WorldWideScience

Sample records for beginning of human life

  1. The beginning of human life and its modern scientific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjak, A

    2003-03-01

    One of the most controversial topics in modern bioethics, science, and philosophy is the beginning of individual human life. In the seemingly endless debate, strongly stimulated, by recent technologic advances in human reproduction, a synthesis between scientific data and hypothesis, philosophical thought, and issues of humanities has become a necessity to deal with ethical, juridical, and social problems. Furthermore, in this field there is a temptation to ask science to choose between opinions and beliefs, which neutralize one another. The question of when human life begins requires the essential aid of different forms of knowledge. Here we become involved in the juncture between science and religion, which needs to be carefully explored. PMID:12696784

  2. [When does human life begin? Legal considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, H G

    1993-11-01

    There have been attempts to define the beginning of life from a legal point of view. The German civil code of 1923 specified that only that entity can have birthright that was alive at the time of succession. Whoever was not alive at the time of succession but was already fertilized would be deemed as born before the succession. The law in this instance does not really define life, rather it regulates the hereditary right of the fetus. Less subject to misunderstanding is Paragraph 1 of the German Law Book, which refers to the legal rights of human beings from the completion of birth, specifying only the live born and not the still-born. The embryo protection law in force as of January 1, 1991, defines the beginning of life in a medical sense, to wit, the embryo is the fertilized egg cell capable of development already from the time of fertilization. Additionally every cell with the potential to divide and develop into an individual is assumed as an embryo. No other law explicitly provides a similar definition of the appearance of early human life. Some foreign legal precepts designate the embryonic conceptus the preembryo, which could be subjected to procedures in reproductive medicine to which more developed embryos could not be. According to the valid Paragraph 219 d of the Penal Code, a procedure is not considered an abortion when its effects occur before the completion of nidation of the fertilized egg cell in the uterus. This does not define the beginning of life, it only says something about the beginning of legal protection of unborn life. In the view of constitutional law Article 2, Section 2 of the German Basic Law, every person has the right to life and bodily integrity, which rights can only be infringed on in accordance with the law. However, personhood and life are not defined.

  3. Bidrag til "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Bidrag til: "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians". Uddrag fra Human Genetics, vol. 119 p 1432. Udgivelsesdato: 5 september......Bidrag til: "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians". Uddrag fra Human Genetics, vol. 119 p 1432. Udgivelsesdato: 5 september...

  4. The Needs of Humans: A Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Marie

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a teaching method developed by Maria Montessori, starting with activities in the primary classroom, which are continued through the elementary years. The author discusses a few child-centered techniques in preparing children for their work within a larger community--the whole human family. In the Montessori environment, the…

  5. Life begins at 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new rule makes nuclear power plant license renewal a viable option. A small group of corporate executives will soon face one of the toughest decisions of their careers-a decision that will affect 17 million American homes. Forty-five commercial nuclear power plants will reach the end of their operating licenses early in the next century. They represent billions of dollars in capital investment, and the companies that own them must decide whether to keep them on the grid or scrap them. But before a company decides whether to pull the plug on a big generating plant, it will have to do some homework. Company executives will have to roll up their sleeves and dig deep into projections of electricity demand, assessments of generating options and cold, hard economics. At the same time, they must keep wary eyes on the political landscape, scanning ahead for roadblocks and quicksand

  6. New Clues to Beginnings of Life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Describes current experiments that help to explain chemical processes which probably existed prior to the first living cells. Some experiments suggest that a significant portion of a major metabolic pathway, the Krebs cycle, may have developed in the earth's primitive atmosphere to be later incorporated into living organisms. (JR)

  7. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in t

  8. Embryonic life and human life.

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, M C

    1985-01-01

    A new human life comes into being not when there is mere cellular life in a human embryo, but when the newly developing body organs and systems begin to function as a whole, the author argues. This is symmetrical with the dealth of an existing human life, which occurs when its organs and systems have permanently ceased to function as a whole. Thus a new human life cannot begin until the development of a functioning brain which has begun to co-ordinate and organise the activities of the body a...

  9. Where/when/how did life begin? A philosophical key for systematizing theories on the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeżyński, Adam

    2016-10-01

    The question of the origin of life interested people for centuries. All existing views on this subject can be classified into different areas of human knowledge about the world: natural sciences, philosophy, and theology (religion). It is interesting to look at them closer and to classify all the typical groups of the theories about the origins of life. We can then see links existing between them and relationships that indicate their own nature. Nowadays, driving forces of prebiological chemical evolution and the mode of explanation of the transition 'non-life into life' give a great variety of solutions. The differences between the theories, however, as well as the current controversies in the scientific community (what 'in the beginning' was?; where and when the prebiotic evolution may took place? etc.) will be shown as of secondary importance for the theories' systematization in comparison with several much more profound philosophical assumptions underlying the origin-of-life-studies. My proposal to organize and classify different types of the theories of genesis of life allows for extracting conceptions of different kind: metaphysical and scientific, and also for comparing them with each other. Some of them answer the question of the emergence of life in general and others on the question of the origin of life on the Earth only. In the perspective of contemporary scientific research on the origin of life it seems interesting that two main ideas concerning the problem of the origin of life, spontaneous generation and panspermia, are still present as presuppositions of certain theories but have been modified. Thus a 'philosophical key' seems to be the most appropriate to systematize all kinds of theories on the origin of life. This paper is an attempt to justify the position adopted. Most important conclusion is that the philosophical basis or implications, which are irreducibly present and possible to be found within the scientific theories of the origin of life

