruited during cognitive interventions, examining differences between various treatment modalities while highlighting core mechanisms, in drug addicted individuals. Based on a systematic Medline search we reviewed neuroimaging studies on cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive inhibition of craving, motivational interventions, emotion regulation, mindfulness, and neurofeedback training in addiction. Across intervention modalities, common results included the normalization of aberrant activity in the brain's reward circuitry, and the recruitment and strengthening of the brain's inhibitory control network. Results suggest that different cognitive interventions act, at least partly, through recruitment of a common inhibitory control network as a core mechanism. This implies potential transfer effects between training modalities. Overall, results confirm that chronically hypoactive prefrontal regions implicated in cognitive control in addiction can be normalized through cognitive means.

  16. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.W. de

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the t

  17. Rational behavior therapy for drug addicts mood negative emotional adjustment effect%理性情绪行为疗法对戒毒者负性情绪的调适效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李遵清; 侯峰; 翟爱玲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore rational behavior therapy for drug addicts emotional anxiety depression adjustment effect Methods According to toss a coin, 60 cases drug addicts grouping law were divided into study groups ( 32 cases) and control group (28).Both groups were given conventional discipline, including military training, daily control study, labor health and physical exercise,the exercise GongLiao etc, and supportive psychological care, the study group was given emotional behavior therapy for six weeks on the basis of the routine treatment.After treatment, the effects were assessed by depression self rating scale ( SDS), anxiety, since the rating scale (SAS), symptoms since rating scale (SCL-90) .Results Before treatment, SDS, SAS, score had no significant differences between the two groups ( P >0.05), after treatment, the SAS, SDS scores in study group were decreased obviously ( P <0.01 ), but they were not obvious changes in control group ( P > 0.05 ).And after treatment, the scores had obvious difference between the two groups (P <0.01 ) .Conclusions Rational emotional behavior therapy can treat negative emotions of drug addicts to maintain good mood.%目的 探讨理性情绪行为疗法对戒毒者焦虑抑郁情绪的调适效果.方法 将60例戒毒者按抛硬币分组法分为研究组(32例)和对照组(28例),两组均按常规管教,对照组参加日常军事训练、学习、劳动卫生、体育锻炼、健身运动等工疗活动,并给予支持性心理护理,研究组在此基础上进行为期6周的理性情绪行为疗法.治疗前后,两组采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)进行效果评定.结果 治疗前,SDS、SAS评分比较,两组间无显著差别(P均>0.05),治疗后,研究组SAS、SDS量表评分较治疗前明显下降(P均<0.01),对照组较治疗前则变化不明显(P均>0.05);而且治疗后的比较,研究组较对照组亦有显著差异(P均<0.01).结论 理性情绪行为疗法能够矫

  18. MicroRNAs and drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Kenny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a disorder of neuroplasticity in brain reward and cognition systems resulting from aberrant activation of gene expression programs in response to prolonged drug consumption. Noncoding RNAs are key regulators of almost all aspects of cellular physiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small (~21–23 nucleotides noncoding RNA transcripts that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, microRNAs were shown to play key roles in the drug-induced remodeling of brain reward systems that likely drives the emergence of addiction. Here, we review evidence suggesting that one particular miRNA, miR-212, plays a particularly prominent role in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. We review evidence showing that miR-212 expression is increased in the dorsal striatum of rats that show compulsive-like cocaine-taking behaviors. Increases in miR-212 expression appear to protect against cocaine addiction, as virus-mediated striatal miR-212 over-expression decreases cocaine consumption in rats. Conversely, disruption of striatal miR-212 signaling using an antisense oligonucleotide increases cocaine intake. We also review data that identify two mechanisms by which miR-212 may regulate cocaine intake. First, miR-212 has been shown to amplify striatal CREB signaling through a mechanism involving activation of Raf1 kinase. Second, miR-212 was also shown to regulate cocaine intake by repressing striatal expression of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2, consequently decreasing protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The concerted actions of miR-212 on striatal CREB and MeCP2/BDNF activity greatly attenuate the motivational effects of cocaine. These findings highlight the unique role for miRNAs in simultaneously controlling multiple signaling cascades implicated in addiction.

  19. The dark side of food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parylak, Sarah L; Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2011-07-25

    In drug addiction, the transition from casual drug use to dependence has been linked to a shift away from positive reinforcement and toward negative reinforcement. That is, drugs ultimately are relied on to prevent or relieve negative states that otherwise result from abstinence (e.g., withdrawal) or from adverse environmental circumstances (e.g., stress). Recent work has suggested that this "dark side" shift also is a key in the development of food addiction. Initially, palatable food consumption has both positively reinforcing, pleasurable effects and negatively reinforcing, "comforting" effects that can acutely normalize organism responses to stress. Repeated, intermittent intake of palatable food may instead amplify brain stress circuitry and downregulate brain reward pathways such that continued intake becomes obligatory to prevent negative emotional states via negative reinforcement. Stress, anxiety and depressed mood have shown high comorbidity with and the potential to trigger bouts of addiction-like eating behavior in humans. Animal models indicate that repeated, intermittent access to palatable foods can lead to emotional and somatic signs of withdrawal when the food is no longer available, tolerance and dampening of brain reward circuitry, compulsive seeking of palatable food despite potentially aversive consequences, and relapse to palatable food-seeking in response to anxiogenic-like stimuli. The neurocircuitry identified to date in the "dark" side of food addiction qualitatively resembles that associated with drug and alcohol dependence. The present review summarizes Bart Hoebel's groundbreaking conceptual and empirical contributions to understanding the role of the "dark side" in food addiction along with related work of those that have followed him.

  20. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  1. Refined food addiction: a classic substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifland, J R; Preuss, H G; Marcus, M T; Rourke, K M; Taylor, W C; Burau, K; Jacobs, W S; Kadish, W; Manso, G

    2009-05-01

    Overeating in industrial societies is a significant problem, linked to an increasing incidence of overweight and obesity, and the resultant adverse health consequences. We advance the hypothesis that a possible explanation for overeating is that processed foods with high concentrations of sugar and other refined sweeteners, refined carbohydrates, fat, salt, and caffeine are addictive substances. Therefore, many people lose control over their ability to regulate their consumption of such foods. The loss of control over these foods could account for the global epidemic of obesity and other metabolic disorders. We assert that overeating can be described as an addiction to refined foods that conforms to the DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. To examine the hypothesis, we relied on experience with self-identified refined foods addicts, as well as critical reading of the literature on obesity, eating behavior, and drug addiction. Reports by self-identified food addicts illustrate behaviors that conform to the 7 DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. The literature also supports use of the DSM-IV criteria to describe overeating as a substance use disorder. The observational and empirical data strengthen the hypothesis that certain refined food consumption behaviors meet the criteria for substance use disorders, not unlike tobacco and alcohol. This hypothesis could lead to a new diagnostic category, as well as therapeutic approaches to changing overeating behaviors.

  2. Factors That Predict Negative Versus Positive Addictions in Offspring: Are Dependent Exercisers Different Than Victims of Other Addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Terri M.

    The study reported here assessed individuals' selection of excessive exercise dependent behaviors as they relate to self-esteem, family environment, and perceptions of family members exhibiting dysfunctional behaviors or addictions. A survey was taken of exercisers from a stratified random sample of competitive triathletes selected from the…

  3. Glutamate and Brain Glutaminases in Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Javier; Campos-Sandoval, José A; Peñalver, Ana; Matés, José M; Segura, Juan A; Blanco, Eduardo; Alonso, Francisco J; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2016-12-23

    Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and its actions are related to the behavioral effects of psychostimulant drugs. In the last two decades, basic neuroscience research and preclinical studies with animal models are suggesting a critical role for glutamate transmission in drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse. Although most of the interest has been centered in post-synaptic glutamate receptors, the presynaptic synthesis of glutamate through brain glutaminases may also contribute to imbalances in glutamate homeostasis, a key feature of the glutamatergic hypothesis of addiction. Glutaminases are the main glutamate-producing enzymes in brain and dysregulation of their function have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders; however, the possible implication of these enzymes in drug addiction remains largely unknown. This mini-review focuses on brain glutaminase isozymes and their alterations by in vivo exposure to drugs of abuse, which are discussed in the context of the glutamate homeostasis theory of addiction. Recent findings from mouse models have shown that drugs induce changes in the expression profiles of key glutamatergic transmission genes, although the molecular mechanisms that regulate drug-induced neuronal sensitization and behavioral plasticity are not clear.

  4. 广州市青少年吸烟饮酒成瘾性药物使用情况分析%Analysis of smoking, drinking and addictive drug use behaviors among adolescents in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 林蓉; 张维蔚; 吴家刚; 林琳; 杜琳; 刘伟佳

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广州市青少年吸烟、饮酒及成瘾性药物使用状况,为开展有针对性的预防和控制措施提供科学依据.方法 采用“中国青少年健康相关行为调查问卷”对广州市66所学校11939名学生进行问卷调查.结果 广州市青少年尝试吸烟率为26.61%.调查前1个月有9.56%的学生吸过烟,其中男生(17.36%)高于女生(2.84%);农村学生(12.92%)高于城市学生(7.79%);职中生最高(22.74%),初中、高中、大学学生依次为6.82%,6.66%和7.75%.青少年饮酒的比例为60.63%,过去1个月29.03%的青少年有饮酒行为,11.17%的青少年有重度饮酒行为.广州市青少年成瘾性药物使用率为8.85%,男生为9.72%,女生为8.16%;农村为11.83%,城市为7.32%;职中生最高(10.50%),初中、高中、大学学生依次为9.35%,7.72%,7.56%.结论 广州市青少年吸烟、饮酒及成瘾性药物使用率比较高,相关部门和学校应该采取有针对性的干预措施.%Objective To study the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and addictive drug use among Guangzhou adolescents, and to provide scientific evidence for prevention and control. Methods Questionnaire of Health Related Behaviors Among Adolescents in China was conducted among 11 939 students in 66 schools in Guangzhou. Results About 26. 61% of surveyed adolescents had ever tried cigarette smoking, 9. 56% of them had smoked a month before the survey, boys (17. 36% ) were higher than girls (2. 84% ) ; rural area students(12. 92% ) were higher than urban area students(7.79% ) ;Smoking rate of vocational students was highest which was 22. 74% , middle school, high school and college students were in order of 6. 82% , 6. 66% , 7. 75% ; The proportion of adolescents drinking was 60. 63%. A month before the survey, 29. 03% of surveyed adolescents had drinking, and 11.17% of them had heavy alcohol consumption behavior. The proportion of addictive drug use was 8. 85% , boys

  5. Treatment of internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xui-qin; Li, Meng-chen; Tao, Ran

    2010-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a prevalent, highly comorbid, and significantly impairing disorder. Although many psychotherapeutic approaches and psychotropic medications have been recommended and some of the psychotherapeutic approaches and a few pharmacotherapy strategies have been studied, treatment of IA is generally in its early stages. This article reviews theoretical descriptions of psychotherapy and the effects of psychosocial treatment and pharmacologic treatment. We also outline our own treatment model of IA.

  6. From Occasional Choices to Inevitable Musts: A Computational Model of Nicotine Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Metin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, there are considerable works on the neural mechanisms of reward-based learning and decision making, and most of them mention that addiction can be explained by malfunctioning in these cognitive processes, there are very few computational models. This paper focuses on nicotine addiction, and a computational model for nicotine addiction is proposed based on the neurophysiological basis of addiction. The model compromises different levels ranging from molecular basis to systems level, and it demonstrates three different possible behavioral patterns which are addict, nonaddict, and indecisive. The dynamical behavior of the proposed model is investigated with tools used in analyzing nonlinear dynamical systems, and the relation between the behavioral patterns and the dynamics of the system is discussed.

  7. Is Internet Addiction Prevalent Among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients? Data from Las Vegas and Tel Aviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Linzy, Shirley; Sason, Anat; Tene, Oren; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction is known to be associated with depression. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) for depression were studied among non-selective methadone maintenance treatment patients from the United States (n = 164) and Israel (n = 113). Thirty percent were not exposed to the internet, and 2.9% (n = 8) had an "occasional/frequent problem." The IAT and CES-D scores correlated significantly (p = .03). The non-exposed group was older, less educated, and had more benzodiazepine abusers. Unlike other behavioral addictions that characterized these patients, the internet addiction problem is rare, but should not be ignored.

  8. Mitoepigenetics and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-11-01

    Being the center of energy production in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are also crucial for various cellular processes including intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria contain their own circular DNA which encodes not only proteins, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNAs but also non-coding RNAs. The most recent line of evidence indicates the presence of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); thus, the level of gene expression - in a way similar to nuclear DNA - can be regulated by direct epigenetic modifications. Up to now, very little data shows the possibility of epigenetic regulation of mtDNA. Mitochondria and mtDNA are particularly important in the nervous system and may participate in the initiation of drug addiction. In fact, some addictive drugs enhance ROS production and generate oxidative stress that in turn alters mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression. This review summarizes recent findings on mitochondrial function, mtDNA copy number and epigenetics in drug addiction.

