WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior addictive

  1. [Neurobiology of behavioral addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M; Heinz, A; Mann, K

    2013-05-01

    Reward learning represents a crucial mechanism in the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behavior. The underlying neurobiological foundations and associated neurobiological pathways are identified in this review and similarities between substance abuse and behavioral addictions will be discussed. In the second section current neuroimaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of pathological gambling and computer and internet addiction are discussed. The main focuses are on changes in neurocognitive processes, such as cue reactivity, reward and punishment processing and behavioral control. PMID:23632569

  2. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment. PMID:22641961

  3. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Serge H Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  4. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  5. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    George William H; Witkiewitz Katie; Hendershot Christian S; Marlatt G Alan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformul...

  6. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. PMID:27338971

  7. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  8. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  9. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  10. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  11. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  12. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors. PMID:22117165

  13. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  14. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... be continued efforts to develop and evaluate effective treatments for marijuana addiction," Dr. Volkow adds. Summer 2006 Issue: Page 26

  15. Pharmacogenetic aspects of addictive behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Hejazi, Nadia S.

    2007-01-01

    Addictions are illnesses of complex causation, including inheritance and a role for gene/environment interactions. Functional alleles influencing pharmacodynamic (tissue response) and pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, and metabolism) play a role, but these interact with diverse environmental factors including early Ife stress, underage drug exposure, availability of addictive agents, and response to clinical interventions including pharmacotherapies. Identification of genetic factors...

  16. Issues in Personality Conceptualizations of Addictive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, Patricia B.; Allain, Albert N., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes issues and implications associated with personality conceptualizations of addictive behaviors. Directs attention toward characterizing the sociopolitical climate's effect on identification, evaluation, and management of substance abuse disorders. Explores alcohol and drug use in conceptual schemata encompassing multifactorial,…

  17. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24589040

  18. How bulimia nervosa relates to addictive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Iorio, Daniela; Sovinsky, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data that tracks bulimic behavior among young girls (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study), we examine (1) whether bulimic behavior is consistent with addiction criteria as stated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV (APA, 1994); and 2) whether the persistence in bulimia nervosa (BN) reflects tolerance formed from an addiction or if it can be attributed to slow learning about the deleterious health effects of BN. M...

  19. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  20. Using DREADDs to investigate addiction behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Susan M.; Neumaier, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking, and a high propensity for relapse. Although the brain regions involved in regulating addiction processes have long been identified, the ways in which individual cell types govern addiction behaviors remain elusive. New technologies for modulating the activity of defined cell types have recently emerged that are allowing us to address these important questions. Here, we review how one such technology, DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs), can be used to refine our knowledge of addiction circuitry. These engineered receptors modulate cellular activity by acting on G protein coupled signaling cascades and in this review we pay particular attention to how this slower-onset modulation preferentially regulates behaviors that develop over time.

  1. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In ...

  2. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  3. Obesity and Its Relationship to Addictions: Is Overeating a Form of Addictive Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention...

  4. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Salman Alavi; Masoud Ferdosi; Fereshte Jannatifard; Mehdi Eslami; Hamed Alaghemandan; Mehrdad Setare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioral science experts believe that all entities capable of stimulating a person can be addictive; and whenever a habit changes into an obligation, it can be considered as an addiction. Researchers also believe that there are a number of similarities as well as some differences between drug addiction and behavioral addiction diagnostic symptoms. The purpose of this study is to consider different approaches in this field. Methods: This is a descriptive research using conte...

  5. Dimensionality of Cognitions in Behavioral Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, L. S.; Voon, V.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive constructs provide conceptual frameworks for transpathological characterization and improved phenotyping of apparently disparate psychiatric groups. This dimensional approach can be applied to the examination of individuals with behavioral addictions, for example, towards gambling, video-games, the internet, food, and sex, allowing operationalization of core deficits. We use this approach to review constructs such as impulsivity, compulsivity, and attention regulation, which may be ...

  6. Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Zangen, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Drug and alcohol addiction is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent drug-seeking behaviors despite negative physiological, medical, or social consequences. Neurobiological models of addiction propose that the reinforcing effects of addictive drugs are associated with altered neurotransmission within the reward 'mesocorticolimbic' circuitry in the brain. Immense efforts are therefore designed to target the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in attenuating drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. Yet, to date, most addiction treatments have demonstrated only limited success in reducing addiction-related behaviors. Accumulating and compelling evidence suggests that novel nonsurgical brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, could serve as promising tools for indexing altered neurotransmission associated with repetitive drug use, and moreover, may hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. This chapter reviews and discusses the current and potential applications of such techniques in the study and treatment of addiction; we focus on a number of common drugs of abuse, including nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, and ecstasy. PMID:24112928

  7. Gambling disorder and other behavioral addictions: recognition and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors--such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping--bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in this category, with insufficient data for other proposed behavioral addictions to justify their inclusion. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of behavioral addictions, describes treatment considerations, and addresses future directions. Current evidence points to overlaps between behavioral and substance-related addictions in phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidity, neurobiological mechanisms, genetic contributions, responses to treatments, and prevention efforts. Differences also exist. Recognizing behavioral addictions and developing appropriate diagnostic criteria are important in order to increase awareness of these disorders and to further prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25747926

  8. Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preface Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Preface How Science Has Revolutionized the Understanding of Drug Addiction For much of the past century, scientists studying ...

  9. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Similar to substance abuse prevention, programs aimed at addicted individuals and specialized training can educate adolescents about the warning signs of online addiction, in order to assist the early detection of this disorder. For prevention of behavioral addiction (such as internet addiction authorities, cultural institutions and parents should monitor the use of internet and teach to the adolescent and children, the useful and appropriate methods of internet use.

  10. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-06-01

    Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors. PMID:26165928

  11. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis C

    2014-01-01

    Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for huma...

  12. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. Keywords: food addiction, evolution, drugs, gambling

  13. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Baler, Ruben D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    Addiction coopts the brain’s neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  14. Addiction: pulling at the neural threads of social behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Baler, Ruben D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2011-02-24

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction. PMID:21338873

  15. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  16. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M.; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although…

  17. Family indicators for the risk of addictive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Florova N.B.

    2012-01-01

    The empirical findings in family problems relating to addictive behavior in children and adolescents, can serve a foundation for forming up a multiaxial system of indicators and backbone risk factors of addictive behavior in the family. On the ground of analysis of several publications the following risk indicators of addictive behavior in families can be introduced: environmental toxicity, family structure, parents' educational level, quality of parental styles, level of parents' aggravation...

  18. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H; Galuska, Chad M; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although there is a fundamental discrepancy between these two approaches, the emerging neuroscience of reinforcement and choice behavior eventually may shed li...

  19. Genetic variants associated with addictive behavior in Colombian addicted and non-addicted to heroin or cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaza, Carlos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determine the prevalence and compare some genetic markers involved in addictive behavior in a group of addicts to derivative of coca (cocaine/crack or heroin and a control group of non-addicted people matched for gender, age and ethnicity.Methods: A 120 addicts and 120 non-addicts Colombian male were surveyed and genotyped for 18 polymorphism of the OPRM1, DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, ABCB1, DβH and CYP2B6 genes. For the identification of alleles markers were used mini-sequencing and fragment multiplex PCR techniques; ethnicity of cases and controls was analyzed with 61 AIMs. Results: The age of onset use of heroin or coca derivatives (cocaine/crack was 16,5±6 years and 99,2% of them consume several illicit drugs. It showed that controls and addicts belong to the same ethnic group. Significant differences between addicts and controls in relation to schooling, marital status, social security family history of substance abuse (pT ABCB1 gene (p=0,001 were found. Conclusion: The present results indicate that the VNTR-6R polymorphism of the gene SLC6A3 and the genotype 3435CC in the ABCB1 gene, are both associated with addictive behavior to heroin or cocaine.

  20. Identifying and Intervening with Students Exhibiting Signs of Gaming Addiction and Other Addictive Behaviors: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Young, Tabitha

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses strategies professional school counselors can use to recognize and intervene with students who are presenting with signs of addictive behaviors. First, the authors present a definition of addictive behaviors. The authors then define and discuss the most common addictive behaviors impacting adolescents, with a special…

  1. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Volkow, N.D.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-27

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  2. Gambling Disorder and Other Behavioral Addictions: Recognition and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2015-01-01

    Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors—such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping—bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or “behavioral” addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders” in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in thi...

  3. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hing Keung Ma

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued ...

  4. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C.; Williams, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data ...

  5. Family indicators for the risk of addictive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The empirical findings in family problems relating to addictive behavior in children and adolescents, can serve a foundation for forming up a multiaxial system of indicators and backbone risk factors of addictive behavior in the family. On the ground of analysis of several publications the following risk indicators of addictive behavior in families can be introduced: environmental toxicity, family structure, parents' educational level, quality of parental styles, level of parents' aggravation, presence of empathy in children and adolescents, transgeneration transmission of sociocultural norms and traditions.

  6. Violent Behaviors in Drug Addiction: Differential Profiles of Drug-Addicted Patients with and without Violence Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent behaviors in patients who are addicted to drugs. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed. Information on violent behaviors, sociodemographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the European version of the Addiction Severity Index…

  7. Addictive behaviors related to opioid use for chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, Jette; Ekholm, Kim Ola Michael; Kurita, Geana Paula;

    2013-01-01

    The growing body of research showing increased opioid use in patients with chronic pain coupled with concerns regarding addiction encouraged the development of this population-based study. The goal of the study was to investigate the co-occurrence of indicators of addictive behaviors in patients......, 13,281 individuals were analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses to assess the association between chronic pain (lasting ⩾6 months), opioid use, health behavior, and body mass index. Six potential addictive behaviors were identified: daily smoking; high alcohol intake; illicit drug use...... in the past year; obesity; long-term use of benzodiazepines; and long-term use of benzodiazepine-related drugs. At least 2 of the 6 addictive behaviors were observed in 22.6% of the long-term opioid users with chronic pain compared with 11.5% of the non-opioid users with chronic pain and 8.9% of the...

  8. The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior Past Issues / ... brain structure and function. Advances in brain imaging science make it possible to see inside the brain ...

  9. Addictive Behaviors Amongst University Students: Contributing Factors, Student's Perception and Addiction Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Houri; Mirvat Hammoud

    2005-01-01

    Factors contributing to addictive behaviors affecting student health are analyzed in this study. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the use of illegal drugs are assessed in a sample of 290 university students. General averages indicate that 37.2% of students smoke cigarettes, 49.8% drink alcohol regularly, and 17.9% have tried illegal drugs while 4.8% of them use it regularly. Age, academic achievement, gender, religion, family status and financial status were correlated to these addictive beh...

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL REASONS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR (ON THE EXAMPLE OF WORKAHOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Владимировна Смирнова

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of people, suffering from non-chemical addictions - workaholism, gambling, shopaholism etc. - is greatly increased during last decades. Due to the large variety of these addictions, the questions of the reasons of such behavior and its effective prevention became very urgent. Usually, these questions are tried to be solved in the field of special psychology, while the author tries to look at the problem from the position of general psychology. The paper offers the data of workaholics' addictive behavior research from the position of cultural-historical methodology and the theory of play activity's development. The goal of these study was the analysis of relations between problematic development of play in preschool age and later formation of workaholism in adult age. By using the methods of interview and writing of essay, as well as correlation and content analysis of workaholics' and non-addicts' answers, author shows that workaholics had significant underdevelopment of play in child age and also don't able to realize and/or control their play behavior in adult age. Thus, author concludes that the underdevelopment of child's play may lead to the establishment of addictive behavior and formation of addictive personality's features. Acquired data allows to provide the workaholism' prevention by the development of play in preschool age and psychotherapy of work addiction by the development of subject of play activity in adult age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-57

  11. Internet gambling is a predictive factor of Internet addictive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Critselis, Elena; Janikian, Mari; Paleomilitou, Noni; Oikonomou, Despoina; Kassinopoulos, Marios; Kormas, George; Tsitsika, Artemis

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Adolescent Internet gambling is associated with concomitant addictive behaviors. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Internet gambling practices, its impact upon psychosocial development and to evaluate the association between gambling practices and Internet addictive behavior among Cypriot adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample (n = 805) of adolescents attending selected public schools (9th and 10th grades) in Cyprus....

  12. The Addictive Personality Is the Behavior of the Addict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Peter E.

    1988-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent antisocial behavior has been identified as a precursor of alcoholism. Research suggests that substantial numbers of abusers meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for antisocial personality disorder and depression, behaviors symptomatic, respectively, of a disregard for society's rules and of…

  13. Oral health behavior of drug addicts in withdrawal treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar; Khami Mohammad R; Mohebbi Simin Z; Virtanen Jorma I

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Oral health behavior (OHB), one major factor contributing to proper oral health status, has been addressed insufficiently in addiction literature. The aim of our study was to investigate OHB and its determinants among drug addicts in withdrawal treatment. Methods Through a stratified cluster sampling method, we collected the data from 685 patients in withdrawal treatment in Tehran using self-administered questionnaires on OHB components and conducting interviews about pati...

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL REASONS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR (ON THE EXAMPLE OF WORKAHOLISM)

    OpenAIRE

    Юлия Владимировна Смирнова

    2013-01-01

    The number of people, suffering from non-chemical addictions - workaholism, gambling, shopaholism etc. - is greatly increased during last decades. Due to the large variety of these addictions, the questions of the reasons of such behavior and its effective prevention became very urgent. Usually, these questions are tried to be solved in the field of special psychology, while the author tries to look at the problem from the position of general psychology. The paper offers the data of workaholi...

  15. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, paddiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. PMID:25462651

  16. Oral health behavior of drug addicts in withdrawal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health behavior (OHB, one major factor contributing to proper oral health status, has been addressed insufficiently in addiction literature. The aim of our study was to investigate OHB and its determinants among drug addicts in withdrawal treatment. Methods Through a stratified cluster sampling method, we collected the data from 685 patients in withdrawal treatment in Tehran using self-administered questionnaires on OHB components and conducting interviews about patients’ characteristics and addiction history. The T-test, ANOVA, and a linear regression model served for statistical analysis. Results Of the patients, 48% reported brushing their teeth less than once a day, more than 90% used fluoride toothpaste almost or always, and 81% flossed their teeth rarely or never. Eating sugary products twice a day or more was reported by 57% of the patients and 85% of them were current smokers. Poor OHB was associated with male gender, lower education, being addicted mainly to crystalline heroin, starting drug abuse at a younger age, and having a longer history of addiction (p  Conclusion Poor OHB was found among the participants in drug withdrawal treatment. Preventive strategies on oral health should be planned and be integrated into other health promotion programs for addicts along with their withdrawal treatment taking into account special groups at higher risk.

  17. Addictive Behaviors Amongst University Students: Contributing Factors, Student's Perception and Addiction Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Houri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors contributing to addictive behaviors affecting student health are analyzed in this study. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the use of illegal drugs are assessed in a sample of 290 university students. General averages indicate that 37.2% of students smoke cigarettes, 49.8% drink alcohol regularly, and 17.9% have tried illegal drugs while 4.8% of them use it regularly. Age, academic achievement, gender, religion, family status and financial status were correlated to these addictive behaviors. Major findings show a clear relationship between smoking and most variables. The main factor involved in drinking was found to be religion, while illegal drug consumption was most clearly correlated to parents’ education and monthly income. Students’ self perception regarding smoking and tendency to use illegal drug was assessed showing that 11.7% of smokers consider themselves non-smokers while 11.8% considered trying illegal drugs acceptable. Addiction rates after initial consumption are analyzed showing 74.7% for alcohol, 51.7% for smoking cigarettes and 26.9% for drugs. A risk profile for each addiction type is presented.

  18. Behavioral and Neurological Foundations for the Moral and Legal Implications of Intoxication, Addictive Behaviors and Disinhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Leeman, Robert F.; Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Disinhibition and addictive behaviors are related and carry moral implications. Both typically involve diminished consideration of negative consequences, which may result in harm to oneself or others. Disinhibition may occur on state and trait levels, and addictive substances may elicit disinhibitory states, particularly when intoxication is reached. Data suggest that trait disinhibition and addictions may be conceptualized as involving misdirected motivation with underlying biological bases ...

  19. Internet and video game addictions: a cognitive behavioral approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lins Lemos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background While several benefits are attributed to the Internet and video games, an important proportion of the population presents symptoms related to possible new technological addictions and there has been little discussion of treatment of problematic technology use. Although demand for knowledge is growing, only a small number of treatments have been described. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature, to establish Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT as a possible strategy for treating Internet and video game addictions. Method The review was conducted in the following databases: Science Direct on Line, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Clinical Trials Library, BVS and SciELO. The keywords used were: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; therapy; treatment; with association to the terms Internet addiction and video game addiction. Given the scarcity of studies in the field, no restrictions to the minimum period of publication were made, so that articles found until October 2013 were accounted. Results Out of 72 articles found, 23 described CBT as a psychotherapy for Internet and video game addiction. The manuscripts showed the existence of case studies and protocols with satisfactory efficacy. Discussion Despite the novelty of technological dependencies, CBT seems to be applicable and allows an effective treatment for this population.

  20. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1 the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2 the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3 the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4 the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of addictive behaviors in a community sample: A latent class analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deleuze, Jory; Rochat, Lucien; Romo, Lucia; Van Der Linden, Martial; Achab Arigo, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele Fabio; Maurage, Pierre; Rothen, Stéphane; Billieux, Joel

    2015-01-01

    While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g., excessive gambling, buying or playing video games). In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of a wide range of addictive behaviors in a general population sample and to identify reliable subgroups of individuals displaying addictive behaviors. Seven hundred se...

  2. Associations between the Risk of Internet Addiction and Problem Behaviors among Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Jisun; Lee, Jungkwon; Noh, Hye-Mi; Park, Yong Soon; Ahn, Eun Ju

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of internet users is increasing rapidly and internet addiction among adolescents has become a serious public health problem in Korea. In the light of behavioral addiction, this study was aimed to identify the associations between the risk of internet addiction and other problem behaviors which can lead to addiction, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, and sexual intercourse among a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Methods Data ...

  3. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and behavioral models of smoking addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AllysonRosen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While few studies have applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to smoking addiction, existing work suggests that the intervention holds promise for altering the complex system by which environmental cues interact with cravings to drive behavior. Imaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS studies suggest that increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activation and integrity may be associated with increased resistance to smoking cues. Anodal tDCS of the DLPFC, believed to boost activation, reduces cravings in response to these cues. The finding that noninvasive stimulation modifies cue induced cravings has profound implications for understanding the processes underlying addiction and relapse. TDCS can also be applied to probe mechanisms underlying and supporting nicotine addiction, as was done in a pharmacologic study that applied nicotine, tDCS, and TMS paired associative stimulation to find that stopping nicotine after chronic use induces a reduction in plasticity, causing difficulty in breaking free from association between cues and cravings. This mini-review will place studies that apply tDCS to smokers in the context of research involving the neural substrates of nicotine addiction.

  4. Internet and video game addictions: a cognitive behavioral approach

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Lins Lemos; Cristiano Nabuco de Abreu; Everton Botelho Sougey

    2014-01-01

    Background While several benefits are attributed to the Internet and video games, an important proportion of the population presents symptoms related to possible new technological addictions and there has been little discussion of treatment of problematic technology use. Although demand for knowledge is growing, only a small number of treatments have been described. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature, to establish Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) as a possible str...

  5. Application of Neurolinguistic Programming for Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Addictive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…

  6. Economic demand predicts addiction-like behavior and therapeutic efficacy of oxytocin in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Jhou, Thomas C.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem with no current pharmacotherapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. To accelerate discovery of treatments, we developed an animal model based on economics. Economics allows mathematical alignment of animal and human behavior, permitting more confident predictions of efficacy in addicts. Although economic models are strongly associated with addiction severity in humans, they have not yet been shown to be a marker of addiction in r...

  7. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. PMID:26809997

  8. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G.; Murphy, Michelle; Van Der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    “Food addiction” has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on “food addiction” is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term “food addiction”, which combines the concepts of “substance based” and behaviora...

  9. Uses of self-regulation to facilitate and restrain addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vonasch, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    We apply self-regulation theory to understand addictive behavior. Self-regulation and volition depend on a limited resource, and when that resource has been depleted, self-regulation becomes prone to fail. Moving beyond traditional models that have emphasized the relevance of self-regulation to quitting addiction, we propose that self-regulation is used both to facilitate and resist addictive behaviors. Self-regulation is often needed to overcome initial aversion to drugs and alcohol, as well as to maintain addictive usage patterns despite situational obstacles (e.g., illegality, erratic availability, family disapproval). Sustaining addiction also requires preventing use from spiraling out of control and interfering with other aspects of life. More generally, the automaticity and irresistibility of addictive responses may have been overrated, as indicated by how addictive behaviors respond rationally to incentives and other concerns. Self-regulation does facilitate quitting, and relapse may be especially likely when self-regulatory capabilities are depleted. PMID:25267213

  10. Adolescent cocaine abuse. Addictive potential, behavioral and psychiatric effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated. PMID:2582695

  11. Behavioral endophenotypes of drug addiction: Etiological insights from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Bianca; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in the elucidation of neurobehavioral endophenotypes associated with drug addiction made possible by the translational neuroimaging techniques magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Increasingly, these non-invasive imaging approaches have been the catalyst for advancing our understanding of the etiology of drug addiction as a brain disorder involving complex interactions between pre-disposing behavioral traits, environmental influences and neural perturbations arising from the chronic abuse of licit and illicit drugs. In this article we discuss the causal role of trait markers associated with impulsivity and novelty-/sensation-seeking in speeding the development of compulsive drug administration and in facilitating relapse. We also discuss the striking convergence of imaging findings from these behavioural traits and addiction in rats, monkeys and humans with a focus on biomarkers of dopamine neurotransmission, and highlight areas where further research is needed to disambiguate underlying causal mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23756169

  12. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB. PMID:25580865

  13. Stress related neuropeptides and addictive behaviors: Beyond the usual suspects

    OpenAIRE

    Schank, Jesse R.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.; Giardino, William J.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Heilig, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Addictive disorders are chronic, relapsing conditions that cause extensive disease burden. Genetic factors partly account for susceptibility to addiction, but environmental factors such as stressful experiences and prolonged exposure of the brain to addictive drugs promote its development. Progression to addiction involves neuroadaptations within neurocircuitry that mediates stress responses, and is influenced by several peptidergic neuromodulators. While corticotropin releasing factor is the...

  14. The Addictive Model of Self-Harming (Non-suicidal and Suicidal) Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Fernández-Fernández, Roberto; Colino, Laura; Fajardo, Lourdes; Perteguer-Barrio, Rosa; Leon, Jose,

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, Internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse). Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior (SB) can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature...

  15. Is Sensation Seeking a correlate of excessive behaviors and behavioral addictions? A detailed examination of patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Dreier, M; Beutel, M E; Wölfling, K

    2016-08-30

    Sensation Seeking has repeatedly been related to substance use. Also, its role as a correlate of Gambling Disorder has been discussed although research has led to heterogeneous results. Likewise, first studies on Internet Addiction have indicated increased Sensation Seeking, to some extent contradicting clinical impression of patients suffering from internet addiction. We assessed Sensation Seeking in a clinical sample of n=251 patients with Gambling Disorder, n=243 patients with internet addiction, n=103 clients with excessive but not addictive internet use, and n=142 healthy controls. The clinical groups were further sub-divided according to the preferred type of addictive behavior (slot-machine gambling vs. high arousal gambling activities and internet gaming disorder vs. other internet-related addictive behaviors). Decreased scores in some subscales of Sensation Seeking were found among male patients compared to healthy controls with no differences between patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction. The type of preferred gambling or online activity was not related to differences in Sensation Seeking. Previous findings indicating only small associations between Sensation Seeking and Gambling Disorder were confirmed. Regarding Internet Addiction our results contradict findings from non-clinical samples. Sensation Seeking might be relevant in initiating contact to the health care system. PMID:27322843

  16. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels...

  17. Prefrontal synaptic markers of cocaine addiction-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanetz, F; Lafourcade, M; Deroche-Gamonet, V; Revest, J-M; Berson, N; Balado, E; Fiancette, J-F; Renault, P; Piazza, P-V; Manzoni, O J

    2013-06-01

    Defining the drug-induced neuroadaptations specifically associated with the behavioral manifestation of addiction is a daunting task. To address this issue, we used a behavioral model that differentiates rats controlling their drug use (Non-Addict-like) from rats undergoing transition to addiction (Addict-like). Dysfunctions in prefrontal cortex (PFC) synaptic circuits are thought to be responsible for the loss of control over drug taking that characterizes addicted individuals. Here, we studied the synaptic alterations in prelimbic PFC (pPFC) circuits associated with transition to addiction. We discovered that some of the changes induced by cocaine self-administration (SA), such as the impairment of the endocannabinoid-mediated long-term synaptic depression (eCB-LTD) was similarly abolished in Non-Addict- and Addict-like rats and thus unrelated to transition to addiction. In contrast, metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3-mediated LTD (mGluR2/3-LTD) was specifically suppressed in Addict-like rats, which also show a concomitant postsynaptic plasticity expressed as a change in the relative contribution of AMPAR and NMDAR to basal glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission. Addiction-associated synaptic alterations in the pPFC were not fully developed at early stages of cocaine SA, when addiction-like behaviors are still absent, suggesting that pathological behaviors appear once the pPFC is compromised. These data identify specific synaptic impairments in the pPFC associated with addiction and support the idea that alterations of synaptic plasticity are core markers of drug dependence. PMID:22584869

  18. An opinion-driven behavioral dynamics model for addictive behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas W.; Finley, Patrick D.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Husten, Corinne; Glass, Robert J.

    2015-04-01

    We present a model of behavioral dynamics that combines a social network-based opinion dynamics model with behavioral mapping. The behavioral component is discrete and history-dependent to represent situations in which an individual's behavior is initially driven by opinion and later constrained by physiological or psychological conditions that serve to maintain the behavior. Individuals are modeled as nodes in a social network connected by directed edges. Parameter sweeps illustrate model behavior and the effects of individual parameters and parameter interactions on model results. Mapping a continuous opinion variable into a discrete behavioral space induces clustering on directed networks. Clusters provide targets of opportunity for influencing the network state; however, the smaller the network the greater the stochasticity and potential variability in outcomes. This has implications both for behaviors that are influenced by close relationships verses those influenced by societal norms and for the effectiveness of strategies for influencing those behaviors.

  19. Sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: Role in drug addiction and novel treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn E. Carroll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as: 1 using natural consequences such as nondrug rewards (e.g., exercise to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, 2 targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and 3 combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  20. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  1. Toward quantifying the abuse liability of ultraviolet tanning: A behavioral economic approach to tanning addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. PMID:27400670

  2. Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mélissa Prud'homme; Romulus Cata; Didier Jutras-Aswad

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by the compulsive desire to use drugs and a loss of control over consumption. Cannabidiol (CBD), the second most abundant component of cannabis, is thought to modulate various neuronal circuits involved in drug addiction. The goal of this systematic review is to summarize the available preclinical and clinical data on the impact of CBD on addictive behaviors. MEDLINE and PubMed were searched for English and French language artic...

  3. The effects of Internet addiction on the lifestyle and dietary behavior of Korean adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Byuk; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yun Sook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We performed this study to examine lifestyle patterns and dietary behavior based on the level of Internet addiction of Korean adolescents. Data were collected from 853 Korean junior high school students. The level of Internet addiction was determined based on the Korean Internet addiction self-scale short form for youth, and students were classified as high-risk Internet users, potential-risk Internet users, and no risk Internet users. The associations between the students' levels of Internet...

  4. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol d...

  5. Sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: Role in drug addiction and novel treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontro...

  6. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors. PMID:25405785

  7. Individual resources for the pupil′s addictive behavior prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The expanding knowledge about psychology of addictive adolescents allows to develop innovative strategies and to set new accents in prevention activity among students. Now it is reinforcing the trend of individual preventive work, which is differentiated for ages and stages of the educational process. Such work is most relevant to group of risk for involvement –namely, for students, changing living environment, - who are at the first semester of college. Here is an overview of science concepts of individual preventive engagement, primarily in alcoholism, based on recovery of the spiritual realm, psychological well-being, spiritual potential of any age. On the example of concepts about cognitive behavioral strategies and risks of failure it is shown their potential effectiveness for the monitoring of chemical dependence among adolescents.

  8. Treating Internet Addiction with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Thematic Analysis of the Experiences of Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Antonius J.; Zinn, Mieke F.; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program ("Lifestyle Training") to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates this pilot treatment program by providing a…

  9. Internet Addiction: College Student Case Study Using Best Practices in Cognitive Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex S.; Parsons, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Internet Behavior Dependence (IBD), a form of Internet addiction, is a new disorder requiring informed response from addictions clinicians such as mental health counselors. Presents a working definition for IBD, overviews the prevalence rates and demographic profiles of dependent users, and reviews assessment criteria and treatment for IBD.…

  10. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology. PMID:22974351

  11. Reward/punishment sensitivities among internet addicts: Implications for their addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Hu, Yanbo; Lin, Xiao

    2013-10-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) has raised widespread public health concerns. In this study, we used a gambling task to simulate extreme win/lose situations to find the reward/punishment sensitivities after continuous wins and losses. FMRI data were collected from 16 IAD subjects (21.4±3.1years) and 15 healthy controls (HC, 22.1±3.6years). Group comparisons showed higher superior frontal gyrus activations after continuous wins for IAD subjects than for HC. The brain activities in IAD subjects were not disturbed by their losses. In addition, IAD participants showed decreased posterior cingulate activation compared to HC after continuous losses. These results indicated that IAD participants showed preference to win while neglecting their losses. Therefore they engaged less executive endeavor to control their frustration after continuous losses. Taken together, we concluded that IAD subjects showed enhanced sensitivity to win and decreased sensitivity to lose. This can help us understand why IAD subjects continue playing online even after noticing the severe negative consequences of their behaviors. PMID:23876789

  12. Disordered gambling: the evolving concept of behavioral addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Luke

    2014-01-01

    The reclassification of gambling disorder within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) addictions category marks an important step for addiction science. The similarities between gambling disorder and the substance use disorders have been well documented. As gambling is unlikely to exert actively damaging effects on the brain, the cognitive sequelae of gambling disorder may provide insights into addictive vulnerabilities; this idea is critically eval...

  13. Perception of occupational competence and sexual risk behaviors in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Xavier de Melo Teixeira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to study/understand sexual risk behaviors and the perception of occupational competence in drug addicts, regarding the existence/absence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD. Method: We opted for a quantitative and transversal methodology that provided an exploratory and descriptive nature to the study. To this end, 166 drug addicts aged 34.6 years on average were assessed through the following questionnaires: “Occupational Self Assessment” and “HIV-KQ”. Results: Regarding sexual behaviors, drug addicts infected with HIV were the group using condoms more frequently and having a more comprehensive knowledge about HIV. On the other hand, drug addicts with no STDs presented higher median scores related to occupational competence, volition, and performance ability when compared with the other two groups. Conclusions: Sexual risk behaviors among drug addicts differ according to their serology. Drug addicts without STD maintain sexual risk behaviors. They seem to have no perception of how serious the fact of being infected with HIV is to their health and occupational ability. When a drug addict is confronted with his own seropositivity to HIV, there seems to be a common behavior related to the use of precautions (condoms, risk reduction in every type of sexual relation, and decreased perception of occupational competence.