  10. The beginning and the end the meaning of life in a cosmological perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal, Clément

    2014-01-01

    In this fascinating journey to the edge of science, Vidal takes on big philosophical questions: Does our universe have a beginning and an end or is it cyclic? Are we alone in the universe? What is the role of intelligent life, if any, in cosmic evolution? Grounded in science and committed to philosophical rigor, this book presents an evolutionary worldview where the rise of intelligent life is not an accident, but may well be the key to unlocking the universe's deepest mysteries. Vidal shows how the fine-tuning controversy can be advanced with computer simulations. He also explores whether nat

  11. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of School Human Resource Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Human resource (HR) management is defined as the sum of activities employed by an organization to attract, develop, and retain people with the appropriate knowledge and skills for effectively and efficiently achieving organizational goals. An understanding of the HR practices in schools is important, as the assembly of a team of qualified and…

  12. Uncertainty analysis of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors at beginning of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work is to estimate breeding ratio, radiation damage rate and minor actinide transmutation rate of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors. Uncertainty analysis is performed taking into account uncertainty in nuclear data and composition of the reactors. We use the recently released ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data library and restrict the work to the beginning of reactor life. We work under multigroup approximation. The Bondarenko method is used to acquire effective cross sections for the homogeneous reactor. Modeling error and numerical error are estimated. The adjoint sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate generalized adjoint fluxes for the responses. The generalized adjoint fluxes are used to calculate first order sensitivities of the responses to model parameters. The acquired sensitivities are used to propagate uncertainties in the input data to find out uncertainties in the responses. We show that the uncertainty in model parameters is the dominant source of uncertainty, followed by modeling error, input data precision and numerical error. The uncertainty due to composition of the reactor is low. We identify main sources of uncertainty and note that the low-fidelity evaluation of 16O is problematic due to lack of correlation between total and elastic reactions

  13. Symposium: A Beginning in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Peter; Fry, Paul H.; Carnochan, W. B.; Culler, Jonathan; Lerer, Seth; Marshall, Donald G.; Johnson, Barbara; Steiner, Wendy; Haack, Susan; Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2002-01-01

    2001 marked Yale's 300th birthday. It seemed an opportunity for reflection on the evolution of the institution, and particularly on the vicissitudes of the humanities over those three centuries. This article presents essays which represent a selection from the symposium, "Beginning With the Humanities," held at the Whitney Humanities Center on…

  14. Quality of Life Theory II. Quality of Life as the Realization of Life Potential: A Biological Theory of Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life, which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research.Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life.

  15. Human rights begin at birth: international law and the claim of fetal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelon, Rhonda; Zampas, Christina; Brusie, Elizabeth; Devore, Jacqueline

    2005-11-01

    In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the foundation of human rights, the text and negotiating history of the "right to life" explicitly premises human rights on birth. Likewise, other international and regional human rights treaties, as drafted and/or subsequently interpreted, clearly reject claims that human rights should attach from conception or any time before birth. They also recognise that women's right to life and other human rights are at stake where restrictive abortion laws are in place. This paper reviews the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Inter-American Human Rights Agreements and African Charter on Human and People's Rights in this regard. No one has the right to subordinate another in the way that unwanted pregnancy subordinates a woman by requiring her to risk her own health and life to save her own child. Thus, the long-standing insistence of women upon voluntary motherhood is a demand for minimal control over one's destiny as a human being. From a human rights perspective, to depart from voluntary motherhood would impose upon women an extreme form of discrimination and forced labour.

  16. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M

    2016-09-01

    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country. PMID:27603882

  17. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M

    2016-09-01

    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country.

  18. A clue to the origin of life: begin from making tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiangchen; Yuan, Zhuangdong

    2009-02-01

    The small molecules already existing on the earth can be assembled to biological macromolecules in the presence of the suitable tool. A workman must sharpen his tools if he is to do his work well. The tool must be specific, delicate and automatic. Obviously, it is enzyme. Therefore, to explore the origin of life we must understand the origin of the manufacturing tool of biological macromolecules--the origin of enzymes. We can understand more about the origin and evolution procedures of enzymes from the NO2. NO2 can easily form the dimmer, N2O4. Four N2O4 molecules can coordinate with a suitable metal ion and form a plane super molecule with four N2O4 molecules. This supramolecule provides the basis for the appearance of enzymes: (1) It is the template for producing enzymes. (2) It provides the active centers for enzymes. (3) It provides for the enzymes with specific function of chiral selection. This supramolecule reacts with formaldehyde and porphyrin compound is gradually formed. Once suitable function groups are substituted on the porphyrin ring, enzymes are formed. The primitive environment of earth can easily produce NO2 and CH2O. Therefore, this might be one clue to the origin of life.