  9. Dopamine and the Neural "Now": Essay and Review of Addiction: A Disorder of Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Rather than view addiction as a disease, Heyman sees it as a choice-one that works like other choices, whereby immediate rewards outshine long-term gains. He rejects neuroscientific explanations of addictive behavior, because he believes they cast it as involuntary or disease-like. I argue that the

  10. Disruption of maternal parenting circuitry by addictive process: rewiring of reward and stress systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Helena J V; Williams, Sarah K; Moy, Sheryl; Mayes, Linda C; Johns, Josephine M

    2011-01-01

    Addiction represents a complex interaction between the reward and stress neural circuits, with increasing drug use reflecting a shift from positive reinforcement to negative reinforcement mechanisms in sustaining drug dependence. Preclinical studies have indicated the involvement of regions within the extended amygdala as subserving this transition, especially under stressful conditions. In the addictive situation, the reward system serves to maintain habitual behaviors that are associated with the relief of negative affect, at the cost of attenuating the salience of other rewards. Therefore, addiction reflects the dysregulation between core reward systems, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and nucleus accumbens (NAc), as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and extended amygdala of the stress system. Here, we consider the consequences of changes in neural function during or following addiction on parenting, an inherently rewarding process that may be disrupted by addiction. Specifically, we outline the preclinical and human studies that support the dysregulation of reward and stress systems by addiction and the contribution of these systems to parenting. Increasing evidence suggests an important role for the hypothalamus, PFC, VTA, and NAc in parenting, with these same regions being those dysregulated in addiction. Moreover, in addicted adults, we propose that parenting cues trigger stress reactivity rather than reward salience, and this may heighten negative affect states, eliciting both addictive behaviors and the potential for child neglect and abuse.

  11. Disruption of maternal parenting circuitry by addictive process: rewiring of reward and stress systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena eRutherford

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Addiction represents a complex interaction between the reward and stress neural circuits, with increasing drug use reflecting a shift from positive reinforcement to negative reinforcement mechanisms in sustaining drug dependence. Preclinical studies have indicated the involvement of regions within the extended amygdala as subserving this transition, especially under stressful conditions. In the addictive situation, the reward system serves to maintain habitual behaviors that are associated with the relief of negative affect, at the cost of attenuating the salience of other rewards. Therefore, addiction reflects the dysregulation between core reward systems, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC, ventral tegmental area (VTA, and nucleus accumbens (NAc, as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and extended amygdala of the stress system. Here, we consider the consequences of changes in neural function during or following addiction on parenting, an inherently rewarding process that may be disrupted by addiction. Specifically, we outline the preclinical and human studies that support the dysregulation of reward and stress systems by addiction and the contribution of these systems to parenting. Increasing evidence suggests an important role for the hypothalamus, PFC, VTA, and NAc in parenting, with these same regions being those dysregulated in addiction. Moreover, in addicted adults, we propose that parenting cues trigger stress reactivity rather than reward salience, and this may heighten negative affect states, eliciting both addictive behaviors and the potential for parental neglect and abuse.

  12. Study on Psychological and Behavioral Intervention among High School Students with Internet Addiction Disorder, Zhejiang%浙江省某中学学生网络依赖心理与行为干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓; 田国强

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between psychological and behavioral intervention on. high school students with Internet Addiction Disorder(IA). Methods: A total of 100 students with IA were screened out from 1200 high school students through Internet Addiction Scale designed by Young, EMBU and SCL-90. All the students with IA and 100 non-IA students received family intervention and school intervention. Results: Students with IA had higher scores in several items of EMBU before intervention, such as Excessive interference and protect of parents, Severe punishment and refusing and denying (P<0.05), while scored higher in the factors of interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, paranoia and psychosis factor in SCL-90 (P<0.05). However, students with IA scored lower after psychological and behavioral intervention than before in most factors of SCL-90 in addition to Somatic and Obsessive factors (P<0.05). Conclusion: There are differences on mental health between IA and non-IA students. For instance, students with IA have the tendency of paranoid and hostile, meanwhile show more anxiety and depression as well as interpersonal sensitivity. After intervention, IA students mental health level has been improved, psychological behavior therapy can rectify IA behavior.%目的:探讨网络依赖(IA)中学生的心理与行为之间的关系.方法:在校中学生1200名,以Young设计的网络依赖量表、父母养育方式评定量表(EMBU)和SCL-90自评量表选取100名IA者为研究组,选取100名非IA者为对照组,以家庭干预和学校干预进行心理干预治疗.结果:研究组与对照组干预前EMBU评分比较显示,母亲在过分干涉保护、惩罚严厉上,研究组得分高于对照组(P<0.05),而父亲在惩罚严厉,拒绝否认、过分干涉和过度保护上,研究组得分高于对照组(P<0.05);研究组干预前SCL-90评分的人际关系敏感、焦虑、敌对、偏执、精神病性因子得分高于对照组(P<0.05),

  13. A discursive analysis exploring constructions of sex addiction in clinical text and 'addict' accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous accounts have been developed which portray sex addiction and the sex addict. These in turn have led to screening tools, said to be capable of accurately distinguishing the sex addict from non-addicts. However, there are a wealth of various, diverse and conflicting understandings of addiction, sexuality and sex addiction. Sex addiction also carries moral implications, leading some to argue the term is used as stigmatising label for those who deviate from a socially...

  14. Harry Potter: Agency or Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…

  15. Extensive internet involvement--addiction or emerging lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmark, Karin Helmersson; Bergmark, Anders; Findahl, Olle

    2011-12-01

    In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing "addiction-like" behavioral disorders such as "Internet addiction" to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use--PIU), takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, it is obvious that the divide between characteristics of addiction and dimensions of new lifestyles built on technological progress is problematic and far from unambiguous. Some of these research areas are developing from the neurobiological doctrine of addiction as not being tied to specific substances. The concept of "behavioral addictions", based on biological mechanisms such as the reward systems of the brain, has been launched. The problems connected to this development are in this study discussed and reflected with data from a Swedish survey on Internet use (n = 1,147). Most Swedes (85%) do use the Internet to some degree. The prevalence of excessive use parallels other similar countries. Respondents in our study spend (mean value) 9.8 hours per week online at home, only 5 percent spend more than 30 hours per week. There are both positive and negative social effects at hand. Many respondents have more social contacts due to the use of Internet, but there is a decline in face-to-face contacts. About 40% of the respondents indicate some experience of at least one problem related to Internet use, but only 1.8% marked the presence of all problems addressed. Most significant predictors for problem indicators, except for age, relate to "time" and time consuming activities such as gaming, other activities online or computer skills.

  16. Internet addiction in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families.

  17. Personality dimensions of opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukov, M; Baba-Milkic, N; Lecic, D; Mijalkovic, S; Marinkovic, J

    1995-02-01

    A survey of 80 opiate addicts included in a detoxification program was conducted at the Institute on Addictions in Belgrade. In addition to a dependence diagnosis and mental disorders based on DSM-III-R, we applied a Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) that measures the 3 major personality dimensions: novelty-seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD). When compared with a control group (a sample of Yugoslav undergraduate students), the opiate addicts demonstrate significantly high NS dimension as well as significant divergences of HA and RD subscales. The surveyed opiate addicts demonstrate a high percentage of personality disorders specifically in cluster B. The personality dimensions of opiate addicts showed certain temperament traits, such as: impulsiveness, shyness with strangers, fear of uncertainty and dependence. NS, HA and RD determined by temperament specifics may be an etiological factor in forming of a personality disorder, an affective disorder as well as of a drug choice.

  18. User profiles of internet addicts in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinić Darko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was a part of a broader empirical study of Internet users with excessive and dysfunctional Internet use symptoms. The aim of this particular article was to describe user profiles of Internet addicts in Serbia. The study recruited 100 subjects in total, 50 in both the clinical and control group. The clinical group included the Internet users who asked for professional help due to the symptoms of the excessive Internet use and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Internet behavior disorder proposed by the American Psychology Association. The results have shown that population with Internet addiction symptoms equally included both males and females, mostly adolescent and younger population, teenagers and university students, persons with higher income and users from economically more developed areas of Serbia. The user profile of this group is characterized by frequent logging on with intervals of several hours online at one time, mainly in the evening or at night, and also intensive negative reactions to any form of Internet access deprivation. By means of factor analysis, three dimensions of pathological use have been established: mixed type with particular need for up-to-date information, social interaction addiction and need for fun-seeking, namely pursuing hobbies online (cyberpornography, online games, music, art and so on.

  19. Addiction and dependence in DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Charles

    2011-05-01

    As preparations for the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) are under way, this paper focuses upon changes proposed for the substance use disorders section. It briefly outlines the history behind the current nomenclature, and the selection of the term 'dependence' over 'addiction' in earlier versions of the DSM. The term 'dependence', while used in past decades to refer to uncontrolled drug-seeking behavior, has an alternative meaning--the physiological adaptation that occurs when medications acting on the central nervous system are ingested with rebound when the medication is abruptly discontinued. These dual meanings have led to confusion and may have propagated current clinical practices related to under-treatment of pain, as physicians fear creating an 'addiction' by prescribing opioids. In part to address this problem, a change proposed for DSM-V is to alter the chapter name to 'Addiction and Related Disorders', which will include disordered gambling. The specific substance use disorders may be referred to as 'alcohol use' or 'opioid use' disorders. The criteria for the disorders are likely to remain similar, with the exception of removal of the 'committing illegal acts' criterion and addition of a 'craving' criterion. The other major change relates to the elimination of the abuse/dependence dichotomy, given the lack of data supporting an intermediate stage. These changes are anticipated to improve clarification and diagnosis and treatment of substance use and related disorders.

  20. Psychological and Neurobiological Correlates of Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalon, E; Hong, J Y; Tobin, C; Schulte, T

    2016-01-01

    Food addiction (FA) is loosely defined as hedonic eating behavior involving the consumption of highly palatable foods (ie, foods high in salt, fat, and sugar) in quantities beyond homeostatic energy requirements. FA shares some common symptomology with other pathological eating disorders, such as binge eating. Current theories suggest that FA shares both behavioral similarities and overlapping neural correlates to other substance addictions. Although preliminary, neuroimaging studies in response to food cues and the consumption of highly palatable food in individuals with FA compared to healthy controls have shown differing activation patterns and connectivity in brain reward circuits including regions such as the striatum, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and nucleus accumbens. Additional effects have been noted in the hypothalamus, a brain area responsible for regulating eating behaviors and peripheral satiety networks. FA is highly impacted by impulsivity and mood. Chronic stress can negatively affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, thus influencing eating behavior and increasing desirability of highly palatable foods. Future work will require clearly defining FA as a distinct diagnosis from other eating disorders.

  1. 乌鲁木齐市水磨沟区吸毒者HIV感染状况和危险行为调查%Survey on the HIV infection status and dangerous behavior among drug addicts in in Shuimogou District of Urumqi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 苗海英; 冯雪; 樊于生; 王亚丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解乌鲁木齐市水磨沟区吸毒者人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)、丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)和梅毒的感染情况和相关危险行为.方法 对252名吸毒者进行血清学监测,并进行相关行为问卷调查.结果 252名吸毒人员HIV的感染率为18.7%,维吾尔族吸毒者HIV阳性率高于其他民族(x2=10.64,P<0.01),共用注射器的注射吸毒人员HIV阳性率(48.7%)高于非共针人员(14.4%),差异有统计学意义(x2 =23.17,P<0.01).结论 水磨沟区应加强吸毒者的宣传和干预的力度,控制艾滋病的传播和流行.%[Objective]To understand the infection status of syphilis, HIV and HCV among drug addicts and their related risk behaviors in Urumqi City [ Methods]A serology monitoring was conducted among 252 drug addicts, then the relative behavior questionnaire survey was applied. [Results]The HIV infection rate in 252 drug addicts was 18. 7% , and the positive rate of HIV a-mong uighur was higher than any other nation ( x2 = 10. 64, P < 0. 01) . The positive rate of HIV drug addicts sharing injection e-quipment (48. 7% ) was higher than the drug addicts without injection equipment sharing ( 14. 4% ) with significant difference (x2 =23. 17 ,P < 0. 01) . [ Conclusion]The propaganda and intervention of drug addicts should be strengthened in Shuimogou District , and the spread of AIDS should be controlled.

  2. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4:537–544

  3. Facebook addiction among health university students in Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N R Ramesh Masthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Facebook was founded in 2004 and is one of the most popular social networking sites. Although Facebook is used to connect and stay in touch with friends and also to maintain relationships, there may be situations where an individual uses the site way too much. Relatively little research has been carried out to explain effects of usage to Facebook in terms of addiction in India. Objectives: The aim was to find out the burden of Facebook addiction among college students of health university. Subjects and Methods: This exploratory qualitative study was conducted in Bengaluru City covering six colleges attached to a health university using convenient sampling from May 2013 to July 2013. About 400 students had enrolled for the study. Results : It was observed that the burden of addiction was 7.25% and high risk was 24.75% in the study subjects. 61 (31.12% males and 38 (18.62% females were categorized as high-risk behavior subjects. 12 (6.12% males and 17 (8.33% females were categorized as having Facebook addiction. 64% of study subjects used Facebook daily. 32% of the subjects felt strain in the eye, 11% watering of the eye, 20% felt frustrated and 17% were anxious when they did not have access to Facebook. Conclusion: The burden of Facebook addiction and high-risk behavior was observed in one-third of the subjects.