  14. Neuroscience of resilience and vulnerability for addiction medicine: From genes to behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Jonathan D; Flagel, Shelly B

    2016-01-01

    Addiction is a complex behavioral disorder arising from roughly equal contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Behavioral traits such as novelty-seeking, impulsivity, and cue-reactivity have been associated with vulnerability to addiction. These traits, at least in part, arise from individual variation in functional neural systems, such as increased striatal dopaminergic activity and decreased prefrontal cortical control over subcortical emotional and motivational responses. With a few exceptions, genetic studies have largely failed to consistently identify specific alleles that affect addiction liability. This may be due to the multifactorial nature of addiction, with different genes becoming more significant in certain environments or in certain subsets of the population. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be an important source of risk. Adolescence is a particularly critical time period in the development of addiction, and environmental factors at this stage of life can have a large influence on whether inherited risk factors are actually translated into addictive behaviors. Knowledge of how individual differences affect addiction liability at the level of genes, neural systems, behavioral traits, and sociodevelopmental trajectories can help to inform and improve clinical practice. PMID:26806768

  15. Addiction treatment outcomes, process, and change: Texas Institute of Behavioral Research at TCU

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, D Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Dansereau, Donald F.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    For over 40 years the Texas Institute of Behavioral Research (IBR) has given special attention to assessment and evaluation of drug user populations, addiction treatment services, and various cognitive and behavioral interventions. Emphasis has been on studies in real-world settings and the use of multivariate methodologies to address evaluation issues within the context of longitudinal natural designs. Historically, its program of addiction treatment research may be divided into three sequen...

  16. High Trait Impulsivity Predicts Food Addiction-Like Behavior in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Ferragud, Antonio; Moore, Catherine F; Everitt, Barry J.; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a behavioral trait frequently seen not only in drug-addicted individuals but also in individuals who pathologically overeat. However, whether impulsivity predates the development of uncontrollable feeding is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that a high impulsivity trait precedes and confers vulnerability for food addiction-like behavior. For this purpose, we trained ad libitum-fed male Wistar rats in a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) task to s...

  17. Behavioral and Neuroeconomics of Drug Addiction: Competing Neural Systems and Temporal Discounting Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bickel, Warren K.; Miller, Michelle L.; Yi, Richard; Kowal, Benjamin P.; Lindquist, Diana M; Pitcock, Jeffery A

    2006-01-01

    We review behavioral- and neuroeconomic research that identifies temporal discounting as an important component in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. First we review behavioral economic research that explains and documents the contribution of temporal discounting to addiction. This is followed with recent insights from neuroeconomics that may provide an explanation of why drug dependent individuals discount the future. Specifically, neuroeconomics has identified two competing ...

  18. Studying the factors in dependency to substances changing the mood and behavior and effective methods in drug addiction counseling

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Addicts to alcohol and other substances changing the mood and behavior attempt to stop their addiction and avoid its relapse because they suffer mental and physical problems, they are under the pressure of family members, employer and other individuals who influence over their life as well as negative effects of drug addiction on their performance in family, work and social relations. Since drug addicts experience physical pain when they are not using drugs, they refer, at first, to physician...

  19. A study of multiple behavioral addictions in a substance abuse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najavits, Lisa; Lung, John; Froias, Autumn; Paull, Nancy; Bailey, Genie

    2014-03-01

    Behavioral addictions (BAs) are underrecognized, even in addiction programs. We assessed BAs in a substance abuse sample (n = 51; data collection 2011-2012). A self-report Behavioral Addictions Screen, assessing eight BAs, was administered using an automated telephone system. Most endorsed at least one BA, with the most common shopping/spending; eating; work; computer/internet; and sex/pornography. Lowest were gambling, self-harm, and exercise. Some BAs were correlated with others. Gender, ethnicity, age, and positive depression and posttraumatic stress disorder screens were associated with specific BAs. Future research could address interpretation of "addiction," comparison to diagnostic interviews, relationship to substance use disorders, and larger samples. PMID:24304172

  20. The Influence of Personality, Parental Behaviors, and Self-Esteem on Internet Addiction: A Study of Chinese College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Mike Z.; He, Jing; Ko, Deborah M.; Pang, Kaichung

    2014-01-01

    A survey of 2,095 college students in five major cities in China was conducted to examine the influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction. We found that psychoticism and neuroticism were both positively related to Internet addiction. The influence of parental behaviors on Internet addition was also significant. However, fathers' and mothers' behaviors had different impacts on their children's likelihood of being addicted to the Internet. Specifically, w...

  1. Role of NMDA Receptors in Dopamine Neurons for Plasticity and Addictive Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Zweifel, Larry S.; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello; Palmiter, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    A single exposure to drugs of abuse produces an NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) currents in DA neurons; however, the importance of LTP for various aspects of drug addiction is unclear. To test the role of NMDAR-dependent plasticity in addictive behavior, we genetically inactivated functional NMDAR signaling exclusively in DA neurons (KO mice). Inactivation of NMDARs results in increased AMPAR-mediated transmission that is indistinguishable...

  2. Adolescents Are More Vulnerable to Cocaine Addiction: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Wai Chong; Ford, Kerstin A.; Pagels, Nicole E.; McCutcheon, James E.; Marinelli, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In humans, adolescence is a period of heightened propensity to develop cocaine addiction. It is unknown whether this is attributable to greater access and exposure to cocaine at this age, or whether the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the addictive properties of cocaine. Here, we subjected male adolescent (P42) and adult (~P88) rats to a wide range of cocaine self-administration procedures. In addition, to determine whether behavioral differences are associated with development...

  3. Epigenetic and proteomic expression changes promoted by eating addictive-like behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Samantha; Burokas, Aurelijus, 1982-; Guti??rrez Cuesta, Javier; Guti??rrez Martos, Miriam; Mart??n Garc??a, Elena, 1975-; Pucci, Mariangela; Falconi, Anastasia; D'Addario, Claudio; Maccarrone, Mauro; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    An increasing perspective conceptualizes obesity and overeating as disorders related to addictive-like processes that could share common neurobiological mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed at validating an animal model of eating addictive-like behavior in mice, based on the DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria, using operant conditioning maintained by highly palatable chocolate-flavored pellets. For this purpose, we evaluated persistence of food-seeking during a period of non-availabi...

  4. THE EFFECT OF THE INTERNET ADDICTION ON THE INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIOR OF THE POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Garivani, Asieh; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Internet addiction is a typical use of the internet that causes the psychological, social, educational, or occupational problems for the people. Students need the internet more than other people due to their educational or research needs. The rate and type of the internet use may affect their information-seeking behavior too. This study aims to investigate the effect of the internet addiction on the information-seeking behavior of the postgraduate students. Methods: This applied study that uses the correlation method. The research population composed of 1149 postgraduate students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, of which 284 were selected using the stratified random sampling as the sample. Yang’s internet addiction questionnaire and the researcher-developed questionnaire of the information-seeking behavior were used as the data collection instruments. Instrument validity was confirmed by the specialists of librarianship and medical sciences and its reliability was confirmed using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.86). Research data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent-t tests, Pearson correlation coefficient, and variance analysis). Results: Based on the findings, there was no sign of internet addiction among the 86.6% of the students. However, 13% of the students were exposed to the internet addiction and only 0.4% of internet addiction was observed among the students. There was no significant difference between the information-seeking behavior of the male and female respondents. There was no sign of the internet addiction in any dimension of the information-seeking behavior of the students. Conclusion: This study showed that there is no relationship between the information-seeking behavior of the students and the age and the rate of the internet use. Promoting the network infrastructures and increasing the internet speed as well as facilitating the use of

  5. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the

  6. Epigenetic and Proteomic Expression Changes Promoted by Eating Addictive-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Samantha; Burokas, Aurelijus; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Gutiérrez-Martos, Miriam; Martín-García, Elena; Pucci, Mariangela; Falconi, Anastasia; D'Addario, Claudio; Maccarrone, Mauro; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    An increasing perspective conceptualizes obesity and overeating as disorders related to addictive-like processes that could share common neurobiological mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed at validating an animal model of eating addictive-like behavior in mice, based on the DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria, using operant conditioning maintained by highly palatable chocolate-flavored pellets. For this purpose, we evaluated persistence of food-seeking during a period of non-availability of food, motivation for food, and perseverance of responding when the reward was associated with a punishment. This model has allowed identifying extreme subpopulations of mice related to addictive-like behavior. We investigated in these subpopulations the epigenetic and proteomic changes. A significant decrease in DNA methylation of CNR1 gene promoter was revealed in the prefrontal cortex of addict-like mice, which was associated with an upregulation of CB1 protein expression in the same brain area. The pharmacological blockade (rimonabant 3 mg/kg; i.p.) of CB1 receptor during the late training period reduced the percentage of mice that accomplished addiction criteria, which is in agreement with the reduced performance of CB1 knockout mice in this operant training. Proteomic studies have identified proteins differentially expressed in mice vulnerable or not to addictive-like behavior in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex. These changes included proteins involved in impulsivity-like behavior, synaptic plasticity, and cannabinoid signaling modulation, such as alpha-synuclein, phosphatase 1-alpha, doublecortin-like kinase 2, and diacylglycerol kinase zeta, and were validated by immunoblotting. This model provides an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the vulnerability to develop eating addictive-like behavior. PMID:25944409

  7. The influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction: a study of Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mike Z; He, Jing; Ko, Deborah M; Pang, Kaichung

    2014-02-01

    A survey of 2,095 college students in five major cities in China was conducted to examine the influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction. We found that psychoticism and neuroticism were both positively related to Internet addiction. The influence of parental behaviors on Internet addition was also significant. However, fathers' and mothers' behaviors had different impacts on their children's likelihood of being addicted to the Internet. Specifically, we found that fathers' rejection and overprotection, and mothers' rejection would increase the risk for Internet addiction. Furthermore, the influence of emotional warmth from parents on Internet addiction was partially mediated by self-esteem. Finally, we found that parental behaviors of mothers and fathers affected males and females differently in terms the risk of being addicted to the Internet. PMID:24003966

  8. The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it needs to be understood." – Dr. Nora Volkow Addiction is now understood to be a brain disease because scientific research has shown that alcohol and other drugs can change brain structure and function. Advances in brain imaging science make it possible to see inside the ...

  9. Can Decision Making Research Provide a Better Understanding of Chemical and Behavioral Addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Anzhelika; Cáceda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the cognitive and neurobiological commonalities between chemical and behavioral addictions. Poor impulse control, limited executive function and abnormalities in reward processing are seen in both group of entities. Brain imaging shows consistent abnormalities in frontoparietal regions and the limbic system. In drug addiction, exaggerated risk taking behavior and temporal discounting may reflect an imbalance between a hyperactive mesolimbic and hypoactive executive systems. Several cognitive distortions are found in pathological gambling that seems to harness the brain reward system that has evolved to face situations related to skill, not random chance. Abnormalities in risk assessment and impulsivity are found in variety of eating disorders, in particularly related to eating behavior. Corresponding findings in eating disorder patients include abnormalities in the limbic system, i.e. orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), striatum and insula. Similarly, internet addiction disorder is associated with risky decision making and increased choice impulsivity with corresponding discrepant activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate and insula. Sexual addictions are in turn associated with exaggerated impulsive choice and suggestive evidence of abnormalities in reward processing. In sum, exploration of executive function and decision making abnormalities in chemical and behavioral addictions may increase understanding in their psychopathology and yield valuable targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:26373849

  10. Does compulsive behavior in Anorexia Nervosa resemble an addiction? A qualitative investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Godier, Lauren R.; Park, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic relentless self-starvation behavior seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of parallels with addictive behavior. This study used a thematic qualitative analysis to investigate the parallels between compulsive behavior in AN and Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Forty individuals currently suffering from AN completed an online questionnaire reflecting on their experience of compulsive behavior in AN. Eight main t...

  11. Studying the factors in dependency to substances changing the mood and behavior and effective methods in drug addiction counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Addicts to alcohol and other substances changing the mood and behavior attempt to stop their addiction and avoid its relapse because they suffer mental and physical problems, they are under the pressure of family members, employer and other individuals who influence over their life as well as negative effects of drug addiction on their performance in family, work and social relations. Since drug addicts experience physical pain when they are not using drugs, they refer, at first, to physicians and then to psychiatrists. Although emerging and applying non-medical and non-pharmaceutical approaches models is not too old, arising various addictive drugs and increasing the number of drug addicts as well as individual/social destructive consequences of drug addiction have caused that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers to represent various non-pharmaceutical theories, models, methods and guidelines based on the conditions of their clients and their clinical experiences. The present article attempts to identify the reasons of drug addiction tendency, consumption patterns, models, theories of addiction to substances changing the mood and behavior, various methods of drug treatment, effective methods in drug addiction counseling and non-medical and non-pharmaceutical methods to give up drug addiction by using recent research findings. On this basis, the most effective methods to help those who suffer from alcohol and other drugs abuse and dependency are studied.

  12. Impulsive action and impulsive choice across substance and behavioral addictions: cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2014-11-01

    Substance use disorders are prevalent and debilitating. Certain behavioral syndromes ('behavioral addictions') characterized by repetitive habits, such as gambling disorder, stealing, shopping, and compulsive internet use, may share clinical, co-morbid, and neurobiological parallels with substance addictions. This review considers overlap between substance and behavioral addictions with a particular focus on impulsive action (inability to inhibit motor responses), and impulsive choice (preference for immediate smaller rewards to the detriment of long-term outcomes). We find that acute consumption of drugs with abuse potential is capable of modulating impulsive choice and action, although magnitude and direction of effect appear contingent on baseline function. Many lines of evidence, including findings from meta-analyses, show an association between chronic drug use and elevated impulsive choice and action. In some instances, elevated impulsive choice and action have been found to predate the development of substance use disorders, perhaps signifying their candidacy as objective vulnerability markers. Research in behavioral addictions is preliminary, and has mostly focused on impulsive action, finding this to be elevated versus controls, similar to that seen in chronic substance use disorders. Only a handful of imaging studies has explored the neural correlates of impulsive action and choice across these disorders. Key areas for future research are highlighted along with potential implications in terms of neurobiological models and treatment. In particular, future work should further explore whether the cognitive deficits identified are state or trait in nature: i.e. are evident before addiction perhaps signaling risk; or are a consequence of repetitive engagement in habitual behavior; and effects of novel agents known to modulate these cognitive abilities on various addictive disorders. PMID:24864028

  13. Introduction to The Special Issue on The Behavior Analysis and Treatment of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Kenneth; Roll, John M.; Higgins, Stephen T

    2008-01-01

    Extensive evidence from the laboratory and the clinic suggests that drug addiction can be viewed as operant behavior and effectively treated through the application of principles of operant conditioning. Contingency management interventions that arrange for the direct reinforcement of drug abstinence or of other therapeutically important target behaviors (e.g., regular use of drug abuse treatment medications) are among the most studied type of operant treatments. Behavior analysts have contri...

  14. Recorded Behavior as a Valuable Resource for Diagnostics in Mobile Phone Addiction: Evidence from Psychoinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Montag; Konrad Błaszkiewicz; Bernd Lachmann; Rayna Sariyska; Ionut Andone; Boris Trendafilov; Alexander Markowetz

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on t...

  15. Adolescents are more vulnerable to cocaine addiction: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai Chong; Ford, Kerstin A; Pagels, Nicole E; McCutcheon, James E; Marinelli, Michela

    2013-03-13

    In humans, adolescence is a period of heightened propensity to develop cocaine addiction. It is unknown whether this is attributable to greater access and exposure to cocaine at this age, or whether the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the addictive properties of cocaine. Here, we subjected male adolescent (P42) and adult (∼P88) rats to a wide range of cocaine self-administration procedures. In addition, to determine whether behavioral differences are associated with developmental differences in dopaminergic activity, we examined and manipulated the activity of dopamine neurons. Relative to adults, adolescent rats took cocaine more readily, were more sensitive to lower doses, showed greater escalation of cocaine intake, and were less susceptible to increases in price (i.e., were more "inelastic"). In parallel, adolescents also showed elevated activity of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, a feature known to be associated with increased self-administration behavior. Pharmacological manipulation of dopamine D2 receptor function with quinpirole (agonist) or eticlopride (antagonist), to alter dopamine neuron activity, eliminated age differences in cocaine self-administration. These data suggest a causal relationship between behavioral and electrophysiological determinants of cocaine addiction liability. In conclusion, adolescents show behavioral and electrophysiological traits of heightened addiction liability. PMID:23486962

  16. Concerns about pregabalin: further experience with its potential of causing addictive behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahr, M.; Franke, B.; Freudenmann, R.W.; Kolle, M.A.; Schonfeldt-Lecuona, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pregabalin (PRG) is approved for the treatment of neuropathic pain, partial seizures, and generalized anxiety disorder in many countries. Supported by case reports and a few studies there is an ongoing debate on PRG's potential to cause addictive behaviors. Considering that PRG is currently under in

  17. Recent Advances in Understanding the Personality Underpinnings of Impulsive Behavior and their Role in Risk for Addictive Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Birkley, Erica L.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been a widely explored construct, particularly as a personality-based risk factor for addictive behaviors. The authors review evidence that (a) there is no single impulsivity trait; rather, there are at least five different personality traits that dispose individuals to rash or impulsive action; (b) the five traits predict different behaviors longitudinally; for example, the emotion-based urgency traits predict problematic involvement in several risky behaviors and sensation s...

  18. Recorded Behavior as a Valuable Resource for Diagnostics in Mobile Phone Addiction: Evidence from Psychoinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Montag

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on their smartphones, which recorded their phone usage for five weeks. The analyses revealed that weekly phone usage in hours was overestimated; in contrast, numbers of call and text message related variables were underestimated. Importantly, several associations between actual usage and being addicted to mobile phones could be derived exclusively from the recorded behavior, but not from self-report variables. The study demonstrates the potential benefit to include methods of psychoinformatics in the diagnosis and treatment of problematic mobile phone use.

  19. Recorded Behavior as a Valuable Resource for Diagnostics in Mobile Phone Addiction: Evidence from Psychoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Błaszkiewicz, Konrad; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Andone, Ionut; Trendafilov, Boris; Markowetz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on their smartphones, which recorded their phone usage for five weeks. The analyses revealed that weekly phone usage in hours was overestimated; in contrast, numbers of call and text message related variables were underestimated. Importantly, several associations between actual usage and being addicted to mobile phones could be derived exclusively from the recorded behavior, but not from self-report variables. The study demonstrates the potential benefit to include methods of psychoinformatics in the diagnosis and treatment of problematic mobile phone use. PMID:26492275

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Addiction Measure for Video Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction. PMID:26720761

  1. Behavioral addictions in euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder: a comparison to controls

    OpenAIRE

    Sapir, Ran; Zohar, Ada H; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, RH; Osher, Yamima

    2013-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder may be associated with a hypersensitive behavioral approach system and therefore to increased reward sensitivity. The objective of this study is to explore the interrelationships between bipolar disorder, behavioral addictions, and personality/temperament traits in a group of euthymic outpatients with bipolar I disorder and in a group of comparison subjects. Methods Fifty clinically stable patients and 50 comparison subjects matched for age, sex, and educational le...

  2. [Sexual addiction? When sexual behavior gets out of control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briken, P; Basdekis-Jozsa, R

    2010-04-01

    The authors differentiates deviant (paraphilic) and non-deviant forms of a sexual addictive symptomatology. For the non-deviant forms, the diagnostic term paraphilia-related disorder is used. According to etiological factors, the authors discuss an interaction of a biological vulnerability, attachment and relationship problems, disorders of affect regulation as well as disinhibition of sexual excitation. Some individuals react to negative emotions, like depression or anxiety, with an increased sexual arousal. They may try to cope with negative emotions by being sexually active. However, the importance of the sexual stimulus itself should not be ignored. The authors describe specific psychotherapy, the attendance of self-help groups, and pharmacological treatment, especially with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:20198357

  3. Pavlovian conditioning and cross-sensitization studies raise challenges to the hypothesis that overeating is an addictive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Harb, M.; De Almeida, O.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels and sign tracking (ST) in Pavlovian conditioning are potential biomarkers of compulsive behaviors such as addiction. As overeating is sometimes viewed as a form of addictive behavior, we hypothesized that murine Pavlovian sign trackers would have a greater propensity to overeat and develop obesity. Using a food reward in the classical conditioning paradigm, we show that ST behavior is a robust conditioned response but not a predictor of eating and growth traject...

  4. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Donna Spruijt-Metz; Chih Ping Chou; Mary Ann Pentz

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction s...

  5. Novelty Seeking and Drug Addiction in Humans and Animals: From Behavior to Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Taylor; Nesil, Tanseli; Choi, Jung-Seok; Li, Ming D

    2016-09-01

    Global treatment of drug addiction costs society billions of dollars annually, but current psychopharmacological therapies have not been successful at desired rates. The increasing number of individuals suffering from substance abuse has turned attention to what makes some people more vulnerable to drug addiction than others. One personality trait that stands out as a contributing factor is novelty seeking. Novelty seeking, affected by both genetic and environmental factors, is defined as the tendency to desire novel stimuli and environments. It can be measured in humans through questionnaires and in rodents using behavioral tasks. On the behavioral level, both human and rodent studies demonstrate that high novelty seeking can predict the initiation of drug use and a transition to compulsive drug use and create a propensity to relapse. These predictions are valid for several drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, and opiates. On the molecular level, both novelty seeking and addiction are modulated by the central reward system in the brain. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter involved in the overlapping neural substrates of both parameters. In sum, the novelty-seeking trait can be valuable for predicting individual vulnerability to drug addiction and for generating successful treatment for patients with substance abuse disorders. PMID:26481371

  6. Addressing the Question of Disorder-Specific Risk Factors of Internet Addiction: A Comparison of Personality Traits in Patients with Addictive Behaviors and Comorbid Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Müller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  7. Individual differences in nucleus accumbens dopamine receptors predict development of addiction-like behavior: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piray, Payam; Keramati, Mohammad Mahdi; Dezfouli, Amir; Lucas, Caro; Mokri, Azarakhsh

    2010-09-01

    Clinical and experimental observations show individual differences in the development of addiction. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that dopamine receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predisposes drug reinforcement. Here, modeling striatal-midbrain dopaminergic circuit, we propose a reinforcement learning model for addiction based on the actor-critic model of striatum. Modeling dopamine receptors in the NAc as modulators of learning rate for appetitive--but not aversive--stimuli in the critic--but not the actor--we define vulnerability to addiction as a relatively lower learning rate for the appetitive stimuli, compared to aversive stimuli, in the critic. We hypothesize that an imbalance in this learning parameter used by appetitive and aversive learning systems can result in addiction. We elucidate that the interaction between the degree of individual vulnerability and the duration of exposure to drug has two progressive consequences: deterioration of the imbalance and establishment of an abnormal habitual response in the actor. Using computational language, the proposed model describes how development of compulsive behavior can be a function of both degree of drug exposure and individual vulnerability. Moreover, the model describes how involvement of the dorsal striatum in addiction can be augmented progressively. The model also interprets other forms of addiction, such as obesity and pathological gambling, in a common mechanism with drug addiction. Finally, the model provides an answer for the question of why behavioral addictions are triggered in Parkinson's disease patients by D2 dopamine agonist treatments. PMID:20569176

  8. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Prevents Morphine-Induced Addictive Behaviors in Conditioned Place Preference Test in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Torkzadeh-Mahani, Shima; Nasri, Sima; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background Consumption of chronic morphine induces neuro-inflammation and addictive seeking behavior. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe), a well-known spice plant, has been used traditionally in the treatment of a wide variety of ailments. It has been shown that ginger has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antinociceptive properties. However, its influences on morphine-induced addictive behaviors have not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was the inhibition of exploratory ...

  9. Mindfulness training applied to addiction therapy: insights into the neural mechanisms of positive behavioral change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eric L Garland,1,2 Matthew O Howard,3 Sarah E Priddy,1 Patrick A McConnell,4 Michael R Riquino,1 Brett Froeliger4 1College of Social Work, 2Hunstsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: Dual-process models from neuroscience suggest that addiction is driven by dysregulated interactions between bottom-up neural processes underpinning reward learning and top-down neural functions subserving executive function. Over time, drug use causes atrophy in prefrontally mediated cognitive control networks and hijacks striatal circuits devoted to processing natural rewards in service of compulsive seeking of drug-related reward. In essence, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs can be conceptualized as mental training programs for exercising, strengthening, and remediating these functional brain networks. This review describes how MBIs may remediate addiction by regulating frontostriatal circuits, thereby restoring an adaptive balance between these top-down and bottom-up processes. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs facilitate cognitive control over drug-related automaticity, attentional bias, and drug cue reactivity, while enhancing responsiveness to natural rewards. Findings from the literature are incorporated into an integrative account of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness-based therapies for effecting positive behavior change in the context of addiction recovery. Implications of our theoretical framework are presented with respect to how these insights can inform the addiction therapy process. Keywords: mindfulness, frontostriatal, savoring, cue reactivity, hedonic dysregulation, reward, addiction

  10. Addressing the Question of Disorder-Specific Risk Factors of Internet Addiction: A Comparison of Personality Traits in Patients with Addictive Behaviors and Comorbid Internet Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, K.W.; Koch, A.; U. Dickenhorst; Beutel, M. E.; Duven, E.; Wölfling, K.

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in inter...

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Relation to Addictive Behaviors: A Moderated-Mediation Analysis of Personality-Risk Factors and Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Caroline; Cohen, Alina; Davids, Mark; Rabindranath, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk for addiction disorders like alcoholism and substance abuse. What is less clear is the mechanism(s) whereby ADHD gives rise to increased engagement in addictive behaviors, and whether there are sex differences in the ADHD-addiction propensity. Both ADHD and addictions have also been associated with personality traits such as impulsivity, reward seeking, anxiousness, and ne...

  12. Kicking the Habit: The Neural Basis of Ingrained Behaviors in Cocaine Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, R. Christopher; Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a complex and multifaceted process encompassing a number of forms of behavioral plasticity. The process of acquiring and consuming drugs can be sufficiently risky and complicated that the casual drug user may choose not to act on every motivation to use drugs. The repetition of drug seeking and taking, however, often results in the gradual development of drug craving and compulsive drug seeking associated with addiction. Moreover, the complex sets of behaviors associated with drug addiction can become ingrained to such an extent that, when activated by drug-associated stimuli or exposure to the drug itself, the processes underlying drug seeking and taking are automatically engaged and very difficult to suppress. Here, we examine the hypothesis that aspects of cocaine seeking and taking become ingrained with repetition, thereby contributing to continued drug use despite a conscious desire to abstain. We also review emerging evidence indicating that neuronal circuits including the dorsolateral striatum play a particularly important role in the habitual aspects of drug seeking and taking. PMID:20097224

  13. Recent advances in understanding the personality underpinnings of impulsive behavior and their role in risk for addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkley, Erica L; Smith, Gregory T

    2011-12-01

    Impulsivity has been a widely explored construct, particularly as a personality-based risk factor for addictive behaviors. The authors review evidence that (a) there is no single impulsivity trait; rather, there are at least five different personality traits that dispose individuals to rash or impulsive action; (b) the five traits predict different behaviors longitudinally; for example, the emotion-based urgency traits predict problematic involvement in several risky behaviors and sensation seeking instead predicts the frequency of engaging in such behaviors; (c) the traits can be measured in preadolescent children; (d) individual differences in the traits among preadolescent children predict the subsequent onset of, and increases in, risky behaviors including alcohol use; (e) the traits may operate by biasing the learning process, such that high-risk traits make high-risk learning more likely, thus leading to maladaptive behavior; (f) the emotion-based urgency traits may contribute to compulsive engagement in addictive behaviors; and (g) there is evidence that different interventions are appropriate for the different trait structures. PMID:22126707

  14. Gambling: An Addictive Behavior with Health and Primary Care Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Potenza, Marc N.; Fiellin, David A.; Heninger, George R.; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Mazure, Carolyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world. Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling, are associated with nongambling health problems. The purpose of this arti...

  15. P300 change and cognitive behavioral therapy in subjects with Internet addiction disorder A 3-month follow-up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Ge; Xiuchun Ge; Yong Xu; Kerang Zhang; Jing Zhao; Xin Kong

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potential studies of cognitive function in addiction behaviors have focused on the P300 event-related potential component. The current study investigated the association between P300 component and Internet addiction disorder. We found that individuals with Internet addiction disorder exhibited significantly longer P300 latencies than controls (N2: P = 0.035; P3a: P = 0.031; P3b: P = 0.043) and similar P300 amplitudes compared to control participants. After 3 months of cognitive behavioral therapy, P300 latencies decreased significantly in the P3a and P3b (P3a: P = 0.045; P3b: P = 0.062). These results suggest that deficits in cognitive function may be involved in Internet addiction disorder, and that clinical psychological treatment may be effective.

  16. Perceptions of relationship satisfaction and addictive behavior: Comparing pornography and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Tara M; Bridges, Ana J

    2012-12-01

    Background and aims Research indicates that excessive pornography use can negatively impact romantic relationships. However, it is unclear whether these negative outcomes are different than negative outcomes produced by other compulsive or addictive behaviors, such as drug use. This study compared perceptions of relationship outcomes from either a romantic partner's excessive marijuana or pornography use. Furthermore, this study experimentally manipulated four factors potentially related to perceptions of relationship satisfaction and addictive behavior. Methods A total of 186 college-aged women read 16 scenarios describing heterosexual romantic relationships in which one partner used either pornography or marijuana. Each scenario varied on four variables: relationship commitment, secrecy of partner's behavior, frequency of partner's behavior, and context of partner's behavior. Results Results suggest that partner pornography and marijuana use are perceived to impact romantic relationships similarly and are influenced by similar factors, such as greater frequency, higher secrecy, and partner's availability for interaction. Conclusions Such findings are consistent with recommendations by professionals that compulsive pornography use be considered worthy of treatment intervention. PMID:26165604

  17. Linking Online Gaming and Addictive Behavior: Converging Evidence for a General Reward Deficiency in Frequent Online Gamers

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW) – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addict...

  18. Update on treatment of craving in patients with addiction using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria da Silva Roggi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The craving is a strong desire to consume a psychotropic substance and is one of the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in drug addiction. As a theoretical construct, craving is complex and described by different authors, which results in various theoretical models, but there is a consensus on the importance of its treatment. This paper conducted a literature review to identify and describe the most widely used techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the management of craving and to verify the impact of applying these techniques on outcome variables, specifically the craving. Method: Searches were conducted in the databases of PubMed and PsycInfo using the following descriptors in association: “craving”, “cognitive therapy” “behavior therapy” and “cognitive behavior therapy”. Results: 198 papers were found, out of which thirty four were selected for analysis. The cognitive behavior therapy treatment includes various techniques such as Relapse Prevention, Psychoeducational, Humor and Stress Management, Motivational Interviewing, Exposure to the Relapse Prevention and Relaxation techniques. The manual for Project MATCH is one of the most cited and used for the treatment of drug addicts. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET, Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and newer “mindfulness” therapeutic methods are studied, and have shown promising results, but still need to be further investigated. Conclusion: Various treatments have been proposed and have allowed the achievement of significant improvements in the reduction of craving.

  19. Emotional and non-emotional pathways to impulsive behavior and addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ana; Catena, Andrés; Megías, Alberto; Maldonado, Antonio; Cándido, Antonio; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Perales, José C.