  19. The beginning of Space Life Science in China exploration rockets for biological experiment during 1960's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peidong; Zhang, Jingxue

    The first step of space biological experiment in China was a set of five exploration rockets launched during 1964 to 1966, by Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electricity, and Institute of Biophysics of The Chinese Academy of Sciences. Three T-7AS1rockets for rats, mice and other samples in a biological cabin were launched and recovered safely in July of 1964 and June of 1965. Two T-7AS2rockets for dog, rats, mice and other samples in a biological cabin were launched and recovered safely in July of 1966. Institute of Biophysics in charged of the general design of biological experiments, telemetry of physiological parameters, and selection and training of experiment animals. The samples on-board were: rats, mice, dogs, and test tubes with fruit fly, enzyme, bacteria, E. Coli., lysozyme, bacteriaphage, RNAase, DNAase, crystals of enzyme, etc. Physiological, biochemical, bacte-riological, immunological, genetic, histochemical studies had been conducted, in cellular and sub cellular level. The postures of rat and dog were monitored during flight and under weight-lessness. Physiological parameters of ECG, blood pressure, respiration rate, body temperature were recorded. A dog named"Xiao Bao"was flight in 1966 with video monitor, life support system and conditioned reflex equipment. It flighted for more than 20 minutes and about 70km high. After 40 years, the experimental data recorded of its four physiological parameters during the flight process was reviewed. The change of 4 parameters during various phase of total flight process were compared, analyzed and discussed.

  20. Did Life Begin on the Beach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, Robert P.; Conde-Frieboesk Kilian

    2005-08-01

    Water is one of the prerequisites of life. Further requirements are the existence of a system of interacting organic molecules capable of capturing and converting the supply of external energy and elaborating the replicating function that is needed for propagation. None of this would be possible without the existence of some means of concentrating, selecting, and then containing these mutually interacting substances in proximity to one another, i.e., a primitive cell. Starting from this hypothesis we propose a model for the development of life on Earth. Our model embodies the following new features: (1) rapid cycles of catalysis and transport of material, (2) desegregation (separation by tidal action and degradation by catalysis) as well as segregation (by chromatography on tidal beaches), (3) cross-catalysis instead of auto-catalysis, as well as (4) compartmentalization, although the latter idea is of course not new. But our "lipid first" model, in contrast to earlier "peptide first" or "RNA first" models, provides for the compartments needed to act as a cradle for the subsequent development of information- rich molecules like peptides and RNA. If anything, the earliest information-rich molecules were probably membrane-spanning peptides/proteins.

  1. Core design of NPP Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) type using computer code MCNP-5 for beginning of life (BOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core design of Nuclear Power Plant for Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) type with 70 MWe capacity power in Beginning of Life (BOL) has been performed. The aim of this analysis, to know percent enrichment, temperature distribution and safety value by negative temperature coefficient at type PBMR if reactor power become lower equal to 70 MWe. This analysis was expected become one part of overview project development the power plant with 10.000 MWe of total capacity, spread evenly in territory of Indonesia especially to support of smelter industries. The results showed that, effective multiplication factor (keff) with power 70 MWe critical condition at enrichment 5,626 % is 1,00031±0, 00087, based on enrichment result, a value of the temperature coefficient reactivity is 10,0006 pcm/K. Based on the results of these studies, it can be concluded that the PBMR 70 MWe design is theoretically safe. (author)

  2. Care for the beginning of life. The revised Ethical and Religious Directives discuss abortion, contraception, and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBlois, J; O'Rourke, K D

    1995-01-01

    Part 4 of the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services--which discusses such controversial issues as abortion, contraception, and assisted reproduction--is informed by a profound respect for human life and the institution of marriage. The controversies are familiar. But many in Catholic healthcare may be less familiar with the principles underlying Church teaching on these issues. Appropriate interpretation and application of these directives require that all concerned be educated in both the theological-ethical and the clinical dimensions of care giving. Directives 38 through 43 deal with reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization and surrogacy. Directives 52 and 53 express the Church's consistent teaching on contraceptive interventions. Directives 45 to 48, 50 to 51, and 54 reiterate the Church's firm stance on the inviolability of human life, including nascent human life. However, the directives also say that not all medical interventions resulting in fetal death are prohibited abortions. However, appropriate regard for human life, marriage, and the family require more than mere adherence to the directives' prescriptions and proscriptions. Ethics committees in Catholic healthcare should study clinical data as well as theological materials. PMID:10145132

  3. Regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms at the beginning of intron 2 of the human gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elena V Antontseva; Marina Yu Matveeva; Natalia P Bondar; Elena V Kashina; Elena Yu Leberfarb; Leonid O Bryzgalov; Polina A Gervas; Anastasia A Ponomareva; Nadezhda V Cherdyntseva; Yury L Orlov; Tatiana I Merkulova

    2015-12-01

    There are two regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs) at the beginning of the second intron of the mouse - gene that are strongly associated with lung cancer susceptibility. We performed functional analysis of three SNPs (rs12228277: T>A, rs12226937: G>A, and rs61761074: T>G) located in the same region of human . We found that rs12228277 and rs61761074 result in differential binding patterns of lung nuclear proteins to oligonucleotide probes corresponding two alternative alleles; in both cases, the transcription factor NF-Y is involved. G>A substitution (rs12226937) had no effect on the binding of lung nuclear proteins. However, all the nucleotide substitutions under study showed functional effects in a luciferase reporter assay. Among them, rs61761074 demonstrated a significant correlation with allele frequency in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Taken together, the results of our study suggest that a T>G substitution at nucleotide position 615 in the second intron of the KRAS gene (rs61761074) may represent a promising genetic marker of NSCLC.