  4. Linking empathy to visuospatial perspective-taking in gambling addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Alexander; Besson, Jacques; Grivel, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that people suffering from substance-related addictions are less empathic than their non-addicted counterparts. Our first aim was to verify if this is also true for behavioral addictions. We hypothesized that problem gamblers are less empathic than healthy controls. Our second aim was to identify a cognitive marker of empathy that could be targeted in cognitive rehabilitation strategies. We propose that a potential cognitive marker of empathy could be visuospatial perspective-taking. Specifically, we hypothesized that visuospatial perspective-taking performances are lower in problem gamblers compared to healthy controls and that these visuospatial performances predict empathy. Thirty-one non-gamblers, 24 healthy gamblers, and 21 problem gamblers performed a visuospatial perspective-taking task before completing the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980; Davis, 1983). Problem gamblers had decreased empathy and lower performance at the visuospatial perspective-taking task than non-gamblers and healthy gamblers. Furthermore, we confirmed that visuospatial perspective-taking abilities predict empathy on the IRI dimensions of interpersonal perspective-taking and personal distress. The present study provides new evidence that reduced empathy is not limited to subjects with substance-related addictions; rather, it extends to behavioral addictions. Visuospatial perspective-taking may be a viable cognitive marker for use as a rehabilitation target of empathy.

  5. Perceived Peers' Internet Overuse Behavior, Attitude on Internet Overuse, Pressures of Internet Using and College Students' Internet Addiction%同伴网络过度使用行为和态度、网络使用同伴压力与大学生网络成瘾的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦涛; 陈超; 刘凤娥; 邓林园; 方晓义

    2012-01-01

    Based on Bandura theory of social learning and related theories about effect of peer norms, a cross- sectional study was conducted in Beijing to explore the relationship between Perceived Peers' Internet Overuse Behavior, attitude on Internet Overuse, pressures of Internet using and College students' Internet addiction. 3049 college students from two universities in Beijing city were invited to fulfill the questionnaire about the peers' Internet overuse behaviors, attitude on Internet overuse, pressures when they using Internet and Internet addiction level. Structural equation model were used to explore the affect mechanism of peers' pressures on the relationship between peers' Internet overuse behavior and attitude and Internet addiction. The results showed that: (1) Compared to Internet non-addicts, Internet addicts among college students perceived more Internet overuse behaviors and higher pressure from peers, and more positive attitudes about Internet overuse. (2) College students perceived peers' Internet overuse behaviors and attitude on Internet overuse; pressures of Internet using were positively correlated to Internet addiction. (3) Peers' lnternet overuse behaviors not only have a direct effect on college students' Internet addiction, but also have an indirect effect on Internet addiction through peers' pressure; meanwhile, Peers' attitude on Internet overuse can' t predict college students' Internet addiction directly, but have an indirect effect on Internet addiction through peers' pressure. Conclusion: Peers' pressure play a partial mediation effect on the relationship between Peers' Internet overuse behaviors and college students' Internet addiction level. Meanwhile, peers' pressures play a full mediation effect on the relationship between Peers' attitude on Internet overuse and college students' Internet addiction level.%基于社会学习理论和同伴规范影响理论,通过整群取样的方法从北京市两所高校中共选取3068名大一

  6. Validation of the exercise addiction inventory in a Danish sport context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, M B; Christiansen, E; Bilenberg, N; Støving, R K

    2014-04-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise behavior with potential negative consequences. The symptoms consist of salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflicts, and relapse. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the exercise addiction inventory (EAI) and to estimate the prevalence of exercise addiction in a Danish normal weight sport population. A sample of 780 habitual fitness and football exercisers were contacted and 590 completed the EAI and an in-house questionnaire containing questions about variables related to exercise addiction: (a) exercise frequency; (b) continuance despite injuries; and (c) personal perception of addiction. The results demonstrated an overall prevalence of exercise addiction of 5.8%. There was no significant difference between fitness and football prevalences. The internal reliability of EAI was acceptable with a Cronbach's α of 0.66. The criterion validity was tested toward the three variables related to exercise addiction. The dependent group had significantly higher scores on the three variables than the non-dependent group. Exercise addiction seems to exist in both fitness and football. The EAI is a useful screening tool and might be applicable in future screening and prevention of exercise addiction. However, further investigation about the population is needed to understand the phenomenon and to identify the risk group.

  7. Internet addiction and modeling its risk factors in medical students, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghamari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Today′s internet is a usual and common method for identifying and fulfilling unknown practices. Internet network has been prepared rapid and comfortable access to information. Internet addiction is a new and attractive subject that has been regarded as behavior-based addiction recently. Purpose : To estimate the prevalence of internet addiction and some of the related factors among medical students, Iran. Materials and Methods : An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 426 students selected through two-stage sampling method. Yang standard internet addiction questionnaire was used for data collection. After data entry, χ 2 , t-test, and Pearson coefficient statistical tests were applied. 0.05 was considered as the significance level. Results : The overall prevalence of internet addiction was 10.8%, with moderate and severe internet addiction equal to 8% and 2.8%, respectively. Mean and standard deviation of Yang internet addiction score was calculated as 32.74±14.52. Internet addiction was associated with sex, marital status, father′s job, rate of knowledge about computer and internet, and educational level (P0.05. Conclusion : Because internet addiction leads to wasting of the students′ leisure time and also useful time, it affects the educational situation inversely. Some measures should be taken to plan and improve the use of internet.

  8. THE APPLICATION OF EPQ R/A IN MEASURING ADDICTION AND CRIMINALITY OF HEROIN DRUG ABUSERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on N=234 opioid drug abusers (Nm=170, Nf=64 averaged age of M=25.72 with the aim of determing the average levels for addiction and criminality, and sex and age differences. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for Adults that contained Subscales of Addiction and Criminality was used (EPQ R/A, Eysenck & Eysenck, 1991. The average levels were determined: for Addiction scale in male (M=16.57; SD=5.12 and female (M=17.36; MD=4.82, and for Criminality scale in male (M=17.34; SD=5.18 and female (M=18.34; SD=5.17. The correlation analysis showed significant positive correlation between the level of addiction and criminality on whole sample (r=.851, p=.000. Unemployed male and female heroin addicts had significantly higher results on the Addiction scale, and unemployed male addicts on the Criminality scale, too. This last correlation was not established for female addicts, but the another one was: with the higher level of education there was lower possibility of antisocial and criminal behavior in female addicts. The findings were interpreted in the frame of psychosocial factors that were relevant for the treatment.

  9. 运动成瘾症心理学研究%Psychophysiology of Sports Addictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋琴华

    2014-01-01

    Addictive behavior is an attempt to escape real life by means of artificial changing one's own psychical state by taking drugs or performing certain activities. Depending on the means of the escape, pharmacological or chemical and nonchemical or behavioral addictions may be distinguished. During recent years, researchers focused their attention on nonchemical addictions, in which a behavioral pattern becomes an object of dependence instead of a psychoactive substance. In Russia, the first classification of nonchemical addictions was suggested by Korolenko. He pointed out direct nonchemical addictions, such as gambling, addiction of relationships between individuals, sexual and love addiction, avoidance addiction, ergomania, overspending addiction, and urgent addiction and intermediate addictions, including eating addiction, i.e., either overeating or starvation, which involve biochemical mechanisms. In addition to the above mentioned types of addictions, a substantial number of other nonchemical addictions have been described. Some of them are various dependences on computers or the Internet,addiction to exercises or sports,and others.%成瘾行为是指试图通过吸毒或进行某些活动人工改变自己的心理状态,逃避现实生活的一种行为。通过逃避方式的不同,分为有药理学,化学药物,非化学药物和行为成瘾。近些年来,研究者主要致力于非药物成瘾的研究,就是行为模式代替化学药物作为依赖。在俄罗斯,第一个提出将非药物成瘾进行分类的是科罗连珂(Korolenko)。他直接指出非药物成瘾如:赌博、人际关系成瘾、性爱成瘾、逃避成瘾、工作狂、消费成瘾、焦急成瘾、中间物质成瘾,包括嗜吃。除了上述所说的成瘾类型之外,还有对电脑和网络有各种依赖,对运动锻炼和其他事物成瘾。

  10. 新形势下基于计划行为理论的大学生网络成瘾因素及对策研究%Research on the Causes of University Students' Internet Ad-diction and the Countermeasures Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior under the New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗秀芬; 蔡宇轩

    2016-01-01

    近年来,大学生沉迷于网络的形势十分严峻,如何解决大学生网络成瘾问题是当前大学生教育关注的焦点。因此,探索基于计划行为理论的大学生网络成瘾因素及对策,具有十分重要的现实意义。本文以计划行为理论为切入点,在概述计划行为理论及大学生网络成瘾因素的基础上,重点探讨了基于计划行为理论的大学生网络成瘾对策,旨在说明预防大学生网络成瘾的重要性,以期为治疗大学生网瘾提供参考。%In recent years, the situation of university students' Internet addiction is severe, so how to improve the situation has become a focus of the current education of university students. Therefore, it is of great realistic significance to explore the causes and countermeasures of university students' Internet addiction based on the theory of planned behavior. With the theory of planned behavior as the breakthrough point, this paper summarizes the theory and causes of university students' Internet addiction, and focuses on the countermeasures, aiming to demonstrate the importance of preventing university students' Internet addiction, and provide some reference for the treatment of it.

  11. L'addiction à l'alimentation : définition, mesure et limites du concept, facteurs associés et implications cliniques et thérapeutiques

    OpenAIRE

    Cathelain, Sarah; Brunault, Paul; Ballon, Nicolas; Réveillère, Christian; Courtois, Robert

    2016-01-01

    International audience; •Addictions, which are characterized by the inability to control a behavior despite existence of physical or psychological consequences, have biological, psychological and social determinants.•Although the possibility of developing an addiction to some psychoactive substances (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, cannabis) and to gambling (i.e., gambling disorder) is now well-demonstrated, the possibility to develop a non-drug addiction (i.e., behavioral addiction) to certain behavi...

  12. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  13. Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity in relation to obesity and food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderBroek-Stice, Lauren; Stojek, Monika K; Beach, Steven R H; vanDellen, Michelle R; MacKillop, James

    2017-05-01

    Based on similarities between overconsumption of food and addictive drugs, there is increasing interest in "food addiction," a compulsive eating pattern defined using symptoms parallel to substance use disorders. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct robustly linked to drug addiction, has been increasingly examined as an obesity determinant, but with mixed findings. This study sought to clarify relations between three major domains of impulsivity (i.e., impulsive personality traits, discounting of delayed rewards, and behavioral inhibition) in both obesity and food addiction. Based on the association between impulsivity and compulsive drug use, the general hypothesis was that the impulsivity-food addiction relation would be stronger than and responsible for the impulsivity-obesity relation. Using a cross-sectional dimensional design, participants (N = 181; 32% obese) completed a biometric assessment, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scales, a Go/NoGo task, and measures of monetary delay discounting. Results revealed significantly higher prevalence of food addiction among obese participants and stronger zero-order associations between impulsivity indices and YFAS compared to obesity. Two aspects of impulsivity were independently significantly associated with food addiction: (a) a composite of Positive and Negative Urgency, reflecting proneness to act impulsively during intense mood states, and (b) steep discounting of delayed rewards. Furthermore, the results supported food addiction as a mediator connecting both urgency and delay discounting with obesity. These findings provide further evidence linking impulsivity to food addiction and obesity, and suggest that food addiction may be a candidate etiological pathway to obesity for individuals exhibiting elevations in these domains.

  14. Sexual Addiction and the Internet: Implications for Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Brian J.; Chaney, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an overview of sexual addiction and explore the relationship between Internet use and sexual compulsivity. The role of Internet use in gay men's sexual behavior is described. Implications for the counseling profession are discussed, and a clinical case study is presented.

  15. Internet Addiction Among College Students in China: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Lin, Li; Zhang, Peichao

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in China and explored the correlations between Internet addiction and psychosocial factors. A total of 1,173 Chinese college students (62.1 percent males, Mage = 19.65 years) were invited to complete a questionnaire containing measures of demographic characteristics, psychosocial correlates, including the quality of the parent-child relationship, propensity for depression, and psychosocial competence, and Internet addictive behaviors. Among the participating students, 15.2 percent were classified as having Internet addiction. Furthermore, students who reported poorer parent-child relationships, higher levels of depression, and lower levels of psychosocial competence were more likely to report behaviors indicative of Internet addiction. Internet addiction was prevalent among college students in China. The significant predictors of Internet addiction were found to include the quality of the family environment (i.e., the quality of the parent-child relationship), personal mental health status (i.e., the existence of depression), and the level of developmental assets (i.e., psychosocial competence). These findings suggest that improving the quality of family life and promoting psychosocial competence among youth can be promising approaches for preventing or/and reducing Internet addiction among college students in China.

  16. mRNA expression of dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes of computer game addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Eghbali, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Excessive playing of computer games like some other behaviors could lead to addiction. Addictive behaviors may induce their reinforcing effects through stimulation of the brain dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. The status of dopamine receptors in the brain may be parallel to their homologous receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of dopamine D3, D4 and D5 receptors in PBLs of computer game addicts (n = 20) in comparison to normal subjects (n = 20), using a real-time PCR method. The results showed that the expression level of D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts were not statistically different from the control group. However, the expression of the mRNA of D5 dopamine receptor was significantly down-regulated in PBLs of computer game addicts and reached 0.42 the amount of the control group. It is concluded that unlike with drug addiction, the expression levels of the D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts are not altered compared to the control group. However, reduced level of the D5 dopamine receptor in computer game addicts may serve as a peripheral marker in studies where the confounding effects of abused drugs are unwanted.