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is tightly linked to addiction. However, there are several pathways by means of which impulsive individuals are more prone to become addicts, or to suffer an addiction more intensely and for a longer period. One of those pathways involves an inadequate appraisal or regulation of positive and negative emotions, leading to lack of control over hazardous behaviors, and inappropriate decisions. In the present work, we assessed cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI; n = 20), pathological gamblers (PG; n = 21), and healthy controls (HC; n = 23) in trait impulsivity measures (UPPS-P model's dimensions), and decision-making tasks (Go/No-go; delay-discounting task). During the Go/No-go task, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded, and Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials (ERP) were extracted. Theory-driven ERP analyses focused on the No-go > Go difference in the N2 ERP. Our results show that negative urgency is one of the several psychological features that distinguish addicts from HC. Nevertheless, among the dimensions of trait impulsivity, negative urgency is unique at independently covarying with gambling over-pathologization in the PG sample. Cocaine-dependent individuals performed more poorly than gamblers in the Go/No-go task, and showed abnormal Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials. The difference between the No-go stimulus-evoked N2, and the Go one was attenuated by severity and intensity of chronic cocaine use. Emotional dimensions of impulsivity, however, did not influence Go/No-go performance. PMID:23441001

  20. Emotional and non-emotional pathways to impulsive behavior and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eTorres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is tightly linked to addiction. However, there are several pathways by means of which impulsive individuals are more prone to become addicts, or to suffer an addiction more intensely and for a longer period. One of those pathways involves an inadequate appraisal or regulation of positive and negative emotions, leading to lack of control over hazardous behaviors, and inappropriate decisions. In the present work, we assessed cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI; n=20, pathological gamblers (PG; n=21, and healthy controls (HC; n=23 in trait impulsivity measures (UPPS-P model’s dimensions, and decision-making tasks (Go/No-go; delay-discounting task. During the Go/No-go task, electroencephalographic (EEG activity was recorded, and Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials (ERP were extracted. Theory-driven ERP analyses focused on the No Go > Go difference in the N2 ERP.Our results show that negative urgency is one of the several psychological features that distinguish addicts from healthy controls. Nevertheless, among the measures of trait impulsivity, negative urgency is unique at independently covarying with gambling over-pathologization in the PG sample. Cocaine dependent individuals performed more poorly than gamblers in the Go/No-go task, and showed abnormal Go/no-go stimuli-evoked potentials. The difference between the No-go stimulus-evoked N2, and the Go one was attenuated by severity and intensity of chronic cocaine use. Emotional dimensions of impulsivity, however, did not influence go/No-go performance.

  1. Cue exposure and relapse prevention in the treatment of addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, G A

    1990-01-01

    Cue exposure techniques have been increasingly applied in the treatment of addictive behaviors. The role of cue exposure in a comprehensive approach to relapse prevention is considered from several theoretical perspectives. Issues discussed include the optimal definition of both cue and response variables in cue exposure, the relation between exposure to drug-taking cues and elicitation of outcome expectancies, and the combination of extinction-based cue exposure methods and skill training in relapse prevention programs. Whether cue exposure effects are mediated by extinction of appetitive craving responses and/or by the modification of efficacy and outcome expectancies is discussed. PMID:2248112

  2. The Impact of Substance Addiction in the Family of Adolescents to the Deviant Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Nilüfer DEMİR; Demet ULUSOY

    2004-01-01

    Our study aims to identifY the effect of the growing use of substance addition (cigarette, alcohol, drug) in the family, in particular, on the formatian of depression, the idea of committing suicide and the deviant behaviors. As a result of the survey study conducted with 726 high school third grade students in Ankara, it has been determined that there are strong and meaningful relations between the substance addiction of the family,sister/brother, intimate parent of the young person and the ...

  3. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Teimouri; Nourosadat Karima; Feizollah Mansouri; Mansour Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Drug addiction is one of the social health problems at the present century. The high risk sexual behaviors as well as drug abusing are factors of sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center. Methods: In this descriptive study, 76 women who have referred to Niloofar de-addiction center in Kermanshah-Western Iran, were recruited using co...

  4. [Gambling addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly. PMID:23529775

  5. How addicts think about addiction and community problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Meysamie, A; B. Faramarzi; K Holakouie Naieni

    2006-01-01

    Background: addiction and drug abuse have many risk factors in community and individual attitude; also causes much diversity in community perception and attitude toward addiction. Methods: in this study we assessed attitude toward an addict in 42 addict men and asked about problems in their community and recreational behaviors. They were residents of a rural area in Babol city. In the control group we assessed the same parameters in 268 non addicts in the same area. All of the addicts have be...

  6. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. PMID:26022802

  7. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW) - similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions - show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW-players) and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed (1) trait sensitivity to reward (SR), (2) BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum, and (3) ventral-striatal resting-state dynamics. We found a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state). On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait SR, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers. PMID:25426039

  8. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Ying eDuan; Fang eShen; Ting Ting Gu; Nan eSui

    2016-01-01

    AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward betw...

  9. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug...

  10. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake

    OpenAIRE

    AVENA, NICOLE M.; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. “Food addiction” seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed....

  11. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: Emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior: Introduction to the Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Chung, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical ...

  12. The study of cognitive – behavior training effectiveness on decreasing depresive symptoms in community therapy center resident addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Discussion: The results show that psychological interventions in cognitive behavioral approach played a very crucial role in reducing depression in the addict's resident at the therapeutic community. Therefore, depression, that is one of the relapse risk factors, could be obviated and more success gained.

  13. The impact of exposure to addictive drugs on future generations: Physiological and behavioral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassoler, F M; Byrnes, E M; Pierce, R C

    2014-01-01

    It is clear that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to drug addiction. Recent evidence indicating trans-generational influences of drug abuse highlight potential epigenetic factors as well. Specifically, mounting evidence suggests that parental ingestion of abused drugs influence the physiology and behavior of future generations even in the absence of prenatal exposure. The goal of this review is to describe the trans-generational consequences of preconception exposure to drugs of abuse for five major classes of drugs: alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, opioids, and cocaine. The potential epigenetic mechanisms underlying the transmission of these phenotypes across generations also are detailed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23810828

  14. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong-Jin; Kwak, Minjung; Rho, Mi Jung; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20–49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use). We analyzed the data in three steps: (1) identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2) deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN), and (3) computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female), weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors. PMID:27533112

  15. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yejin; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong-Jin; Kwak, Minjung; Rho, Mi Jung; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use). We analyzed the data in three steps: (1) identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2) deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN), and (3) computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female), weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors. PMID:27533112

  16. What Are the Treatments for Heroin Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter What are the treatments for heroin addiction? A variety of effective treatments are available for heroin addiction, including both behavioral and pharmacological (medications). Both approaches ...

  17. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, psocial networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

  18. Sex differences in impulsive and compulsive behaviors: a focus on drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Sex differences in inhibition and self-regulation at a behavioral level have been widely described. From an evolutionary point of view, the different selection pressures placed on male and female hominids led them to differ in their behavioral strategies that allowed our species to survive during natural selection processes. These differences reflect changes in neural and structural plasticity that might be the core of sex differences, and of the susceptibility towards one psychiatric condition rather than another. The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for such a dichotomy in impulsive and compulsive behavior with a focus on drug addiction. Sex-dependent differences in drug abuse and dependence will be examined in the context of pathophysiological regulation of impulse and motivation by neuromodulators (i.e. gonadal hormones) and neurotransmitters (i.e. dopamine). Advances in the understanding of the sex differences in the capability to control impulses and motivational states is key for the determination of efficacious biologically based intervention and prevention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders where loss of impulse control and compulsivity are the core symptoms. PMID:26935237

  19. [Detoxication in opiate addiction and prevention of recurrence: administration of naltrexone and cognitive behavior therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, H G; Deden, A L; Kerkhof, A J; Vorsteveld, J P; van den Brink, W

    1997-12-01

    Rapid opiate withdrawal and relapse prevention in opiate addicts are made possible by naltrexone, clonidine and diazepam in combination with cognitive behavioural therapy according to the Community Reinforcement Approach. In an open pilot experiment 12 addicted patients achieved initial detoxification. At follow-up after a minimum of 6 months, 10 of these had not relapsed. Good results with this detoxification method could be booked by selecting highly motivated opiate addicts. PMID:9554156

  20. A Behavioral and Circuit Model Based on Sugar Addiction in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.; Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Rada, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between natural addiction and drug addiction is interesting from many points of view, including scientific and medical perspectives. “Natural addictions” are those based on activation of a physiobehavioral system, such as the one that controls metabolism, foraging, and eating to achieve energy balance. “Drug addictions” activate many systems based on their pharmacology. This review discusses the following questions: (1) When does food produce a natural addiction? Sugar causes ...

  1. Connection between addictive behavior and investing on the stock market in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Hrvoje; Nikolac, Nora; Tripković, Mara; Haluga-Golubović, Ivana; Ćustović, Zaim

    2012-01-01

    Summary – Internet addiction and pathological gambling are nowadays becoming an increasing public health problem. It hasn’t still been totally clarified whether, when dealing with no substance addiction, we are still talking about real addiction that includes the same pathophysiological processes at the biological level or we are dealing with impulse control disorder, the reason why the goal of this research has been to see whether the subjects who spend their time investing...

  2. Examination of the Addictive and Behavioral Properties of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Inhibitor SBFI26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Clavin, Brendan H.; Hamilton, John; O’Rourke, Joseph R.; Maher, Thomas; Koumas, Christopher; Miao, Erick; Lankop, Jessenia; Elhage, Aya; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Deutsch, Dale; Kaczocha, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids have been well demonstrated but are overshadowed by such adverse effects as cognitive and motor dysfunction, as well as their potential for addiction. Recent research on the natural lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, also known as endocannabinoids, has shed light on the mechanisms of intracellular transport of the endocannabinoid anandamide by fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase. These findings facilitated the recent development of SBFI26, a pharmacological inhibitor of epidermal- and brain-specific FABP5 and FABP7, which effectively increases anandamide signaling. The goal of this study was to examine this compound for any possible rewarding and addictive properties as well as effects on locomotor activity, working/recognition memory, and propensity for sociability and preference for social novelty (SN) given its recently reported anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Male C57BL mice were split into four treatment groups and conditioned with 5.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg SBFI26, or vehicle during a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Following CPP, mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests [open field, novel object recognition (NOR), social interaction (SI), and SN] paired with acute SBFI26 administration. Results showed that SBFI26 did not produce CPP or conditioned place aversion regardless of dose and did not induce any differences in locomotor and exploratory activity during CPP- or SBFI26-paired open field activity. We also observed no differences between treatment groups in NOR, SI, and SN. In conclusion, as SBFI26 was shown previously by our group to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, here we show that it does not pose a risk of dependence or motor and cognitive impairment under the conditions tested. PMID:27092087

  3. Examination of the Addictive and Behavioral Properties of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Inhibitor SBFI26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Clavin, Brendan H; Hamilton, John; O'Rourke, Joseph R; Maher, Thomas; Koumas, Christopher; Miao, Erick; Lankop, Jessenia; Elhage, Aya; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Deutsch, Dale; Kaczocha, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids have been well demonstrated but are overshadowed by such adverse effects as cognitive and motor dysfunction, as well as their potential for addiction. Recent research on the natural lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, also known as endocannabinoids, has shed light on the mechanisms of intracellular transport of the endocannabinoid anandamide by fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase. These findings facilitated the recent development of SBFI26, a pharmacological inhibitor of epidermal- and brain-specific FABP5 and FABP7, which effectively increases anandamide signaling. The goal of this study was to examine this compound for any possible rewarding and addictive properties as well as effects on locomotor activity, working/recognition memory, and propensity for sociability and preference for social novelty (SN) given its recently reported anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Male C57BL mice were split into four treatment groups and conditioned with 5.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg SBFI26, or vehicle during a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Following CPP, mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests [open field, novel object recognition (NOR), social interaction (SI), and SN] paired with acute SBFI26 administration. Results showed that SBFI26 did not produce CPP or conditioned place aversion regardless of dose and did not induce any differences in locomotor and exploratory activity during CPP- or SBFI26-paired open field activity. We also observed no differences between treatment groups in NOR, SI, and SN. In conclusion, as SBFI26 was shown previously by our group to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, here we show that it does not pose a risk of dependence or motor and cognitive impairment under the conditions tested. PMID:27092087

  4. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: Converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hahn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people regularly play so-called Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs. Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions – show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW-players and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed 1 trait sensitivity to reward, 2 BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum and 3 ventral-striatal resting state dynamics. We find a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state. On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait sensitivity to reward, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers.

  5. Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Justinova, Zuzana; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Many drugs of abuse, including cannabinoids, opioids, alcohol and nicotine, can alter the levels of endocannabinoids in the brain. Recent studies show that release of endocannabinoids in the ventral tegmental area can modulate the reward-related effects of dopamine and might therefore be an important neurobiological mechanism underlying drug addiction. There is strong evidence that the endocannabinoid system is involved in drug-seeking behavior (especially behavior that is reinforced by drug-...

  6. Integrating Behavioral Economics and Behavioral Genetics: Delayed Reward Discounting as an Endophenotype for Addictive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James

    2013-01-01

    Delayed reward discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, referring to how much an individual devalues a reward based on its delay in time. As a behavioral process that varies considerably across individuals, delay discounting has been studied extensively as a model for self-control, both in the general population and in clinical…

  7. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Training on Increasing Self-Concept's Measure and the Attitude Style Toward Narcotic Drugs in Tonekabon Addicted Prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi arya, Ali Reza; Shirazi, Mahmoud; Hossien khanzadeh, Abbas Ali; Lachinnani, Fatemeh; Yoosefi Joubari, Fahimeh; Halajian, Zohreh; Dosti Sarabi, Salar; Ahmed Khan, Matloob

    2013-01-01

    Background The existing studies have indicated that persons with positive attitude and believe to narcotics have more addiction than those with negative or natural attitudes. The aim of the present study was to specify the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral training on increasing of self-concept's measure, and the attitude style toward narcotic drugs in addicted prisoners of Tonekabon. Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the effects of cognitive-behavioral training on incr...

  8. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) which was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction. PMID:22775285

  9. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online garners

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Tim; Karolien, Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG "World of VVarcraft" (WoW) similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addicti...

  10. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: Converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Hahn; Karolien Hilde Notebaert; Thomas Dresler; Linda Kowarsch

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW) – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictio...

  11. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Improving Quality of Life in Opiate Addicts under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Momeni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of cognitive- behavioral group therapy on improvement of quality of life in opiate patients under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: This was a semi experimental study using control group also pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Thirty six patients on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies within judgmental sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. They were all administered the WHOQOL-BREF. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions and the control group was registered in the waiting list for the CBGT. Findings: Data analysis revealed that the mean WHOQOL-BREF score in the experimental group had significant higher increase when compared with that of the control group. But it wasn’t significant in follow up. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive–behavior group therapy On improvement of quality of life of opiate addicts on MMT in short term but didn’t seem to be effective in long term.

  12. Depot naltrexone in lieu of incarceration: a behavioral analysis of coerced treatment for addicted offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B

    2006-09-01

    This article is part of a series of articles examining a proposal to offer depot naltrexone to certain nonviolent opiate-addicted criminal offenders in exchange for release from incarceration or diversion from prosecution. This "negative-reinforcement" behavioral paradigm could have a better chance of success than what has heretofore been attempted with drug-abusing offenders. Traditional correctional efforts have been largely unsuccessful due to the complexities of implementation and the side effects of punishment. Although positive reinforcement can be more efficacious, it has often been strenuously resisted on the ground that it is inequitable to reward antisocial individuals for doing what is minimally expected of most citizens. Negative reinforcement steers between these hurdles by avoiding the iatrogenic effects of punishment, while also being palatable to stakeholders. More research is needed to identify the effects, costs, and side effects of negative-reinforcement arrangements for drug offenders. The current proposal provides an excellent platform for conducting this research because the target intervention (depot naltrexone) is demonstrably efficacious, nonpsychoactive, and has few, if any, side effects. Therefore, use of this medication would be unlikely to invoke the same types of legal and ethical objections that have traditionally been levied against the use of psychoactive medications with vulnerable populations of institutionalized offenders. Specific recommendations are offered for questions that must be addressed in future research studies. PMID:16919739

  13. Central & peripheral glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling differentially regulate addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil; Schurdak, Jennifer D; Seeley, Randy J; Benoit, Stephen C; Davis, Jon F

    2016-07-01

    Recent data implicate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a potent anorexigenic peptide released in response to nutrient intake, as a regulator for the reinforcing properties of food, alcohol and psychostimulants. While, both central and peripheral mechanisms mediate effects of GLP-1R signaling on food intake, the extent to which central or peripheral GLP-1R signaling regulates reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse is unknown. Here, we examined amphetamine reinforcement, alcohol intake and hedonic feeding following peripheral administration of EX-4 (a GLP-1 analog) in FLOX and GLP-1R KD(Nestin) (GLP-1R selectively ablated from the central nervous system) mice (n=13/group). First, the effect of EX-4 pretreatment on the expression of amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (Amp-CPP) was examined in the FLOX and GLP-1R KD(Nestin) mice. Next, alcohol intake (10% v/v) was evaluated in FLOX and GLP-1R KD(Nestin) mice following saline or EX-4 injections. Finally, we assessed the effects of EX-4 pretreatment on hedonic feeding behavior. Results indicate that Amp-CPP was completely blocked in the FLOX mice, but not in the GLP-1R KD(Nestin) mice following EX-4 pretreatment. Ex-4 pretreatment selectively blocked alcohol consumption in the FLOX mice, but was ineffective in altering alcohol intake in the GLP-1R KD(Nestin) mice. Notably, hedonic feeding was partially blocked in the GLP-1R KD(Nestin) mice, whereas it was abolished in the FLOX mice. The present study provides critical insights regarding the nature by which GLP-1 signaling controls reinforced behaviors and underscores the importance of both peripheral and central GLP-1R signaling for the regulation of addictive disorders. PMID:27072507

  14. What is addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines. PMID:23584810

  15. Exploring the Neurochemical Basis of Alcohol Addiction-Related Behaviors: Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Budygin, EA; Weiner, JL

    2015-01-01

    This Editorial presents the position that translational research continues to play a vital role in the field of alcohol addiction research. Using diverse animal models that mimic fundamental features of the disease, tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of alcohol actions in the brain and in identifying key neurobiological adaptations that may contribute to the pathophysiology of alcohol addiction. Current translational research in this field is now focusing on identifying th...

  16. The Relationship of Affective Temperament and Emotional-Behavioral Difficulties to Internet Addiction in Turkish Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Canan; Onder Ozturk; Fatma Ozgun Ozturk; Mine Ekinci

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of affective temperament profiles and emotional and behavioural characteristics with Internet addiction among high school students. The study sample included 303 high school students. A sociodemographic characteristics data form, internet addiction scale (IAS), the strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire were used to collect data. Of the sample...

  17. A Study With Special Emphasis On Applying Motivational Interviewing As a Clinical Approach to Change Addictive Behavior of Drug Abusers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghorbani

    2002-10-01

    The goals of present article are three – fold: In the first step, it introduces a brief form of motivational Interviewing for addictive behaviors. Its primary basis is the idea that most substance abusers seek medical treatment without being ready to change addictive behaviors. As a result, attempts the addicts to change often lead to their resistance. Therefore, the use of motivational interviewing (MI in which clients are directed towards realizing their own reasons and arguments for changing their behavior, seems to be most oppropriate to motivate and prepare them for change. In the second step, the article tries to discuss advantages of motivational interviewing approach to often opproaches (e.g, skills training approach, Indirect approach and confrontational – denial approach and suggests that (MI is the most appropriate strategy for the substance abusers, according to their degree of readiness for change. Finally in the third step, the article attempts to indicate the current dominant strategies of addiction treatment in Iran and concludes that due to dominance and commonality of medicine – based treatment strategies of addictive behaviors, (MI could be introduced as an alternative and appropriate treatment strategy for drug addicts in Iran.

  18. The Development of a Preference for Cocaine over Food Identifies Individual Rats with Addiction-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam N.; Westenbroek, Christel; Becker, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug taking that supercedes other recreational, occupational or social pursuits. We hypothesized that rats vulnerable to addiction could be identified within the larger population based on their preference for cocaine over palatable food rewards. Objectives To validate the choice self-administration paradigm as a preclinical model of addiction, we examined changes in motivation for cocaine and recidivism to drug seeking in cocaine-preferring and pellet-preferring rats. We also examined behavior in males and females to identify sex differences in this “addicted” phenotype. Methods Preferences were identified during self-administration on a fixed-ratio schedule with cocaine-only, pellet-only and choice sessions. Motivation for each reward was probed early and late during self-administration using a progressive-ratio schedule. Reinstatement of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was examined following exposure to their cues and non-contingent delivery of each reward. Results Cocaine preferring rats increased their drug intake at the expense of pellets, displayed increased motivation for cocaine, attenuated motivation for pellets and greater cocaine and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Females were more likely to develop cocaine preferences and recidivism of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was sexually dimorphic. Conclusions The choice self-administration paradigm is a valid preclinical model of addiction. The unbiased selection criteria also revealed sex-specific vulnerability factors that could be differentiated from generalized sex differences in behavior, which has implications for the neurobiology of addiction and effective treatments in each sex. PMID:24260227

  19. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the “food addiction” construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that food cannot be “addictive”, unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. “Evolutionary mismatch” viewp...

  20. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training by Cognitive-Behavioral Group in the Increase of Girls’ Self-Esteem and Assertiveness with Addicted Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Esmaeili

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was the survey of social skills training by cognitive behavioral group in the increase of girls’ self-esteem and assertiveness with addicted parents in Isfahan. Method: 20 students with addicted parents who had the lowest rate of assertiveness were selected by semi-experimental method in third to fifth grades. Randomly research projects pre-test-post-test control group. Questionnaire to measure assertiveness and assertiveness Gmbryl and Richie Esteem Questionna...

  1. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: a systematic review of efficacy, technical, and methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvaget, Anne; Trojak, Benoît; Bulteau, Samuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Wolz, Ines; Menchón, José M.; Achab, Sophia; Vanelle, Jean-Marie; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral addictions (BA) are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA. Methods: A bibliographic search has been ...

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical and methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Anne eSauvaget; Benoit eTrojak; Samuel eBulteau; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Fernando eFernandez-Aranda; Ines eWolz; Jose M Menchon; Sophia eAchab; Jean-Marie eVanelle; Marie eGrall-Bronnec

    2015-01-01

    Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA) are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conduc...

  3. Health-related quality of life among veterans in addictions treatment: identifying behavioral targets for future intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppezzo, Marily A.; Michalek, Anne K.; Delucchi, Kevin; Baiocchi, Michael T. M.; Barnett, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background US veterans report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) relative to the general population. Identifying behavioral factors related to HRQoL that are malleable to change may inform interventions to improve well-being in this vulnerable group. Purpose The current study sought to characterize HRQoL in a largely male sample of veterans in addictions treatment, both in relation to US norms and in association with five recommended health behavior practices: regularly exercising, managing stress, having good sleep hygiene, consuming fruits and vegetables, and being tobacco free. Methods We assessed HRQoL with 250 veterans in addictions treatment (96 % male, mean age 53, range 24–77) using scales from four validated measures. Data reduction methods identified two principal components reflecting physical and mental HRQoL. Model testing of HRQoL associations with health behaviors adjusted for relevant demographic and treatment-related covariates. Results Compared to US norms, the sample had lower HRQoL scores. Better psychological HRQoL was associated with higher subjective social standing, absence of pain or trauma, lower alcohol severity, and monotonically with the sum of health behaviors (all p management, and sleep hygiene. Regular exercise also related to better physical HRQoL. The models explained >40 % of the variance in HRQoL. Conclusions Exercise, sleep hygiene, and stress management are strongly associated with HRQoL among veterans in addictions treatment. Future research is needed to test the effect of interventions for improving well-being in this high-risk group. PMID:26886926

  4. Is Overeating Behavior Similar to Drug Addiction? (427th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing number of obese individuals in the U.S. and other countries world-wide adds urgency to the need to understand the mechanisms underlying pathological overeating. Research by the speaker and others at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere is compiling evidence that the brain circuits disrupted in obesity are similar to those involved in drug addiction. Using positron emission tomography (PET), the speaker and his colleagues have implicated brain dopamine in the normal and the pathological intake of food by humans. During the 427th Brookhaven Lecture, speaker will review the findings and implications of PET studies of obese subjects and then compare them to PET research involving drug-addicted individuals. For example, in pathologically obese subjects, it was found that reductions in striatal dopamine D2 receptors are similar to those observed in drug-addicted subjects. The speaker and his colleagues have postulated that decreased levels of dopamine receptors predisposed subjects to search for strongly rewarding reinforcers, be it drugs for the drug-addicted or food for the obese, as a means to compensate for decreased sensitivity of their dopamine-regulated reward circuits. As the speaker will summarize, multiple but similar brain circuits involved in reward, motivation, learning and inhibitory control are disrupted both in drug addiction and obesity, resulting in the need for a multimodal approach to the treatment of obesity.

  5. Is Overeating Behavior Similar to Drug Addiction? (427th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gene-Jack

    2007-09-27

    The increasing number of obese individuals in the U.S. and other countries world-wide adds urgency to the need to understand the mechanisms underlying pathological overeating. Research by the speaker and others at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere is compiling evidence that the brain circuits disrupted in obesity are similar to those involved in drug addiction. Using positron emission tomography (PET), the speaker and his colleagues have implicated brain dopamine in the normal and the pathological intake of food by humans. During the 427th Brookhaven Lecture, speaker will review the findings and implications of PET studies of obese subjects and then compare them to PET research involving drug-addicted individuals. For example, in pathologically obese subjects, it was found that reductions in striatal dopamine D2 receptors are similar to those observed in drug-addicted subjects. The speaker and his colleagues have postulated that decreased levels of dopamine receptors predisposed subjects to search for strongly rewarding reinforcers, be it drugs for the drug-addicted or food for the obese, as a means to compensate for decreased sensitivity of their dopamine-regulated reward circuits. As the speaker will summarize, multiple but similar brain circuits involved in reward, motivation, learning and inhibitory control are disrupted both in drug addiction and obesity, resulting in the need for a multimodal approach to the treatment of obesity.

  6. Neurogenetic and epigenetic correlates of adolescent predisposition to and risk for addictive behaviors as a function of prefrontal cortex dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Febo, Marcelo; Smith, David E; Roy, A Kenison; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Cronjé, Frans J; Femino, John; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James L; Pandey, Subhash C; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Gold, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    As addiction professionals, we are becoming increasingly concerned about preteenagers and young adults' involvement with substance abuse as a way of relieving stress and anger. The turbulent underdeveloped central nervous system, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), provides impetus to not only continue important neuroimaging studies in both human and animal models, but also to encourage preventive measures and cautions embraced by governmental and social media outlets. It is well known that before people reach their 20s, PFC development is undergoing significant changes and, as such, hijacks appropriate decision making in this population. We are further proposing that early genetic testing for addiction risk alleles will offer important information that could potentially be utilized by their parents and caregivers prior to use of psychoactive drugs by these youth. Understandably, family history, parenting styles, and attachment may be modified by various reward genes, including the known bonding substances oxytocin/vasopressin, which effect dopaminergic function. Well-characterized neuroimaging studies continue to reflect region-specific differential responses to drugs and food (including other non-substance-addictive behaviors) via either "surfeit" or "deficit." With this in mind, we hereby propose a "reward deficiency solution system" that combines early genetic risk diagnosis, medical monitoring, and nutrigenomic dopamine agonist modalities to combat this significant global dilemma that is preventing our youth from leading normal productive lives, which will in turn make them happier. PMID:25919973

  7. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel R. Riggs

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  8. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs. PMID:22408581

  9. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs. PMID:22408581

  10. How addicts think about addiction and community problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meysamie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: addiction and drug abuse have many risk factors in community and individual attitude; also causes much diversity in community perception and attitude toward addiction. Methods: in this study we assessed attitude toward an addict in 42 addict men and asked about problems in their community and recreational behaviors. They were residents of a rural area in Babol city. In the control group we assessed the same parameters in 268 non addicts in the same area. All of the addicts have been using opium more than many times a week at least for recent 6 months. Data collected via a semi structured questionnaire through conversation. Results: There was a significant difference between addicts’ attitude toward toward addiction compare to non-addicts’. Both addicts and non-addicts indicated that the first three community problems in their area were unemployment, lack of recreational facilities and addiction, in respective order. Answering questions about recreational activities, both groups indicated that there were no recreational facilities in the community. Conclusion: In planning a preventive approach, there is a major role for attitude toward addiction in any community. The conflict seen in this study between addicts’ attitudes toward an addicted person and addiction as a community problem has it’s interesting feature. Recreation and physical and cultural facilities need to pay more attention as indicated by our study participants. This seems to have an important impact in prevention of many community problems as well as addiction.

  11. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  12. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  13. Gambling Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Gambling Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Gambling Addiction Print A A ... worth my time?" "What are the risks?" Gambling Addiction Some people have a higher chance of becoming ...

  14. Addiction and Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eJohnson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ADDICTION AND WILLA hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING.The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted.Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  15. Glutamate Transmission in Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kalivas, Peter W.; LaLumiere, Ryan; Knackstedt, Lori; Shen, Haowei

    2008-01-01

    Cortico-striatal glutamate transmission has been implicated in both the initiation and expression of addiction related behaviors, such as locomotor sensitization and drug seeking. While glutamate transmission onto dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area undergoes transient plasticity important for establishing addiction-related behaviors, glutamatergic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the expression of these behaviors. This information points to the value of exploring ...

  16. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  17. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies. PMID:27375516

  18. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treat...

  19. Prevention des Toxicomanies Aupres des Filles avec des Problemes de Comportement: Effets a Court Terme (Prevention of Drug Addiction in Girls with Behavior Problems: Short-Term Effects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article, written in French, describes and evaluates the first phase of a program to prevent drug addiction among 110 fifth-grade girls with behavior problems in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Evaluation of the instructional program showed positive results for student knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors and supported program continuation…

  20. The relationship between addiction to internet and adolescence’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mowlaie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of adolescent period and impact of internet and virtual communication tools on high risk behaviors, this research was conducted to examine the relationship between addiction to internet and adolescent’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking. Methods: The population of this study included all (n=40597 junior and senior high school students (boys and girls in academic year 2014-2015 in Ardabil, Iran. 380 subjects were selected as the study sample by multistage cluster sampling. The instruments for data collection in this research were addiction to internet questionnaire, Iranian adolescent's risk-taking scale and the researcher-made tendency to chat and hacking questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS-22 software using correlation coefficient and simultaneous regression analysis. Results: The results showed a significantly positive correlation between addiction to internet and sexual behavior, tendency toward opposite sex, aggression, chatting and hacking (P<0.001, but there was no significant relationship between addiction to internet and alcohol. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that addiction to internet was able to significantly predict sexual behavior, tendency toward opposite sex, aggression, chatting and hacking.

  1. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D.; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental factors, including stress responsivity, addict mindset, and social setting. Specific gene variants, including variants encoding pharmacological target proteins or genes mediating neuroadaptations, also modify vulnerability at particular stages of addiction. Greater understanding of these interacting factors through laboratory-based and translational studies have the potential to optimize early interventions for the therapy of chronic addictive diseases and to reduce the burden of relapse. Here, we review the molecular neurobiology and genetics of opiate addiction, including heroin and prescription opioids, and cocaine addiction. PMID:23023708

  2. Prenatal and gestational cocaine exposure: Effects on the oxytocin system and social behavior with implications for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S K; Johns, J M

    2014-04-01

    Drug abuse during pregnancy is a major public health concern, with negative consequences throughout development. Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) in rats produces social behavior deficits with corresponding changes in neuroendocrine and monoaminergic signaling. The relevance of parental care in social behavior maturity cannot be ignored, and gestational exposure to cocaine severely disrupts parental care, thus impacting the early environment of the offspring. Oxytocin (Oxt) is critical in regulating social behaviors and central levels are disrupted following acute and chronic cocaine (CC) treatment in postpartum rat dams, coincident with deficits in maternal care. We will discuss studies aimed to determine the relative contribution of PCE and CC-induced deficits in maternal care to social behaviors and Oxt signaling across development. PCE results in decreased social (including parental) behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. PCE is also associated with increased aggression in adults. Rearing by CC-exposed mothers synergistically increases the behavioral effects of PCE. Rearing by CC-exposed mothers, but not PCE, disrupts Oxt levels and mRNA in regions relevant to social behavior, but does not affect receptors in postpartum adult offspring. Preliminary work indicates that PCE/CC rearing has dynamic effects on Oxt levels and receptors in neonatal rat pups, suggesting very early regulation of Oxt signaling. This work highlights how the interactive role of Oxt signaling and behavioral context throughout development can be derailed by drug abuse during pregnancy. The relevance of disrupted Oxt to intergenerational transmission of addiction is briefly discussed. PMID:23880214

  3. Addiction and will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud's concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  4. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EdmundHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSauvaget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction. Study selection, data analysis and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines.Results.Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode / left prefrontal cathode reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli.ConclusionsDespite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders.