  4. The Beginning and the End: The Meaning of Life in a Cosmological Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal, Clement

    2013-01-01

    Where does it all come from? Where are we going? Are we alone in the universe? What is good and what is evil? The scientific narrative of cosmic evolution demands that we tackle such big questions with a cosmological perspective. I tackle the first question in Chapters 4-6; the second in Chapters 7-8; the third in Chapter 9 and the fourth in Chapter 10. However, where do we start to answer such questions? In Chapters 1-3, I elaborate the concept of worldview and argue that we should aim at constructing comprehensive and coherent worldviews. In Chapter 4, I identify seven fundamental challenges to any ultimate explanation. I conclude that our explanations tend to fall in two cognitive attractors, the point or the cycle. In Chapter 5, I focus on the free parameters issue, while Chapter 6 is a critical analysis of the fine-tuning issue. I conclude that fine-tuning is a conjecture and that we need to further study how typical our universe is. This opens a research endeavor that I call artificial cosmogenesis. In ...

  5. A new life on the small screen and around it: The beginnings of television in socialist Yugoslavia (1955–1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Erdei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ever since television became institutionalized in socialist Yugoslavia in the late 1950’s, it was closely associated with the idea of a „new life“ in socialist society. As a new technology, as a modern object in the socialist household, and as a medium which enabled the transmission of desirable content for creating socialist citizens and shaping models of socialist „culturality“ and entertainment, television represents a prime terrain for studying the transformations of culture and society in the latter half of the 20th century in Yugoslavia, as well as in the rest of Europe and the world. The paper is mostly based a number of key sources, memoirs, which speak of the history of television in Yugoslavia from the point of view of creators and a wider circle of experts who were involved in it. In this paper I will attempt to shed some light on the dynamics of the process of introducing television into Yugoslavian society, the perplexities, confusions and tensions which this new technology – simultaneously the product and the mediator of modernity – brought with it. Special attention is given to the relationship between television as technology and television as a medium of mass communication, which permanently marked the beginnings of television in Yugoslavia with the tension between „tech“ and „programming“, as well as to the role of television in everyday life.

  6. Beginnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2012-01-01

    in the history of gastrointestinal endocrinology from classic studies of digestive juice secretion over peptide chemistry, immunochemistry, and molecular genetics to modern receptor pharmacology and drug development. From shadowy beginnings, gastrointestinal endocrinology has emerged as a central discipline...

  7. Prospects for the Chinese Human Genome Project (HGP)at the beginning of next century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Human Genome Project (CHGP) as part of the international human genome research has achieved significant progress and created a solid foundation for further development. While participating in the human genome sequencing and gene discovery, the emphasis of CHGP in the next century will be laid on functional genomics. The strategy, resources and some policy issues will be addressed.

  8. The Force of Selection on the Human Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, James Holland

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I present evidence for a robust and quite general force of selection on the human life cycle. The force of selection acts in remarkably invariant ways on human life histories, despite a great abundance of demographic diversity. Human life histories are highly structured, with mortality and fertility changing substantially through the life cycle. This structure necessitates the use of structured population models to understand human life history evolution. Using such structured ...

  9. Thermal performance of fast reactor type uranium-plutonium oxide fuel pins at beginning-life conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new thermal conductivity correlation, named as ''PNC'98 equation'', of fast reactor type uranium-plutonium oxide (FR-MOX) fuel was proposed by one of the authors last year. Since maximum operating temperature of fast reactor fuel is generally much higher than that of light water reactor fuel, the predictability of the correlations for FR-MOX fuel at higher temperatures, especially, above 2300K, become more important in case of the fuel pin thermal performance analysis. Although the thermal conductivity measurements at higher temperatures are very scares, power-to-melt (PTM) experiments at beginning-of-life conditions can compensate for the lack of the measurements and be preferable to verify the correlation up to melting point. The PNC'98 equation was applied to the PTM test results irradiated in experimental fast reactor JOYO in order to examine its predictability up to melting point by integral method from a viewpoint of the heat transfer behavior across fuel-to-cladding gap through the fuel pin thermal analysis. Fuel pin irradiation behaviors, such as microstructure evolution and the porosity effect on the heat conduction in fuel pellet, were carefully modeled with some related physical properties based on the latest knowledge in order to minimize the uncertainty of the analysis. The calculated heat transfer behavior across the gap derived from temperature increments in the fuel pin is reasonably consistent to the past studies. This implies that the combinations of the PNC'98 equation with the model are highly predictable for the temperature distribution in the PTM test fuel pins and that the applicability of the PNC'98 equation is verified up to melting point. (author)