  17. NADA protocol: integrative acupuncture in addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kenneth; Olshan-Perlmutter, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) acupuncture is a simple, standardized, 1- to 5-point auricular needling protocol that originated as a grass-roots response to the opiate epidemic of the 1970s. NADA acupuncture is increasingly recognized as a universally useful intervention in the treatment of addictions specifically and in behavior health more generally. It is recognized as a best practice in the treatment of substance use disorders. Integrative programs using the NADA protocol are likely to see improvements in engagement, retention, decreased drug cravings, anxiety, and less physical symptoms.

  18. The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou Andreassen, Cecilie; Billieux, Joël; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, research into "addictive technological behaviors" has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games. Correlations between symptoms of addictive technology use and mental disorder symptoms were all positive and significant, including the weak interrelationship between the two addictive technological behaviors. Age appeared to be inversely related to the addictive use of these technologies. Being male was significantly associated with addictive use of video games, whereas being female was significantly associated with addictive use of social media. Being single was positively related to both addictive social networking and video gaming. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that demographic factors explained between 11 and 12% of the variance in addictive technology use. The mental health variables explained between 7 and 15% of the variance. The study significantly adds to our understanding of mental health symptoms and their role in addictive use of modern technology, and suggests that the concept of Internet use disorder (i.e., "Internet addiction") as a unified construct is not warranted.

  19. Gaming: from Addiction Mechanisms to Clinical Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Thorens, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Video game addiction is the main theme of this thesis. After a brief definition of addiction, the focus is on the specific addictive properties of Internet and games. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are described, as they tend to be the most addictive type of game, with a specific focus on World of Warcraft (WoW). Issues of diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) are be presented.

  20. Impulsive decision-making behaviors in heroin addicts: a study of functional magnetic resonance imaging%海洛因成瘾者冲动性决策行为的功能磁共振成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林彬; 钱若兵; 傅先明; 季学兵; 魏祥品; 牛朝诗; 汪业汉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the brain regions associated with impulsive decision-making behaviors and interpret the nervous mechanism for addiction and relapse in heroin abusers.Methods Using the paradigms of psychological experiment,the subjects in both heroin addiction group ( HA group) and normal control group (HC group) performed Iowa gambling task (IGT)and simultaneously underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan.All the above data were gathered and then analyzed by SPM5 software to explore both the brain regions and their functional changes correlated with impulsive decision-making.Results Evidence by IGT behavioral consequences demonstrated that the net scores in HC group increased with numbers of decision-making whereas no increment (fluctuating between - 1 and 0) was observed in HA group.Based on the results of fMRI analysis,right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC),dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC),left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were activated in both groups.But the right OFC was more active while the right DLPFC and left MPFC were weaker in HA group versus the HC group.Meanwhile,activation of right lenticular nucleus,right thalamus,right insula,hippocampus and left caudate nucleus were obscrvcd in HA group. Conclusion Heroin abusers are incapable of impulsive decision-making in behavioral studies.Such a brain region as prefrontal cortex participates in the decision-making performance and control of impulsiveness.Functionally abnormal brain regions correlated with impulsive decision-making may be one cause of genesis,maintenance and relapse of heroin addiction.%目的 探讨海洛因成瘾者与冲动性决策行为相关的脑区功能定位,从决策行为角度来解释海洛因成瘾和复吸的神经机制.方法 运用神经心理学实验范式,对海洛因成瘾组(HA组)和健康对照组(HC组),两组各20例.在执行爱荷华赌博任务(IGT)时同步进行功能磁共振成像(fMRI)

  1. [Neurobiology and genetics of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, F

    2010-04-01

    Recent results on the neurobiological bases of addictive disorders allow new insights into the etiopathogenesis of addiction to be made and allow targets for new therapeutic strategies to be defined. An important advancement in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology derives from recent research results, showing similarities between addiction and physiological neural plasticity in learning and memory. These include basic mechanisms involving dopamine, glutamate, and their cellular and molecular targets leading to drug-induced synaptic alterations in the mesolimbic reward system. Genetic factors modulate the individual vulnerability. The challenge of future research will be to generate more efficient and individualized therapies based on the insights from neurobiology and genetics.

  2. Drug addiction and social discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos Canabarro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the various discursive positions found in the phenomenon of addiction. The relations these discursive positions establish with the discourses of the master, the hysteric, the university and the capitalist are discussed. By analyzing material from clinical listening at a public outpatient drug and alcohol rehab center, it was seen that addiction can be described in different discourses. This article shows that the shift of focus from the symptom to the discursive position of the subject is an indicator for the clinical treatment of addiction.

  3. Iatrogenic addiction and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L

    1978-04-01

    Iatrogenic addictions, in contrast to illicit drug addictions, are commonly maintained for years before being brought to the attention of mental health professionals. Typically, by the time treatment is sought, both the physiological addiction and its related psychological problems have encapsulated the patient's life-style. The case histories described here illustrate some of the problems which typify treatment of the iatrogenically drug-dependent patient. Psychotherapeutic strategies utilizing life review, assertion training, and didactic teaching of alternative pain relief methods are often useful. The use of methadone for brief or more extended periods is sometimes helpful as an adjunct to psychotherapy.

  4. Opiate Addicted and Non-Addicted Siblings in a Slum Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Daniel; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Compares addicted and non-addicted siblings of families residing in and around a slum block in New York. Data supporting an ideographic relative deprivation-differential anticipation" explanation for current opiate addiction in the U. S. was produced. (JM)

  5. [Mobile phone abuse or addiction. A review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Rodríguez Monje, María Teresa; Ruiz Sánchez De León, José María

    2012-01-01

    The mobile phone is a relatively new technological tool, versatile and accessible, and very attractive, especially for young people, but whose use involves a risk of abuse and addictive behavior. In recent years there has been increasing interest in this problem, especially in view of the fact that it involves an increasingly younger population. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of scientific knowledge about cell phone addiction/abuse. To this end, a search was carried out in international databases, using the descriptors "mobile phone", "cellular telephones", "addiction" and "abuse", and focusing on prevalence studies, diagnostic tests, associations with psychological variables and gender differences. There is a conceptual vagueness about the concepts of abuse and addiction in relation to mobile phones, and wide disparity in the adoption of diagnostic criteria; moreover, there are numerous instruments for the assessment of these concepts. As a result, the estimated prevalence ranges from 0-38%, depending on the scale used and the characteristics of the population studied. Surprisingly, self-attribution of cell phone addiction exceeds the prevalence estimated in the studies themselves. The personality trait most consistently associated with addiction is low self-esteem, though extraversion is associated with more intense use. Women with low self-esteem are the most vulnerable group, and the most commonly associated psychopathological symptom was depression. In short, while the evidence suggests a problem in relation to mobile phone use, the vagueness of the cell phone addiction concept and the poor quality of the studies make it difficult to generalize the results. It is necessary to define and unify criteria with a view to carrying out quality studies that permit appropriate comparisons.

  6. [Neurobiology of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuvée-Moreau, J

    2013-01-01

    Several psychoactive drugs may induce addiction. Despite distinct pharmacological targets, all have the common property to stimulate the brain reward circuitry, which results in an increase of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The stimulation induced by drugs of abuse is much more important in intensity and duration than the stimulation induced by natural rewards. The positive reinforcement resulting from this stimulation promotes repeated drug intake, which induces cellular and molecular adaptations in the brain reward circuit and other regions associated with this circuit. Enduring changes are more particularly observed in regions involved in pleasure, motivation, memory, conditioning, executive functions, judgement and self-control. A tolerance to the reinforcing effects of natural rewards is observed in parallel to a hypersensitivity to the motivational effects of drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Behaviour focuses more and more exclusively on drug research and drug consumption. Drug privation can induce a negative emotional state, withdrawal signs and craving which are key elements of relapse

  7. Metabotropic glutamatergic receptors and their ligands in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Rup, Kinga; Pomierny, Bartosz; Niedzielska, Ewa; Kalivas, Peter W; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Glutamatergic excitatory transmission is implicated in physiological and pathological conditions like learning, memory, neuronal plasticity and emotions, while glutamatergic abnormalities are reported in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and pain. Also, several lines of evidence have accumulated indicating a pivotal role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in mediating addictive behaviors. Among the proteins regulating glutamatergic transmission, the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are being developed as pharmacological targets for treating many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. In this review we describe the molecular structure of mGluRs and their distribution, physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, as well as their use as targets in preclinical studies of drug addiction.

  8. [What brings neurobiology to addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie; Noble, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Addictions are multifactorial, and there are no experimental models replicating all aspects of this pathology. The development of animal models reproducing the clinical symptoms of addictions allows significant advances in the knowledge of the neurobiological processes involved in addiction. Preclinical data highlight different neuroadaptations according to the routes of administration, speeds of injection and frequencies of exposure to drugs of abuse. The neuroadaptations induced by an exposure to drugs of abuse follow dynamic processes in time. Despite significant progresses in the knowledge of neurobiology of addictions allowing to propose new therapeutic targets, the passage of new drugs in clinical is often disappointing. The lack of treatment efficacy reported in clinical trials is probably due to a very important heterogeneity of patients with distinct biological and genetic factors, but also with different patterns of consumption that can lead to different neuroadaptations, as clearly observed in preclinical studies.

  9. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Over-the-Counter Medications Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drug Use ...

  10. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Over-the-Counter Medications Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drug Use ...

  11. Dealing with Addiction (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help. If you can't talk to your parents, you might want to approach a school counselor, relative, doctor, favorite teacher, or religious leader. Unfortunately, overcoming addiction is not easy. Quitting ...

  12. Video game addiction test: validity and psychometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Antonius J; Schoenmakers, Tim M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vermulst, Ad A; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-09-01

    The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study used data (n=2,894) from a large-sample paper-and-pencil questionnaire study, conducted in 2009 on secondary schools in Netherlands. Thus, the main source of data was a large sample of schoolchildren (aged 13-16 years). Measurements included the proposed VAT, the Compulsive Internet Use Scale, weekly hours spent on various game types, and several psychosocial variables. The VAT demonstrated excellent reliability, excellent construct validity, a one-factor model fit, and a high degree of measurement invariance across gender, ethnicity, and learning year, indicating that the scale outcomes can be compared across different subgroups with little bias. In summary, the VAT can be helpful in the further study of video game addiction, and it contributes to the debate on possible inclusion of behavioral addictions in the upcoming DSM-V.

  13. Socioeconomic and Geographic Inequalities of Internet Addiction in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Soon; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the social economic and geographic influences on Internet addiction in Korean youth using the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. Middle and high school students (n=73,238) were randomly selected from the respondents to a web-based survey using two-stage stratified complex sampling. A Geographical Information System was used to generate a Korean map of the level of Internet addiction for each province and complex sampling lower case logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between social economic status (SES) and Internet addiction. Gyeonggi-do and Gyeongsang-namdo provinces have a higher total scores of Internet addiction. There were associations between Internet addiction and low SES (OR=1.504, 95% CI 1.156-1.956, p<0.01). There may need to be at multilevel approach which recognizes the different levels of need in provinces as well as trying to understand why the differences arise at an individual level.

  14. Transitionality in addiction: A "temporal continuum" hypotheses involving the aberrant motivation, the hedonic dysregulation, and the aberrant learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Enrico; Gasbarri, Antonella; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a chronic compulsion and relapsing disorder. It involves several brain areas and circuits, which encode vary functions such as reward, motivation, and memory. Drug addiction is defined as a "pathological pattern of use of a substance", characterized by the loss of control on drug-taking-related behaviors, the pursuance of those behaviors even in the presence of negative consequences, and a strong motivated activity to assume substances. Three different theories guide experimental research on drug addiction. Each of these theories consider singles features, such as an aberrant motivation, a hedonic dysregulation, and an aberrant habit learning as the main actor to explain the entire process of the addictive behaviors. The major goal of this study is to present a new hypotheses of transitionality from a controlled use to abuse of addictive substances trough the overview of the three different theories, considering all the single features of each single theory together on the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances. Recently, it has been suggested that common neural systems may be activated by natural and pharmacological stimuli, raising the hypotheses that binge-eating disorders could be considered as addictive behaviors. The second goal of this study is to present evidences in order to highlight a possible psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction". Finally, interesting questions are brought up starting from last findings about a theoretical/psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction" and their possibly same transitionality along the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances in order to investigate new therapeutic strategies based on new therapeutic strategies based on the individual moments characterizing the transition from the voluntary intake of substances to the maladaptive addictive behavior.

  15. Hooked on the nicotine addiction thesis: a response to DiFranza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Reuven; Frenk, Hanan

    2013-11-18

    DiFranza's rebuttal to our critique of the "Hooked on Nicotine" research program misconstrues our arguments beyond recognition. The grossest misrepresentation of our critique by DiFranza is that we devise (by thwarting science) to rescue "the conventional wisdom" of the "threshold model of nicotine addiction." In fact, the difference between our positions lies elsewhere: We believe that nicotine is not an addictive drug and that its contribution to the smoking habit is secondary; DiFranza believes that nicotine is so powerfully addictive that novice smokers can lose autonomy over their smoking behavior after one cigarette or even following a single puff. Our review aimed to critically examine the empirical basis of this extreme version of the nicotine "addiction" model. In this brief commentary we illustrate how the commitment to the nicotine "addiction" theory has biased the methodology and the interpretation of the data in "Hooked on Nicotine" research program.