  6. Neurocognitive processes and the prediction of addictive behaviors in late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Korucuoğlu, Ö.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this dissertation was to investigate the effect of acute alcohol on neurocognitive systems involved in the development of addictive behaviours in adolescents. A secondary aim was to investigate whether alcohol-induced changes in cognitive and affective processes would be predictive of alcohol escalation in young people. Tasks that tap into cognitive control, implicit and explicit action tendencies were used to assess late adolescents’ brain responses after alcohol administr...

  7. [Functional neuroimaging of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-09-01

    Positron emission tomography studies investigating dopamine release by drug or reward demonstrated blunted dopamine release in relation to addiction to psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. However, recent studies reported that nicotine and gambling addiction showed opposite results. Several factors such as illness stage or neurotoxicity of substances could be considered for this discrepancy. Behavioral addiction such as gambling disorder is a good target of neuroimaging because it is free from overt neurotoxicity. However, even in gambling disorder, the results of fMRI studies investigating neural response to reward are mixed. Neuroimaging together with taking the various backgrounds of patients into account should contribute not only to a better understanding of the neurobiology of addiction but also to the development of more effective and individually tailored treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:26394506

  8. Stress and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Greif, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction. PMID:23849597

  9. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eShen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  10. Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van Alexander J.A.M.; Bolle, Colin L.; Hegner, Sabrina M.; Kommers, Piet A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of process and social oriented smartphone usage, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, gender, and age in relation to habitual and addictive smartphone behavior. We conducted an online survey among 386 respondents. The results revealed that h

  11. Internet addiction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction. Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behavior. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.

  12. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena.

  13. Overcoming Addiction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions to overcome. Bill Saxby: ... who smoke are first and foremost individuals and one thing we've learned is that there's not ...

  14. Overcoming Addiction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... but it was only ten years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions to overcome. Bill Saxby: My name ...

  15. [Work addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, G

    1979-01-01

    The symptomatology of workaholism (work addiction) was presented in the form of a questionnaire and compared with other forms of addiction, especially alcoholism. Then a case was used as example to illustrate the development of the illness and its psychodynamics. The therapy procedure was also briefly explained. Moreover the psychodynamics of workaholism (work addiction) are described, once again in comparison to other addictions. Finally the author gives general guidelines for therapy. PMID:452731

  16. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center in Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Teimouri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug addiction is one of the social health problems at the present century. The high risk sexual behaviors as well as drug abusing are factors of sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center. Methods: In this descriptive study, 76 women who have referred to Niloofar de-addiction center in Kermanshah-Western Iran, were recruited using convenience sampling method. Questionnaire was completed by all subjects and blood sample were taken to determine Hepatitis B, Syphilis, and Herpes simplex virus infection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t- test, Chi-2 and the Fisher exact test. Results: The mean age of women was 35.22±0.99 year. 51.3% of subjects were illiterate and 48.7% were supported by social welfare system. There were not common needle using and multiple sexual contacts in the subjects. None of the subjects had positive test for hepatitis B and syphilis but HSV antibody was determined in 91.6% of subjects.Conclusion: In this study, high-risk behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases were less than expected. This study was carried out in a state governmental clinic, future studies in different populations of addicted women referred to prison and private sectors are recommended.

  17. Prevalence and association of perceived stress, substance use and behavioral addictions: a cross-sectional study among university students in France, 2009-2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Tavolacci, Marie,; Ladner, Joel; Grigioni, Sebastien; Richard, Laure; Villet, Herve; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: University students face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers as well as concerns about the future. Stress should not be considered on its own, but should be associated with potential risk behaviors leading to onset of substance use and related problems heightened during the university period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of main substance use and behavioral addictions ...

  18. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D.; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental...

  19. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions. PMID:27427940

  20. Steve Sussman on Matilda Hellman’s “Mind the Gap! Failure in Understanding Key Dimensions of an Addicted Drug User’s Life”: Addictive Effects

    OpenAIRE

    SUSSMAN, STEVE

    2012-01-01

    Addictive effects” are experiential states sought by individuals that underlie addictive behaviors. Consistent with ideas that addictive effects mimic satiation of appetitive motives, a literature search-derived heuristic catalogue of addictive behaviors is offered and contrasted across four general appetitive-like motives that have been posited as underlying addictive behaviors (dominance, submissiveness, self-pleasure, and nurturance). I suggest, in part, that addictive behaviors are misdi...

  1. Psychopharmacology of Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Toker Ugurlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development. Developments in the psychopharmacology of addiction is much slower than the other disciplines of psychiatry. For a long time, social and behavioral therapeutic approaches are the only choices for the treatment of addictive disorders. Disulfiram was the only pharmacological agent approved for addiction treatment until the end of 20th century. Pharmacological treatment options available for treatment have grown along with our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development and persistence of addiction. Several new medications like naltrexone, acamprosate, methadone and buprenoprhine have been approved for the treatment of alcohol and opioid use disorders ever since. Based on ever-increasing information about neurotransmitter and receptors, many studies have been performed concerning craving and relapse prevention in recent years. Besides many other pharmacological agents have been focus of new researches for treatment of different types of addiction. The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on psychopharmacology of addictive disorders and recent developments in this area.

  2. Are adolescents with internet addiction prone to aggressive behavior? The mediating effect of clinical comorbidities on the predictability of aggression in adolescents with internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD. PMID:25902276

  3. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; N D Gupta; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused...

  4. Transcriptional Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is considered a plausible mechanism of drug addiction given the stability of behavioral abnormalities that define an addicted state. Numerous transcription factors, proteins that bind to regulatory regions of specific genes and thereby control levels of their expression, have been implicated in the addiction process over the past decade or two. Here we review the growing evidence for the role played by several prominent transcription factors, including a Fos fami...

  5. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ebrahimi; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  6. The Effectiveness of Marlaat’s Cognitive Behavior Intervention and Group Treatment Based on Change Stages for Recovery and Relapse Prevention Rates in Male Heroin Crack Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khodadust

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the Study of effectiveness of Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention and group treatment based on change stages for recovery and relapse rates in male heroin crack addictions. Method: In a experimental research design, 45 men addictions, who were diagnosed as the dependence of the heroin crack on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, were chosen after successfully detoxified. They were divided two experimental groups (30 participants and a control group (15 participants that have been selected by random sampling. The first experimental group was undergone group treatment based on change stages underwent 16 sessions of 1.5 hours, totally 24 hours and the second experimental groups who were undergone Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention has been held 15 sessions of 2 hours, totally 24 hours. The control group were just received MMT without any psychotherapy. All participants were assessed by structured interview, urine test, before treatment, after treatment and after 3 months follow up. Results: Results showed that both psychotherapy treatments were affected on recovery and relapse rates. Conclusion: It seems that psychological problems and conflicts before addiction and after addiction could be caused for individuals’ tendency to narcotics consumption. Therefore, applying of psychotherapy could be useful in relapse prevention.

  7. Comparing Personality Characteristics of Addicts with Non Addicts in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Sizeable sector of the population in Iran continues to use substance abuse despite government efforts to prevent addiction. Present study was designed to compare personality characteristics of addicts with non addicts. One hundred and six addicts who sought treatment at addiction rehabilitation department of Hamadan , were recruited in this study. A selective control group matched for demographic variables with the first group were also requested to take part in the study. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV and MMPI were administered. The results showed that patients in studied group represented a significantly different personality characteristics in contrast to the control group. Overal 77.8% of addicts were diagnosed as mental disorder. This figure for control group was 26.2% . Also 41.3% of addicts were diagnosed as personality disorders, while the figure for non addicts was 5.8%. High rates of mental disorders and personality problems are reported for addicts. It Seems that psychiatric symptoms and psychological vulnerabilities have important role in addictive behavior.

  8. Coexisting addiction and pain in people receiving methadone for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Marie, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the narratives of people who experience chronic pain (lasting 6 months or more) and were receiving methadone for the treatment of their opiate addiction through a major methadone clinic. This paper featured the pathway of how the participants developed chronic pain and addiction, and their beliefs of how prescription opioids would impact their addiction in the future. Thirty-four participants who experienced chronic pain and received methadone for treatment of opiate addiction were willing to tell the story of their experiences. The findings in three areas are presented: (a) whether participants experienced addiction first or pain first and how their exposures to addictive substances influenced their experiences, (b) the significance of recreational drug use and patterns of abuse behaviors leading to chronic pain, and (c) participants' experiences and beliefs about the potential for abuse of prescription opioid used for treatment of pain. PMID:23858068

  9. Unbalanced Neuronal Circuits in Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gen-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D.

    2013-01-01

    Through sequential waves of drug-induced neurochemical stimulation, addiction co-opts the brain's neuronal circuits that mediate reward, motivation, , to behavioral inflexibility and a severe disruption of self-control and compulsive drug intake. Brain imaging technologies have allowed neuroscientists to map out the neural landscape of addiction in the human brain and to understand how drugs modify it.

  10. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask;

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of...... exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of...

  11. Treatment of Internet Addiction with Anxiety Disorders: Treatment Protocol and Preliminary Before-After Results Involving Pharmacotherapy and Modified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hugo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Background The growth of the Internet has led to significant change and has become an integral part of modern life. It has made life easier and provided innumerous benefits; however, excessive use has brought about the potential for addiction, leading to severe impairments in social, academic, financial, psychological, and work domains. Individuals addicted to the Internet usually have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are prevalent mental disorders, involving a great deal of damage in the patient’s life. Objective This open trial study describes a treatment protocol among 39 patients with anxiety disorders and Internet addiction (IA) involving pharmacotherapy and modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Methods Of the 39 patients, 25 were diagnosed with PD and 14 with GAD, in addition to Internet addiction. At screening, patients responded to the MINI 5.0, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Young Internet Addiction Scale. At that time, IA was observed taking into consideration the IAT scale (cutoff score above 50), while anxiety disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Patients were forwarded for pharmacotherapy and a modified CBT protocol. Psychotherapy was conducted individually, once a week, over a period of 10 weeks, and results suggest that the treatment was effective for anxiety and Internet addiction. Results Before treatment, anxiety levels suggested severe anxiety, with an average score of 34.26 (SD 6.13); however, after treatment the mean score was 15.03 (SD 3.88) (PInternet addiction scores was observed, from 67.67 (SD 7.69) before treatment, showing problematic internet use, to 37.56 (SD 9.32) after treatment (PInternet use. With respect to the relationship between IA and anxiety, the correlation between scores was .724. Conclusions This study is the first research into IA treatment of a Brazilian population. The

  12. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Berner, Laura A.; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets...

  13. Treatment outcomes in patients with internet addiction: a clinical pilot study on the effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Dreier, M; Müller, K W

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerous studies assessing clinical characteristics of patients with Internet addiction, the knowledge about the effectiveness of treatment programs is limited. Although a recent meta-analysis indicates that those programs show effects, more clinical studies are needed here. To add knowledge, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for IA. 42 male adults meeting criteria for Internet addiction were enrolled. Their IA-status, psychopathological symptoms, and perceived self-efficacy expectancy were assessed before and after the treatment. The results show that 70.3% of the patients finished the therapy regularly. After treatment symptoms of IA had decreased significantly. Psychopathological symptoms were reduced as well as associated psychosocial problems. The results of this pilot study emphasize findings from the only meta-analysis conducted so far. PMID:25097858

  14. Heightened D3 Dopamine Receptor Levels in Cocaine Dependence and Contributions to the Addiction Behavioral Phenotype: A Positron Emission Tomography Study with [11C]-(+)-PHNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Doris E; Behzadi, Arian; Kish, Stephen J; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Rusjan, Pablo M; Tong, Junchao; Selby, Peter; George, Tony P; McCluskey, Tina; Boileau, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine system is a primary treatment target for cocaine dependence (CD), but research on dopaminergic abnormalities (eg, D2 receptor system deficiencies) has so far failed to translate into effective treatment strategies. The D3 receptor system has recently attracted considerable clinical interest, and D3 antagonism is now under investigation as a novel avenue for addiction treatment. The objective here was to evaluate the status and behavioral relevance of the D3 receptor system in CD, using the positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO. Fifteen CD subjects (many actively using, but all abstinent 7–240 days on scan day) and fifteen matched healthy control (HC) subjects completed two PET scans: one with [11C]-(+)-PHNO to assess D3 receptor binding (BPND; calculated regionally using the simplified reference tissue model), and for comparison, a second scan with [11C]raclopride to assess D2/3 binding. CD subjects also completed a behavioral battery to characterize the addiction behavioral phenotype. CD subjects showed higher [11C]-(+)-PHNO BPND than HC in the substantia nigra, which correlated with behavioral impulsiveness and risky decision making. In contrast, [11C]raclopride BPND was lower across the striatum in CD, consistent with previous literature in ⩾2 week abstinence. The data suggest that in contrast to a D2 deficiency, CD individuals may have heightened D3 receptor levels, which could contribute to addiction-relevant traits. D3 upregulation is emerging as a biomarker in preclinical models of addiction, and human PET studies of this receptor system can help guide novel pharmacological strategies for treatment. PMID:23921256

  15. Heightened D3 dopamine receptor levels in cocaine dependence and contributions to the addiction behavioral phenotype: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]-+-PHNO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Doris E; Behzadi, Arian; Kish, Stephen J; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Rusjan, Pablo M; Tong, Junchao; Selby, Peter; George, Tony P; McCluskey, Tina; Boileau, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine system is a primary treatment target for cocaine dependence (CD), but research on dopaminergic abnormalities (eg, D2 receptor system deficiencies) has so far failed to translate into effective treatment strategies. The D3 receptor system has recently attracted considerable clinical interest, and D3 antagonism is now under investigation as a novel avenue for addiction treatment. The objective here was to evaluate the status and behavioral relevance of the D3 receptor system in CD, using the positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO. Fifteen CD subjects (many actively using, but all abstinent 7-240 days on scan day) and fifteen matched healthy control (HC) subjects completed two PET scans: one with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO to assess D3 receptor binding (BPND; calculated regionally using the simplified reference tissue model), and for comparison, a second scan with [(11)C]raclopride to assess D2/3 binding. CD subjects also completed a behavioral battery to characterize the addiction behavioral phenotype. CD subjects showed higher [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO BPND than HC in the substantia nigra, which correlated with behavioral impulsiveness and risky decision making. In contrast, [(11)C]raclopride BPND was lower across the striatum in CD, consistent with previous literature in 2 week abstinence. The data suggest that in contrast to a D2 deficiency, CD individuals may have heightened D3 receptor levels, which could contribute to addiction-relevant traits. D3 upregulation is emerging as a biomarker in preclinical models of addiction, and human PET studies of this receptor system can help guide novel pharmacological strategies for treatment. PMID:23921256

  16. The Effectiveness of Healthy Behavior Training Program in Changing Attitude of Students towards Substance Abuse and Reduction of Addiction Vulnerability Level

    OpenAIRE

    Afsar Khalili S; Zohreh S Chavoshzadeh; Mohammad hasan Radmanesh; Mahdi Mehdi Afkhami A

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was developing the healthy behavior to change the attitude of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse and Reduction of Addiction Vulnerability Level. Method: This research was carried out by two methods of descriptive-analytic and quasi experimental design. First, 60 students of Shahid Beheshti University were selected randomly (of 2000 students) from the University dormitory. Then, half of the students received the developing ...

  17. Clarifying Exercise Addiction: Differential Diagnosis, Co-occurring Disorders, and Phases of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn Freimuth; Kim, Shari R.; Sandy Moniz

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be attuned to other forms of excessive behavior, especially eating disorders that can co-occur with exercise. Finally in an effort to clarify exercise addictio...

  18. Addiction-as-a-kind hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ylikoski, Petri; Pöyhönen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    The psychiatric category of addiction has recently been broadened to include new behaviors. This has prompted critical discussion about the value of a concept that covers so many different substances and activities. Many of the debates surrounding the notion of addiction stem from different views concerning what kind of a thing addiction fundamentally is. In this essay, we put forward an account that conceptualizes different addictions as sharing a cluster of relevant properties (the syndrome...

  19. Systems Level Neuroplasticity in Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Feltenstein, Matthew W.; See, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder for which research has been dedicated to understand the various factors that contribute to development, loss of control, and persistence of compulsive addictive behaviors. In this review, we provide a broad overview of various theories of addiction, drugs of abuse, and the neurobiology involved across the addiction cycle. Specific focus is devoted to the role of the mesolimbic pathway in acute drug reinforcement and occasional drug use, the mesoc...

  20. Binge Eating Disorder and Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Gearhardt, Ashley N.; White, Marney A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) shares many characteristics with addictive behaviors (e.g., diminished control, continued use despite negative consequences), and a body of scientific literature is building to support addiction conceptualizations of problematic eating. Despite similarities, BED and “food addiction” may represent unique yet overlapping conditions. Although the exploration of food addiction is relatively new, understanding the relationship between food addiction and BED may be infor...

  1. Food addiction in the light of DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Meule; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2014-01-01

    The idea that specific kind of foods may have an addiction potential and that some forms of overeating may represent an addicted behavior has been discussed for decades. In recent years, the interest in food addiction is growing and research on this topic lead to more precise definitions and assessment methods. For example, the Yale Food Addiction Scale has been developed for the measurement of addiction-like eating behavior based on the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence of the fou...

  2. Sugar and Fat Bingeing Have Notable Differences in Addictive-like Behavior1–3

    OpenAIRE

    AVENA, NICOLE M.; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2009-01-01

    Ingestion of different nutrients, such as fats and sugars, normally produces different effects on physiology, the brain, and behavior. However, they do share certain neural pathways for reinforcement of behavior, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. When these nutrients are consumed in the form of binges, this can release excessive DA, which causes compensatory changes that are comparable to the effects of drugs of abuse. In this article, we review data obtained with animal models o...

  3. Wearable sensor platform and mobile application for use in cognitive behavioral therapy for drug addiction and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard Ribón; Tam, Sharon; Omojola, Olufemi; Redemske, Richard; Kwan, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    We present a wearable sensor platform designed for monitoring and studying autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for the purpose of mental health treatment and interventions. The mobile sensor system consists of a sensor band worn on the ankle that continuously monitors electrodermal activity (EDA), 3-axis acceleration, and temperature. A custom-designed ECG heart monitor worn on the chest is also used as an optional part of the system. The EDA signal from the ankle bands provides a measure sympathetic nervous system activity and used to detect arousal events. The optional ECG data can be used to improve the sensor classification algorithm and provide a measure of emotional "valence." Both types of sensor bands contain a Bluetooth radio that enables communication with the patient's mobile phone. When a specific arousal event is detected, the phone automatically presents therapeutic and empathetic messages to the patient in the tradition of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). As an example of clinical use, we describe how the system is currently being used in an ongoing study for patients with drug-addiction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PMID:22254678

  4. Cortisol secretion patterns in addiction and addiction risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovallo, William R

    2006-03-01

    Addiction to alcohol or nicotine involves altered functioning of the brain's motivational systems. Altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis may hold clues to the nature of the motivational changes accompanying addiction and vulnerability to addiction. Alcohol and nicotine show at least three forms of interaction with HPA functioning. Acute intake of both substances causes stress-like cortisol responses. Their persistent use may dysregulate the HPA. Finally, the risk for dependence and for relapse after quitting may be associated with deficient cortisol reactivity to a variety of stressors. The HPA is regulated at the hypothalamus by diurnal and metabolic signals, but during acute emotional states, its regulation is superseded by signals from the limbic system and prefrontal cortex. This top-down organization makes the HPA responsive to inputs that reflect motivational processes. The HPA is accordingly a useful system for studying psychophysiological reactivity in persons who may vary in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral tendencies associated with addiction and risk for addiction. Chronic, heavy intake of alcohol and nicotine may cause modifications in these frontal-limbic interactions and may account for HPA response differences in seen in alcoholics and smokers. In addition, preexisting alterations in frontal-limbic interactions with the HPA may reflect addiction-proneness, as shown in studies of offspring of alcohol- and drug-abusing parents. Continuing research on the relationship between HPA function, stress responsivity, and the addictions may yield insights into how the brain's motivational systems support addictions and risk for addictions. PMID:16434116

  5. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. PMID:26393658

  6. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. PMID:26393658

  7. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Love

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  8. Overcoming Addiction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Announcer: It's been well-known for a long time that smoking is bad for your health, but it was only ten years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions ...

  9. The Development of a Preference for Cocaine over Food Identifies Individual Rats with Addiction-Like Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Adam N.; Westenbroek, Christel; Becker, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug taking that supercedes other recreational, occupational or social pursuits. We hypothesized that rats vulnerable to addiction could be identified within the larger population based on their preference for cocaine over palatable food rewards. Objectives To validate the choice self-administration paradigm as a preclinical model of addiction, we examined changes in motivation for cocaine and recidivism to drug seeking in cocaine-pr...

  10. Are Internet use and video-game-playing addictive behaviors? Biological, clinical and public health implications for youths and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Michael J. Crowley; Mayes, Linda C.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2012-01-01

    Internet use and video-game playing are experiencing rapid growth among both youth and adult populations. Research suggests that a minority of users experience symptoms traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. Mental health professionals, policy makers and the general public continue to debate the issue of Internet addiction (IA) and problematic video-game playing (PVG). This review identifies existing studies into the clinical and biological characteristics of these disord...

  11. The Development of a Preference for Cocaine over Food Identifies Individual Rats with Addiction-Like Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Adam N.; Christel Westenbroek; Becker, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug taking that supercedes other recreational, occupational or social pursuits. We hypothesized that rats vulnerable to addiction could be identified within the larger population based on their preference for cocaine over palatable food rewards. OBJECTIVES: To validate the choice self-administration paradigm as a preclinical model of addiction, we examined changes in motivation for cocaine and recidivism to drug seeking in cocaine-...

  12. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A EBRAHIMI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in addicts were different from those of non-addicts in most of the coping procedures. Nonaddicts reported that they used problem-focused coping and some of the emotional-focused coping strategies. In contrast, addicts shown that they used unuseful and noneffective stress coping strategies. Discussion. These data indicate that using ineffective stress coping skills is one of-the predisposing and precipitating factors in addictive behavior. It seems that stress coping skills training is necessary in prevention of addiction.

  13. The epigenetic landscape of addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Maze, Ian; Nestler, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced alterations in gene expression throughout the reward circuitry of the brain are likely components of the persistence of the drug-addicted state. Recent studies examining the molecular mechanisms controlling drug-induced transcriptional, behavioral and synaptic plasticity have indicated a direct role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation and stability of drug-mediated neuronal gene programs, and the subsequent promulgation of addictive behaviors. In this review, we discuss re...

  14. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues,...

  15. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan. PMID:26394521

  16. The BOLD-fMRI study of behavior inhibition in chronic heroin addicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify the neural mechanisms of impulsivity and the response inhibition deficits of the chronic heroin users using event-related functional MRI (stop-signal task). Methods: Seventeen individuals with heroin dependence and 17 healthy control subjects underwent fMRI scan while executing stop -signal task after anatomical scanning in 3.0 T scanner. The AFNI package was used for fMRI data preprocessing and statistical analysis. Results: The behavioral data showed that the stop signal reaction rime (SSRT) of heroin users was significantly longer than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in activation of the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area between two groups. Comparing to the control group, heroin users had weaker activation in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex, but stronger activation in bilateral striatum and amygdala while behavioral inhibition needed. Conclusion: The results suggest that heroin users have significant changes within impulsivity and inhibitory network, where the right prefrontal cortex is considered as main region for inhibition, while the anterior cingulated cortex is associated with error monitoring, and the amygdale controls impulsivity and emotion. (authors)

  17. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  18. [Complications of cocaine addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Lowenstein, William; Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-06-20

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by repetitive and compulsive drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse despite negative health or social consequences. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. Some of the most frequent complications are cardiovascular effects (acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, increased blood pressure); respiratory effects (fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, alveolar haemorrhage, asthma exacerbation; emphysema), neurological effects (strokes, aneurysms, seizures, headaches); risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, sexual transmitted disease and otolaryngologic effects. Other complications are not discussed here. The vast majority of studies indicate that there are cognitive deficits induced by cocaine addiction. Attention, visual and working memories, executive functioning are affected in cocaine users. Psychiatric complications found in clinical practice are major depressive disorders, cocaine-induced paranoia, cocaine-induced compulsive foraging and panic attacks. PMID:19642439

  19. Factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction among patients attending a de-addiction Centre, South India

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Poornima; Srinivas, Raju; Vishwanathan, Kashi; Raavi, Abhilash

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol and tobacco consumption are highly correlated behaviors. Aim: To assess the factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction and their impact on personal, family, and social life among patients attending the Spandana Nursing Home and De-addiction Centre, Bangalore. The objectives are to assess the various factors leading to alcohol and tobacco addiction, to assess the influence of addiction on personal, family, and social life, and also to create awareness among the com...

  20. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Northrup, Jason C.; Coady Lapierre; Jeffrey Kirk; Cosette Rae

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the...

  1. Towards an animal model of food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could

  2. Addiction, risk, and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamani, Allaman

    2007-01-01

    Addiction is a contemporary social issue bound to the myth of self-control and control of the other, which is typical of the contemporary "market ideology" society. In its broad definition it includes not only the use and misuse of "substances" and addictive behaviors, but also the concept of risk. There is a continuum between "addicted behaviors" and behaviors that are not "addicted" but may induce and/or be related to both physical and psycho-social problems on a micro- to macrolevel. Different studies have documented substantial changes in the consumption of tobacco, drugs, alcoholic beverages, as well as "junk foods" during the last decades in various countries. All too often politicians, health administrators, and local providers believe that consumption prevention programs are able, per se, to effect such changes. In fact, the impact of factors such as international trade, globalization and societal values, among many others, are considered relevant. On the other hand, sufficient place must be given to national and community-based preventive initiatives. PMID:17558940

  3. Reduced orbitofrontal cortical thickness in male adolescents with internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Suh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Klauser, Paul; Whittle, Sarah; Yűcel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Background The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has consistently been implicated in the pathology of both drug and behavioral addictions. However, no study to date has examined OFC thickness in internet addiction. In the current study, we investigated the existence of differences in cortical thickness of the OFC in adolescents with internet addiction. On the basis of recently proposed theoretical models of addiction, we predicted a reduction of thickness in the OFC of internet addicted individuals....

  4. Ruminative Response Styles and Metacognitions in Internet Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Senormanci, Omer; Konkan, Ramazan; Guclu, Oya; Guliz SENORMANCI

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although cognitive behavioral model of Internet addiction has been well described, studies on metacognitions and ruminative response styles related with Internet addiction are very limited. The aim of the present study was to compare metacognitions and ruminative response style in Internet addicts with a healthy control group. Method: The study included 30 males who presented to our Internet Addiction Outpatient clinic, and diagnosed with Internet addiction, and a c...

  5. Overcoming Addiction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... been well-known for a long time that smoking is bad for your health, but it was ... years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be ...

  6. Overcoming Addiction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a habit, it's addictive. The sad part is after you've smoked as long as I do you ... that's definitely up there. Within a few hours after you quit, that will start to come down. Bill: ...

  7. [Cocaine addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchot, W; Scantamburlo, G; Pinto, E; Karila, L

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug after cannabis in the general population. Cocaine is a powerful stimulating agent of the central nervous system and a highly addictogenic drug. Somatic and psychiatric consequences of cocaine addiction are major and clinically relevant. The increasing consumption of cocaine and the importance of its consequences justify an update of our knowledge about cocaine addiction. PMID:23888579

  8. Dealing with Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction Print A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  9. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you ... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ...

  10. College Students Addictive Behavior and Learned Cognition on Today's Perspective%当今视角下对大学生成瘾行为及习得的认知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永鹏; 周子凤

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed at college students' variety of addictive behaviors under the influence of the Internet and big data era of discussion, such as phone addiction, social media addiction, online shopping addiction, game addiction, addiction browse porn sites, etc., the negative impact of this excessive behavior must not be used to bring undervalued, and seriously af-fected the physical and mental health of college students, resulting in all aspects of the body, learn, live, work, etc. are com-promised. This article is a summary of previous research, expand forth from college students learned addictive behavior and cognition, and provide the basis for future research on college students' addiction on this basis.%本文主要是针对大学生在互联网及大数据时代影响下的各种成瘾行为展开讨论,如手机成瘾、社交媒体成瘾、网购成瘾、游戏成瘾、浏览色情网站成瘾等等,这种过度使用的行为带来的负面影响绝不低估,且严重影响了大学生的身心健康,致使身体、学习、生活、工作等各方面都受到损害。此文章是对以往的研究进行总结,从大学生成瘾行为及其习得的认知展开阐述,并在此基础上探讨大学生成瘾行为及为未来的研究方向提供依据。

  11. 网络成瘾者的行为冲动性——来自爱荷华赌博任务的证据%Internet Addicts' Behavior Impulsivity: Evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐四华

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction, defined as a maladaptive use of the Internet, is estimated to occur in 8-13% of college students (Chou, Condron, & Belland, 2005). It has become a serious mental health issue worldwide because addicts are impaired in various behavioral aspects including social interactions and academic performance (Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 2000; Scherer, 1997; Young, 1998). Some researchers consider Internet addiction as a kind of behavioral addiction. However, there are few experimental studies on the cognitive functions of Internet addicts and limited data are available to compare Internet addicts with other addictive behaviors, such as drug abuse and pathological gambling. In the present study, we examined internet addicts' function of decision making. Two groups of participants, 42 Internet addicts (18~22 years old, 32 male, M = 19.79, SD = 1.14) and 42 controls (18~22 years old, 26 male, M = 19.71, SD = 1.13), were compared on the cognitive function and impulsivity by using a Chinese computerized versions of the IGT and Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). In the IGT, subjects had to choose between four decks of cards. Unknown to the subjects, two piles offered larger short-term gains that are offset by greater risks of heavy losses, and hence were disadvantageous in the long run. The other two piles offered smaller short-term gains and a lower risk of loss that result in long-term maximization of the monetary payoff. The results of the present study showed that (1) compared with controls, sensation seeking of internet addicts was higher significantly, and internet addicts showed significantly higher scores on subscales of thrill and adventure seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility, and they selected significantly less net decks in the Iowa Gambling Task. Furthermore, Internet addicts made no progress in selecting strategy along with the time course of the decision making. (2) reaction patterns for pure win-cards were consistent between

  12. The Role of Meditation in Addiction Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, James M.; Nishimura, Nancy J.; Priest, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the role of meditation as an important component in addiction recovery. Successful addiction recovery is often related to an individual's ability to develop and use a repertoire of coping behaviors, including the ability to maintain an ongoing awareness of one's vulnerability. These learned behaviors serve as reliable…

  13. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N. D.; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750

  14. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking. PMID:23241714

  15. The Factors Affecting Drug Abuse Among Addicted Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rahmati

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyse some background factors that has some effect on the formation and continuity of addictive behavior among a sample of 1500 addicted persons on the 10 provinces of Iran. The article explores the processes under which the addictive behavior occures. Based on the findings of a survey research on a sample of 1500 drug abusers, it is concluded that factors such as addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, drug type, and methods and situations of approaching and access to drugs are effective in beginning of addiction. At last , the article pays special attention to addiction among women as the drug abusers.