  10. Thorium-based mixed oxide fuel in a pressurized water reactor: A beginning of life feasibility analysis with MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thorium based MOX fuel beginning of life feasibility analysis with MCNP. • Minimum impact MOX enrichment and core configuration was determined. • Determination of hot channel for MOX core. • Analysis of safety parameters and comparison with LEU core was performed. • Advantages and challenges for MOX core were discussed. - Abstract: Thorium is an asset the nuclear industry does not use, and plutonium is a liability that much of the world would like to be rid of. By incorporating a thorium–plutonium mixed oxide fuel (Th-MOX) into the fuel cycle, pressurized water reactors could provide a means for the United States to address both of these issues – but only if key reactor safety parameters are not affected. The feasibility of utilizing Th-MOX fuel in a pressurized water reactor is examined under steady-state, beginning of life conditions. With a three-dimensional MCNP model of a Westinghouse-type 17 × 17 PWR, many possibilities for replacing one-third of the UO2 assemblies with Th-MOX assemblies were considered. The excess reactivity, critical boron concentration, and centerline axial and radial flux profiles for several configurations and compositions of a one-third Th-MOX core were compared to a 100% UO2 core. A blanket-type arrangement of 5.5 wt% PuO2 was determined to be the best candidate for further analysis. Therefore, this configuration was compared to a 100% UO2 core using the following parameters: delayed neutron fraction (βeff), temperature coefficient, shutdown margin (SDM), and axial and radial nuclear hot channel factors (FZN and FRN). The one-third Th-MOX configuration showed an undesirable reduction in βeff from 0.00716 ± 4.60E−07 for the 100% UO2 configuration to 0.00607 ± 4.30E−07. The reduction in βeff would perhaps be ameliorated by the one-third Th-MOX configuration’s temperature coefficient of reactivity, which at −2.05 ± 0.02 pcm °F−1 is more favorable than the corresponding value of −1.42 ± 0

  11. Beginnings

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Casey Tyler

    1999-01-01

    abstractThis book is a beginning. It begins to explore three conditions. First is the idea of the boundary - not simply the boundary as something that fixes limits, but as something that defines the spatial qualities of architecture. For example, a space that has four opaque walls, a dark floor and a heavy ceiling will feel like a closed cell. But what if the ceiling doesn't quite complete the boundary of the box, and instead it pulls away from the walls to let in traces of daylight. T...

  12. Criminal and Legal Aspects of Human Life Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Janule

    2013-01-01

    The promotion work "Criminal and Legal Aspects of Human Life Protection" is the first such volume complex theoretical and practical research in Latvia on the legal protection of human life. The main idea of the thesis is the human right for physical existence and human life protection by the Criminal Law. The central idea of the thesis is the human rights to the physical existence from the moment of conception and the life protection with criminally legal instruments, which, fi...

  13. Athens: New capital of traditional Greek music: Testimonies on musical life at the beginning of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During its long Byzantine and Post-Byzantine history Constantinople was the center for church art in general, but especially for music. This old city on the Bosporus maintained its prime position until the beginning of the 20th century when, because of new political and social conditions, the Greek people started to acquire their independence and freedom, and Athens became the new capital in the cultural as well as the political sense. During the first decades of the 20th century the Athenian music scene was marked by an intensive dispute between those musicians who leaned towards the European musical heritage and its methods in musical pedagogy, and those who called themselves traditionalists and were engaged in the preservation of traditional values of church and folk music. The best insight into the circumstances in which Greek musical life was getting a new direction are offered by the numerous musical journals published in Athens before the First World War. Among them, The Formigs is of the special interest, firstly because of the long period during which it was published (1901-1912, and secondly because of its main orientation. The editor Ioannes Tsoklis, a church chanter, and his main collaborator, the famous Constantinopolitan musician and theorist and later Principal of the Department for Byzantine music at Athens musical school Konstantinos Psahos, with other associates firmly represented the traditional position. That is why most of the published articles and the orientation of the journal generally were dedicated to the controversial problems and current musical events that were attracting public attention. The editorial board believed that there was a connection between the preservation of musical traditions and their development on one side, and foreign musical influences that were evident in the promotion of polyphonic church music, which had been totally foreign to the Greek Orthodox church until the end of the 19th century, on

  14. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  15. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalay Kouprina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  16. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  17. Human resource development in the beginning phase of nuclear technology development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Research Reactor No.1 (JRR-1) was constructed as the first nuclear reactor in Japan and reached the first criticality in 1957. The construction of both the first BWR and the first PWR were started in the same year 1967 and they started power operation in the same year 1970. Engineers of electrical utilities and vendors gave efforts to have knowledge for reactor engineering mainly on the job training with high self-motivation to contribute for nuclear technology development. A part of them participated in the reactor engineering training course of the JAERI. (author)

  18. 'The residues of freedom,… tendencies toward true humanism': thoughts on the role of the humanities at the beginning of the twentyfirst century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Snyman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Remarks from Kant’s third critique, “The Critique of Judgement”, are taken as guidelines to develop a view on works of art as vessels of knowledge and judgements about what the world appears to be, can be and ought to be. In itself, Kant’s remarks amount to a justification of the study of the arts, i.e. it is for the sake of a world where human beings may experience other human beings as companions in the project to sustain human life. The viability of such an endeavour is borne out by, for example, a recent performance of Beethoven in a most adverse context, and by the fact of international treaties in the past decade against some of the most serious violations of human rights. These treaties could not have been possible were it not for the artistic explorations of the tragedies of these violations.

  19. 'Aid-in-dying' and the taking of human life.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    In several US states, the legalisation of euthanasia has become a question for voters to decide in public referenda. This democratic approach in politics is consistent with notions of personal autonomy in medicine, but the right of choice does not mean all choices are morally equal. A presumption against the taking of human life is embedded in the formative moral traditions of society; human life does not have absolute value, but we do and should impose a strict burden of justification for ex...