  16. The effects of parental monitoring and leisure boredom on adolescents' Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hsin; Lin, Shong-Lin; Wu, Chin-Pi

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of parental monitoring, leisure boredom, and leisure activity on Internet addiction. The sample was 1,289 adolescents from eleven senior high schools in Taiwan. Participants were asked about their perception of being monitored by their parents, leisure boredom, leisure activities, and Internet addiction behavior. Results showed that leisure boredom and involvement in Internet and social activities increase the probability of Internet addiction; however, family and outdoor activities along with participative and supportive parental monitoring decrease these tendencies. Overall evidence suggests that parental monitoring is a major inhibitor of Internet addiction. Thus, adolescents should be supervised in their daily routines and encouraged to participate in family and outdoor activities. In addition, adolescents should develop a positive attitude toward leisure and the skills to prevent overdependence on online relationships with the assistance of parents. These findings suggest the preventive strategies regarding Internet addiction.

  17. Assessing clinical trials of Internet addiction treatment: a systematic review and CONSORT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D; Gradisar, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Although there is ongoing debate concerning the clinical status of Internet addiction, and the quality of the extant literature in this emerging field is not optimal, several clinical trials of both pharmacological and psychological treatments for Internet addiction have been published in recent years. A systematic review investigating the reporting quality of eight treatment studies is presented. Reporting quality was defined according to the 2010 Consolidating Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. An evaluation of the reviewed studies highlighted several key limitations, including (a) inconsistencies in the definition and diagnosis of Internet addiction, (b) a lack of randomization and blinding techniques, (c) a lack of adequate controls or other comparison groups, and (d) insufficient information concerning recruitment dates, sample characteristics, and treatment effect sizes. It is concluded that improvements in future studies' design and reporting would be of significant benefit to both researchers and clinicians, and to the overall positioning of Internet addiction in the behavioral addiction field.

  18. The impact of orbitofrontal dysfunction on cocaine addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lucantonio, Federica; Stalnaker, Thomas A; Shaham, Yavin; Niv, Yael; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by poor judgment and maladaptive decision-making. Here we review evidence implicating the orbitofrontal cortex in such behavior. This evidence suggests that cocaine-induced changes in orbitofrontal cortex disrupt the representation of states and transition functions that form the basis of flexible and adaptive ‘model-based’ behavioral control. By impairing this function, cocaine exposure leads to an overemphasis on less flexible, maladaptive ‘model-free’ con...

  19. Influences of parental problem drinking on internet addiction among early adolescents: a multiple-mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Heui; Kim, Mi Ja; Choi, Heeseung

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to describe the relationship between Internet addiction and parental problem drinking among early adolescents. Specific aims were to identify indirect, direct, and total influence of parental problem drinking on Internet addiction; to determine relative magnitudes of specific mediating effects of self-esteem, family function, anxiety-depression, and aggression in the total sample and the Internet addiction subgroup. The target population for this correlational study was early adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 743) who attended elementary school in J City, South Korea. Study variables included the Internet addiction self-test scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple-mediation analyses were performed. A significant association was observed between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction. Only aggression significantly mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction in the total sample. When the Internet addiction group was analyzed separately as a subgroup, the mediation effect of aggression disappeared, and parental problem drinking had neither indirect nor direct association. However, the significant association of aggression with Internet addiction in the Internet addiction subgroup was two times as much as in the total sample. The findings suggested that parental problem drinking and aggression should be examined early to prevent development of Internet addiction in early adolescents. For those who already have developed Internet addiction, aggression should be the focal point for more effective intervention strategies.

  20. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Sexual and Chemical Addictions by Comparing Executive Function in Pedophiles, Opiate Addicts and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J.; Nesci, Cristina; Steinfeld, Matthew; Haeri, Sophia; Galynker, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Disorders of driven sexual behavior have been conceptualized as sexual addictions. In the following study, we compared 51 subjects with pedophilia, 53 subjects with opiate addiction, and 84 healthy control subjects on neuropsychological tests that tap executive functions. The test battery included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Color-Word Test, the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT), Porteus Mazes, Controlled Word Association (COWA), and Trailmaking Test. The groups differed on tests of cognitive flexibility and set switching (WCST), sustained attention (Stroop), and impulsivity (MFFT and Porteus Mazes). There were no differences on verbal fluency (COWA). The subjects with pedophilia differed significantly from those with opiate addiction on several tests, with longer latency to response on MFFT and fewer completed mazes but also fewer errors on Porteus Mazes. Thus, while both subjects with pedophilia and those with opiate addiction show executive dysfunction, the nature of that dysfunction may differ between the two groups; specifically, opiate addicted subjects may be more prone to cognitive impulsivity. PMID:21107145

  2. Off the beaten path: drug addiction and the pontine laterodorsal tegmentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi A

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a multileveled behavior controlled by interactions among many diverse neuronal groups involving several neurotransmitter systems. The involvement of brainstem-sourced, cholinergic neurotransmission in the development of addiction and in the persistent physiological processes that drive this maladaptive behavior has not been widely investigated. The major cholinergic input to neurons in the midbrain which are instrumental in assessment of reward and assignment of salience to stimuli, including drugs of abuse, sources from acetylcholine- (ACh-) containing pontine neurons of the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT). Excitatory LDT input, likely cholinergic, is critical in allowing behaviorally relevant neuronal firing patterns within midbrain reward circuitry. Via this control, the LDT is positioned to be importantly involved in development of compulsive, addictive patterns of behavior. The goal of this review is to present the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral evidence suggesting a role of the LDT in the neurobiology underlying addiction to drugs of abuse. Although focus is directed on the evidence supporting a vital participation of the cholinergic neurons of the LDT, data indicating a contribution of noncholinergic LDT neurons to processes underlying addiction are also reviewed. While sparse, available information of actions of drugs of abuse on LDT cells and the output of these neurons as well as their influence on addiction-related behavior are also presented. Taken together, data from studies presented in this review strongly support the position that the LDT is a major player in the neurobiology of drug addiction. Accordingly, the LDT may serve as a future treatment target for efficacious pharmaceutical combat of drug addiction.

  3. Smart phone usage and addiction among dental students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Elluru; Jemal, Mohammad Yousef Al; Samani, Abdullah Saleh Al

    2017-04-06

    Purpose The main aim of this research is to explore measures of smart phone usage, smart phone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behavior-related variables among dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross sectional study involving sample of 205 dental students from Qaseem Private College were surveyed for smart phone use and addiction using the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Results Smart phone addiction was seen in 136 (71.9%) of the 189 students. The findings from our study revealed that high stress levels, low physical activity, higher body mass index (BMI), longer duration of smart phone usage, higher frequency of usage, shorter time period until first smart phone use in the morning and social networking sites (SNS) were associated significantly with the smart phone addiction. Conclusion The current research gives the information about the extent of smart phone over usage and addiction among the dental students in Saudi Arabia with indication of the predictors of addiction and the need for further research in the area with comprehensible interpretation to spread the awareness of the smart phone addiction.

  4. Historical review: Molecular and cellular mechanisms of opiate and cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2004-04-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse was founded in 1974, and since that time there have been significant advances in understanding the processes by which drugs of abuse cause addiction. The initial protein targets for almost all drugs of abuse are now known. Animal models that replicate key features of addiction are available, and these models have made it possible to characterize the brain regions that are important for addiction and other drug effects, such as physical dependence. A large number of drug-induced changes at the molecular and cellular levels have been identified in these brain areas and rapid progress is being made in relating individual changes to specific behavioral abnormalities in animal models of addiction. The current challenges are to translate this increasingly impressive knowledge of the basic neurobiology of addiction to human addicts, and to identify the specific genes that make some individuals either particularly vulnerable or resistant to addiction. In this article, I present a historical review of basic research on opiate and cocaine addiction.

  5. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  6. Measurement Invariance of the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 Across Gender and Racial Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Meagan M; Catak, Pelin D; Pejsa-Reitz, Megan C; Saules, Karen K; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2016-11-28

    Food addiction describes a psychological and behavioral eating pattern that is similar to the experience of those compulsively taking drugs of abuse. Recent developments related to food addiction, including the development and validation of an updated measure (Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0; Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2016), have increased knowledge as to the prevalence and associated correlates of food addiction. However, less is known about the phenomenological experience of food addiction in diverse samples or how the existing measure of food addiction performs in heterogeneous samples. In a cross-sectional survey design, using a diverse sample of undergraduate students (N = 642) tests of measurement invariance were performed. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized factor structure, indicating a single latent construct of food addiction modeled by 11 dichotomous indicators, in samples of White and Black participants as well as samples of men and women. Measurement invariance testing across the various demographic groups broadly provided good psychometric support for use of the measure. However, a single indicator related to attempts to cut down on highly palatable food varied across men and women. Thus, when using the measure in mixed gender samples researchers may consider obtaining additional information regarding gender and its relative impact on the experience of food addiction, particularly with respect to efforts to quit or cut down intake of highly palatable foods. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

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    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  8. Fear of AIDS and Risk Reduction among Heroin-Addicted Female Street Prostitutes: Personal Interviews with 72 Southern California Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 72 heroin-addicted female street prostitutes and assessed fear of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS risk reduction behavior, and prostitutes' recommendations for AIDS risk reduction programs. Self-reported data showed that, although subjects were afraid of AIDS, irrationality produced by addiction compelled risky…

  9. Experiences with an outpatient relapse program (community reinforcement approach) combined with naltrexone in teh treament of opioid-dependence: effect on addictive behaviors and the predictive value of Psychiatric comorbidity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, H.G.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Brink, van den W.

    2003-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, in the treatment of opiate addicts. The effects of naltrexone are often compromised by a lack of compliance and drop-out. The effects of this compound are probably more favorable when combined with a psychosocial intervent

  10. Salt addiction: a different kind of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekol, Yalcin

    2006-01-01

    Under the headline "drug addiction" the medical world has exclusively been interested in psychoactive drugs. For diagnosis of substance dependence (addiction), DSM-IV-TR has determined seven criteria, and fulfilling at least tree of them signifies addiction. When studied salt intake according to these criteria it is seen that most of them are fulfilled, showing that sodium chloride, which is not classified under the psychoactive drugs, is capable of producing addiction. Namely: at the beginning of salt abstinence, anorexia and slight nausea during meal time (withdrawal symptoms); about 1000-fold difference of per capita salt consumption between several human societies, and life-long continuation of discretional salt intake behaviour (high dose and very long duration of use); difficulty of restriction of salt intake (unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control); lack of success of salt restriction campaigns in hypertensive patients (substance use despite health problem). Additionally, the decrease of salt preferences of individuals whose salt intake are restricted for some time, and vice versa, signifies tolerance. On the other hand, it is evident that as the main culprit of developing systemic hypertension and as producing or promoting some other important health problems, salt intake causes millions of deaths in the world yearly. The recognition of addicting property of salt will facilitate combating these health problems.

  11. The "addicted" spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, Saturnino; Mulas, Giovanna; Piras, Francesca; Diana, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Units of dendritic branches called dendritic spines represent more than simply decorative appendages of the neuron and actively participate in integrative functions of "spinous" nerve cells thereby contributing to the general phenomenon of synaptic plasticity. In animal models of drug addiction, spines are profoundly affected by treatments with drugs of abuse and represent important sub cellular markers which interfere deeply into the physiology of the neuron thereby providing an example of the burgeoning and rapidly increasing interest in "structural plasticity". Medium Spiny Neurons (MSNs) of the Nucleus Accumbens (Nacc) show a reduced number of dendritic spines and a decrease in TH-positive terminals upon withdrawal from opiates, cannabinoids and alcohol. The reduction is localized "strictly" to second order dendritic branches where dopamine (DA)-containing terminals, impinging upon spines, make synaptic contacts. In addition, long-thin spines seems preferentially affected raising the possibility that cellular learning of these neurons may be selectively hampered. These findings suggest that dendritic spines are affected by drugs widely abused by humans and provide yet another example of drug-induced aberrant neural plasticity with marked reflections on the physiology of synapses, system structural organization, and neuronal circuitry remodeling.

  12. Addiction and Pain Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gourlay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The adequate cotreatment of chronic pain and addiction disorders is a complex and challenging problem for health care professionals. There is great potential for cannabinoids in the treatment of pain; however, the increasing prevalence of recreational cannabis use has led to a considerable increase in the number of people seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. Evidence that cannabis abuse liability is higher than previously thought suggests that individuals with a history of substance abuse may be at an increased risk after taking cannabinoids, even for medicinal purposes. Smoked cannabis is significantly more reinforcing than other cannabinoid administration methods. In addition, it is clear that the smoked route of cannabis delivery is associated with a number of adverse health consequences. Thus, there is a need for pharmaceutical-grade products of known purity and concentration using delivery systems optimized for safety. Another factor that needs to be considered when assessing the practicality of prescribing medicinal cannabinoids is the difficulty in differentiating illicit from prescribed cannabinoids in urine drug testing. Overall, a thorough assessment of the risk/benefit profile of cannabinoids as they relate to a patient’s substance abuse history is suggested.