  16. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  17. Genetic background and epigenetic modifications in the core of the nucleus accumbens predict addiction-like behavior in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagel, Shelly B; Chaudhury, Sraboni; Waselus, Maria; Kelly, Rebeca; Sewani, Salima; Clinton, Sarah M; Thompson, Robert C; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2016-05-17

    This study provides a demonstration in the rat of a clear genetic difference in the propensity for addiction-related behaviors following prolonged cocaine self-administration. It relies on the use of selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rat lines that differ in several characteristics associated with "temperament," including novelty-induced locomotion and impulsivity. We show that bHR rats exhibit behaviors reminiscent of human addiction, including persistent cocaine-seeking and increased reinstatement of cocaine seeking. To uncover potential underlying mechanisms of this differential vulnerability, we focused on the core of the nucleus accumbens and examined expression and epigenetic regulation of two transcripts previously implicated in bHR/bLR differences: fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and the dopamine D2 receptor (D2). Relative to bHRs, bLRs had lower FGF2 mRNA levels and increased association of a repressive mark on histones (H3K9me3) at the FGF2 promoter. These differences were apparent under basal conditions and persisted even following prolonged cocaine self-administration. In contrast, bHRs had lower D2 mRNA under basal conditions, with greater association of H3K9me3 at the D2 promoter and these differences were no longer apparent following prolonged cocaine self-administration. Correlational analyses indicate that the association of H3K9me3 at D2 may be a critical substrate underlying the propensity to relapse. These findings suggest that low D2 mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens core, likely mediated via epigenetic modifications, may render individuals more susceptible to cocaine addiction. In contrast, low FGF2 levels, which appear immutable even following prolonged cocaine exposure, may serve as a protective factor. PMID:27114539

  18. Genetic background and epigenetic modifications in the core of the nucleus accumbens predict addiction-like behavior in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagel, Shelly B.; Chaudhury, Sraboni; Waselus, Maria; Kelly, Rebeca; Sewani, Salima; Clinton, Sarah M.; Thompson, Robert C.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a demonstration in the rat of a clear genetic difference in the propensity for addiction-related behaviors following prolonged cocaine self-administration. It relies on the use of selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rat lines that differ in several characteristics associated with “temperament,” including novelty-induced locomotion and impulsivity. We show that bHR rats exhibit behaviors reminiscent of human addiction, including persistent cocaine-seeking and increased reinstatement of cocaine seeking. To uncover potential underlying mechanisms of this differential vulnerability, we focused on the core of the nucleus accumbens and examined expression and epigenetic regulation of two transcripts previously implicated in bHR/bLR differences: fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and the dopamine D2 receptor (D2). Relative to bHRs, bLRs had lower FGF2 mRNA levels and increased association of a repressive mark on histones (H3K9me3) at the FGF2 promoter. These differences were apparent under basal conditions and persisted even following prolonged cocaine self-administration. In contrast, bHRs had lower D2 mRNA under basal conditions, with greater association of H3K9me3 at the D2 promoter and these differences were no longer apparent following prolonged cocaine self-administration. Correlational analyses indicate that the association of H3K9me3 at D2 may be a critical substrate underlying the propensity to relapse. These findings suggest that low D2 mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens core, likely mediated via epigenetic modifications, may render individuals more susceptible to cocaine addiction. In contrast, low FGF2 levels, which appear immutable even following prolonged cocaine exposure, may serve as a protective factor. PMID:27114539

  19. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the topics 'food addiction', 'chocolate addiction' or 'sugar addiction' have been extensively covered in the popular press. The scientific community however, remains divided. Here we review the literatu...

  20. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Love; Christian Laier; Matthias Brand; Linda Hatch; Raju Hajela

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further ...

  1. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  2. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  3. Intrinsic membrane plasticity via increased persistent sodium conductance of cholinergic neurons in the rat laterodorsal tegmental nucleus contributes to cocaine-induced addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Hironori; Kurosawa, Ryo; Taoka, Naofumi; Shinohara, Fumiya; Minami, Masabumi; Kaneda, Katsuyuki

    2015-05-01

    The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is a brainstem nucleus implicated in reward processing and is one of the main sources of cholinergic afferents to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neuroplasticity in this structure may affect the excitability of VTA dopamine neurons and mesocorticolimbic circuitry. Here, we provide evidence that cocaine-induced intrinsic membrane plasticity in LDT cholinergic neurons is involved in addictive behaviors. After repeated experimenter-delivered cocaine exposure, ex vivo whole-cell recordings obtained from LDT cholinergic neurons revealed an induction of intrinsic membrane plasticity in regular- but not burst-type neurons, resulting in increased firing activity. Pharmacological examinations showed that increased riluzole-sensitive persistent sodium currents, but not changes in Ca(2+) -activated BK, SK or voltage-dependent A-type potassium conductance, mediated this plasticity. In addition, bilateral microinjection of riluzole into the LDT immediately before the test session in a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm inhibited the expression of cocaine-induced CPP. These findings suggest that intrinsic membrane plasticity in LDT cholinergic neurons is causally involved in the development of cocaine-induced addictive behaviors. PMID:25712572

  4. Transcriptional Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is considered a plausible mechanism of drug addiction given the stability of behavioral abnormalities that define an addicted state. Numerous transcription factors, proteins that bind to regulatory regions of specific genes and thereby control levels of their expression, have been implicated in the addiction process over the past decade or two. Here we review the growing evidence for the role played by several prominent transcription factors, including a Fos family protein (ΔFosB), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), among several others, in drug addiction. As will be seen, each factor displays very different regulation by drugs of abuse within the brain's reward circuitry, and in turn mediates distinct aspects of the addiction phenotype. Current efforts are geared toward understanding the range of target genes through which these transcription factors produce their functional effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. This work promises to reveal fundamentally new insight into the molecular basis of addiction, which will contribute to improved diagnostic tests and therapeutics for addictive disorders. PMID:23430970

  5. 毒品依赖者的行为抑制功能的实验研究%The Experimental Study of Behavioral Inhibition function of Drug Addicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 李欣娜; 毛金铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究美沙酮维持治疗者和强制戒毒人员的行为抑制功能,进一步探讨美沙酮作为一种替代性药物对于毒品依赖者的意义。方法:通过行为实验的方法,采用 E-prime 编制程序来了解海洛因依赖者的行为抑制功能,使用 SPSS17.0对数据进行统计分析。结果:强制戒毒者的行为抑制功能的表现明显弱于正常组和美沙酮组;美沙酮维持治疗者的行为抑制功能与正常人比较,没有显著差异;三组被试的反应正确率之间没有差异。结论:美沙酮维持治疗改善了毒品依赖者的行为抑制功能,对改变毒品依赖者的高危行为,减少与吸毒有关的违法犯罪等方面有重要的意义。%Objective:To study the behavioral inhibition of drug addicts treated with methadone maintenance and compulsory detox-ification,in order to explore the effects of methadone maintenance on the cognitive function of drug addicts. Methods:The core com-ponent of the executive function-response inhibition was investigated using a visual Oddball task programed by E-prime and then uses SPSS17. 0 for statistical analysis of the data. Results:The performance of behavioral inhibition was significantly weaker in addicts trea-ted in the compulsory detoxification center compared with normal control. There is no significant difference in the behavioral inhibition performance between methadone maintenance patient and the normal control,meanwhile,the mandatory groups have a better perform-ance than the methadone maintenance treatment. There is no difference among the three groups for response accuracy. Conclusion:Methadone maintenance therapy improves the behavioral inhibition function of drug dependent persons. This result shows important sig-nificance in the changing high-risk behaviors of drug dependent persons and reducing drug-related crimes.

  6. Addiction and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The brain regions and neural processes that underlie addiction overlap extensively with those that support cognitive functions, including learning, memory, and reasoning. Drug activity in these regions and processes during early stages of abuse foster strong maladaptive associations between drug use and environmental stimuli that may underlie future cravings and drug-seeking behaviors. With continued drug use, cognitive deficits ensue that exacerbate the difficulty of establishing sustained a...

  7. Environmental enrichment and drug addiction revised

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Solinas

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) has positive effects on drug addiction. In fact, animals exposed to EE appear less vulnerable than animals reared in standard environments (SE) to develop addiction-related behaviors. In addition, exposing already « addicted » animals to EE during periods of withdrawal dramatically reduces the risks of relapse. These findings highlight the interest of EE for the treatment of psychiatric diseases and, from a tran...

  8. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personalit...

  9. Neurobiologic Processes in Drug Reward and Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Adinoff, Bryon

    2004-01-01

    Neurophysiologic processes underlie the uncontrolled, compulsive behaviors defining the addicted state. These “hard-wired” changes in the brain are considered critical for the transition from casual to addictive drug use. This review of preclinical and clinical (primarily neuroimaging) studies will describe how the delineation between pleasure, reward, and addiction has evolved as our understanding of the biologic mechanisms underlying these processes has progressed. Although the mesolimbic d...

  10. Characteristics and treatment response of self-identified problematic Internet users in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël; Khazaal, Yasser; Khan, Riaz; Pivin, Edward; Gupta, Vishal; Zullino, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Controversies remain about the validity of the diagnosis of problematic Internet use. This might be due in part to the lack of longitudinal naturalistic studies that have followed a cohort of patients who self-identify as having Internet-related problems. Methods: This retrospective study included 57 patients who consulted the Geneva Addiction Outpatient Clinic from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2010. Patients underwent an initial clinical psychiatric evaluation that included collectio...

  11. Peering through the smoke: the effect of parental smoking behavior and addiction on daily smokers' attentional bias to smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that individuals with parents who smoke are more likely to become smokers and are less successful in smoking cessation efforts compared with those without a smoking parent, the reasons for this link have not been established. In the current study, implicit attentional bias to smoking-related cues was investigated in college-age smokers, based on models of addiction that suggest that attention to drug-related cues plays an important role in drug addiction. Sixty-one participants completed a dot-probe task to measure attentional bias to smoking-related and matched non-smoking-related control pictures. Results indicated that while those who reported smoking occasionally did not demonstrate an attentional bias, daily smokers who had a smoking parent showed more of an attentional bias to the smoking cues than those without a smoking parent, but only to cues that did not contain human content. In addition to parental influence, nicotine dependence explained a significant portion of the variance in the attentional bias for daily smokers. Implications for models of nicotine addiction and the development of smoking cessation programs are discussed. PMID:22036056

  12. [Exercise addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed. PMID:23888586

  13. Heroin Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collaborations that involve scientists working together with public health and safety personnel will help overcome barriers to adoption of these proven effective treatments. These advances will have a global impact not just on heroin addiction but on the spread of HIV, particularly ...

  14. Overcoming Addiction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be one of the hardest addictions to overcome. Bill Saxby: My name is Bill Saxby. I'm 63 years old and I've smoked for 50 years, at least. Announcer: Bill is an electrician. He has tried to quit ...

  15. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Those cravings have less to do with nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking. Will I gain weight when I quit? Some people gain a few pounds. Other people lose weight. The main reason some people gain weight is because they eat more food as a substitute for smoking. You can avoid ...

  16. Food Addiction: Its Prevalence and Significant Association with Obesity in the General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Pardis Pedram; Danny Wadden; Peyvand Amini; Wayne Gulliver; Edward Randell; Farrell Cahill; Sudesh Vasdev; Alan Goodridge; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Guangju Zhai; Yunqi Ji; Guang Sun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than con...

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model to Study the Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Engleman, Eric A.; Katner, Simon N.; Neal-Beliveau, Bethany S.

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction takes a massive toll on society. Novel animal models are needed to test new treatments and understand the basic mechanisms underlying addiction. Rodent models have identified the neurocircuitry involved in addictive behavior and indicate that rodents possess some of the same neurobiologic mechanisms that mediate addiction in humans. Recent studies indicate that addiction is mechanistically and phylogenetically ancient and many mechanisms that underlie human addiction are also p...

  18. Rats classified as low or high cocaine locomotor responders: a unique model involving striatal dopamine transporters that predicts cocaine addiction-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Dorothy J; Nelson, Anna M; Mandt, Bruce H; Larson, Gaynor A; Rorabaugh, Jacki M; Ng, Christopher M C; Barcomb, Kelsey M; Richards, Toni L; Allen, Richard M; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2013-09-01

    Individual differences are a hallmark of drug addiction. Here, we describe a rat model based on differential initial responsiveness to low dose cocaine. Despite similar brain cocaine levels, individual outbred Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit markedly different magnitudes of acute cocaine-induced locomotor activity and, thereby, can be classified as low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs). LCRs and HCRs differ in drug-induced, but not novelty-associated, hyperactivity. LCRs have higher basal numbers of striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) than HCRs and exhibit marginal cocaine inhibition of in vivo DAT activity and cocaine-induced increases in extracellular DA. Importantly, lower initial cocaine response predicts greater locomotor sensitization, conditioned place preference and greater motivation to self-administer cocaine following low dose acquisition. Further, outbred Long-Evans rats classified as LCRs, versus HCRs, are more sensitive to cocaine's discriminative stimulus effects. Overall, results to date with the LCR/HCR model underscore the contribution of striatal DATs to individual differences in initial cocaine responsiveness and the value of assessing the influence of initial drug response on subsequent expression of addiction-like behaviors. PMID:23850581

  19. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training by Cognitive-Behavioral Group in the Increase of Girls’ Self-Esteem and Assertiveness with Addicted Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Esmaeili

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the survey of social skills training by cognitive behavioral group in the increase of girls’ self-esteem and assertiveness with addicted parents in Isfahan. Method: 20 students with addicted parents who had the lowest rate of assertiveness were selected by semi-experimental method in third to fifth grades. Randomly research projects pre-test-post-test control group. Questionnaire to measure assertiveness and assertiveness Gmbryl and Richie Esteem Questionnaire to measure students' self-esteem was used. After the pre-test training program assertiveness over 10 weeks, each week, one session, lasting from one hour and half and at the end of the test was performed after 40 days in both groups re-testing were results using software spss case were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on one factor was used. Results: The results showed that participants in the program and self-assertiveness therapy increased. These results were confirmed in a follow up phase. Conclusion: the training of social skills speeds up assertiveness and self-esteem of students.

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Psychostimulant Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Chung Chen; Pei-Chun Chen; Yao-Chang Chiang

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction represents a pathological form of neuroplasticity along with the emergenceof aberrant behaviors involving a cascade of neurochemical changes mainly in thebrain’s rewarding circuitry. The aberrant behavioral phenotypes can be assessed by an animalmodel of drug-induced behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by an initiationstage that is formed in the ventral tegmental area and a behavioral expression stage determinedmainly in the nucleus accumbens. Numerous studies duri...

  1. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:26226007

  2. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  3. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use and Addiction DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Use and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised August 2016 Many people ... addiction and lead productive lives. What Is drug addiction? Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug ...

  4. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain's reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation-histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23643695

  5. Notions of Video Game Addiction and Their Relation to Self-Reported Addiction among Players of World of Warcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, Jean; Sammis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 438 players of the online video game, World of Warcraft, completed a survey about video game addiction and answered an open-ended question about behaviors they considered characteristic of video game addiction. Responses were coded and correlated with players' self-reports of being addicted to games and scores on a modified video…

  6. Cue-induced craving for Internet among Internet addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Geng-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Kong, Fan-Chang; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Kui

    2016-11-01

    Intense craving is a core feature of addictive disorder, and cue-induced craving is believed to be a key factor in the maintenance and relapse of addictive behaviors. With the rapid development of the Internet, Internet addiction has become a widespread behavioral problem accompanied by many negative effects. This study used the cue-reactivity paradigm to examine cue-induced craving for the Internet among Internet addicts and non-addicts. Participants were exposed to Internet-related words, and asked to report their craving for the Internet. Results indicated that Internet-related words aroused cue-induced craving for the Internet among both Internet addicts and non-addicts; however, the craving was more intense among Internet addicts. These results suggest that craving may not be a unipolar, all or none state found only in addicts, but may also be present among non-addicts. They indicate that Internet-related words may be able to induce craving for the Internet, and that Internet addiction and other addictions may share similar underlying mechanisms. This finding has important implications for designing interventions for Internet addiction. PMID:27305097

  7. Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Rachel; Dingel, Molly; Ostergren, Jenny; Partridge, Brad; McCormick, Jennifer; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    To deepen understanding of efforts to consider addiction a “brain disease,” we review critical appraisals of the disease model in conjunction with responses from in-depth semistructured stakeholder interviews with (1) patients in treatment for addiction and (2) addiction scientists. Sixty-three patients (from five alcohol and/or nicotine treatment centers in the Midwest) and 20 addiction scientists (representing genetic, molecular, behavioral, and epidemiologic research) were asked to describ...

  8. Analysis on online behavior and influence of internet addiction on self-esteem among college students%大学生上网行为及其网络成瘾对自尊心影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙易蔓; 胡晓斌; 赵笑颜; 张梦菡

    2013-01-01

    -esteem score leads lower possibility to addiction, and men were easier to addiction than women. Addiction rates were decreased successively among urban, suburban and rural college students. Higher grades were more easier to be addictive; addiction rates were increased among science, arts, medicine, engineering, agricultural college students. Conclusions Online behavior and internet addiction status are of great importance to self-esteem among college students. Internet addicts' self-esteem is worse than others.

  9. 重度网络游戏成瘾者心理行为特征的研究%A study on psychology-behavior characteristics in serious internet game addicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔; 高文斌

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解重度网络游戏成瘾者的心理行为特征.方法 30名重度网络游戏成瘾者和43名对照组青少年,使用网络成瘾量表、EPQ人格问卷、社会支持评定量表、生活目的 测验、感觉寻求量表进行心理评估.结果 网瘾组在社会支持评定量表总分、主观支持分量表得分、生活目的 测验得分及感觉寻求危险冒险分量表得分方面显著低于对照组,依次为:(34.60±6.90)分Vs(39.60±6.30)分(P<0.01);(9.33±3.59)分Vs(9.09±3.09)分(P<0.01);(88.40±12.69)分Vs(96.14±12.56)分(P<0.05);(6.33±2.86)分Vs(7.58±2.21)分(P<0.05).社会支持中对支持的利用度得分、客观支持分量表得分及感觉寻求总分对网瘾组的网瘾程度有预测作用.网瘾组的EPQ掩饰分数明显低于对照组[(46.50±8.53)分Vs(53.40±8.28)分,(P<0.01)],同时网瘾组的神经质得分和感觉寻求得分负相关(r=-0.452,P<0.05).结论 重度网络游戏成瘾者具有社会支持度低、生活目的 感低、冒险特征低的心理特点;感觉寻求和社会支持对重度网络游戏成瘾者的网瘾程度有预测作用;神经质分低的重度网络游戏成瘾者具有高感觉寻求的特点.%Objective To explore the mental-behavior characteristics in serious internet game addicts.Methods To investigate internet addiction questionnaire, EPQ, social support questionnaire, purpose in life test and sensation seeking scale in 30 serious internet game addicts ( age from 16 ~ 25 years) and 43 non-addicts.Results Internet addicts have obviously lower social support questionnaire score, subjective support score, purpose in life test score and sensation seeking TAS score than non-addicts( P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). Objective support score, the use score for social support and sensation seeking score can forecast the internet addiction extent of the internet addict group. Internet addicts have obviously lower L score of EPQ than non-addicts ( P<0.01 ). There is the negative correlation

  10. Modeling nicotine addiction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, Stephanie; Clemens, Kelly; Stinus, Luis; Cador, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Among the human population, 15% of drug users develop a pathological drug addiction. This figure increases substantially with nicotine, whereby more than 30% of those who try smoking develop a nicotine addiction. Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors (craving), and loss of control over intake despite impairment in health, social, and occupational functions. This behavior can be accurately modeled in the rat using an intravenous self-administration (IVSA) paradigm. Initial attempts at establishing nicotine self-administration had been problematic, yet in recent times increasingly reliable models of nicotine self-administration have been developed. The present article reviews different characteristics of the nicotine IVSA model that has been developed to examine nicotine reinforcing and motivational properties in rats. PMID:22231818

  11. Systems Level Neuroplasticity in Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltenstein, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder for which research has been dedicated to understand the various factors that contribute to development, loss of control, and persistence of compulsive addictive behaviors. In this review, we provide a broad overview of various theories of addiction, drugs of abuse, and the neurobiology involved across the addiction cycle. Specific focus is devoted to the role of the mesolimbic pathway in acute drug reinforcement and occasional drug use, the mesocortical pathway and associated areas (e.g., the dorsal striatum) in escalation/dependence, and the involvement of these pathways and associated circuits in mediating conditioned responses, drug craving, and loss of behavioral control thought to underlie withdrawal and relapse. With a better understanding of the neurobiological factors that underlie drug addiction, continued preclinical and clinical research will aid in the development of novel therapeutic interventions that can serve as effective long-term treatment strategies for drug-dependent individuals. PMID:23580792

  12. Optogenetic and chemogenetic insights into the food addiction hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Krashes, Michael J.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is clinically diagnosed by a simple formula based on the weight and height of a person (body mass index), but is associated with a host of other behavioral symptoms that are likely neurological in origin. In recent years, many scientists have asked whether similar behavioral and cognitive changes occur in drug addiction and obesity, lending many to discuss the potential for food addiction. Advances in understanding the circuitry underlying both feeding behaviors and drug addiction m...

  13. What is sexual addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125

  14. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). PMID:21492080

  15. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples. PMID:24001298

  16. Examination of neural systems sub-serving facebook "addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli. The findings indicated that at least at the examined levels of addiction-like symptoms, technology-related "addictions" share some neural features with substance and gambling addictions, but more importantly they also differ from such addictions in their brain etiology and possibly pathogenesis, as related to abnormal functioning of the inhibitory-control brain system. PMID:25489985

  17. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... just to get by." Deon was addicted to heroin. Here, he describes the drug's effects on his ... is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency ...

  18. Internet sex addiction treated with naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J Michael; Bucci, Jeffrey A

    2008-02-01

    Malfunctioning of the brain's reward center is increasingly understood to underlie all addictive behavior. Composed of mesolimbic incentive salience circuitry, the reward center governs all behavior in which motivation has a central role, including acquiring food, nurturing young, and having sex. To the detriment of normal functioning, basic survival activities can pale in importance when challenged by the allure of addictive substances or behaviors. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter driving both normal and addictive behavior. Other neurotransmitters modulate the amount of dopamine released in response to a stimulus, with the salience determined by the intensity of the dopamine pulse. Opiates (either endogenous or exogenous) exemplify such modulators. Prescribed for treating alcoholism, naltrexone blocks opiates' capacity to augment dopamine release. This article reviews naltrexone's mechanism of action in the reward center and describes a novel use for naltrexone in suppressing a euphorically compulsive and interpersonally devastating addiction to Internet pornography. PMID:18241634

  19. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  20. Using Meditation in Addiction Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark E.; DeLorenzi, Leigh de Armas; Cunningham, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Meditation has been studied as a way of reducing stress in counseling clients since the 1960s. Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and new wave behavior therapies incorporate meditation techniques in their programs. This article identifies meditation's curative factors and limitations when using meditation in addiction settings.

  1. Striatal signal transduction and drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Philibin, Scott D.; Adan eCortes; Self, David W.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and unde...

  2. Etiology of Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Öyekçin, Demet Güleç; Deveci, Artuner

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some ...

  3. Epigenetics and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, J L; McCoy, M T; Jayanthi, S

    2016-05-01

    Addictions are public health menaces. However, despite advances in addiction research, the cellular or molecular mechanisms that cause transition from recreational use to addiction remain to be elucidated. We have recently suggested that addiction may be secondary to long-term epigenetic modifications that determine the clinical course of substance use disorders. A better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in animal models that mimic human conditions should help to usher in a new area of drug development against addiction. PMID:26841306

  4. Etiology of Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin; Artuner Deveci

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some s...

  5. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Northrup

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  6. HEALTH ATTITUDES OF THE FEMALE STUDENTS FROM OLSZTYN, POLAND - THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, ADDICTIONS AND THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTH BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve the health of the population are now focused on promoting healthy lifestyle, improve living conditions and to reduce mortality. Health education activities include regular physical activity, optimal nutrition, reduce addictions and stress. The purpose of the survey conducted among 672 first-year female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland was to determine the attitudes of young women towards a healthy lifestyle. Using anonymous survey questionnaire asked students about the form of physical activity, nutrition, the presence of stressful situations, the use of drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the interest in deepening knowledge of public health. The majority of students have participated only in obligatory physical education classes in high school and college. They considered that physical activity during the studies should be voluntary. Only 4.24% of students were total abstinence from alcohol, but 79.10% was non-smoking. Many of the women declared the need to change the diet, reducing alcohol intake and give up smoking habit. The students felt that stress connected with attending university is unavoidable, and thus revealed an interest in reducing and limiting mental tension. Despite their young age, students expressed interest in topics such as: first aid course, nutrition, sexuality, and pregnancy problems.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Psychostimulant Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chung Chen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction represents a pathological form of neuroplasticity along with the emergenceof aberrant behaviors involving a cascade of neurochemical changes mainly in thebrain’s rewarding circuitry. The aberrant behavioral phenotypes can be assessed by an animalmodel of drug-induced behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by an initiationstage that is formed in the ventral tegmental area and a behavioral expression stage determinedmainly in the nucleus accumbens. Numerous studies during past decades demonstratethat the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway plays an essential role in the development ofbehavioral sensitization. Moreover, a series of cellular signaling pathways and gene expressiondetermine the severity of addictive behaviors. In addition to the well-characterizeddopamine D1 receptor-mediated cAMP/protein kinase A up-regulation in the nucleus accumbens,recent reports indicate the cellular mediator dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteinof 32 kDa (DARPP-32 and transcription regulator ΔFosB are associated with theaccumbal PKA pathway to modulate the development of behavioral sensitization. The findingof cAMP-independent and dopamine D2 receptor-mediated Akt/GSK3 in activation inthe nucleus accumbens of behaviorally sensitized animals implies that a signal cascadedown-stream of both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors comprises the mainstay of the addictionnetwork. This review outlines the cellular pathways that have been demonstrated to participatein psychostimulant addiction, focused particularly in the nucleus accumbens.

  8. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E

    2015-02-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here, we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the "addiction phase" examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF's potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. PMID:25449839

  9. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the “addiction phase” examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF’s potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. PMID:25449839

  10. Motivation and Self-Regulation in Addiction: A Call for Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Köpetz, Cătălina E.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2013-01-01

    Addiction models have frequently invoked motivational mechanisms to explain the initiation and maintenance of addictive behaviors. However, in doing so, these models have emphasized the unique characteristics of addictive behaviors and overlooked the commonalities that they share with motivated behaviors in general. As a consequence, addiction research has failed to connect with and take advantage of promising and highly relevant advances in motivation and self-regulation research. The presen...

  11. Addictions and Personality Traits: Impulsivity and Related Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral tendencies that might be captured through self-report measures may provide insight into personality features that are associated with substance addictions. Recently, impulsivity and related constructs, such as sensation-seeking, have been examined to help better understand their relationships with addictions. Here, we review recent findings that show links over developmental epochs between addictive behaviors and impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and other constructs that are theoret...

  12. Sexual addiction or hypersexual disorder: different terms for the same problem? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Wéry, Aline; Weinstein, Aviv; Cottencin, Olivier; Petit, Aymeric; Reynaud, Michel; Billieux, Jöel

    2014-01-01

    Sexual addiction, which is also known as hypersexual disorder, has largely been ignored by psychiatrists, even though the condition causes serious psychosocial problems for many people. A lack of empirical evidence on sexual addiction is the result of the disease's complete absence from versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, people who were categorized as having a compulsive, impulsive, addictive sexual disorder or a hypersexual disorder reported having obsessive thoughts and behaviors as well as sexual fantasies. Existing prevalence rates of sexual addiction-related disorders range from 3% to 6%. Sexual addiction/ hypersexual disorder is used as an umbrella construct to encompass various types of problematic behaviors, including excessive masturbation, cybersex, pornography use, sexual behavior with consenting adults, telephone sex, strip club visitation, and other behaviors. The adverse consequences of sexual addiction are similar to the consequences of other addictive disorders. Addictive, somatic and psychiatric disorders coexist with sexual addiction. In recent years, research on sexual addiction has proliferated, and screening instruments have increasingly been developed to diagnose or quantify sexual addiction disorders. In our systematic review of the existing measures, 22 questionnaires were identified. As with other behavioral addictions, the appropriate treatment of sexual addiction should combine pharmacological and psychological approaches. Psychiatric and somatic comorbidities that frequently occur with sexual addiction should be integrated into the therapeutic process. Group-based treatments should also be attempted. PMID:24001295

  13. 广州市青少年精神成瘾行为分析%Analysis of addictive behaviors among adolescents in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟佳; 刘伟; 林蓉; 张维蔚; 吴家刚; 林琳; 杜琳

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广州市青少年电子游戏、网络成瘾及赌博等精神成瘾行为现况,为制定干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用“中国青少年健康相关行为调查问卷”对广州市66所学校11939名学生进行问卷调查.结果 青少年每天玩电子游戏≥4 h的比例为13.61%,男生(18.63%)远高于女生(9.30%),农村(14.56%)略高于城市(13.11%),职中生比例最高(25.65%),差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).青少年网络成瘾率为8.25%,男生(10.88%)明显高于女生(5.99%),职中生最高(10.25%),差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.01).青少年参加类似赌博的娱乐性活动的发生率为25.87%,男生(33.58%)高于女生(19.24%),城市(23.09%)低于农村(31.13%),职中生的发生率最高(38.63%),普通中学(24.26%)高于重点中学(20.84%),差异均有统计学意义.青少年上网的目的主要是:在线音乐、影视等的收听和收看(52.00%)、即时通讯(QQ,MSN等)(48.93%)、查阅资料(42.65%).结论 广州市青少年长时间玩电子游戏、上网及赌博等精神成瘾行为发生率较高,应通过学校、家庭及社会途径开展针对性干预.%Objective To understand the current status of addiction behaviors such as video or computer games, Internet addiction, gambling of adolescents in Guangzhou City, and to provide scientific evidence for intervention. Methods Questionnaire of Health Related Behaviors Among Adolescents in China was conducted among 11 939 students in 66 schools in Guangzhou. Results Among the adolescents, the proportion of students played video or computer games for more than 4 hours everyday was 13.61%, boys (18.63%) were higher than girls (9.30%), rural (14.56%) was slightly higher than urban (13. 11% ), vocational middle school students were of the highest (25. 65% ). The incidence of Internet addiction was 8. 25% , boys (10. 88% ) were significantly higher than girls (5.99% ) , and the highest one

  14. 大学生网络成瘾认知行为疗法研究综述%Summary of College Students' Internet Addiction Disorder Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2014-01-01

    College students are the direct beneficiaries of development of the Internet technology and the victims of devel-opment of the network media. College students who are long-term addicted to the virtual network prone to Internet addiction. The paper combed the genesis, classification and characteristics of college students' Internet addiction, compiled research re-sults Cognitive behavioral therapy based on college students' Internet addiction, and looked forward to more results for the future research.%大学生既是互联网技术发展的直接受益者,也是网络媒体发展的受害者。长期沉迷于虚拟网络的大学生容易出现网络成瘾症。本文重点梳理了大学生网络成瘾的成因、分类及特点,同时也整理了基于大学生网络成瘾的认知行为疗法研究成果,并对未来的研究进行了有效的展望。

  15. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Drug Addiction DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2016 NOTE: This ... treatment options in your state. What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by ...

  16. Etiology of Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some studies still emphasizes the differences between two. The aim of this article was to review clinical and biological aspects of etiological perspectives of food addiction via available clinical, preclinical and genetic studies.

  17. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Moeini; Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hazavehei; Saeed Bashirian; Alireza Soltanian; Amir Abbas Mousali; Vahid Kafami

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This ...