  20. Body as First Space of Communication: The Tonic-Emotional Dialogue in the Beginning of Psychic Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Martins

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early stages of ontogenesis, when thesupport for development relies upon the relational function of the mother–baby dyad, the child will organise the foundation of the Self. This process involves a physiological and emotional symbiosis, in a relation with predominance of a tonic-emotional dialogue. The presence or absence of the other, the dynamics of nearness/farness, the postural and gestural dynamics, the containment activities, rhythmic synchronicities and thermal contact, are essential supports to primary organization of the psyche. When these processes are inadequate, they can cause problems of individuation and affirmation of identity, linked to absences or deficiencies in the primary relationship between mother and baby. This perspective leads us to equate the importance of corporeality in the early processes of communication when they are mediated primarily by tonic-emotional processes of communication, imbued with affections, desires and emotions. These processes are essential to the organization of the internal processes that make up this pre-linguistic phase, based on the organization of body schema, ensuring a sense of identity and the possibility of individuation and differentiation from the maternal object. When there are disruptions in this evolutionary dynamics, psychomotor therapy is a privileged resource, providing a safe and container space in which through spontaneous and symbolic play, children learn to transform the feelings, acts and affections in thoughts, projects and words. A desired relationship, allows to experience new forms of expression and conflict resolution, improving emotional and behavioural regulation, and promoting mentoring capacity and executive functions (such as attention, working memory, planning and inhibition of impulses.

  1. Molecular dynamics studies of simple membrane — Water interfaces: Structure and functions in the beginnings of cellular life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    1995-06-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations of the structure and functions of a simple membrane are performed in order to examine whether membranes provide an environment capable of promoting protobiological evolution. Our model membrane is composed of glycerol 1-monooleate. It is found that the bilayer surface fluctuates in time and space, occasionally creating thinning defects in the membrane. These defects are essential for passive transport of simple ions across membranes because they reduce the Bom barrier to this process by approximately 40%. Negative ions are transferred across the bilayer more readily than positive ions due to favorable interactions with the electric field at the membrane-water interface. Passive transport of neutral molecules is, in general, more complex than predicted by the solubility-diffusion model. In particular, molecules which exhibit sufficient hydrophilicity and lipophilicity concentrate near membrane surfaces and experience “interfacial resistance” to transport. The membrane-water interface forms an environment suitable for heterogeneous catalysis. Several possible mechanisms leading to an increase of reaction rates at the interface are discussed. We conclude that vesicles have many properties that make them very good candidates for earliest protocells. Some potentially fruitful directions of experimental and theoretical research on this subject are proposed.

  2. Molecular dynamics studies of simple membrane-water interfaces: Structure and functions in the beginnings of cellular life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations of the structure and functions of a simple membrane are performed in order to examine whether membranes provide an environment capable of promoting protobiological evolution. Our model membrane is composed of glycerol 1-monooleate. It is found that the bilayer surface fluctuates in time and space, occasionally creating thinning defects in the membrane. These defects are essential for passive transport of simple ions across membranes because they reduce the Born barrier to this process by approximately 40%. Negative ions are transferred across the bilayer more readily than positive ions due to favorable interactions with the electric field at the membrane-water interface. Passive transport of neutral molecules is, in general, more complex than predicted by the solubility-diffusion model. In particular, molecules which exhibit sufficient hydrophilicity and lipophilicity concentrate near membrane surfaces and experience 'interfacial resistance' to transport. The membrane-water interface forms an environment suitable for heterogeneous catalysis. Several possible mechanisms leading to an increase of reaction rates at the interface are discussed. We conclude that vesicles have many properties that make them very good candidates for earliest protocells. Some potentially fruitful directions of experimental and theoretical research on this subject are proposed.

  3. Beginnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. MINSKY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a contribution to a series of recollections and reflections on the professional experiences of distinguished economists which the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review started in 1979. In it Hyman Minsky offers a retrospective on his academic career and intellectual development.

  4. The Beginning of a New Life Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury- Patient’s Experiences One Month Post-Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Bodil Bjørnshave; Bjerrum, Merete; Angel, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Studies show that individuals having suffered traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) are challenged by barriers and problems in their transition from hospital rehabilitation to home. This study aims to explore patients’ first-hand experiences of returning home and to compare their post......-discharge experiences with their pre-discharge expectations. Method: A qualitative follow-up study using inductive contents analysis. One month post-discharge, we reinterviewed seven Danish TSCI-patients, admitted for initial rehabilitation at the Spinal Cord Injury Centre of Western Denmark. Findings: We identified...

  5. The Role of Human in Relation between Urban Life & Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qodratullah Qorbani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical documents show that urban life and urbanization is the first manifestation of complete form of human life, and it seems that most of human thoughts, like philosophies, were shaped in the cities and urbanizations. It means that the urban life is a society which has many social factors like: social classes and groups, economy, political power, organizations, family, cultures and geographical and environmental circumstances, that they cause to form many thoughts like human philosophies, then we see that most of past philosophers were in the cities in where urbanization was formed and thinkers could think by using of elements which are grown in such urbanizations. So, the being of urban life is necessary for making philosophical thoughts, because there are such social factors of urban living, can effect human's thinking and shape his/her worldview. But we can see the role of humankinds as a free existent who has divine position, intellect and freedom, then, he/she can manage, control and change the impacts of urban factors on philosophical thought. It means that effects of urbanizations and cultures as clear manifestation of urban life on philosophies is possible only by using of human‘s will and thinking as the central factor of the urban life and philosophy, while he/she can control and change these impacts. In fact, although human is under the impact of social and urban factors, he/she is not determined absolutely, but has freedom and intellect to control and change them. So, there is no place for absolute determinism due to social forces of urban life, but it seems there is a kind of intermediate state between absolute determinism and libertarianism. In this paper, it is tries to analysis the role of social and urban factors as the most important elements of the urban life on philosophy and philosophical thinking, and to argue that how human can manage this process.