  13. Development of the Yale Food Addiction Scale Version 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Corbin, William R; Brownell, Kelly D

    2016-02-01

    Parallels in biological, psychological, and behavioral systems have led to the hypothesis that an addictive process may contribute to problematic eating. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was developed to provide a validated measure of addictive-like eating behavior based upon the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence. Recently, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) was released, which included significant changes to the substance-related and addictive disorders (SRAD) section. In the current study, the YFAS 2.0 was developed to maintain consistency with the current diagnostic understanding of addiction and to improve the psychometric properties of the original YFAS. In a sample of 550 participants, 14.6% met criteria for food addiction. The YFAS 2.0 demonstrated good internal consistency, as well as convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity. Elevated scores on the YFAS 2.0 were associated with higher rates of obesity and more severe pathological eating (e.g., binge eating). The YFAS 2.0 also appeared to capture a related, but unique construct relative to traditional eating disorders. In a separate sample of 209 participants, the YFAS and YFAS 2.0 were directly compared. Both versions of the YFAS were similarly associated with elevated body mass index, binge eating, and weight cycling. However, exceeding the food addiction threshold was more strongly associated with obesity for the YFAS 2.0 than the original YFAS. Thus, the YFAS 2.0 appears to by a psychometrically sound measure that reflects the current diagnostic understanding of addiction to further investigate the potential role of an addictive process in problematic eating behavior.

  14. 针刺配合行为疗法干预网络成瘾者抑郁症状%Acupuncture Combined with Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the treatment of Depression in Youngsters with Internet Addiction Disorder:Clinical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏沛珠; 张贵锋; 刘洋洋; 区伟雄

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察针刺、认知行为疗法以及二者相结合对青少年网络成瘾的临床干预效果,探索一种有效的网络成瘾治疗方法.方法:运用KimberlyS.Young网络成瘾量表和CIAS-R修订版量表筛选出网络成癌者60例,随机分为A、B、C3组,分别施以认知行为疗法、针刺疗法、针刺配合认知行为疗法治疗6周,在治疗前、治疗第3周及治疗第6周运用HAMD评价治疗效果.结果:3种治疗方法对认知障碍因子的影响无显著差异(P>0.05).与治疗前比较,A组的HAMD积分、精神性抑郁及躯体性抑郁在治疗第3周时开始显著降低(P<0.05),而睡眠障碍及情绪到治疗第6周才显著降低(P<0.05).B组和C组除认知障碍外其余各项疗效指标均于治疗第3周开始显著降低(P<0.05).从治疗第3周开始,B组和C组的HAMD积分、情绪、睡眠障碍、躯体性抑郁显著低于A组(P<0.05),治疗第6周时幅度增加(P<0.05);而B组和C组的精神性抑郁因子在治疗第6周时才开始显著低于A组.B组和C组的HAMD减分率显著高于A组(P<0.05).结论:针刺疗法及针刺配合认知行为疗法对网络成囊青少年的抑郁症状有显著改善作用.%Objective:To observe the effects of acupuncture ,cognitive behavior therapy and the two in combination on youngsters with Internet Addiction Disorder. Methods :A total of 60 volunteers screened by Young's Internet Addiction Scales and CIAS -R were randomly and equally divided into three groups,group A,group B and group C,which were separately treated by acupuncture, cognitive behavior therapy and the two in combination for 6 weeks. The effects of the three kinds of therapy were evaluated by comparing the scores of HAMD pre and post treatment. Results:There's no significant difference in cognitive disorders among Group A, Group B and Group C ( P > 0. 05 ). Compared with those of pretreatment, HAMD scores, mental depression, physical depression of Group A showed significant decrease

  15. Clonidine improved laboratory-measured decision-making performance in abstinent heroin addicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impulsivity refers to a wide spectrum of actions characterized by quick and nonplanned reactions to external and internal stimuli, without taking into account the possible negative consequences for the individual or others, and decision-making is one of the biologically dissociated impulsive behaviors. Changes in impulsivity may be associated with norepinephrine. Various populations of drug addicts all performed impulsive decision making, which is a key risk factor in drug dependence and relapse. The present study investigated the effects of clonidine, which decreased norepinephrine release through presynaptic alpha-2 receptor activation, on the impaired decision-making performance in abstinent heroin addicts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Decision-making performance was assessed using the original version of Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. Both heroin addicts and normal controls were randomly assigned to three groups receiving clonidine, 0, 75 µg or 150 µg orally under double blind conditions. Psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety, depression and impulsivity, were rated on standardized scales. Heroin addicts reported higher scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and exhibited impaired decision-making on the IGT. A single high-dose of clonidine improved the decision-making performance in heroin addicts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest clonidine may have a potential therapeutic role in heroin addicts by improving the impaired impulsive decision-making. The current findings have important implications for behavioral and pharmacological interventions targeting decision-making in heroin addiction.

  16. Which foods may be addictive? The roles of processing, fat content, and glycemic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Schulte

    Full Text Available We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL. The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating.Cross-sectional.University (Study One and community (Study Two.120 undergraduates participated in Study One and 384 participants recruited through Amazon MTurk participated in Study Two.In Study One, participants (n = 120 completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS followed by a forced-choice task to indicate which foods, out of 35 foods varying in nutritional composition, were most associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. Using the same 35 foods, Study Two utilized hierarchical linear modeling to investigate which food attributes (e.g., fat grams were related to addictive-like eating behavior (at level one and explored the influence of individual differences for this association (at level two.In Study One, processed foods, higher in fat and GL, were most frequently associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. In Study Two, processing was a large, positive predictor for whether a food was associated with problematic, addictive-like eating behaviors. BMI and YFAS symptom count were small-to-moderate, positive predictors for this association. In a separate model, fat and GL were large, positive predictors of problematic food ratings. YFAS symptom count was a small, positive predictor of the relationship between GL and food ratings.The current study provides preliminary evidence that not all foods are equally implicated in addictive-like eating behavior, and highly processed foods, which may share characteristics with drugs of abuse (e.g. high dose, rapid rate of absorption appear to be particularly associated with

  17. Intense, Passionate, Romantic Love: A Natural Addiction? How the Fields That Investigate Romance and Substance Abuse Can Inform Each Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen E; Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain's "reward system," specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that "self expanding" experiences like romance and expanding one's knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful) disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative) state experienced by almost all humans. Thus, researchers

  18. Intense, Passionate Romantic Love: A natural addiction? How the fields that investigate romance and substance abuse can inform each other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eFisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by four million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain’s reward system, specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that self expanding experiences like romance and expanding one’s knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative state experienced by almost all

  19. Addiction au jeu vidéo : Processus cognitifs émotionnels et comportementaux impliqués dans son émergence, son maintien et sa prise en charge

    OpenAIRE

    Taquet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Video game addiction is not yet a fully recognized diagnosis. To address this phenomenon, we question the concept of addiction without substance. Known as a behavioral addiction in DSM-V, pathological gambling is the prototype of addictions without substance. The excessive use of video games has been the subject of multiple comparisons with pathological gambling. With the advent of Internet, research and the clinical approach have highly focused on the excessive use of online games. In light ...

  20. Cigarette Smoking in Indonesia: Examination of a Myopic Model of Addictive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Hidayat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Using aggregated panel data taken from three waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (1993–2000, this article tests the myopic addiction behaviour of cigarette demand. Sensitivity analysis is done by examining a rational addiction behavior of cigarette demand. The results provide support for myopic addiction. The short- and long-run price elasticities of cigarette demand are estimated at −0.28 and −0.73 respectively. Excise taxes are more likely to act as an effective tobacco control in the long-run rather than a major source of government revenue.

  1. Facebook addiction among Turkish college students: the role of psychological health, demographic, and usage characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa; Gulyagci, Seval

    2013-04-01

    This study explored Facebook addiction among Turkish college students and its behavioral, demographic, and psychological health predictors. The Facebook Addiction Scale (FAS) was developed and its construct validity was assessed through factor analyses. A total of 447 students reported their personal information and Facebook usage and completed the FAS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The results revealed that weekly time commitment, social motives, severe depression, and anxiety and insomnia positively predicted Facebook addiction. Neither demographic variables nor the interactions of gender by usage characteristics were found to be significant predictors.

  2. CELL PHONE ADDICTION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE DE SOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyse the concept of cell phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  3. 75 FR 4900 - Drug Addiction and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Drug Addiction and Alcoholism AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for Comments... persons whose drug addiction or alcoholism (DAA) may be a contributing factor material to...

  4. Longer Addiction Treatment Is Better, Study Confirms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163911.html Longer Addiction Treatment Is Better, Study Confirms Success rate goes up ... 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The longer patients receive treatment for addiction, the greater their chances of success, a new ...

  5. [Exercise addiction: an emergent behavioral disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Sara; de la Vega, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la actividad física regular juega un papel relevante en el mantenimiento de la salud y en la prevención de la enfermedad. Sin embargo, el ejercicio en exceso puede generar efectos adversos tanto sobre la salud física como mental. Objetivos: sintetizar el estado actual de los conocimientos sobre la adicción al ejercicio, considerando su definición, síntomatología, diagnóstico, aspectos epidemiológicos, factores etiológicos y posibilidades de intervención. Método: se revisaron artículos relacionados con el tema en las bases de datos Pubmed, Sportdiscus, PsycINFO, Scopus y Web of Science, utilizando combinaciones de las siguientes palabras clave: “ejercicio”, “adicción” y “dependencia”. Resultados: el ejercicio regular practicado en exceso puede generar comportamientos adictivos con consecuencias adversas sobre la salud y pérdida de la calidad de vida. El diagnóstico de la adicción al ejercicio se apoya en la utilización de cuestionarios, siendo los más empleados la Escala de Dependencia del Ejercicio (EDS) y el Inventario de Adicción al Ejercicio (EAI). Mediante dichos instrumentos se ha estimado una prevalencia entre quienes practican habitualmente ejercicio en torno a un 3%. Las distintas hipótesis propuestas para explicar la etiología de este trastorno incluyen mecanismos tanto fisiológicos como psicológicos. El tratamiento se basa en aproximaciones cognitivo-conductuales, cuya eficacia requiere confirmación. Conclusiones: aunque existen distintas hipótesis para explicar la dependencia del ejercicio, aún son necesarios modelos integrativos. También se requiere una validación clínica de los instrumentos utilizados para el diagnóstico y la profundización en la relación con las alteraciones de la conducta alimentaria.

  6. 北京市大中学生网络成瘾及其与伤害行为相关性分析%Internet addiction and its correlation to intentional injury behavior among college and secondary school students in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段佳丽; 孙颖; 韩霄; 耳玉亮; 霍达

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the status of Internet addiction among college students and secondary school students in Beijing and to investigate the correlation of Interaet addition and intentional injury behavior,in order to provide a scientific basis for the psychological and behavioral interventions of Intemet addiction.Methods By multi-stage stratified cluster randomized sampling,39 798 students from 65 middle and 76 high schools,34 vocational technical schools and 12 colleges in Beijing were investigated in the way of anonymous collective self-administered questionnaire survey by using of China Youth Health-related Behavior Questionnaire (middle school,high school and university volume),between February-April,2008.Results The overall Internet addiction rate was 7.6% among college students and secondary school students in Beijing.The Internet addiction rate were 6.1%,8.4%,9.0% for middle and high schools,colleges,and 8.5%,6.8% for urban and rural areas.The Internet addiction rate increased with the growth of age.As the results of multi-factor analysis,there was the correlation of Internet addiction and intentional injury behavior,such as fighting,hazing,self-mutilation,and suicide,Intemet addiction and psychological problems (such as loneliness,depressed mood,and insomnia).Conclusion The problem of Intemet addiction among college students and secondary school students should not be overlooked.Because of the correlation of Internet addiction and intentional injury behavior,psychological problems,psychological and behavioral comprehensive interventions should be adopted to control the Internet addition among youth.%目的 了解北京市大、中学生网络成瘾行为的现况及其与伤害行为相关性,为提出网络成瘾的心理行为干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,于2008年2---4月抽取北京市65所初中、76所高中、34所职业技术学校和12所大学的学生共39 798名,采用“中

  7. Internet Addiction in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: Assessment, Profiles, and Psychosocial Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction behavior was examined in 6,121 Chinese primary and secondary school students in Hong Kong based on the assessment frameworks of Ivan Goldberg and Kimberly Young. Results showed that scales derived from both frameworks (CIA-Goldberg Scale and CIA-Young Scale were internally consistent and evidence supporting their validity was found. Descriptive statistical analyses revealed that roughly one-fifth of the respondents could be classified as Internet addicted based on either scale. Further analyses showed that Internet-addicted and -nonaddicted respondents differed in their Internet use and related behavior. Logistic regression analyses showed that engagement in certain on-line activities (such as playing on-line games and downloading software and replacement of pastimes activities (such as watching TV and going out with friends with Internet activities predicted a higher probability of Internet addiction.