  18. Striatal signal transduction and drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Philibin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the formation of the addicted state are being delineated. Thus we may now consider the role of striatal signal transduction in addiction from a more integrative neurobiological perspective. Drugs of abuse alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Dopamine receptors important for reward serve as principle targets of drugs abuse, which interact with glutamate receptor signaling critical for reward learning. Complex networks of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms underlying these receptors are strongly stimulated by addictive drugs. Through these mechanisms, repeated drug exposure alters functional and structural neuroplasticity, resulting in transition to the addicted biological state and behavioral outcomes that typify addiction. Ca2+ and cAMP represent key second messengers that initiate signaling cascades, which regulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are fundamental mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity that are dysregulated by drugs of abuse. Increased understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which protein kinases and phosphatases exert their effects during normal reward learning and the addiction process may lead to novel targets and pharmacotherapeutics with increased efficacy in promoting abstinence and decreased side effects, such as interference with natural reward, for drug

  19. Striatal Signal Transduction and Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibin, Scott D.; Hernandez, Adan; Self, David W.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the formation of the addicted state are being delineated. Thus we may now consider the role of striatal signal transduction in addiction from a more integrative neurobiological perspective. Drugs of abuse alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Dopamine receptors important for reward serve as principle targets of drugs abuse, which interact with glutamate receptor signaling critical for reward learning. Complex networks of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms underlying these receptors are strongly stimulated by addictive drugs. Through these mechanisms, repeated drug exposure alters functional and structural neuroplasticity, resulting in transition to the addicted biological state and behavioral outcomes that typify addiction. Ca2+ and cAMP represent key second messengers that initiate signaling cascades, which regulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are fundamental mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity that are dysregulated by drugs of abuse. Increased understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which protein kinases and phosphatases exert their effects during normal reward learning and the addiction process may lead to novel targets and pharmacotherapeutics with increased efficacy in promoting abstinence and decreased side effects, such as interference with natural reward, for drug addiction. PMID

  20. Addictive personality and problematic mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Motoharu; Takahashi, Susumu; Kitamura, Masayoshi

    2009-10-01

    Mobile phone use is banned or regulated in some circumstances. Despite recognized safety concerns and legal regulations, some people do not refrain from using mobile phones. Such problematic mobile phone use can be considered to be an addiction-like behavior. To find the potential predictors, we examined the correlation between problematic mobile phone use and personality traits reported in addiction literature, which indicated that problematic mobile phone use was a function of gender, self-monitoring, and approval motivation but not of loneliness. These findings suggest that the measurements of these addictive personality traits would be helpful in the screening and intervention of potential problematic users of mobile phones. PMID:19817562

  1. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, psubstance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457

  2. Molecular and Functional Imaging of Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA, which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. MRI studies demonstrate that structural changes in frontal cortex are associated with functional abnormalities in Internet addicted subjects. Nuclear imaging findings indicate that IA is associated with dysfunction of the brain dopaminergic systems. Abnormal dopamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC could underlie the enhanced motivational value and uncontrolled behavior over Internet overuse in addicted subjects. Further investigations are needed to determine specific changes in the Internet addictive brain, as well as their implications for behavior and cognition.

  3. Take Action against Hepatitis C (for People in Recovery from Mental Illness or Addiction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For People in Recovery From Mental Illness or Addiction Attention treatment providers in behavioral health programs! This ... hepatitis C. If you have a history of addiction, you are at higher risk for hepatitis C. ...

  4. Addictions and Personality Traits: Impulsivity and Related Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marci R; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-03-01

    Behavioral tendencies that might be captured through self-report measures may provide insight into personality features that are associated with substance addictions. Recently, impulsivity and related constructs, such as sensation-seeking, have been examined to help better understand their relationships with addictions. Here, we review recent findings that show links over developmental epochs between addictive behaviors and impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and other constructs that are theoretically linked. These findings have significant implications for generating improved treatments and interventions aimed at preventing the development of addictive disorders. PMID:24772382

  5. Reversal of cocaine addiction by environmental enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Solinas, Marcello; Chauvet, Claudia; Thiriet, Nathalie; El Rawas, Rana; Jaber, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Environmental conditions can dramatically influence the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs of abuse. For example, stress increases the reinforcing effects of drugs and plays an important role in determining the vulnerability to develop drug addiction. On the other hand, positive conditions, such as environmental enrichment, can reduce the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants and may provide protection against the development of drug addiction. However, whether environmental enri...

  6. Internet Gaming Addiction: A Technological Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva; Verma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Internet is considered a beneficial tool in research, communication, and information. Still, its excessive and prolonged use has the potential of causing addiction. The presentation of this technological hazard may range from a mild socio-personal distress to a gross disorganization in behavior and self-care. No reported study on Internet gaming addiction is available from India. Case Presentation We reported a ca...

  7. Chromatin regulation in drug addiction and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Renthal, William; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatrie disorders, including drug addiction and depression, increasing evidence indicates that changes in gene expression in neurons, in the context of animal models of addiction and depression, are mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms that alter chromatin structure on specific gene promoters. This review discusses recent findings from behavioral, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches that are being u...

  8. Domestic Violence in Puerto Rican Gay Male Couples: Perceived Prevalence, Intergenerational Violence, Addictive Behaviors, and Conflict Resolution Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Alfonso, Jose; Rodriguez-Madera, Sheilla

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a pattern of behaviors in the context of an intimate relationship, which can be manifested in emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. DV currently represents a social and a public health issue. This study is an effort to foster a better understanding of DV among same-sex couples. In it, the authors included the…

  9. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  10. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy of Impulse Control on Reduction of Impulsiveness, Crave of Usage and Addiction Severity among Crack Users

    OpenAIRE

    Rohollah Hadadi; Reza Rostami; Abbas Rahiminejad; Saeed Akbari Zardkhaneh

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was done in order to study of the effectiveness of CBT of impulse control on the reduction of impulsiveness, crave of usage and addiction severity of Crack users. Method: In a quasi experimental design 30 Crack addict users who were treating with Methadone in a clinic selected by interview method and consideration of entrance criterions. Then they allocated to two groups (15 subjects for each group) as a witness and experimental groups. The experimental group w...

  11. Treatment of Internet Addiction with Anxiety Disorders: Treatment Protocol and Preliminary Before-After Results Involving Pharmacotherapy and Modified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Veruska Andrea; Freire, Rafael; Zugliani, Morená; Cirillo, Patricia; Santos, Hugo Henrique; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The growth of the Internet has led to significant change and has become an integral part of modern life. It has made life easier and provided innumerous benefits; however, excessive use has brought about the potential for addiction, leading to severe impairments in social, academic, financial, psychological, and work domains. Individuals addicted to the Internet usually have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are prevalent men...

  12. Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Internet Addiction: A Clinical Pilot Study on the Effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerou...

  13. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 104 men substance abusers (52 participants in each of the control and intervention groups referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan. Data collection tool was a questionnaire containing demographic information and the theory of planned behavior constructs. Before the educational program, questionnaires were completed by both groups. After the pretest in both groups, participants in the intervention group participated in four educational sessions designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Two months after the end of program, posttest was performed. Data was analyzed using independent T-test, chi-square, fisher exact test, McNemar’s test and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-16. Results: After educational intervention, the mean scores of the theory constructs (attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, behavioral control, behavioral intention and behaviors, in the intervention group increased significantly (P<0.05, despite the fact, changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Implementation of educational courses to encourage safe sexual behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior can be beneficial for substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers.

  14. MEMORY SYSTEMS AND THE ADDICTED BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarid eGoodman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed twenty years ago (White, 1996 and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS. In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing.

  15. Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed 20 years ago (1) and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing. PMID:26941660

  16. Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed 20 years ago (1) and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing. PMID:26941660

  17. Food Addiction in the Light of DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Meule

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea that specific kind of foods may have an addiction potential and that some forms of overeating may represent an addicted behavior has been discussed for decades. In recent years, the interest in food addiction is growing and research on this topic lead to more precise definitions and assessment methods. For example, the Yale Food Addiction Scale has been developed for the measurement of addiction-like eating behavior based on the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence of the fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. In 2013, diagnostic criteria for substance abuse and—dependence were merged, thereby increasing the number of symptoms for substance use disorders (SUDs in the DSM-5. Moreover, gambling disorder is now included along SUDs as a behavioral addiction. Although a plethora of review articles exist that discuss the applicability of the DSM-IV substance dependence criteria to eating behavior, the transferability of the newly added criteria to eating is unknown. Thus, the current article discusses if and how these new criteria may be translated to overeating. Furthermore, it is examined if the new SUD criteria will impact future research on food addiction, for example, if “diagnosing” food addiction should also be adapted by considering all of the new symptoms. Given the critical response to the revisions in DSM-5, we also discuss if the recent approach of Research Domain Criteria can be helpful in evaluating the concept of food addiction.

  18. The Dynorphin-Kappa Opioid System as a Modulator of Stress-induced and Pro-addictive Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Bruchas, M.R.; Land, B.B.; Chavkin, C

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a complex experience that carries both aversive and motivating properties. Chronic stress causes an increase in the risk of depression, is well known to increase relapse of drug seeking behavior, and can adversely impact health. Several brain systems have been demonstrated to be critical in mediating the negative affect associated with stress, and recent evidence directly links the actions of the endogenous opioid neuropeptide dynorphin in modulating mood and increasing the rewardin...

  19. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment. PMID:25751444

  20. Addiction and choice: Theory and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene M Heyman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word compulsive identifies patterns of behavior. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. Research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by age thirty, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  1. 青少年网络成瘾与自杀行为的相关关系%Association between adolescent internet addiction and suicidal behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林胜; 张志华; 郝加虎; 孙业桓

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解网络成瘾与青少年自杀行为的相关关系,如果存在相关关系,并考察能否被抑郁以及冲动相关行为部分或全部解释.方法 合肥市3507名使用网络的中学生完成问卷调查.内容包括Young网络成瘾诊断量表,自杀行为、抑郁量表,冲动相关的行为以及不良经历等调查表.采用层次logistic回归模型在调整混杂因素的基础上,分析网络成瘾与青少年自杀行为的相关关系及抑郁和冲动相关行为在上述相关关系中的作用.结果 3507名学生有182名(5.2%)被诊断为网络成瘾;过去一年有自杀意念、计划和未遂的学生比例分别为27.4%、9.5%和2.6%.网络成瘾与自杀意念、计划和未遂的关联指标OR值分别为1.79(95%CI:1.32~2.44)、2.32(95%CI:1.57~3.42)和2.08(95%CI:1.03~4.22),调整人口学和不良经历变量后,网络成瘾与自杀未遂的关联无统计学意义.抑郁和冲动相关行为分别引入以网络成瘾为自变量的方程,网络成瘾与自杀意念和计划的关联出现不同程度的下降;相反,若将网络成瘾引入以抑郁或(和)冲动相关行为自变量的方程,抑郁或(和)冲动相关行为与自杀意念和计划的关联未见明显变化.结论 网络成瘾与自杀意念、自杀计划存在关联,且该关联的路径可能由抑郁和冲动相关行为介导.%Objective To examine the association between internet addiction and suicidal behaviors in adolescences and to explore whether the association could be partly or fully accounted by depression or/and behaviors related to the impulsity. Methods A total of 3507 urban adolescent students in Hefei were administered to complete the questionnaire concerning interact addiction disorder(IAD), suicidal behaviors during the 12 months preceding the survey, behaviors related to the impulsity, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and early childhood adversities,respectively. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used

  2. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss DJ

    2013-01-01

    Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal o...

  3. Plasticity of Addiction: a Mesolimbic Dopamine Short-Circuit?

    OpenAIRE

    Niehaus, Jason L.; Cruz-Bermúdez, Nelson D.; Kauer, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of drug addiction progresses along a continuum from acute drug use to compulsive use and drug seeking behavior. Many researchers have focused on identifying the physiological mechanisms involved in drug addiction in order to develop effective pharmacotherapies. Neuroplasticity, the putative mechanism underlying learning and memory, is modified by drugs of abuse and may contribute to the development of the eventual addicted state. Innovative treatments directly targeting these ...

  4. Extensive Internet Involvement—Addiction or Emerging Lifestyle?

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Helmersson Bergmark; Olle Findahl; Anders Bergmark

    2011-01-01

    In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing “addiction-like” behavioral disorders such as “Internet addiction” to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use—PIU), takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, ...

  5. A Novel Perspective on Dopaminergic Processing of Human Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence from clinical, animal, and neuroimaging experiments suggests that the addictive behavior is associated with dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. The precise role of dopamine in establishment and maintenance of addiction however is unclear. In this context animal studies on the brain reward system and the associative memory processing provide a novel insight. It was shown that both processing involve dopamine neurotransmission and both are disrupted in addiction. These ...

  6. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children Living With Addicted Family Members: Prevention Challenges in an Underprivileged Suburban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís dos Reis Vilela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children living with substance abusers are more likely to experience negative outcomes. Our goal was to compare caregivers' reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and a socioeconomic and risk form of psychological aspects of children exposed to substance abuse assisted versus not assisted by a preventive intervention program in an underprivileged community. This observational intervention study was conducted with 66 caregivers of children who attended the program and 35 caregivers of children from the same community who did not attend. Ages ranged between six and 11 years old. Chi-square and logistic regression tests indicate that children exposed to substance abusers have more mental health problems than the general population and those who did not participate in the preventive intervention program presented worse outcomes, with higher rates of behavioral/emotional problems and exposure to risk situations. Results suggest that preventive actions might be helpful to promote the mental health of children at risk, validating the need for public policies and services.

  7. Nicotinic receptors in addiction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Frances M; Mojica, Celina Y; Reynaga, Daisy D

    2013-04-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that consist of pentameric combinations of α and β subunits. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain and are highly expressed in addiction circuitry. The role of nAChRs in regulating neuronal activity and motivated behavior is complex and varies both in and among brain regions. The rich diversity of central nAChRs has hampered the characterization of their structure and function with use of classic pharmacological techniques. However, recent molecular approaches using null mutant mice with specific regional lentiviral re-expression, in combination with neuroanatomical and electrophysiological techniques, have allowed the elucidation of the influence of different nAChR types on neuronal circuit activity and behavior. This review will address the influence of nAChRs on limbic dopamine circuitry and the medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus complex, which are critical mediators of reinforced behavior. Characterization of the mechanisms underlying regulation of addiction pathways by endogenous cholinergic transmission and by nicotine may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for treating tobacco dependence and other addictions. PMID:23247824

  8. Role of environmental factors in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Aldo; Spagnolo, Primavera A

    2013-01-01

    Decades of experimentation with a variety of pharmacological treatments have identified some effective therapies for heroin addiction but not for cocaine addiction. This may be due, at least in part, to our incomplete understanding of the factors involved in the differential vulnerability to these addictions, which are often considered mere variations of the same disorder. Indeed, the preference for one drug or another has been variously attributed to factors such as drug availability or price, to the addict's lifestyle, or even to chance. Yet, there is evidence of substance-specific influences on drug taking. Data from twin registries, for example, suggest that a sizeable portion of the variability in the susceptibility to drug abuse is due to environmental factors that are unique to opiates or to psychostimulants. Very little is known about the nature of these environmental influences. We report here original data, based on retrospective reports in human addicts, indicating that the setting of drug taking exerts a differential influence on heroin versus cocaine use. We also review additional clinical and pre-clinical data pointing to fundamental differences in the way in which the environment interacts with cocaine relative to heroin and other addictive drugs. These findings - as well as other evidence, including the lack of pharmacological treatments effective for both cocaine and heroin addiction - support the notion that much is to be gained by taking into account the substance-specific aspects of drug addiction. At a therapeutic level, for example, it appears reasonable to propose that cognitive-behavioral approaches should be tailored in a substance-specific manner in order to allow the addict to anticipate, and cope with, the risks associated to the various environmental settings of drug use. PMID:23574438

  9. Behavioral Sensitization and Underlying Mechanism in Drug Addiction%成瘾药物行为敏化及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜; 周文华; 杨国栋

    2004-01-01

    反复、间断给予依赖性药物(如吗啡、苯丙胺、可卡因、尼古丁、酒精等)后,能增强实验动物的自发性活动反应(locomotor response),这种伴随着反复给药而出现的行为反应增强被称为行为敏化(behavioral sensitization)。行为敏化的形成和表达与药物成瘾有着重要的关系,目前已经证明成瘾药物诱导的行为敏化对觅药行为和复吸的发生和维持有着重要的影响。

  10. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy of Impulse Control on Reduction of Impulsiveness, Crave of Usage and Addiction Severity among Crack Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohollah Hadadi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was done in order to study of the effectiveness of CBT of impulse control on the reduction of impulsiveness, crave of usage and addiction severity of Crack users. Method: In a quasi experimental design 30 Crack addict users who were treating with Methadone in a clinic selected by interview method and consideration of entrance criterions. Then they allocated to two groups (15 subjects for each group as a witness and experimental groups. The experimental group was under Methadone drug therapy and CBT of impulse control for 8 sessions, and 60 min for each session. But witness group was under Methadone drug therapy and there was not any other intervention. All participants in research were examined before and after treatment by three scales namely: Bart's Impulsiveness Scale, Tifani's Crave Usage, and Addiction Severity Index. MANCOVA was run for analyzing of data. Results: The results showed that significant difference between two groups on impulsiveness subscales crave usage, and addiction severity (except of medical status, job status, law status, and family status. Conclusion: It can say CBT of impulse control can be effective on the reduction of impulsiveness, crave usage and addiction severity in Crack users.

  11. A meta-analysis of the relationship between brain dopamine receptors and obesity: a matter of changes in behavior rather than food addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Young, H A

    2016-03-01

    Addiction to a wide range of substances of abuse has been suggested to reflect a 'Reward Deficiency Syndrome'. That is, drugs are said to stimulate the reward mechanisms so intensely that, to compensate, the population of dopamine D2 receptors (DD2R) declines. The result is that an increased intake is necessary to experience the same degree of reward. Without an additional intake, cravings and withdrawal symptoms result. A suggestion is that food addiction, in a similar manner to drugs of abuse, decrease DD2R. The role of DD2R in obesity was therefore examined by examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and the Taq1A polymorphism, as the A1 allele is associated with a 30-40% lower number of DD2R, and is a risk factor for drug addiction. If a lower density of DD2R is indicative of physical addiction, it was argued that if food addiction occurs, those with the A1 allele should have a higher BMI. A systematic review found 33 studies that compared the BMI of those who did and did not have the A1 allele. A meta-analysis of the studies compared those with (A1/A1 and A1/A2) or without (A2/A2) the A1 allele; no difference in BMI was found (standardized mean difference 0.004 (s.e. 0.021), variance 0.000, Z=0.196, Pimpulsivity. PMID:27001642

  12. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  13. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  14. Naltrexone: A Pan-Addiction Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael O

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a major public health problem with few efficacious and safe treatments. The goal of this review is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the therapeutic role of the opioid antagonist naltrexone across the addiction spectrum-substance-based and behavioral. The PubMed database was searched for randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that investigated the oral or intramuscular long-acting formulation of naltrexone in substance use disorders or behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling, kleptomania, and trichotillomania. Thirty-nine efficacy studies were retrieved, covering alcohol use disorder (n = 22), opioid use disorder (n = 6), nicotine use disorder (n = 5), stimulant use disorder (n = 2), gambling disorder (n = 2), trichotillomania (n = 1), and kleptomania (n = 1). Despite the very different presentations within and between both addiction categories, the data, as a whole, show consistency in favor of naltrexone's relative efficacy and safety. Given the potential benefit and good tolerability revealed in the studies, the high morbidity associated with addiction, and the dearth of alternate treatments, naltrexone would seem like an underutilized treatment option. Further, naltrexone's seemingly broad anti-addiction efficacy supports a shared role for brain opioid pathways in the pathophysiology of addiction, broadly defined. More studies investigating the efficacy and tolerability of naltrexone and other opioid modulators are warranted. Studies should also further examine the effect of combining psychotherapy with naltrexone, as well as the potential role of naltrexone in treating comorbid addictions. PMID:27401883

  15. Ruminative Response Styles and Metacognitions in Internet Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer SENORMANCI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although cognitive behavioral model of Internet addiction has been well described, studies on metacognitions and ruminative response styles related with Internet addiction are very limited. The aim of the present study was to compare metacognitions and ruminative response style in Internet addicts with a healthy control group. Method: The study included 30 males who presented to our Internet Addiction Outpatient clinic, and diagnosed with Internet addiction, and a control group of 30 healthy males with similar sociodemographic characteristics. A sociodemographic data form, Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30, Ruminative Response Scale-short version (RRS-SV, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were used for data collection. Results: The MCQ-30 total, MCQ-30 uncontrollability and danger score, MCQ-30 need to control thoughts score and RRS-SV scores statistically significantly higher in study group compared the control group. After correcting for BDI by ANCOVA, the difference between MCQ-30 total score and RRS-SV disappeared. Conclusion: Internet addicts show ruminative responses instead of having an effective problem-solving attitude and defining problems; and this self-focused rumination leads an individual to recall more reinforced memories about the Internet so that the problem of Internet addiction becomes deeper. As a result of this study, although Internet addiction is accompanied by depression primarily or secondarily, manifestation of Internet addiction is exacerbated by depression through ruminative responses and metacognitions

  16. A meta-analysis of the relationship between brain dopamine receptors and obesity: a matter of changes in behavior rather than food addiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, D; Young, H A

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to a wide range of substances of abuse has been suggested to reflect a ‘Reward Deficiency Syndrome'. That is, drugs are said to stimulate the reward mechanisms so intensely that, to compensate, the population of dopamine D2 receptors (DD2R) declines. The result is that an increased intake is necessary to experience the same degree of reward. Without an additional intake, cravings and withdrawal symptoms result. A suggestion is that food addiction, in a similar manner to drugs of abu...

  17. Expanding the definition of addiction: DSM-5 vs. ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2016-08-01

    While considerable efforts have been made to understand the neurobiological basis of substance addiction, the potentially "addictive" qualities of repetitive behaviors, and whether such behaviors constitute "behavioral addictions," is relatively neglected. It has been suggested that some conditions, such as gambling disorder, compulsive stealing, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behavior, and problem Internet use, have phenomenological and neurobiological parallels with substance use disorders. This review considers how the issue of "behavioral addictions" has been handled by latest revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), leading to somewhat divergent approaches. We also consider key areas for future research in order to address optimal diagnostic classification and treatments for such repetitive, debilitating behaviors. PMID:27151528

  18. Circadian rhythms and addiction: Mechanistic insights and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Logan, Ryan W.; Williams, Wilbur P.; McClung, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are prominent in many physiological and behavioral functions. Circadian disruptions either by environmental or molecular perturbation can have profound health consequences, including the development and progression of addiction. Both animal and humans studies indicate extensive bidirectional relationships between the circadian system and drugs of abuse. Addicted individuals display disrupted rhythms, and chronic disruption or particular chronotypes, may increase the risk for...

  19. A Review of the Research on Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Condron, Linda; Belland, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that maladaptive patterns of Internet use constitute behavioral addiction. This article explores the research on the social effects of Internet addiction. There are four major sections. The Introduction section overviews the field and introduces definitions, terminology, and assessments. The second section reviews research…

  20. Causes of Internet Addiction Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Internet Addiction Disorder diagnostic manual approved by psychologists on November 8 divides Internet addiction into five categories,which are addiction to online games,pornography,social networking,Internet information and Internetshopping.

  1. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  2. Anti-addiction vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It ...

  3. CIMP Internet Addiction Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Azizah Zainudin; Marina Md Din; Marini Othman

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Internet addiction has become a major problem to the university students. The purpose of this study is to present a guideline to helps people to overcome their Internet addiction especially for students. There were 653 university students (341 females and 312 males) from five different universities in Malaysia have completed related survey. The survey questionnaires were taken from Young?s Addiction Scale (1996) and some questions were created by the researcher. In this paper, there...

  4. Dissecting Impulsivity and its Relationships to Drug Addictions

    OpenAIRE

    Jentsch, J. David; Ashenhurst, James R.; Cervantes, M. Catalina; James, Alexander S.; Groman, Stephanie M.; Pennington, Zachary T.

    2014-01-01

    Addictions are often characterized as forms of impulsive behavior. That said, it is often noted that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, spanning several psychological domains. This review describes the relationship between varieties of impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, the nature of the causal relationship between the two and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that promote impulsive behaviors. We conclude that the available data strongly supports the notion that im...

  5. The Role of Accumbal Hypoactivity in Cocaine Addiction.

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Peoples; Kravitz, A. V.; Guillem, K.

    2007-01-01

    Cocaine-induced hypoactivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAC) is hypothesized to contribute to cocaine addiction. There are two important questions related to this hypothesis. First, cocaine addiction is characterized by an increase in drug-directed behavior and a simultaneous weakening of other motivated behaviors. However, the NAC contributes to both drug- and nondrug-directed behavior. Moreover, the nature of the contributions is similar and associated predominantly with excitatory phasic fi...

  6. Optogenetic and chemogenetic insights into the food addiction hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Krashes, Michael J.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is clinically diagnosed by a simple formula based on the weight and height of a person (body mass index), but is associated with a host of other behavioral symptoms that are likely neurological in origin. In recent years, many scientists have asked whether similar behavioral and cognitive changes occur in drug addiction and obesity, lending many to discuss the potential for “food addiction”. Advances in understanding the circuitry underlying both feeding behaviors and drug addiction m...

  7. What Is Addiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances—that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes “addiction.” The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24–25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a “formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master.” This notion of relinquis...

  8. The Amen Anti-Addiction Intervention: Theoretical Foundations of a Novel Neurotrophic Protocol for the Prevention and Treatment of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Nun Sava-Siva Amen-Ra

    2014-01-01

    The Amen Anti-Addiction Intervention (AAI) is an austere regimen intended to eradicate addictive impulses and behaviors. The theoretical and empirical foundations of this intervention are explicated herein. The AAI entails daily cyclic fasting, chronic caloric restriction, supplementation with specific neutraceutical agents, rigorous exercise, and minimalist meditation. The physiological focus of the AAI is twofold: the augmentation of neurogenesis in a man...

  9. Fortune telling addiction: Unfortunately a serious topic. About a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; BULTEAU, SAMUEL; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; BOUJU, GAËLLE; Sauvaget, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Constant social change brings about new forms of behavior, such as smartphone use, social networking, indoor tanning, cosmetic surgery, etc., that could become excessive or even lead to new forms of addictive disorders. Methods We report the case of a woman who starts consulting for “clairvoyance addiction”. We then discuss the addictive nature of her disorder, based on several classifications of addiction. Results The patient fulfilled the criteria for addiction and her clinical f...

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Wen Wang; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Kwok-Kei Mak; Sai-Yin Ho; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in ...

  11. History of the Concept of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Peter E; Conrad, Mandy; Skinstad, Anne Helene

    2016-03-28

    Our distant forebears wrestled with concepts of alcohol addiction not unlike those of today: Is addiction a sin or a disease? Is addiction caused by the gods, the substance, the individual's vulnerability, or psychological or social factors? Luther, Calvin, and Catholic Church leaders viewed moderate alcohol use as God's gift; used intemperately, it was a moral transgression. The founders of modern scientific psychiatry rejected moral explanations for addiction in favor of an early biological model. The first two versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I and DSM-II) stigmatized addiction by listing it with other societally disapproved disorders stemming from personality disorder. DSM-III espoused atheoretical, descriptive diagnoses but required tolerance or withdrawal to diagnose dependence. Substance dependence in DSM-III-R included physiological and behavioral symptoms and reflected the substance dependence syndrome. DSM-IV's emphasis on biology in its concept of dependence was unchanged from its immediate predecessors. DSM-5 declared that all drugs taken in excess have in common the direct activation of the brain reward system. This article examines evolving concepts of alcohol addiction through 12,000 years of recorded human history, from the first mention of alcohol consumption in China more than 12,000 years ago to alcohol use and abuse in the DSM era, 1952 to the present. PMID:26565120

  12. A meta-analysis of the relationship between brain dopamine receptors and obesity: a matter of changes in behavior rather than food addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Young, H A

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to a wide range of substances of abuse has been suggested to reflect a ‘Reward Deficiency Syndrome'. That is, drugs are said to stimulate the reward mechanisms so intensely that, to compensate, the population of dopamine D2 receptors (DD2R) declines. The result is that an increased intake is necessary to experience the same degree of reward. Without an additional intake, cravings and withdrawal symptoms result. A suggestion is that food addiction, in a similar manner to drugs of abuse, decrease DD2R. The role of DD2R in obesity was therefore examined by examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and the Taq1A polymorphism, as the A1 allele is associated with a 30–40% lower number of DD2R, and is a risk factor for drug addiction. If a lower density of DD2R is indicative of physical addiction, it was argued that if food addiction occurs, those with the A1 allele should have a higher BMI. A systematic review found 33 studies that compared the BMI of those who did and did not have the A1 allele. A meta-analysis of the studies compared those with (A1/A1 and A1/A2) or without (A2/A2) the A1 allele; no difference in BMI was found (standardized mean difference 0.004 (s.e. 0.021), variance 0.000, Z=0.196, Paddiction. In contrast, there are several reports that those with the A1 allele are less able to benefit from an intervention that aimed to reduce weight, possibly a reflection of increased impulsivity. PMID:27001642

  13. Pleasure and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Marie Kennett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savalescu (2010 have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behaviour. They describe addiction as ‘strong appetites toward pleasure’ and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction.

  14. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Craig, A.D.; Bechara, A.; Garavan, H.; Childress, A.R.; Paulus, M.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    2009-08-27

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such 'denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and self-awareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug-related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction.

  15. Internet Addictive Individuals Share Impulsivity and Executive Dysfunction with Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenhe Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) should belong to a kind of behavioral addiction. Previous studies indicated that there are many similarities in the neurobiology of behavior and substance addictions. Up to date, although individuals with IAD have difficulty in suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for IAD. Neuropsychological test studies have contributed significantly to our understanding ...

  16. Can Food Be Addictive? Insights on Obesity from Neuroimaging and Substance Abuse Treatment and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Baicy, Kate

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of obesity is multi-factorial; both genetics and the environment influence the many variables that regulate body weight, metabolism, and eating behavior. The loss of control of eating behavior associated with obesity is analogous to the compulsive drug taking behavior observed in drug-addicted individuals. The American Society of Addiction Medicine first proposed the hypothesis of a food addiction over 10 years ago. Evidence from clinical observations and experimental resea...