  6. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Cadell

    2014-01-01

    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

  7. Patterns, Entropy, and Predictability of Human Mobility and Life

    OpenAIRE

    Shao-Meng Qin; Hannu Verkasalo; Mikael Mohtaschemi; Tuomo Hartonen; Mikko Alava

    2012-01-01

    Cellular phones are now offering an ubiquitous means for scientists to observe life: how people act, move and respond to external influences. They can be utilized as measurement devices of individual persons and for groups of people of the social context and the related interactions. The picture of human life that emerges shows complexity, which is manifested in such data in properties of the spatiotemporal tracks of individuals. We extract from smartphone-based data for a set of persons impo...

  8. Natural goodness and the political form of human life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical Naturalism attempts to explain the objective normativity effective in human practices by reference to the relation between a living individual and the life-form it exhibits. This explanation falls short in the case of human beings (1 - not merely because of their essential rationality, but because the idea of normativity implicit in practice is dependent on the form of normativity’s being made explicit (2. I argue that this explicit form of normativity’s force and claim - the law in general - implies a tension between an explicit norm’s claim to absoluteness and the particularity of the situational case it is applied to. This tension may seem to produce an inherent violence corrupting the very idea of objective normativity inherent in the human form of life (3; in fact, it shows that the human form of life is essentially political. That the human form of life is essentially political does not contradict the idea of objective normativity - provided that this objectivity is not derived from a conception of “natural goodness”, but rather from the actuality of human practice and its principle, justice (4.

  9. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E.; Georgios N. Stamatas; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first yea...

  10. PHENOMENOLOGY OF LIFE IN UNDERSTANDING THE COSMOPOLITAN HUMANNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COZMA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant directions of the world-wide contemporary philosophy, phenomenology of life of Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka represents a major path of thinking and acting for the promotion of what does mean the universal valuable in human beingness by disclosing and unfolding an essential modality of understanding and shaping some paradigms of world culture. We face an original author and a reputed activist doing exceptional work to foster a culture of dialogue in the world. The impressive Tymienieckan philosophical work has imposed itself as a great contribution to the heralding of a “New Enlightenment” encompassing humanity in the endeavour of creating, maintaining and developing the wellbeing and the common good of mankind, in securing the human common destiny. Putting in act a holistic and dynamic philosophy upon life and human condition, phenomenology of life offers a viable pattern of communication between different cultures, of overcoming any kind of contradictions in dealing with the fundamental issues of living together and sharing-in-life. We can find elements for tackling and comprehending in a better way our cosmopolitan humanness, due to the opening of a creative approach of identity and otherness, by admitting differentiation and also by working for harmony in the play of life. Throughout new concepts and a very own complex vision of the respect for life, the philosophy-in-act of AnnaTeresa Tymieniecka manifests valences of an integrator enterprise in interpreting the cosmopolitan status of the philosopher in nowadays, in affirming the role of a responsible citizen of the world.

  11. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  12. Trends progress of theory and practice of humanizing of postgraduate pedagogical education in Ukraine at the beginning of the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko A.I.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The priority tendencies of evolution of postgraduate education of teachers are exposed on principles of humanism to a posteriori domestic pedagogics. The analysis of domestic pedagogical literature and dissertation works is conducted on the topic of research. At the beginning of the development postgraduate education equated with in-plant training. It examined as a possible adding to traditional education. Postgraduate education had ideologize authoritarian character of co-operation on different levels. The further ways of development of the modern system of education are rotined, professional growth of its pedagogical composition.

  13. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J.; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime. PMID:27149330

  14. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  15. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral J Dando

    Full Text Available Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery. Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  16. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime. PMID:27149330

  17. 'Aid-in-dying' and the taking of human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C S

    1992-09-01

    In several US states, the legalisation of euthanasia has become a question for voters to decide in public referenda. This democratic approach in politics is consistent with notions of personal autonomy in medicine, but the right of choice does not mean all choices are morally equal. A presumption against the taking of human life is embedded in the formative moral traditions of society; human life does not have absolute value, but we do and should impose a strict burden of justification for exceptions to the presumption, as exemplified by the moral criteria invoked to justify self-defence, capital punishment, or just war. These criteria can illuminate whether another exception should be carved out for doctor-assisted suicide or active euthanasia. It does not seem, in the United States at any rate, that all possible alternatives to affirm the control and dignity of the dying patient and to relieve pain and suffering, short of taking life, have been exhausted. Moreover, the procedural safeguards built into many proposals for legalised euthanasia would likely be undone by the sorry state of the US health care system, with its lack of universal access to care, chronic cost-containment ills, a litigious climate, and socioeconomic barriers to care. There remains, however, common ground in the quest for humane care of the dying. PMID:1404279