  8. 大学生网络成瘾倾向的认知行为治疗的病例对照研究%Case-control study of cognitive-behavior therapy in the tendency of internet addiction and loneliness among the undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马南振; 何成森

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the situation about the tendency of intemet addiction and the sense of the loneliness among the undergraduates, and to explore the accessibility and the effects of therapy in the undergraduates with intemet addiction tendency. Methods The situation about the tendency of intemet addiction and the sense of the loneliness among the 804 undergraduates were surveyed with the Scale of Intemet Addiction and Emotional-Social Loneliness Inventory, the 98 subjects with intemet addiction tendency were randomly divided into experimental group and control group,and the experimental group were treated with the cognitive-behavior therapy, SPSS was used to analyse the data. Results In the scores of the emotional isolates, emotional loneliness, social isolates and social loneliness, the undergraduates with intemet addiction tendency were significantly higher than that in the undergraduates without intemet addiction tendency [(15.5510±5.8241) vs (11.540 8± 3.355 8), (12.938 8± 4.285 7) vs (9.826 5± 3.6299), (14.091 8±5.087 1) vs (10.346 9±4.147 0), (11.979 6±4.679 4) vs (8.265 3±2.909 5); P<0.05]; after treatment, the experimental groups' scores of the Scale of Intemet Addiction and Emotional-Social Loneliness Inventory were significantly lower than before, [ ( 33. 183 7 ± 3. 199 4 ) vs (45. 000 0 ± 7. 365 5 ), ( 34. 489 8 ± 4. 528 3 ) vs ( 49. 877 6 ±16. 019 0), P < 0.05 ]. Conclusions The undergraduates with intemet addiction tendency are more likely to suffer the sense of loneliness than undergraduates without intemet addiction tendency, the cognitive-behavior therapy has certain effects on the undergraduates with intemet addiction tendency.%目的 了解大学生的网络成瘾倾向、孤独感的现状,探索网络成瘾倾向的干预方法及效果.方法 采用网络成瘾量表和情绪-社交孤独问卷(ESLI)对804名大学生进行问卷调查,将确定的98例具有网络成瘾倾向的对象随机分为研究组和对照组并采用

  9. Prevalence andFactors of Behaviors of Addiction Tendency among High School Students%天津市河北区高中生易致成瘾行为流行现状及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宝佳; 姚斋潇; 宋丹; 左丽娟; 蔚秀媛

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the current status of addiction tendency behaviors among the high school students in Tianjin so as to adopt targeted intervening measures. [ Methods ] An anonymous questionnaires surveys was conducted on 1 878 high school students in Hebei District of Tianjin City by using stratified cluster sampling method. [ Results] The prevalence of smoking, drinking, playing electronic games and long-time being on the internet in male students was higher than that of female (P < 0. 05) , but the prevalence of watching TV for a long time in female students was higher than that of male students ( P < 0. 05). Among vocational high schools, high school and key high school, the prevalence of smoking, watching TV, playing electronic games and long-time be-ing on the internet was different significantly (P < 0.05) , with the highest prevalence in vocational high schools. The prevalence of smoking, drinking, playing electronic games and long-time being on the internet was different significantly between the students with different academic levels (P < 0.05). And it had the tendency of decreasing with the exaltation of academic (P < 0.05). The smok-ing was impacted most greatly by gender among behaviors of addiction tendency. And watching TV, playing electronic games and long-time being on the internet were impacted most greatly by the type of schools. [ Conclusion]The effects of smoking, drinking and long-time being on internet on adolescents can not be ignored. The community should build harmonious and healthy environment for them.%目的 了解目前天津市高中生易致成瘾行为的流行状况及其影响因素,以便有的放矢地对其实施干预措施.方法采取分层整群抽样方法,对天津市河北区8所高中1878名学生进行匿名问卷调查.结果高中男生吸烟、饮酒、长时间玩电子游戏及长时间上网检出率高于女生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);长时间看电视检出率女生高于男

  10. Promoting Client Strength Through Positive Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, William

    1977-01-01

    Under certain conditions self-improvement activities like running or meditating can become addictive. This article contends that such addictions confer strength to the individual and promote effective living; therefore, they must be considered "positive". The article traces the development of the concept of positive addiction. (Author)

  11. What Does Addiction Mean to Me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. Addiction is accepted as a mental illness in the diagnostic nomenclature and results in substantial health, social and economic problems. In the diagnostic nomenclature, addiction was originally included in the personality dis...

  12. Running and addiction: precipitated withdrawal in a rat model of activity-based anorexia

    OpenAIRE

    Kanarek, Robin B.; D'Anci, Kristen E.; Jurdak, Nicole; Mathes, Wendy Foulds

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity improves cardiovascular health, strengthens muscles and bones, stimulates neuroplasticity, and promotes feelings of well-being and self-esteem. However, when taken to extremes, exercise can develop into an addictive-like behavior. To further assess the addictive potential of physical activity, the present experiments assessed whether running wheel activity in rats would lead to physical dependence similar to that observed after chronic morphine administration. Active male an...

  13. The role of orbitofrontal cortex in drug addiction: a review of preclinical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Shaham, Yavin

    2007-01-01

    Studies using brain imaging methods have shown that neuronal activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, a brain area thought to promote the ability to control behavior according to likely outcomes or consequences, is altered in drug addicts. These human imaging findings have led to the hypothesis that core features of addiction like compulsive drug use and drug relapse are mediated in part by drug-induced changes in orbitofrontal function. Here, we discuss results from laboratory studies using rat...

  14. Prefrontal control and Internet addiction: A theoretical model and review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eBrand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most people use the Internet as a functional tool to perform their personal goals in everyday-life such as making airline or hotel reservations. However, some individuals suffer from a loss of control over their Internet use resulting in personal distress, symptoms of psychological dependence, and diverse negative consequences. This phenomenon is often referred to as Internet addiction. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other applications with cybersex, online relations, shopping, and information search being Internet facets at risk for developing an addictive behavior. Neuropsychological investigations have pointed out that certain prefrontal functions in particular executive control functions are related to symptoms of Internet addiction, which is in line with recent theoretical models on the development and maintenance of the addictive use of the Internet. Control processes are particularly reduced when individuals with Internet addiction are confronted with Internet-related cues representing their first choice use. For example, processing Internet-related cues interferes with working memory performance and decision making. Consistent with this, results from functional neuroimaging and other neuropsychological studies demonstrate that cue-reactivity, craving, and decision making are important concepts for understanding Internet addiction. The findings on reductions in executive control are consistent with other behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling. They also emphasize the classification of the phenomenon as an addiction, because there are also several similarities with findings in substance dependency. The neuropsychological and neuroimaging results have important clinical impact, as one therapy goal should be to enhance control over the Internet use by modifying specific cognitions and

  15. Prefrontal control and internet addiction: a theoretical model and review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Young, Kimberly S; Laier, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Most people use the Internet as a functional tool to perform their personal goals in everyday-life such as making airline or hotel reservations. However, some individuals suffer from a loss of control over their Internet use resulting in personal distress, symptoms of psychological dependence, and diverse negative consequences. This phenomenon is often referred to as Internet addiction. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other applications with cybersex, online relations, shopping, and information search being Internet facets at risk for developing an addictive behavior. Neuropsychological investigations have pointed out that certain prefrontal functions in particular executive control functions are related to symptoms of Internet addiction, which is in line with recent theoretical models on the development and maintenance of the addictive use of the Internet. Control processes are particularly reduced when individuals with Internet addiction are confronted with Internet-related cues representing their first choice use. For example, processing Internet-related cues interferes with working memory performance and decision making. Consistent with this, results from functional neuroimaging and other neuropsychological studies demonstrate that cue-reactivity, craving, and decision making are important concepts for understanding Internet addiction. The findings on reductions in executive control are consistent with other behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling. They also emphasize the classification of the phenomenon as an addiction, because there are also several similarities with findings in substance dependency. The neuropsychological and neuroimaging results have important clinical impact, as one therapy goal should enhance control over the Internet use by modifying specific cognitions and Internet use expectancies.

  16. Social Anomie and Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the relationshop between social anomie and drug addiction and tries to show that how we can apply anomie theory to clarify the aspects of this social problem in our society. By reviewing Durkheim’s and Merton’s anomie theories and Agnew’s mental-social theory، this article attempts to show that despite of fundamental differences in these two theories، Iranian Society has an anomic situation and this situation has a high poteniality for tendency toward drug addiction/abuse.

  17. 认知行为治疗青少年网络成瘾者临床疗效随访%Follow-up study of cognitive-behavior therapy on adolescent with internet addiction disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖丽; 戴秀英; 李秋丽; 李赓

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the measure and two-year effects of cognitive-behavior therapy on adolescent with internet addiction disorder(IAD). Methods 76 cases with IAD were divided to randomized controlled trial, then 38 cases in each group. But 36 cases ( lost 2 cases) were completed in follow-up study group and control group of 34 cases (lost 2 cases). There were various forms of cognitive behavioral intervention in two years.The Chinese Internet Addiction Scale( CIAS), Symptom Gheck List-90 (SCL-90) scale and Coping Style Questionnaire(CSQ) were adapted to evaluate the effects when the cognitive-behavior therapy was started, after treatment at 2 months, 12 months, 18 months, 24 months respectively assessment for 5 times. Results The scores of CIAS in the study group were significantly lower than that of the control group( (43.53 ± 10. 37 ), (53.06 ± 5.40),(47.56 ± 10.02) ,(53.50 ±5.28) ,(42.68 ±6.23), (54.02 ±6.49), P<0.05 or P<0. 01 ) and decreased obviously with the extension of time (F= 14. 464, P< 0. 01; F= 0. 537, P> 0.05 ). Problem-solving and help factor of CSQ in the study group were significantly higher than that of control group( (0.82 ± 0. 11 ), ( 0.62 ± 0. 48 ), (0.78 ±0.12),(0.65 ±0.38) ,(0.90±0.28),(0.62 ±0. 37)); (0. 68 ±0.41), (0.45 ±0.29),(0. 74 ±0. 30),(0.45 ± 0. 11 ), (0.79 ± 0. 33 ), (0.46 ± 0. 18 ) ) and self-blame, fantasy , withdrawal factors were significantly lower than it((0. 21 ±0. 13),(0.40 ±0.27), (0.24 ±0.06),(0. 38 ±0. 19), (0.25 ±0.16),(0.42 ±0.24) );( (0.27 ±0.02) ,(0.45 ±0.27) ,(0.31 ±0.09) ,(0.44 ±0.28) ,(0.30 ±0.24) ,(0.46 ±0.19) ;(0.42 ±0.05),(0.54 ±0.33),(0.34 ±0.17),(0.55 ±0.29),(0.31 ±0. 19),(0.50 ±0.30), P<0.05 or P<0. 01 ). There were significant differences of SCL-90 total score between the study group and the control group at 4 times for evaluation ( ( 142.25 ± 30.44), ( 182.56 ± 36.23 ), ( 175.36 ± 26.44 ), ( 191.56 ± 38.32 ), ( 163.36 ±29.21),(196.75±35.46),(143.33±21

  18. [Benzodiazepin addiction: a silent addiction among older people].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed for a longer period of time for anxiety disorders and insomnia in spite of the many guidelines to prescribe these drugs only short-term. These guidelines are based on the risk-benefit balance between long-term effectiveness and side effects like addiction, a

  19. Online Video Game Addiction: Identification of Addicted Adolescent Gamers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Mheen, H. van de

    2011-01-01

    Aims To provide empirical data-driven identification of a group of addicted online gamers. Design Repeated cross-sectional survey study, comprising a longitudinal cohort, conducted in 2008 and 2009. Setting Secondary schools in the Netherlands. Participants Two large samples of Dutch schoolchild

  20. Extensive Internet Involvement—Addiction or Emerging Lifestyle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Helmersson Bergmark

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing “addiction-like” behavioral disorders such as “Internet addiction” to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use—PIU, takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, it is obvious that the divide between characteristics of addiction and dimensions of new lifestyles built on technological progress is problematic and far from unambiguous. Some of these research areas are developing from the neurobiological doctrine of addiction as not being tied to specific substances. The concept of “behavioral addictions”, based on biological mechanisms such as the reward systems of the brain, has been launched. The problems connected to this development are in this study discussed and reflected with data from a Swedish survey on Internet use (n = 1,147. Most Swedes (85% do use the Internet to some degree. The prevalence of excessive use parallels other similar countries. Respondents in our study spend (mean value 9.8 hours per week online at home, only 5 percent spend more than 30 hours per week. There are both positive and negative social effects at hand. Many respondents have more social contacts due to the use of Internet, but there is a decline in face-to-face contacts. About 40% of the respondents indicate some experience of at least one problem related to Internet use, but only 1.8% marked the presence of all problems addressed. Most significant predictors for problem indicators, except for age, relate to “time” and time consuming activities such as gaming, other activities online or computer skills.

  1. Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe eZhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD should belong to a kind of behavioral addiction. Previous studies indicated that there are many similarities in the neurobiology of behavior and substance addictions. Up to date, although individuals with IAD have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for IAD. Neuropsychological test studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the effect of IAD on the cognitive function. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants include 22 Internet addictive individuals, 22 alcohol-dependent patients (AD and 22 normal controls (NC. All participants were measured with BIS- 11, go/no-go task, WCST and Digit span task under the same experimental condition. Results showed that BIS-11 scores, false alarm rate, the total response errors, perseverative errors, failure to maintain set of IAD and AD group were significantly higher than that of NC group, and hit rate, percentage of conceptual level responses, the number of categories completed, forwards scores and backwards scores of IAD and AD group were significantly lower than that of NC group, however, no differences in above variables between IAD group and AD group were observed. These results revealed that the existence of impulsivity, deficiencies in executive function and working memory in an IAD and an AD sample, namely, Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients.

  2. [Evidence-based psychotherapy: addiction and personality disorders as comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienast, T; Roediger, E; Kensche, M; Foerster, J; Daig, I; Heinz, A

    2009-09-01

    A large number of studies have shown that various psychotherapeutic methods have a positive effect on the course of addiction and personality disorders when they are treated separately. Co-morbid occurrence of both disorders is common but a chronologically separated treatment often leads to renewed occurrence of the symptoms of the initially treated disorder. Failures of abstinence motivation, severe drug craving and the activation of dysfunctional behavior patterns frequently lead to renewed consumption of addictive substances and thus endanger the further course of treatment. So far, evidence of effectiveness exists only for dialectic behavior therapy and dual focus schema therapy. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge and introduces both methods by highlighting the core therapeutic strategies.