  17. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  18. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  19. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  20. Responsibility and choice in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The treatment of patients with substance use disorders requires that providers be aware of their own views on the relative roles of personal responsibility and of forces outside personal control in the onset and progression of and recovery from these disorders. The authors review the role of responsibility for addiction from several viewpoints: biological, psychological, sociocultural, self-help, religious, and forensic. Factors that affect personal responsibility in addictive diseases include awareness of the problem, knowledge of a genetic predisposition, understanding of addictive processes, comorbid psychiatric or medical conditions, adequacy of the support network, nature of the early environment, degree of tolerance of substance abuse in the sociocultural context, and the availability of competent psychiatric, medical, and chemical dependency treatment. Factors that affect societal responsibility include degree of access to illicit drugs, society's level of tolerance of drug use, the courts' approach to deterring substance abuse (punishment versus treatment), individuals' refusal to obtain substance abuse treatment, presence of clear behavioral norms, availability of early assessment and prevention, presence of community education, and degree of access to outpatient and community treatment. PMID:12045307

  1. 大学生网络成瘾与网络行为特征调查%Survey of internet addiction disorder and characteristics of online behavior among university students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智美; 俞雅英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze internet addiction disorder and characteristics of online behavior among college students so as to put forward suggestions to intervene and prevent internet addiction disorder. Methods Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to 889 college students in Guangzhou, who were from 11 universities falling into five categories. Results Online rate,normal online rate,dependency rate and addiction rate was 99.3% ,70.8% ,22.2% and 7.0% respectively. The remarkable characteristics of online behavior of internet addiction were as follows: using excessive; getting excitement and sense of accomplishment and escaping from the reality as the game purpose; playing action, simulation and role-playing games, and comparing game levels or achievements; getting to know the opposite sex as the chat purpose and meeting with net friends. The remarkable characteristics of online behavior of normal surfers were as follows: browsing all kinds of information,collecting and learning about the material,playing puzzle games and keeping in touch with friends as the chat purpose. Conclusion Different internet users showed different online behavior. According to characteristics of online behavior, to determine the primary focus of internet addiction and guide internet users to better use the Internet.%目的 调查分析大学生网络成瘾状况与网络行为特征,为预防干预网络成瘾提供依据.方法 对广州市五类十一所大学889名在校大学生,采用匿名问卷对网络行为与网络成瘾情况进行调查.结果 大学生上网率为 99.3%;正常上网率70.8%,依赖率22.2%,成瘾率7.0%.网络用时过长;以获得刺激感、成就感、逃避现实为游戏目的,玩动作扮演、模拟经验、角色扮演类游戏且攀比游戏等级或成果;以结识异性为聊天目的,约见网友等是网络成瘾者较为显著的网络行为特征.浏览各种信息、收集与学习有关资料、玩益智休闲类游

  2. Rats classified as low or high cocaine locomotor responders: A unique model involving striatal dopamine transporters that predicts cocaine addiction-like behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Dorothy J.; Nelson, Anna M.; Mandt, Bruce H.; Larson, Gaynor A.; Rorabaugh, Jacki M.; Ng, Christopher M.C.; Barcomb, Kelsey M.; Richards, Toni L.; Allen, Richard M.; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences are a hallmark of drug addiction. Here, we describe a rat model based on differential initial responsiveness to low dose cocaine. Despite similar brain cocaine levels, individual outbred Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit markedly different magnitudes of acute cocaine-induced locomotor activity and, thereby, can be classified as low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs). LCRs and HCRs differ in drug-induced, but not novelty-associated, hyperactivity. LCRs have higher basal...

  3. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  4. Substance abuse precedes internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential ris...

  5. Pathological choice: The neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and “irrationality.” Second, excessive gambling involvement (i.e., pathological gambling) is currently conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, and research on this condition may provide insights into addictive mechanisms in the absence of exogeno...

  6. Epigenetic landscape of amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Godino, Arthur; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2015-01-01

    Amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction is described by specific behavioral alterations, suggesting long-lasting changes in gene and protein expression within specific brain subregions involved in the reward circuitry. Given the persistence of the addiction phenotype at both behavioral and transcriptional levels, several studies have been conducted to elucidate the epigenetic landscape associated with persistent effects of drug use on the mammalian brain. This review discusses recent advanc...

  7. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  8. Association between middle school students subject to bullying behavior and Internet addiction%江苏省中学生受欺侮行为与网络成瘾的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张熳; 潘晓群

    2012-01-01

    Objective To know about the association between middle school students who subject to bullying behavior and internet addiction and to provide reference for outlining intervention strategy. Methods A total of 24 649 middle school students were selected randomly in Jiangsu Province. A questionnaire survey was conducted and the results of the study were statistically analyzed. Results It was found that 57. 1% of the students subject to bullying behavior and 5.3% of which were Internet addiction by detection. The difference of detection rate with different demographic characteristics between suffering bully behavior and Internet addiction was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Internet addiction added with the increasing of frequencies and types of suffering bully behavior; step wise multiple logistic regressions results showed that 6 types of suffering bully behavior weie all closely associated with internet addition. Odds ratios ( OR) were 1.57 -2.55. Conclusion Students who subject to bullying behavior was a risk factor contributing to forming internet addition. Therefore high attention should be paid on suffering bully behavior in middle school students, and to be found timely as well as adopt intervention measure in order to avoid producing severe hazards.%目的 探讨中学生受欺侮行为与网络成瘾的关系,为采取有针对性的干预措施提供依据.方法 按江苏省不同地理位置和经济发展水平,在南京、苏州、徐州、盐城、宜兴、射阳、昆山、通州8个市(县),采用系统抽样方法抽取学校,再在每所学校中抽取班级,以抽中班级的所有学生为调查对象,共调查中学生24649名.采用“中国青少年健康相关行为调查问卷”进行调查,并对结果进行统计学分析.结果 江苏省中学生受欺侮检出率为57.1%,网络成瘾率为5.3%,两者在不同人口学特征中差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.01);随受欺侮频率和种数的增加,中学生网络成

  9. Internet addiction: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica; Popović-Deušić Smiljka; Draganić-Gajić Saveta; Lečić-Toševski Dušica

    2009-01-01

    Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological) gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting...

  10. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  11. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents

  12. The Gender Effect on the Relationshiop between Internet Addiction and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescents%网络成瘾与青少年不良情绪行为关系的性别效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴; 王耘; 苑春永; 张兴慧; 黎亚军

    2014-01-01

    problems and indirect aggression,while in boys the internet addiction may be related to more behavioral problems.

  13. Review of current researches on internet addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internet addiction (IA) is a mental illness emerged in recent years with increasing use of computer and internet. The serious consequences such as mental and physical illness and social function impairment caused by IA have attracted extensive attention of the whole society. IA affects human beings at a high prevalence all over the world which has highlighted the importance of prevention and treatment of IA. Although there is still debate about definition of IA, increasing evidences including the result from genetic research,neurobiology study and clinical manifestation show that IA may share the same mechanisms with substance addiction, and be probably classified as behavioral addiction which is represented by pathological gambling. However, since the study on IA is yet on the initial stage and neuro biological research on IA is still limited, more reliable investigations especially neuro biological research remains uppermost in this area. (authors)

  14. Neuroimmune mechanisms of alcohol and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changhai; Shurtleff, David; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse have significant impacts on the neuroimmune system. Studies have demonstrated that drugs of abuse interact with the neuroimmune system and alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling, which in turn contribute to various aspects of addiction. As the key component of the CNS immune system, neuroimmune factors mediate neuroinflammation and modulate a wide range of brain function including neuronal activity, endocrine function, and CNS development. These neuromodulatory properties of immune factors, together with their essential role in neuroinflammation, provide a new framework to understand neuroimmune mechanisms mediating brain functional and behavioral changes contributing to addiction. This chapter highlights recent advances in understanding neuroimmune changes associated with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including opiates, marijuana, methamphetamine, and cocaine. It provides a brief overview on what we know about neuroimmune signaling and its role in drug action and addiction. PMID:25175859

  15. The development of children of drug addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, P S; Levine, S A

    1986-08-01

    The present study compared 70 methadone-maintained mothers (MM) and their 70 preschool-age children to a matched control group of 70 non-drug-addicted mothers (NDA) and their 70 preschool-age children on mothers' personalities, intelligence levels, and parenting attitudes and behavior; and on children's behavior and intelligence and developmental levels. Findings showed that in comparison to the control group, MM mothers performed less adaptively on measures of intelligence, personality, and parenting behavior. Their scores on the parenting attitude measures reflected authoritarian childrearing beliefs. Children of MM mothers performed more poorly than children of NDA mothers on measures of intelligence and socially adaptive behavior. In a comparison of children of MM mothers who experienced withdrawal from drugs at birth to children of MM mothers who were not born addicted to drugs, results revealed a tendency for withdrawal children to have developmental delays, lower IQ scores, and lower heights and weights. PMID:3771015

  16. Dopamine and food addiction: lexicon badly needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2013-05-01

    Over the last few years, the concept of food addiction has become a common feature in the scientific literature, as well as the popular press. Nevertheless, the use of the term addiction to describe pathological aspects of food intake in humans remains controversial, and even among those who affirm the validity of the concept, there is considerable disagreement about its utility for explaining the increasing prevalence of obesity throughout much of the world. An examination of the literature on food addiction indicates that mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine systems often are cited as mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of food addiction. However, in reviewing this literature, it is important to have a detailed consideration of the complex nature of dopaminergic involvement in motivational processes. For example, although it is often stated that mesolimbic dopamine mediates reward, there is no standard or consistent technical meaning of this term. Moreover, there is a persistent tendency to link dopamine transmission with pleasure or hedonia, as opposed to other aspects of motivation or learning. The present article provides a critical discussion of some aspects of the food addiction literature, viewed through the lens of recent findings and current theoretical views of dopaminergic involvement in food motivation. Furthermore, compulsive food intake and binge eating will be considered from an evolutionary perspective, in terms of the motivational subsystems that are involved in adaptive patterns of food consumption and seeking behaviors and a consideration of how these could be altered in pathological conditions. PMID:23177385

  17. Does psychopathology in childhood predict internet addiction in male adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction. PMID:23242708

  18. The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly M. Pursey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were published in the English language. Twenty-five studies were identified including a total of 196,211 predominantly female, overweight/obese participants (60%. Using meta-analysis, the weighted mean prevalence of YFAS food addiction diagnosis was 19.9%. Food addiction (FA diagnosis was found to be higher in adults aged >35 years, females, and overweight/obese participants. Additionally, YFAS diagnosis and symptom score was higher in clinical samples compared to non-clinical counterparts. YFAS outcomes were related to a range of other eating behavior measures and anthropometrics. Further research is required to explore YFAS outcomes across a broader spectrum of ages, other types of eating disorders and in conjunction with weight loss interventions to confirm the efficacy of the tool to assess for the presence of FA.

  19. Comparison of the personality and other psychological factors of students with internet addiction who do and do not have associated social dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiang; QUAN, Xing; Lu, Huimin; FEI, Pei; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background There is ongoing controversy about whether or not internet addiction should be considered a non-substance behavioral addiction (like gambling disorder) and, if so, what diagnostic criteria should be used to define the condition. Current criteria for internet addiction give equal diagnostic weight to the physiological symptoms and the social consequences of internet addiction. Aim Assess the psychological correlates of social dysfunction among individuals with internet addiction. Me...

  20. Drug addiction in pregnancy: disease not moral failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Nurses have demonstrated concern for years about their interactions with pregnant women who abuse drugs. Reports of nurses' concern with substance abuse have been reported in the literature since the 1980s. As with any chronic disease, drug addiction causes physiologic changes, and the pathology that occurs in the brain drives characteristic behaviors. Research suggests that choices that addicts make are driven by pathology rather than by failure of a moral compass. This article reviews the theoretical explanations for addictive behaviors, describes the pathophysiology of drug addiction that is responsible for the predictable symptoms and behaviors exhibited by women who abuse prescription drugs and other opioids, and identifies nursing interventions to impact positive outcomes. Nurses who have a working knowledge of this disease will provide more effective nursing care to the women they encounter and are better prepared to make a difference in the lives of both women and their children. PMID:24413031

  1. [Online addictive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality. PMID:25257114

  2. [Work: a potential addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, L; Liot, K; Reynaud, M

    2010-02-01

    Although the term workaholism is widely used, there is very little consensus about its meaning. Since the seventies, workaholism has been described as a work addiction such as drug or alcohol addiction. Similarities with other addictions include craving, withdrawal, tolerance, progressive involvement, and denial. Although considerable attention has been devoted to the concept of workaholism in recent years, little empirical research has been undertaken to further the understanding of this phenomenon. The existence of different types of workaholism has been described. Questionnaires were developed to assess this concept. This heterogeneous disease has negative health, personal, family relationships and professional consequences. Many therapeutic interventions are possible for this unknown addictive trouble. The objective of this paper is to gain a better understanding and knowledge regarding the phenomenon of workaholism. Data obtained for this review are based on a Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Google Scholar search of English- and French-language articles published between 1968 and 2009. PMID:20344916

  3. Dynorphin and the Pathophysiology of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Shippenberg, T.S.; Zapata, A.; Chefer, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disease in which drug administration becomes the primary stimulus that drives behavior regardless of the adverse consequence that may ensue. As drug use becomes more compulsive, motivation for natural rewards that normally drive behavior decreases. The discontinuation of drug use is associated with somatic signs of withdrawal, dysphoria, anxiety and anhedonia. These consequences of drug use are thought to contribute to the maintenance of drug use and to t...

  4. The Addicted Synapse: Mechanisms of Synaptic and Structural Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Scott J.; Dietz, David M.; Dumitriu, Dani; Malenka, Robert C.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Addictive drugs cause persistent restructuring of several neuronal cell types in the brain’s limbic regions thought to be responsible for long-term behavioral plasticity driving addiction. Although these structural changes are well documented in nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons, little is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Additionally, it remains unclear whether structural plasticity and its synaptic concomitants drive addictive behaviors, or whether they reflect home...

  5. Pornography addiction – a supranormal stimulus considered in the context of neuroplasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Donald L. Hilton

    2013-01-01

    Addiction has been a divisive term when applied to various compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs), including obsessive use of pornography. Despite a growing acceptance of the existence of natural or process addictions based on an increased understanding of the function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward systems, there has been a reticence to label CSBs as potentially addictive. While pathological gambling (PG) and obesity have received greater attention in functional and behavioral studies, ev...

  6. Activators of G-protein Signaling 3: A drug addiction molecular gateway

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, M. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction is marked by continued drug-seeking behavior despite deleterious consequences and a heightened propensity to relapse notwithstanding long, drug-free periods. The enduring nature of addiction has been hypothesized to arise from perturbations in intracellular signaling, gene expression, and brain circuitry induced by substance abuse. Ameliorating some of these aberrations should abate behavioral and neurochemical markers associated with an “addiction phenotype”. This review summa...

  7. The Plasticity of Extinction: Contribution of the Prefrontal Cortex in Treating Addiction through Inhibitory Learning

    OpenAIRE

    LawrenceJudsonChandler

    2013-01-01

    Theories of drug addiction that incorporate various concepts from the fields of learning and memory have led to the idea that classical and operant conditioning principles underlie the compulsiveness of addictive behaviors. Relapse often results from exposure to drug-associated cues, and the ability to extinguish these conditioned behaviors through inhibitory learning could serve as a potential therapeutic mechanism for those who suffer from addiction. This review will examine the evidence th...

  8. Computer games addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Nejepínský, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of computer games addiction. The attention is paid mainly to on-line games for more players. The purpose of this thesis was to describe this problem and to check - through questionnaire investigation - if the addiction to computer games and the impacts connected with the games really deserve excessive experts and laics attention. The thesis has two parts -- theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical part describes the possibilities of diagnosin...

  9. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. PMID:26026385

  10. How to study sex differences in addiction using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    The importance of studying sex as a biological variable in biomedical research is becoming increasingly apparent. There is a particular need in preclinical studies of addiction to include both sexes, as female animals are often excluded from studies, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of not only sex differences and potential prevention and treatment strategies but also with regard to the basic neurobiology of addiction. This review focuses on methodology that has been developed in preclinical studies to examine sex differences in the behavioral aspects and neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction across the full range of the addiction process, including initiation (acquisition), maintenance, escalation, withdrawal, relapse to drug seeking and treatment. This review also discusses strategic and technical issues that need to be considered when comparing females and males, including the role of ovarian hormones and how sex differences interact with other major vulnerability factors in addiction, such as impulsivity, compulsivity and age (adolescent versus adult). Novel treatments for addiction are also discussed, such as competing non-drug rewards, repurposed medications such as progesterone and treatment combinations. Practical aspects of conducting research comparing female and male animals are also considered. Making sex differences a point of examination requires additional effort and consideration; however, such studies are necessary given mounting evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. These studies should lead to a better understanding of individual differences in the development of addiction and effective treatments for males and females. PMID:27345022

  11. Analysis of online behavior characteristics and psychological risk factors of adolescents suffered internet addiction%网络成瘾青少年网络行为特点及心理风险因素探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐运; 陶然

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨网络成瘾青少年网络行为特点及心理风险因素. 方法 抽取2014 年9月至2015年3月在北京军区总医院青少年心理成长基地接受治疗的患者60例(实验组) ,及同期北京市某中学学生60名(对照组) ,均给予网络成瘾诊断问卷、网络行为问卷及UCLA孤独量表等调查,对比两组青少年的调查数据. 结果 实验组平均每天上网次数、每周上网次数、在线时间等均高于对照组,差异明显(P<0.05);网络消极评价、行为倾向上,差异明显(P<0.05);网络情感方面,实验组上网焦虑及网络满意度评分显著高于对照组,差异明显( P<0.05);Logistic回归分析显示,孤独感、内控性、是否独生子女、网络满意度及平均每天在线时间、单次在线时间可预测青少年是否网络成瘾. 结论 与非网络成瘾青少年相比,网络成瘾青少年在网络行为特点、心理风险因素等方面,均有显著的特点,研究为指导网络成瘾青少年诊治、预防青少年网络成瘾提供了指导价值.%Objective To study the network behavior characteristics and psychological risk factors of teenagers suffered internet addiction .Methods From September 2014 to March 2015, 60 cases of patients who received treatment in adolescent psychological development base in Beijing military region general hospital were enrolled as experimental group , and 60 healthy students from a Beijing high school were chose as control group , both groups were given Internet addiction diagnostic questionnaires , network behavior questionnaire and UCLA loneliness scale survey , investigation datas of teenagers of the two groups were compared .Results The average number of surf the internet every day , weekly online times , total online time of experimental group were higher than the control group , the differences were statistically significant ( P <0.05 ) .The differences of network negative evaluation and behavior prefer were obviously

  12. Pornography addiction – a supranormal stimulus considered in the context of neuroplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Hilton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Addiction has been a divisive term when applied to various compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs, including obsessive use of pornography. Despite a growing acceptance of the existence of natural or process addictions based on an increased understanding of the function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward systems, there has been a reticence to label CSBs as potentially addictive. While pathological gambling (PG and obesity have received greater attention in functional and behavioral studies, evidence increasingly supports the description of CSBs as an addiction. This evidence is multifaceted and is based on an evolving understanding of the role of the neuronal receptor in addiction-related neuroplasticity, supported by the historical behavioral perspective. This addictive effect may be amplified by the accelerated novelty and the ‘supranormal stimulus’ (a phrase coined by Nikolaas Tinbergen factor afforded by Internet pornography.

  13. Pornography addiction - a supranormal stimulus considered in the context of neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Addiction has been a divisive term when applied to various compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs), including obsessive use of pornography. Despite a growing acceptance of the existence of natural or process addictions based on an increased understanding of the function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward systems, there has been a reticence to label CSBs as potentially addictive. While pathological gambling (PG) and obesity have received greater attention in functional and behavioral studies, evidence increasingly supports the description of CSBs as an addiction. This evidence is multifaceted and is based on an evolving understanding of the role of the neuronal receptor in addiction-related neuroplasticity, supported by the historical behavioral perspective. This addictive effect may be amplified by the accelerated novelty and the 'supranormal stimulus' (a phrase coined by Nikolaas Tinbergen) factor afforded by Internet pornography. PMID:24693354

  14. The effects of methadone maintenance treatment on heroin addicts with response inhibition function impairments: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Yang; Qiongying Xu; Shifeng Li; Xin Zhao; Li Ma; Youfen Zheng; Juanjuan Zhang; Yi Li

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition has been a core issue in addictive behavior. Many previous studies have found that response inhibition abilities are damaged in those with drug dependence. However, whether heroin addicts who are treated with methadone maintenance have an abnormal response inhibition ability is not clear. In order to investigate the response inhibition functions in heroin addicts who were treated with methadone maintenance, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine 14 heroin addicts...

  15. The Addict in Us All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eDill

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1993; 2001; 2008 entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, which in turn affects their strength. We examine these 'incentive salience' desires, both in addicts and non-addicts, contrasting them with more cognitive desires. On this account the self-control challenge faced by addicted agents is not different in kind from that faced by non-addicted agents—though the two may, of course, differ greatly in degree of difficulty. We explore a general model of self-control for both the addict and the non-addict, stressing that self-control may be employed at three different stages, and examining the ways that it might be strengthened. This helps elucidate a general model of intentional action.

  16. Determinants of choice, and vulnerability and recovery in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, R J; Maguire, David R; Ginsburg, Brett C; Pinkston, Jonathan W; France, Charles P

    2016-06-01

    Addiction may be viewed as choice governed by competing contingencies. One factor impacting choice, particularly as it relates to addiction, is sensitivity to delayed rewards. Discounting of delayed rewards influences addiction vulnerability because of competition between relatively immediate gains of drug use, e.g. intoxication, versus relatively remote gains of abstinence, e.g. family stability. Factors modifying delay sensitivity can be modeled in the laboratory. For instance, increased delay sensitivity can be similarly observed in adolescent humans and non-human animals. Similarly, genetic factors influence delay sensitivity in humans and animals. Recovery from addiction may also be viewed as choice behavior. Thus, reinforcing alternative behavior facilitates recovery because reinforcing alternative behavior decreases the frequency of using drugs. How reinforcing alternative behavior influences recovery can also be modeled in the laboratory. For instance, relapse risk decreases as abstinence duration increases, and this decreasing risk can be modeled in animals using choice procedures. In summary, addiction in many respects can be conceptualized as a problem of choice. Animal models of choice disorders stand to increase our understanding of the core processes that establish and maintain addiction and serve as a proving ground for development of novel treatments. PMID:27083500

  17. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  18. Meditation Awareness Training for the Treatment of Sex Addiction: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Background Sex addiction is a disorder that can have serious adverse functional consequences. Treatment effectiveness research for sex addiction is currently underdeveloped, and interventions are generally based on the guidelines for treating other behavioral (as well as chemical) addictions. Consequently, there is a need to clinically evaluate tailored treatments that target the specific symptoms of sex addiction. It has been proposed that second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) may be an appropriate treatment for sex addiction because in addition to helping individuals increase perceptual distance from craving for desired objects and experiences, some SG-MBIs specifically contain meditations intended to undermine attachment to sex and/or the human body. The current study conducts the first clinical investigation into the utility of mindfulness for treating sex addiction. Case presentation An in-depth clinical case study was conducted involving an adult male suffering from sex addiction that underwent treatment utilizing an SG-MBI known as Meditation Awareness Training (MAT). Following completion of MAT, the participant demonstrated clinically significant improvements in addictive sexual behavior, as well as reductions in depression and psychological distress. The MAT intervention also led to improvements in sleep quality, job satisfaction, and non-attachment to self and experiences. Salutary outcomes were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Discussion and conclusion The current study extends the literature exploring the applications of mindfulness for treating behavioral addiction, and findings indicate that further clinical investigation into the role of mindfulness for treating sex addiction is warranted. PMID:27348560

  19. The somatic marker theory in the context of addiction: contributions to understanding development and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen VV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegard V Olsen,1 Ricardo G Lugo,1 Stefan Sütterlin1,2 1Section of Psychology, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Division of Surgery and Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital – Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway Abstract: Recent theoretical accounts of addiction have acknowledged that addiction to substances and behaviors share inherent similarities (eg, insensitivity to future consequences and self-regulatory deficits. This recognition is corroborated by inquiries into the neurobiological correlates of addiction, which has indicated that different manifestations of addictive pathology share common neural mechanisms. This review of the literature will explore the feasibility of the somatic marker hypothesis as a unifying explanatory framework of the decision-making deficits that are believed to be involved in addiction development and maintenance. The somatic marker hypothesis provides a neuroanatomical and cognitive framework of decision making, which posits that decisional processes are biased toward long-term prospects by emotional marker signals engendered by a neuronal architecture comprising both cortical and subcortical circuits. Addicts display markedly impulsive and compulsive behavioral patterns that might be understood as manifestations of decision-making processes that fail to take into account the long-term consequences of actions. Evidence demonstrates that substance dependence, pathological gambling, and Internet addiction are characterized by structural and functional abnormalities in neural regions, as outlined by the somatic marker hypothesis. Furthermore, both substance dependents and behavioral addicts show similar impairments on a measure of decision making that is sensitive to somatic marker functioning. The decision-making deficits that characterize addiction might exist a priori to addiction development; however, they may be worsened by ingestion of substances with

  20. Cyber addictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2015-04-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina 2012; Nadeau et al., 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant 2011). The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013; Coulombe 2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al., 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5 (Block, 2008), others question the operational and practical bases for the diagnostic criteria. Some see cyberaddiction as a problem linked more to time management, to brain deficits, to an impulse-control disorder or to psychosocial conditions while others consider it to be a pre-existing comorbidity. Considering that most addiction problems are generally understood more as individual and pathological problems rather than the result of psychosocial conditions (poverty, unemployment, weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, etc), the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for this emerging trend in cyberaddictions. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. A demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. PMID:25541291

  1. The Neurobiology of "Food Addiction" and Its Implications for Obesity Treatment and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Adrian; Hendrikse, Joshua; Lee, Natalia; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Andrews, Zane; Hall, Wayne

    2016-07-17

    There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs. We critically review the evidence that some forms of obesity or overeating could be considered a food addiction and argue that the use of food addiction as a diagnostic category is premature. We also examine some of the potential positive and negative clinical, social, and public policy implications of describing obesity as a food addiction that require further investigation. PMID:27296500

  2. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed. PMID:25032242

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94% reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6% identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  4. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences ...

  5. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. PMID:21976262

  6. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess ad...

  7. From one addiction to another: life after alcohol and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, A S

    1989-11-01

    Once the alcoholic or drug addict has stopped drinking or using drugs, other addictive behaviors are frequently adopted. These factors must be considered in planning the overall recovery program. Substances likely to be used to excess include nicotine, caffeine, sugar, chocolate, nutritional supplements and medicinal herbs. Addictive behaviors adopted by recovering persons include eating disorders, exercise and body building, workaholism, and dependency on one's own adrenalin. Breaking the cycle of addiction requires commitment to a program of self-growth and becoming responsible for one's actions. PMID:2586856

  8. Animal models of drug addiction: advantages and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Quertemont, Etienne

    2006-01-01

    Various animal models have been developed to investigate the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms of drug addiction. The most popular of these animal models include the locomotor sensitization paradigm, the place conditioning procedure and the self-administration technique. With these techniques, it is possible to mimic in rodents the major aspects of human drug addiction. The self-administration procedure is the most widely used and show an excellent natural and predictive validity. In ...

  9. Maintenance Medication for Opiate Addiction: The Foundation of Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Bart, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Illicit use of opiates is the fastest growing substance use problem in the United States and the main reason for seeking addiction treatment services for illicit drug use throughout the world. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to HIV, hepatitis C, and overdose. Treatment for opiate addiction requires long-term management. Behavioral interventions alone have extremely poor outcomes, with more than 80% of patients returning to drug use. Similarly poor results are...

  10. Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Internet Addiction in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in middle school students and to identify associated psychosocial risk factors and depression. Methods This study was part of a larger epidemiological study on childhood psychiatric disorders conducted in Osan, a city of Republic of Korea. We used IAS for internet addiction, K-YSR for subjects' emotional and behavioral problems and K-CDI for depressive symptoms. We used the data of n=1217 completed cases. We p...

  11. Virtual reality as a complementary therapy to sexual addiction treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cismaru Inescu, Adina; Andrianne, Robert; Triffaux, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality has gained traction as a research, education and treatment tool. Virtual reality is a system that immerses people in virtual worlds and improves clinicians’ traditional treatments for addictive disorders, eating disorders, phobias, and stroke rehabilitation. Sex addiction is a dysregulation of sexual desire, characterized by excessive sexual behavior (between 5-15 sexual activities/day, for more than 6 months, after the age of 15). Hypersexuality highlights disturbances in hum...

  12. Striatocortical pathway dysfunction in addiction and obesity: differences and similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are starting to reveal significant overlap in the brain circuitry underlying addiction and disorders of dyscontrol over rewarding behaviors (such as binge eating disorder and obesity). Positron emission tomography (PET) has demonstrated impaired striatal dopamine (DA) signaling (decreased D2 receptors) in drug addiction and obesity that is associated with reduced baseline glucose metabolism in medial and ventral prefrontal brain regions. Functional magnetic resonance i...

  13. Evolution of Concept - But Not Action - in Addiction Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Arria, Amelia M.; McLellan, A. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Western approach to drug abuse treatment involves a medical or disease orientation to understanding the onset, course and management of addiction and a clinical goal of abstinence or very significant reductions in drug use, usually with a combination of behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Even within this Western approach, and despite several consensually accepted features of addiction, a significant mismatch remains between what this culture has come to accept as the nature of ...

  14. Behavioral Economics of Self-Control Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmat, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The main idea in this article is that addiction is a consequence of falling victim to decision failures that lead to preference for the addictive behaviors. Addiction is viewed as valuation disease, where the nervous system overvalues cues associated with drugs or drug-taking. Thus, addiction can be viewed as a diminished capacity to choose. Addicted individuals assign lower values to delayed rewards than to immediate ones. The preference for immediate gratification leads to self-control prob...

  15. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Pedram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: to assess 1 the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2 if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3 if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4 if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. DESIGN: A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (p<0.001. Obesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  16. Effects of galanin on monoaminergic systems and HPA axis: potential mechanisms underlying the effects of galanin on addiction- and stress-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Picciotto, Marina R.; Brabant, Christian; Einstein, Emily B; Kamens, Helen M.; Neugebauer, Nichole M.

    2009-01-01

    Like a number of neuropeptides, galanin can alter neural activity in brain areas that are important for both stress-related behaviors and responses to drugs of abuse. Accordingly, drugs that target galanin receptors can alter behavioral responses to drugs of abuse and can modulate stress-related behaviors. Stress and drug-related behaviors are interrelated: stress can promote drug-seeking, and the behavioral signs of drug withdrawal result from increased activity in brain circuits involved in...

  17. Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Corbin, William R; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-04-01

    Previous research has found similarities between addiction to psychoactive substances and excessive food consumption. Further exploration is needed to evaluate the concept of "food addiction," as there is currently a lack of psychometrically validated measurement tools in this area. The current study represents a preliminary exploration of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), designed to identify those exhibiting signs of addiction towards certain types of foods (e.g., high fat and high sugar). Survey data were collected from 353 respondents from a stratified random sample of young adults. In addition to the YFAS, the survey assessed eating pathology, alcohol consumption and other health behaviors. The YFAS exhibited adequate internal reliability, and showed good convergent validity with measures of similar constructs and good discriminant validity relative to related but dissimilar constructs. Additionally, the YFAS predicted binge-eating behavior above and beyond existing measures of eating pathology, demonstrating incremental validity. The YFAS is a sound tool for identifying eating patterns that are similar to behaviors seen in classic areas of addiction. Further evaluation of the scale is needed, especially due to a low response rate of 24.5% and a non-clinical sample, but confirmation of the reliability and validity of the scale has the potential to facilitate empirical research on the concept of "food addiction". PMID:19121351

  18. Investigating the Relationship between Sexual and Chemical Addictions by Comparing Executive Function in Pedophiles, Opiate Addicts and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Lisa J.; Nesci, Cristina; Steinfeld, Matthew; Haeri, Sophia; Galynker, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Disorders of driven sexual behavior have been conceptualized as sexual addictions. In the following study, we compared 51 subjects with pedophilia, 53 subjects with opiate addiction, and 84 healthy control subjects on neuropsychological tests that tap executive functions. The test battery included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Color-Word Test, the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT), Porteus Mazes, Controlled Word Association (COWA), and Trailmaking Test. The groups differe...