  3. Studying on the Interaction of Mental Health, Internet Addiction Disorder, Nociceptive Behavior and Sleep Quality among College Students in Lanzhou University%兰州大学学生心理健康、网络成瘾行为、健康危险行为与睡眠质量的相互作用关系调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷; 刘慧敏; 樊璐; 令亚琴

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the status and relationship of mental health,internet addiction disorder,nociceptive behavior and sleep quality among college students,and to provide evidence for healthcare. Methods:A total of 2 868 college students were chosen from Lanzhou University and surveyed with questionnaires on the status of mental health, internet addiction disorder, nociceptive behavior and sleep quality. Results:Sleep quality and health risk behaviors in girls were better than boys (P<0.05) . Psychological state in medical students was best. Sleep quality score in engineering students was the highest. Health risk behaviors in science students had highest score. Internet addiction behavior in engineering students had the highest score. Mental health score in three or more students was less than that in junior students,while sleep quality and internet addiction behavior score was higher (P<0.01) . Conclusion:Mental health has a negative influence on nociceptive behavior and internet addiction disorder,while it has a positive effect on sleeping quality. A negtive correlation lies between sleeping quality and nociceptive behavior or internet addiction disorder. The departments should pay attention to the status of mental health,internet addiction disorder,nociceptive behavior and sleep quality among college students,and the appropriate prevention is necessary.%目的:探究大学生心理健康、网络成瘾行为、健康危险行为与睡眠质量情况及相互作用关系,为大学生保健工作提供科学依据。方法:采用分层整群随机抽样的方法,分别从不同性别,不同专业(工科、理科、文科、医科),不同年级(大三年级以下,大三及以上年级)选取2868名兰州大学学生进行问卷调查,了解心理健康、网络成瘾行为、健康危险行为与睡眠质量情况。结果:女生的睡眠质量和健康危险行为得分小于男生(P<0.05)。在心理健康方面,医科学生的心

  4. Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI was demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females, with ages 22.9 ± 2.0 years. Exploratory factor analysis, internal-consistency test, test-retest, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SPAI. Correlations between each subscale and phantom vibration and ringing were also explored. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors: compulsive behavior, functional impairment, withdrawal and tolerance. Test-retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations  = 0.74-0.91 and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94 were all satisfactory. The four subscales had moderate to high correlations (0.56-0.78, but had no or very low correlation to phantom vibration/ringing syndrome. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that the SPAI is a valid and reliable, self-administered screening tool to investigate smartphone addiction. Phantom vibration and ringing might be independent entities of smartphone addiction.

  5. Patterns of choices on video game genres and Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify motives pivotal in choices made regarding online and offline game genres and assess whether they are meaningful predictors of Internet addiction. A separate goal was to determine how an assessment of Internet-related cognitions compares to criteria-based research instruments on Internet addiction, and demonstrate its clinical usefulness. We are using data from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos. Results indicate that specific game genres and motives for choosing a game are important predictors of Internet addiction, even after accounting for sociodemographic and Internet-use-related variables. Gender differences are not statistically important when we account for genre choices and motives for choosing them. Boys' thought content tends to revolve more around their Internet use compared to girls. Several patterns of motives to play specific genres were identified with the help of a canonical correlation analysis, demonstrating the fact that the simple observation of overt behavior is not enough to deduce the meaning of these actions for the individual. Using multiple measures of online addiction, examining genre preferences and underlying motives for choosing a game can be helpful in reaching a better understanding of the individual game player.

  6. A role for pharmacotherapy in the treatment of "internet addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camardese, Giovanni; De Risio, Luisa; Di Nicola, Marco; Pizi, Giusy; Janiri, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the Internet is among the most significant changes in recent decades and has greatly affected the entire range of human experience. However, it has, in turn, led to the emergence of psychopathological features of addiction linked to its use. Literature on the clinical management of the distress related to Internet use systematically measures up to an evolving nosography, with ambiguous definitions of the phenomenon and a diversity of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic criteria. To date, case studies on "Internet addiction" treatment are rather limited, and no standard clinical treatment protocols exist. With regard to pharmacological treatment options, empirical or anecdotal assessments are mostly referred to. The aim of this article was to review current literature on Internet addiction treatment and assess the extent to which specific pharmacological interventions alleviate these patients' symptomatic burden, to propose a rationale that may guide the therapeutic approach. To this end, we also explored pharmacological interventions that target patterns of comorbidity and underlying psychopathological dimensions shared with other behavioral or substance addictions.

  7. Review of the application of positive psychology to substance use, addiction, and recovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R

    2013-03-01

    Advances in positive psychology have grown exponentially over the past decade. The addictions field has experienced its own growth in a positive direction, embodied by the recovery movement. Despite parallel developments, and great momentum on both sides, there has been little crosspollination. This article introduces positive psychology and the recovery movement, describes the research on positive psychology in the addictions, and discusses future avenues of theory, research, and intervention based on a positive-psychology framework. A systematic review of positive psychology applied to substance use, addiction, and recovery found nine studies which are discussed according to the following themes: theoretical propositions, character strengths and drinking, positive psychology and recovery, positive interventions, and addiction: feeling good and feeling bad. The current scholarship is scant, but diverse, covering a wide range of populations (adults, adolescents, those in and out of treatment), topics (character strengths, recovery, positive affect), and addictive behaviors (work addiction, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use disorders). There is diversity, too, in country of origin, with work originating in the U.S., U.K., Poland, and Spain. The rigorous application of the lens, tools, and approaches of positive psychology to addiction research generally, and to the aims of the recovery movement specifically, has potential for the development of theory and innovation in prevention and intervention. Further, because the work in positive psychology has primarily focused on microsystems, it may be primed to make contributions to the predominantly macrosystems focus of the recovery movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Cue reactivity in nicotine and alcohol addiction: a cross-cultural view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Lv

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of research indicates that cue reactivity is critical to understanding the neurobiology of nicotine and alcohol addiction and developing treatments. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and electroencephalograph (EEG studies have shown abnormal cue reactivity in various conditions between nicotine or alcohol addicts and the healthy. Although the causes of these abnormalities are still unclear, cultural effect can not be ignored. We conduct an review of fMRI and EEG studies about the cue reactivity in nicotine and alcohol addiction and highlight the cultural perspective. We suggest that cultural cue reactivity is a field worth of exploring which may has an effect on addictive behavior through emotion and attention. The cultural role of nicotine and alcohol addiction would provide new insight into understanding the mechanisms of nicotine and alcohol addiction and developing culture-specific therapies. We consider that culture as a context may be a kind of factor that causes confusing outcomes in the research on nicotine and alcohol addiction which makes it possible to control the cultural influences and further contribute to the more consistent results.

  9. How Preclinical Models Evolved to Resemble the Diagnostic Criteria of Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin-Rauscent, Aude; Fouyssac, Maxime; Bonci, Antonello; Belin, David

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that affects a subset of the individuals who take drugs. It is characterized by maladaptive drug-seeking habits that are maintained despite adverse consequences and intense drug craving. The pathophysiology and etiology of addiction is only partially understood despite extensive research because of the gap between current preclinical models of addiction and the clinical criteria of the disorder. This review presents a brief overview, based on selected methodologies, of how behavioral models have evolved over the last 50 years to the development of recent preclinical models of addiction that more closely mimic diagnostic criteria of addiction. It is hoped that these new models will increase our understanding of the complex neurobiological mechanisms whereby some individuals switch from controlled drug use to compulsive drug-seeking habits and relapse to these maladaptive habits. Additionally, by paving the way to bridge the gap that exists between biobehavioral research on addiction and the human situation, these models may provide new perspectives for the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for drug addiction.

  10. Cue Reactivity in Nicotine and Alcohol Addiction: A Cross-Cultural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wanwan; Wu, Qichao; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Ying; Song, Hongwen; Yang, Lizhuang; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of research indicates that cue reactivity is critical to understanding the neurobiology of nicotine and alcohol addiction and developing treatments. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalograph (EEG) studies have shown abnormal cue reactivity in various conditions between nicotine or alcohol addicts and the healthy. Although the causes of these abnormalities are still unclear, cultural effect can not be ignored. We conduct an review of fMRI and EEG studies about the cue reactivity in nicotine and alcohol addiction and highlight the cultural perspective. We suggest that cultural cue reactivity is a field worth of exploring which may has an effect on addictive behavior through emotion and attention. The cultural role of nicotine and alcohol addiction would provide new insight into understanding the mechanisms of nicotine and alcohol addiction and developing culture-specific therapies. We consider that culture as a context may be a factor that causes confusing outcomes in exploring nicotine and alcohol addiction which makes it possible to control the cultural influences and further contribute to the more consistent results. PMID:27635123

  11. Sex differences in the neural mechanisms mediating addiction: a new synthesis and hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Jill B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this review we propose that there are sex differences in how men and women enter onto the path that can lead to addiction. Males are more likely than females to engage in risky behaviors that include experimenting with drugs of abuse, and in susceptible individuals, they are drawn into the spiral that can eventually lead to addiction. Women and girls are more likely to begin taking drugs as self-medication to reduce stress or alleviate depression. For this reason women enter into the downward spiral further along the path to addiction, and so transition to addiction more rapidly. We propose that this sex difference is due, at least in part, to sex differences in the organization of the neural systems responsible for motivation and addiction. Additionally, we suggest that sex differences in these systems and their functioning are accentuated with addiction. In the current review we discuss historical, cultural, social and biological bases for sex differences in addiction with an emphasis on sex differences in the neurotransmitter systems that are implicated.

  12. The association between Internet addiction and belief of frustration intolerance: the gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Chung-Sheng; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance, the gender difference of frustration intolerance, and the gender differences of the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance. Participants were 2,114 students (1,204 male and 910 female) who were recruited to complete the Chen Internet Addiction Scale and Frustration Discomfort scale. Females had higher scores on the subscale of entitlement and emotional intolerance and the total scale of the frustration intolerance. There was a significant gender difference on the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance. The association was higher in male adolescents. Regression analysis revealed male adolescents with Internet addiction had higher intolerance to frustration of entitlement and emotional discomfort, and female adolescents with it had higher intolerance to emotional discomfort and lower tolerance to frustration of achievement. Frustration intolerance should be evaluated for adolescents with Internet addiction, especially for males. Rational emotive behavior therapy focusing on different irrational beliefs should be provided to male and female adolescents with Internet addiction.

  13. The impact of Internet and PC addiction in school performance of Cypriot adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Paradeisioti, Anna; Hadjimarcou, Michalis; Mappouras, Demetrios G; Kalakouta, Olga; Avagianou, Penelope; Floros, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a cross-sectional survey designed to ascertain Internet and personal computer (PC) addiction in the Republic of Cyprus. This is a follow-up to a pilot study conducted one year earlier. Data were collected from a representative sample of the adolescent student population of the first and fourth grades of high school. Total sample was 2684 students, 48.5% of them male and 51.5% female. Research material included extended demographics and an Internet security questionnaire, the Young's Diagnostic questionnaire (YDQ), the Adolescent Computer Addiction Test (ACAT). Results indicated that the Cypriot population had comparable addiction statistics with other Greek-speaking populations in Greece; 15.3% of the students were classified as Internet addicted by their YDQ scores and 16.3% as PC addicted by their ACAT scores. Those results are among the highest in Europe. Our results were alarming and have led to the creation of an Internet and PC addiction prevention program which will focus on high-school professor training and the creation of appropriate prevention material for all high-schools, starting immediately after the conclusion of the pan-Cypriot survey, focusing especially on those areas where the frequency of addictive behaviors will be highest.

  14. Cybersex addiction in heterosexual female users of internet pornography can be explained by gratification hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Pekal, Jaro; Brand, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    In the context of Internet addiction, cybersex is considered to be an Internet application in which users are at risk for developing addictive usage behavior. Regarding males, experimental research has shown that indicators of sexual arousal and craving in response to Internet pornographic cues are related to severity of cybersex addiction in Internet pornography users (IPU). Since comparable investigations on females do not exist, the aim of this study is to investigate predictors of cybersex addiction in heterosexual women. We examined 51 female IPU and 51 female non-Internet pornography users (NIPU). Using questionnaires, we assessed the severity of cybersex addiction in general, as well as propensity for sexual excitation, general problematic sexual behavior, and severity of psychological symptoms. Additionally, an experimental paradigm, including a subjective arousal rating of 100 pornographic pictures, as well as indicators of craving, was conducted. Results indicated that IPU rated pornographic pictures as more arousing and reported greater craving due to pornographic picture presentation compared with NIPU. Moreover, craving, sexual arousal rating of pictures, sensitivity to sexual excitation, problematic sexual behavior, and severity of psychological symptoms predicted tendencies toward cybersex addiction in IPU. Being in a relationship, number of sexual contacts, satisfaction with sexual contacts, and use of interactive cybersex were not associated with cybersex addiction. These results are in line with those reported for heterosexual males in previous studies. Findings regarding the reinforcing nature of sexual arousal, the mechanisms of learning, and the role of cue reactivity and craving in the development of cybersex addiction in IPU need to be discussed.

  15. Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, L P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. METHODS: The records of eight patients undergoing vascular surgery for femoral pseudoaneurysms from substance abuse identified from a vascular database were reviewed. RESULTS: Were good in four out of five...

  16. Neurocognitive Insights in Nicotine Addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Luijten (Maartje)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, 27% of the population is currently smoking. Nicotine is among the most addictive substances of abuse. Thirty-two percent of the people who tried smoking develop nicotine dependence within ten year. This pe