  19. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches. PMID:24961198

  20. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  1. Circuit breakers for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, A

    2007-05-01

    The phenomenon of addiction is complex, although its expression clinically is relatively straightforward. There is a series of neurophysiological changes that mediate changes in the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems which in turn lead to disturbances in reward mechanisms. These then act to perpetuate the cycle of intoxication and reinforcement, withdrawal, craving and compulsive use. As our understanding of the pathophysiology of this process has improved, new pharmacological agents have been developed with the potential to moderate or even reverse it. This article briefly reviews the treatment of addiction with particular reference to emerging pharmaceutical agents. PMID:17504280

  2. Shared and unique mechanisms underlying binge eating disorder and addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M; Grilo, Carlos M; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2016-03-01

    Scientific interest in "food addiction" is growing, but the topic remains controversial. One critique of "food addiction" is its high degree of phenotypic overlap with binge eating disorder (BED). In order to examine associations between problematic eating behaviors, such as binge eating and "food addiction," we propose the need to move past examining similarities and differences in symptomology. Instead, focusing on relevant mechanisms may more effectively determine whether "food addiction" contributes to disordered eating behavior for some individuals. This paper reviews the evidence for mechanisms that are shared (i.e., reward dysfunction, impulsivity) and unique for addiction (i.e., withdrawal, tolerance) and eating disorder (i.e., dietary restraint, shape/weight concern) frameworks. This review will provide a guiding framework to outline future areas of research needed to evaluate the validity of the "food addiction" model and to understand its potential contribution to disordered eating. PMID:26879210

  3. A study on relationship of facebook and game addictive behaviour with personality traits among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Saini

    2016-08-01

    Results: Mean score of facebook addiction scale among medical students was 39.94 (S.D. 13.133 and mean score of Game addiction scale was 11.19 (S.D. 04.966. It was found that agreeableness (beta= -0.275, p=0.000 and extraversion (beta = -0.368, p = 0.000 displayed significant associations with FB Total. While neuroticism (beta=0.277, p=0.001 and agreeableness (beta= -0.177, p=0.029 displayed significant associations with game addictive behavior. Conclusions: In our study we conclude that students with high agreeableness, high neuroticism and low extraversion were more related with Facebook and game addictive behavior. Extraversion was the most powerful predictor of Facebook addiction and neuroticism for gaming addiction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3492-3497

  4. 网络成瘾研究概述%Review of researches on the Internet Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓; 司亚楠

    2013-01-01

    addiction is divided into physical and behavioral addictions in two categories, one of the important aspects of behavioral addiction research is the study of internet addiction. this paper analyzes the main index and method of network addiction defined, and summarizes the main findings of the current study of Internet addiction.%成瘾分为物质成瘾和行为成瘾两类,行为成瘾研究的一个重要方面是网络成瘾研究。本文主要分析了网络成瘾界定的主要指标与方法,并总结了对当前网络成瘾研究的主要发现。

  5. Attack behavior of junior midge school students of violent online games addictive disorder%暴力网络游戏成瘾初中生攻击行为的特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙月吉; 周世昱; 董颖; 林媛; 阎楠; 王娜; 徐福山; 郑亚; 徐国庆; 李娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss some characteristics of aggressive behavior of junior middle school students addicted to violence online game.Methods From Aug.to Dec.at 2009,6000 volunteers have been investigated with the self-made violence online game survey scale and the Chen's were screen out by CIAS,and in which 71 violence game addicts,and 66 entertainment game addicts.They were divided into two groups matched as age and sex(male 55 and female 11 in every group),average age was 14.36±0.81 years old.66 no-play game students served as control group.The mean value and standard deviation of aggressive behaviors in each group were compared with one way ANOVA with SPSS12.0 version.Results There were significant different inter groups in the behavioral scores expressed in physiological attack((21.59±4.36),(18.10±6.10,(14.92±5.61)),spoken language attack((21.04±3.98),(18.36±6.26),(15.66±5.23)),angry mood((21.37±4.43),(18.72±5.90),(16.56±5.70)),hostility cognition((21.69±5.77),(20.06±7.74),(16.39±6.85))and the total score((85.56±13.71),(75.28±22.36),(63.54±20.32))(F1-4=25.07,17.35,3.25,10.40,21.81);Moat severity attack behaviors were observed in the violence online game addictive group,but less done in other two groups(t1-4=3.48,2.68,2.65,10.27,P<0.01;t 1-5=6.66,5.37,4.48,5.30,22.01,P<0.01);and secondary was found in Entertainment online game addicts(t1-5:3.18,2.69,2.16,3.66,11.74,P<0.01).Conclusion Higher attack behavior scores are found in the violence online game in junior middle students,and entertainment online game also induce attack behavior,but is not so notable.%目的 探讨游戏成瘾初中生攻击行为特点.方法 2008年8~12月随机整群抽取大连市4区8所初中6000名学生为调查对象,采用自制网络游戏调查表和陈氏网络成瘾量表(CIAS)筛查出149名(2.5%)网络游戏成瘾初中生为研究对象,其中暴力游戏成瘾者71名,娱乐游戏成瘾者66名.匹配两组性别与年龄,最终两组入组学生都是66

  6. [Cocaine addiction: current data for the clinician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Zarmdini, Rim; Petit, Aymeric; Lafaye, Geneviève; Lowenstein, William; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine remains the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide after cannabis. Observed levels of cocaine use among countries considerably vary. An increased cocaine use is recorded in the general European population. Cocaine addiction is a worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. It is a multifactorial disorder variable in its clinical manifestations and heritable. Compared to the general population, there is a high prevalence of somatic and psychiatric disorders among cocaine-dependent patients. There are predictable dose-related effects of pharmacological action of cocaine and effects which are uncommon, unrelated to dose and occur randomly in this population. The number of patients entering drug treatment for primary cocaine use has been increasing in Europe for several years. However, there is no specific pharmacotherapy with established efficacy for the treatment of cocaine addiction, nor is any medication approved by regulatory authorities for such treatment. Recent controlled clinical studies and laboratory studies have highlighted some very promising medications. The perfect therapeutic platform for abstinence initiation and relapse prevention of cocaine addiction is a combination of pharmacological treatments and behavioral treatments. Targeting somatic and psychiatric comorbidity is another way to use pharmacological treatments in addictions. PMID:23727012

  7. Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction. PMID:25784600

  8. Correlation between depressive symptoms and network addiction, social support, and C behavior among vocational college students%高职学生抑郁与网络成瘾、社会支持、C型行为关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓丽; 刘春莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of network addiction, social support, and C behavior on depressive symptoms among vocational college students and to provide basis for mental health education among students. Methods Totally 1 662 vocational college students were investigated with stratified cluster sampling method. Results Among the students,46. 6% had depression symptoms(44. 6% for the males and 47. 3% for the females). Depression symptom detection rates were 64. 7% and 64. 1% in the students with network dependence and internet addiction. The depression symptom detection rates were 72. 9% and 90. 1% in the students with pro-C behavior and C behavior. Depression symptom detection rates were 67. 5% and 85.7% in the students with less social support and without social support. All the differences observed were statistically significant(P <0. 05 for all). Conclusion Depressive symptom detection rate is high in vocational college students in Ningxia. There are interactions among social support, network addiction, C behavior and depression.%目的 了解社会支持、网络成瘾与C型行为对高职学生抑郁的影响,为高职学生心理健康教育提供科学依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,抽取宁夏5所高职院校共1 662名在校学生进行自填式问卷调查.结果 宁夏高职学生抑郁发生率为46.6%,其中女生为47.3%,男生为44.6%;网络依赖与网络成瘾学生抑郁发生率分别为64.7%、64.1%,高于网络使用正常学生的43.7%;社会支持不足和社会支持缺乏学生的抑郁发生率分别为67.5%、85.7%,高于社会支持正常的学生;具有偏C和C型行为学生抑郁发生率分别为72.9%、90.1%,高于偏非C和非C型行为学生抑郁发生率,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);网络成瘾、C型行为、社会支持为抑郁发生的影响因素并与抑郁存在明显相关关系(r=0.193、r=0.453、r=-0.366).结论 宁夏高职学生抑郁发生率较高,与网络成瘾

  9. Coerced addiction treatment: How, when and whom?

    OpenAIRE

    Orešković, Anto; Bodor, Davor; Mimica, Nino; Milovac, Željko; Glavina, Trpimir

    2013-01-01

    From the psychiatric point of view the aim and purpose of coercive treatment of addicts imply the creation of positive therapeutic pressure which could induce mobilization of all available motivational mechanisms focused on improving general health and on correction of inappropriate social behavior. An increasing number of individuals have been referred to treatment protocol under legal coercion from the criminal justice system related to family law act, whereat optimal therapeutic results...

  10. Does Anorexia Nervosa Resemble an Addiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C.; Foltin, Richard W.; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by unrelenting self-starvation and life-threatening weight loss. The relentlessness with which individuals with anorexia nervosa pursue starvation and in some cases exercise despite the negative physical, emotional, and social consequences parallels features of addictive disorders. From a clinical perspective, individuals with anorexia nervosa behave similarly to individuals with substance abuse by narrowing their behavioral repe...

  11. Resilience to Meet the Challenge of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Alim, Tanja N.; Lawson, William B.; Feder, Adriana; Iacoviello, Brian M.; Saxena, Shireen; Bailey, Christopher R.; Greene, Allison M.; Neumeister, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stress–related mechanisms play an important role in the development of addiction and its chronic, relapsing nature. Multisystem adaptations in brain, body, behavioral, and social function may contribute to a dysregulated physiological state that is maintained beyond the homeostatic range. In addition, chronic abuse of substances leads to an altered set point across multiple systems. Resilience can be defined as the absence of psychopathology despite exposure to high stress a...

  12. Characterizing Intercellular Signaling Peptides in Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Romanova, Elena V.; Hatcher, Nathan G.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2008-01-01

    Intercellular signaling peptides (SPs) coordinate the activity of cells and influence organism behavior. SPs, a chemically and structurally diverse group of compounds responsible for transferring information between neurons, are broadly involved in neural plasticity, learning and memory, as well as in drug addiction phenomena. Historically, SP discovery and characterization has tracked advances in measurement capabilities. Today, a suite of analytical technologies is available to investigate ...

  13. A Systematic Review of Pediatric Obesity and Family Communication Through the Lens of Addiction Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mogul, Ashley; Irby, Megan B.; Skelton, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Both treatment of addiction and treatment of pediatric obesity often integrate the family unit. Thus, addiction therapies may provide a model to guide treatment of pediatric obesity, particularly issues of family communication, weight, and weight-related behaviors. The aim of this systematic review is to assess what knowledge in the field of addiction treatment can be translated to pediatric weight management, particularly in relation to family-based approaches and communication.

  14. Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System: Vulnerability Factor and New Treatment Target for Stimulant Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    DidierJutras-Aswad; StéphanieOlière; AntoineJolette-Riopel; StephanePotvin

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substance among users of stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Interestingly, recent accumulating evidence points toward the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECBS) in the neurobiological processes related to stimulant addiction. This article presents an up-to-date review with deep-insights into the pivotal role of the ECBS in the neurobiology of stimulant addiction and the effects of its modulation on addictive behaviors. The aim...

  15. PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR (PPAR) AGONISTS AS PROMISING NEW MEDICATIONS FOR DRUG ADDICTION: PRECLINICAL EVIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Foll, Bernard Le; Ciano, Patricia Di; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the growing literature on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in addiction. There are two subtypes of PPAR receptors that have been studied in addiction: PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. The role of each PPAR subtype in common models of addictive behavior, mainly pre-clinical models, is summarized. In particular, studies are reviewed that investigated the effects of PPAR-α agonists on relapse, sensitization, conditioned place preference, withdrawal and drug ...

  16. Internet Addiction and Modeling its Risk Factors in Medical Students, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Ghamari; Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi; Narges Mohammadsalehi; Amir Almasi Hashiani

    2011-01-01

    Background : Today′s internet is a usual and common method for identifying and fulfilling unknown practices. Internet network has been prepared rapid and comfortable access to information. Internet addiction is a new and attractive subject that has been regarded as behavior-based addiction recently. Purpose : To estimate the prevalence of internet addiction and some of the related factors among medical students, Iran. Materials and Methods : An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted o...

  17. Neural Mechanisms of Reproduction in Females as a Predisposing Factor for Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Hedges, Valerie L.; Staffend, Nancy A.; Meisel, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that adolescent females differ from males in their response to drugs of abuse and consequently in their vulnerability to addiction. One possible component of this vulnerability to drug addiction is the neurobiological impact that reproductive physiology and behaviors have on the mesolimbic dopamine system, a key neural pathway mediating drug addiction. In this review, we examine animal models that address the impact of ovarian cyclicity, sexual affiliation, se...

  18. Personality Traits as Predictors towards Readiness to Change among Female Drug Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    W. S.W. Shahrazad; Z. M. Lukman; A. R.R. Murni; A. Z. Zainah; Fauziah, I.; Z. Arifin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Understanding the personality traits among women who are involved in drug addiction is a crucial issue prior to starting any intervention programs. It may provide an indication of their readiness to receive treatment and change this addictive behavior. This study was conducted to examine the predictive relationship between personality traits and readiness to change among women drug addicts in Malaysia. Approach: The study employed survey research involvi...

  19. Heroin addiction in African Americans: a hypothesis-driven association study

    OpenAIRE

    Levran, Orna; Londono, Douglas; O'Hara, Kim; Randesi, Matthew; Rotrosen, John; Casadonte, Paul; Linzy, Shirley; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify gene variants associated with heroin addiction in African Americans. The emphasis was on genes involved in reward modulation, behavioral control, cognitive function, signal transduction, and stress response. We have performed a case-control association analysis by screening with 1350 variants of 130 genes. The sample consisted of 202 former severe heroin addicts in methad...

  20. Relationships of loneliness and mobile phone dependence with Internet addiction in Japanese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Satoko Ezoe; Masahiro Toda

    2013-01-01

    We investigated factors contributing to Internet addiction in 105 Japanese medical students. The subjects were administered by a self-reporting questionnaire designed to evaluate demographic factors, Internet addiction, loneliness, health-related lifestyle factors, depressive state, patterns of behavior, and mobile phone dependence. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that loneliness and mobile phone dependence were positively related to degree of addiction. Our fin...

  1. Sex differences in kappa opioid receptor function and their potential impact on addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Elena eChartoff; Maria eMavrikaki

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress...

  2. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress...

  3. Dissecting impulsivity and its relationships to drug addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, J David; Ashenhurst, James R; Cervantes, M Catalina; Groman, Stephanie M; James, Alexander S; Pennington, Zachary T

    2014-10-01

    Addictions are often characterized as forms of impulsive behavior. That said, it is often noted that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, spanning several psychological domains. This review describes the relationship between varieties of impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, the nature of the causal relationship between the two, and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that promote impulsive behaviors. We conclude that the available data strongly support the notion that impulsivity is both a risk factor for, and a consequence of, drug and alcohol consumption. While the evidence indicating that subtypes of impulsive behavior are uniquely informative--either biologically or with respect to their relationships to addictions--is convincing, multiple lines of study link distinct subtypes of impulsivity to low dopamine D2 receptor function and perturbed serotonergic transmission, revealing shared mechanisms between the subtypes. Therefore, a common biological framework involving monoaminergic transmitters in key frontostriatal circuits may link multiple forms of impulsivity to drug self-administration and addiction-related behaviors. Further dissection of these relationships is needed before the next phase of genetic and genomic discovery will be able to reveal the biological sources of the vulnerability for addiction indexed by impulsivity. PMID:24654857

  4. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-05-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a central characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also crucial to addiction. Based on this analogy, OCD has been proposed to be part of the concept of behavioral addiction along with other non-drug-related disorders that share compulsivity, such as pathological gambling, skin-picking, trichotillomania and compulsive eating. In this review, we investigate the neurobiological overlap between compulsivity in substance-use disorders, OCD and behavioral addictions as a validation for the construct of compulsivity that could be adopted in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The reviewed data suggest that compulsivity in OCD and addictions is related to impaired reward and punishment processing with attenuated dopamine release in the ventral striatum, negative reinforcement in limbic systems, cognitive and behavioral inflexibility with diminished serotonergic prefrontal control, and habitual responding with imbalances between ventral and dorsal frontostriatal recruitment. Frontostriatal abnormalities of compulsivity are promising targets for neuromodulation and other interventions for OCD and addictions. We conclude that compulsivity encompasses many of the RDoC constructs in a trans-diagnostic fashion with a common brain circuit dysfunction that can help identifying appropriate prevention and treatment targets. PMID:26774279

  5. The impact of orbitofrontal dysfunction on cocaine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucantonio, Federica; Stalnaker, Thomas A; Shaham, Yavin; Niv, Yael; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by poor judgment and maladaptive decision-making. Here we review evidence implicating the orbitofrontal cortex in such behavior. This evidence suggests that cocaine-induced changes in orbitofrontal cortex disrupt the representation of states and transition functions that form the basis of flexible and adaptive ‘model-based’ behavioral control. By impairing this function, cocaine exposure leads to an overemphasis on less flexible, maladaptive ‘model-free’ control systems. We propose that such an effect accounts for the complex pattern of maladaptive behaviors associated with cocaine addiction. PMID:22267164

  6. Use of Preclinical Drug vs. Food Choice Procedures to Evaluate Candidate Medications for Cocaine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Matthew L.; Hutsell, Blake A.; Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is a disease that manifests as an inappropriate allocation of behavior towards the procurement and use of the abused substance and away from other behaviors that produce more adaptive reinforcers (e.g. exercise, work, family and social relationships). The goal of treating drug addiction is not only to decrease drug-maintained behaviors, but also to promote a reallocation of behavior towards alternative, nondrug reinforcers. Experimental procedures that offer concurrent access t...

  7. Glutamatergic neuroplasticity in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Joachim D; Reissner, Kathryn J

    2011-01-01

    Neuroadaptations among glutamatergic projections within the mesocorticolimbic circuits engaged by drugs of abuse have been described since the 1990s. There is now substantial evidence that drugs of abuse lead to long-term changes in glutamatergic signaling and encompass multiple levels of analysis. For example, cocaine induces changes in extracellular glutamate concentrations and in synaptic glutamatergic transmission. In addition, glutamate receptors are required for the expression of cocaine-related behaviors, and long-term changes have been reported in the expression of proteins at glutamatergic synapses, in glutamate-related redox regulation of neurons, and in glutamatergic synaptic and structural plasticity following chronic exposure to cocaine. In this chapter, we will describe the neurocircuitry involved, and will summarize evidence for adaptations in glutamatergic neuroplasticity as a mechanism for cocaine addiction. Finally, we will discuss progress in the development of glutamate-mediated pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:21199777

  8. Internet Addiction and Its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozden Arisoy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of new technologies, computer and internet use have become an unavoidable necessity in our daily lives. Internet was originally designed to facilitate communication and research. However the dramatic increase in use of internet in recent years has led to its pathologic use. Turkey, as a developing country with an increasing rate of internet access and computer use is at high risk for this disorder. In our country, this disorder is especially seen in young people who are more skilled in internet and computer use. And because their excessive internet use has led to negative consequences in their academic, social and family lives, patients and their families began search of treatment for this disorder. So clinicians must be aware of this newly emerging disorder and they should be able to apply the appropriate therapeutic interventions. This paper aims to summarize the pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatment of internet addiction.

  9. 探讨网络成瘾青少年的网络相关行为特征%Discussion on the Characteristics of Internet-related Behaviors in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵新月; 王冲

    2015-01-01

    Objectiveto explore and analyze on the characteristics of Internet-related behaviors in adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder(IAD).Methods The Internet addiction test, the diagnosis questionnaire and the questionnaire survey are done by 1000 cases of randomly selected young people.Results 97 cases (9.7%) of IAD with a very young beginner, a long time and high frequcency. The teenagers with IAD spend more than 3 length of time than the normal ones. Such children always own a personal computer, easier to surf online. The Internet cafe and dormitory are good choices, mainly playing internet games, browsing pornographic websites, taking network two-way communication, ect. These teenagers prefer to the anxiety and pleasure of the internet with morenegative messagers on it.Conclusion Internet addiction has a significant difference in the perception of network emotion, cognition, and network activity compared with the normal, and it has a significant effect on the prediction of Internet addiction.%目的:本文主要是探讨和分析网络成瘾的青少年的网络相关行为特征。方法随机选择1000例青少年作为调研对象,通过网络成瘾测验、诊断问卷以及行为调查问卷等方式进行调查。结果其中网络成瘾共有97例(9.7%),这些网络成瘾的青少年中开始接触网络年龄相对较小、网龄较长、上网频率较高。成瘾组青少年每周上网时间为正常组青少年上网时间的3倍,拥有个人电脑、上网条件都要优于正常上网少年,成瘾组青少年大都选择在网吧或者宿舍上网。成瘾组青少年少年内容大都集中在网络游戏、色情网站、网络双向沟通等,网络成瘾组青少年更倾向于上网的焦虑以及快感等,对于网络的消极评价更多。结论网络成瘾青少年对于网络情感、认知以及网络活动存在的认知和正常使用者相比较存在一定的差异,其网络内容偏好对于网络成瘾的预测具有显著的影响。

  10. Rational behavior therapy for drug addicts mood negative emotional adjustment effect%理性情绪行为疗法对戒毒者负性情绪的调适效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李遵清; 侯峰; 翟爱玲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore rational behavior therapy for drug addicts emotional anxiety depression adjustment effect Methods According to toss a coin, 60 cases drug addicts grouping law were divided into study groups ( 32 cases) and control group (28).Both groups were given conventional discipline, including military training, daily control study, labor health and physical exercise,the exercise GongLiao etc, and supportive psychological care, the study group was given emotional behavior therapy for six weeks on the basis of the routine treatment.After treatment, the effects were assessed by depression self rating scale ( SDS), anxiety, since the rating scale (SAS), symptoms since rating scale (SCL-90) .Results Before treatment, SDS, SAS, score had no significant differences between the two groups ( P >0.05), after treatment, the SAS, SDS scores in study group were decreased obviously ( P <0.01 ), but they were not obvious changes in control group ( P > 0.05 ).And after treatment, the scores had obvious difference between the two groups (P <0.01 ) .Conclusions Rational emotional behavior therapy can treat negative emotions of drug addicts to maintain good mood.%目的 探讨理性情绪行为疗法对戒毒者焦虑抑郁情绪的调适效果.方法 将60例戒毒者按抛硬币分组法分为研究组(32例)和对照组(28例),两组均按常规管教,对照组参加日常军事训练、学习、劳动卫生、体育锻炼、健身运动等工疗活动,并给予支持性心理护理,研究组在此基础上进行为期6周的理性情绪行为疗法.治疗前后,两组采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)进行效果评定.结果 治疗前,SDS、SAS评分比较,两组间无显著差别(P均>0.05),治疗后,研究组SAS、SDS量表评分较治疗前明显下降(P均<0.01),对照组较治疗前则变化不明显(P均>0.05);而且治疗后的比较,研究组较对照组亦有显著差异(P均<0.01).结论 理性情绪行为疗法能够矫

  11. Cognitive interventions for addiction medicine: Understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilverstand, Anna; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides a tool for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive interventions in addiction. The aim of this review was to describe the brain circuits that are recruited during cognitive interventions, examining differences between various treatment modalities while highlighting core mechanisms, in drug addicted individuals. Based on a systematic Medline search we reviewed neuroimaging studies on cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive inhibition of craving, motivational interventions, emotion regulation, mindfulness, and neurofeedback training in addiction. Across intervention modalities, common results included the normalization of aberrant activity in the brain's reward circuitry, and the recruitment and strengthening of the brain's inhibitory control network. Results suggest that different cognitive interventions act, at least partly, through recruitment of a common inhibitory control network as a core mechanism. This implies potential transfer effects between training modalities. Overall, results confirm that chronically hypoactive prefrontal regions implicated in cognitive control in addiction can be normalized through cognitive means. PMID:26822363

  12. Psychological factors of development and chronicity of technological addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Emelin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the formation of technological addictions, criteria for their identification and diagnosis, as well as analysis of the psychological factors that contribute to their development. According to the results of comparative analysis of existing models and studies, we present ways of further development of this problem in psychology. Model of technological addictions should be based on a model of “normative” use of technology and cannot be reduced only to the “addictive potential” of technology or person. In addition, one must consider unique humans function of technology (ease, avoiding, and overcoming, which makes a virtual situation more attractive than the real life situation, and provides a transition from “normal” to pathological processes. A special topic is identification of compensatory mechanisms system that support developed forms of addictive behavior (cognitive dissonance reduction strategies, cognitive distortion of perception and evaluation.

  13. MicroRNAs and drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Kenny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a disorder of neuroplasticity in brain reward and cognition systems resulting from aberrant activation of gene expression programs in response to prolonged drug consumption. Noncoding RNAs are key regulators of almost all aspects of cellular physiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small (~21–23 nucleotides noncoding RNA transcripts that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, microRNAs were shown to play key roles in the drug-induced remodeling of brain reward systems that likely drives the emergence of addiction. Here, we review evidence suggesting that one particular miRNA, miR-212, plays a particularly prominent role in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. We review evidence showing that miR-212 expression is increased in the dorsal striatum of rats that show compulsive-like cocaine-taking behaviors. Increases in miR-212 expression appear to protect against cocaine addiction, as virus-mediated striatal miR-212 over-expression decreases cocaine consumption in rats. Conversely, disruption of striatal miR-212 signaling using an antisense oligonucleotide increases cocaine intake. We also review data that identify two mechanisms by which miR-212 may regulate cocaine intake. First, miR-212 has been shown to amplify striatal CREB signaling through a mechanism involving activation of Raf1 kinase. Second, miR-212 was also shown to regulate cocaine intake by repressing striatal expression of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2, consequently decreasing protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The concerted actions of miR-212 on striatal CREB and MeCP2/BDNF activity greatly attenuate the motivational effects of cocaine. These findings highlight the unique role for miRNAs in simultaneously controlling multiple signaling cascades implicated in addiction.

  14. Refined food addiction: a classic substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifland, J R; Preuss, H G; Marcus, M T; Rourke, K M; Taylor, W C; Burau, K; Jacobs, W S; Kadish, W; Manso, G

    2009-05-01

    Overeating in industrial societies is a significant problem, linked to an increasing incidence of overweight and obesity, and the resultant adverse health consequences. We advance the hypothesis that a possible explanation for overeating is that processed foods with high concentrations of sugar and other refined sweeteners, refined carbohydrates, fat, salt, and caffeine are addictive substances. Therefore, many people lose control over their ability to regulate their consumption of such foods. The loss of control over these foods could account for the global epidemic of obesity and other metabolic disorders. We assert that overeating can be described as an addiction to refined foods that conforms to the DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. To examine the hypothesis, we relied on experience with self-identified refined foods addicts, as well as critical reading of the literature on obesity, eating behavior, and drug addiction. Reports by self-identified food addicts illustrate behaviors that conform to the 7 DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. The literature also supports use of the DSM-IV criteria to describe overeating as a substance use disorder. The observational and empirical data strengthen the hypothesis that certain refined food consumption behaviors meet the criteria for substance use disorders, not unlike tobacco and alcohol. This hypothesis could lead to a new diagnostic category, as well as therapeutic approaches to changing overeating behaviors. PMID:19223127

  15. 海洛因成瘾者冲动行为的事件相关电位P300研究%Impulsive behavior in heroin addicts:a P00 ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林彬; 钱若兵; 傅先明; 胡文富; 伊涛; 牛朝诗; 汪业汉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨海洛因成瘾者冲动行为的事件相关电位(ERP)P300的特点.方法 运用神经心理学试验范式,海洛因成瘾组和健康对照组在执行爱荷华赌博任务(IGT)时同步进行ERP脑电描记,数据采集后分析比较2组被试P300的波幅和潜伏期,并与冲动性量表(BIS-11)的测评结果作相关分析.结果 海洛因成瘾组BIS评分、选择“高频损失”纸牌次数[(75.12±12.49)分;(91.14 ±21.35)次]高于正常对照组[(66.54±8.61)分;(73.71 ±18.91)次],均差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);2组被试在执行IGT时均出现明显的P300的波形,其中海洛因成瘾组P300的波幅、潜伏期[(4.92±1.14) μV;(293.43±36.21)ms]低于对照组[(7.65±1.59) μV;(332.68 ±40.15)ms],且与BIS评分呈负相关(r=-0.76,-0.52),差异及相关性有统计学意义(P<0.05),而进一步Logistic回归分析显示,BIS评分仅与P300波幅相关(P<0.05).结论 海洛因成瘾者冲动行为P300的异常可反映成瘾者的冲动行为,海洛因成瘾者的较高冲动性行为可能是成瘾及复吸的原因之一.%Objective To investigate the characteristic of P30o event-related potentials(ERP) of impulsive behavior in heroin addicts.Methods The Iowa gambling task (IGT) were performed by using the paradigm for psychological experiment both in heroin addiction group (HA group) and health control group (HC group),the inspection of electroencephalography were underwent in all the subjects concurrently.Following the collection of data of ERP,amplitude and latency of P300 were compared between the two groups,and then the relationship betweenamplitude or latency of P300 and the results of Barratt impulsiveness scale were analyzed separately.Results Compared to HC group,BIS score as well as the numbers of high frequency loss cards were significantly higher in HA group ( HA:75.12 ± 12.49,91.14 ± 21.35 ; HC:66.54 ± 8.61,73.71 ± 18.91 ; P < 0.05 ),while the both two groups had visible waveforms of P

  16. Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Money Management by Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc I.

    2012-01-01

    How addicts manage their funds can be understood from studies of the neurobiology of impulsive spending, contingency management, self-reported expenditures, behavioral economics and anthropology. To show how these differing perspectives can provide theoretical explanations for observed behavior, they were applied to the question of when extra “windfall” funds are spent on substances of abuse. The treatment implications of Behavioral Economic and related approaches include targeting behavioral...

  17. Shared psychological characteristics that are linked to aggression between patients with Internet addiction and those with alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Gwak, Ah Reum; Jung, Dawn; Choi, Sam-Wook; Lee, Jaewon; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Kim, Dai Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet addiction (IA) is considered as one of behavioral addictions. Although common neurobiological mechanisms have been suggested to underlie behavioral addiction and substance dependence, few studies have directly compared IA with substance dependence, such as alcohol dependence (AD). Methods We compared patients with IA, AD, and healthy controls (HC) in terms of the Five Factor Model of personality and with regard to impulsiveness, anger expression, and mood to explore psycho...

  18. Cortisol secretion patterns in addiction and addiction risk

    OpenAIRE

    LOVALLO, WILLIAM R.

    2006-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol or nicotine involves altered functioning of the brain's motivational systems. Altered functioning of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis may hold clues to the nature of the motivational changes accompanying addiction and vulnerability to addiction. Alcohol and nicotine show at least three forms of interaction with HPA functioning. Acute intake of both substances causes stress-like cortisol responses. Their persistent use may dysregulate the HPA. Finally, ...

  19. Is Internet Addiction Prevalent Among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients? Data from Las Vegas and Tel Aviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Linzy, Shirley; Sason, Anat; Tene, Oren; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction is known to be associated with depression. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) for depression were studied among non-selective methadone maintenance treatment patients from the United States (n = 164) and Israel (n = 113). Thirty percent were not exposed to the internet, and 2.9% (n = 8) had an "occasional/frequent problem." The IAT and CES-D scores correlated significantly (p = .03). The non-exposed group was older, less educated, and had more benzodiazepine abusers. Unlike other behavioral addictions that characterized these patients, the internet addiction problem is rare, but should not be ignored. PMID:26284288

  20. Heroin addiction in African Americans: a hypothesis-driven association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levran, O; Londono, D; O'Hara, K; Randesi, M; Rotrosen, J; Casadonte, P; Linzy, S; Ott, J; Adelson, M; Kreek, M J

    2009-07-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify gene variants associated with heroin addiction in African Americans. The emphasis was on genes involved in reward modulation, behavioral control, cognitive function, signal transduction and stress response. We have performed a case-control association analysis by screening with 1350 variants of 130 genes. The sample consisted of 202 former severe heroin addicts in methadone treatment and 167 healthy controls with no history of drug abuse. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), haplotype and multi-SNP genotype pattern analyses were performed. Seventeen SNPs showed point-wise significant association with heroin addiction (nominal Pvulnerability. PMID:19500151