  18. 'Aid-in-dying' and the taking of human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C S

    1992-09-01

    In several US states, the legalisation of euthanasia has become a question for voters to decide in public referenda. This democratic approach in politics is consistent with notions of personal autonomy in medicine, but the right of choice does not mean all choices are morally equal. A presumption against the taking of human life is embedded in the formative moral traditions of society; human life does not have absolute value, but we do and should impose a strict burden of justification for exceptions to the presumption, as exemplified by the moral criteria invoked to justify self-defence, capital punishment, or just war. These criteria can illuminate whether another exception should be carved out for doctor-assisted suicide or active euthanasia. It does not seem, in the United States at any rate, that all possible alternatives to affirm the control and dignity of the dying patient and to relieve pain and suffering, short of taking life, have been exhausted. Moreover, the procedural safeguards built into many proposals for legalised euthanasia would likely be undone by the sorry state of the US health care system, with its lack of universal access to care, chronic cost-containment ills, a litigious climate, and socioeconomic barriers to care. There remains, however, common ground in the quest for humane care of the dying.

  19. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Effective Mentoring Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabodnik-Rivas, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the value of mentoring techniques as perceived by beginning teachers. One specific school district in Southern California using the Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) program was the focus of this study. There were 12 beginning teachers involved in their second year of the BTSA program. The…

  20. Role Management Strategies of Beginning Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Pik Lin; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2005-01-01

    Beginning teachers encounter new challenges as the role system in contemporary society has become more and more demanding. By means of the life history method, role management strategies of four Hong Kong beginning teachers employed to cope with role demands and intra-role conflicts were located in their biographical, workplace and wider…

  1. Quality of Life Theory II. Quality of Life as the Realization of Life Potential: A Biological Theory of Human Being

    OpenAIRE

    Ventegodt, Soren; Merrick, Joav; Andersen, Niels Jorgen

    2003-01-01

    This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL) used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life) questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life), which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research.Whereas traditional medical science has...

  2. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  3. The End Of The Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Russell

    1989-01-01

    When, in the course of advancing the state of the art, one slams into a material barrier to the construction of one's appointed gadget, it is customary, and at times mandatory, to drop to one's knees and pray to DARPA for deliverance. Deliverance in the form of the right stuff. Something superbly strong, something utterly transparent, something remarkably light, and with dielectric properties rivaling a perfect vacuum. Ideally, this something should also be bulletproof, better at conducting heat than a silver spoon, insoluble in boiling acid, radiation hard, non-toxic, and cheap. Well, historically, nine out of ten isn't bad for a start. Indeed, it's better than nothing. So let me begin with some history. What we today call solid state physics began not as science but as technology. Victorian low technology to be exact. The first practical solid state electronic devices, demonstrated by Ferdinand Braun* at Leipzig on November 14, 1876, were based neither on theory nor on synthesis, nor on crystal growth. For in those days these things existed not. They were instead dug up, mined as lead ore. The performance of the galena (PbS) cat's whisker diode was marginal; it was rapidly superseded by the first, worse vacuum tube . So also, early infrared optics of rock salt gave way to synthetic crystals. But those early artifacts' performance demanded a physical explanation, and after a brief hiatus, in order for Willard Gibbs to break ground by inventing thermodynamics, the modern theory of solids arose to provide it. It all stemmed from the enterprise of explaining first the optical properties and then the electronic bebavior of crystals found in rocks. Today diamond, along perhaps with Iceland spar, remains the last optical material to be technically exploited as it is found in nature. It is a barbarous relic, a throwback to high technology's dim Neolithic past. For nowadays we are used to thinking about synthetic optical materials, like zinc sulfide or selenide, as being

  4. Modelling the beginning and end of a planktonic life stage — the distribution of cod eggs and settled juveniles in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Munk, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The North Sea cod stock is close to the southern limit of the species’ range. Therefore, it might be vulnerable to future climate change. Direct as well as indirect effects of climate forcing may have the greatest effects on early life stages. Here we present a study on the distribution of cod (G...

  5. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  6. The Meaning of Concepts of Human Nature in Organizational Life in Business Ethics Context

    OpenAIRE

    Horodecka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to exhibit the role of the concept of human nature for the ethical orientation of organizational life. Therefore, after presenting some definitions of the concepts of human nature, which depict the complexity of these phenomena, some models of the concepts of human nature are described. Furthermore, the setting of the concepts of human nature in the organizational life is discussed. Those concepts can be perceived as a deep-structure of the organizational life, ...

  7. Patterns, entropy, and predictability of human mobility and life

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Shao-Meng; Mohtaschemi, Mikael; Hartonen, Tuomo; Alava, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Cellular phones are now offering an ubiquitous means for scientists to observe life: how people act, move and respond to external influences. They can be utilized as measurement devices of individual persons and for groups of people of the social context and the related interactions. The picture of human life that emerges shows complexity, which is manifested in such data in properties of the spatiotemporal tracks of individuals. We extract from smartphone-based data for a set of persons important locations such as "home", "work" and so forth over fixed length time-slots covering the days in the data-set. This set of typical places is heavy-tailed, a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1.7. To analyze the regularities and stochastic features present, the days are classified for each person into regular, personal patterns. To this are superimposed fluctuations for each day. This randomness is measured by "life" entropy, computed both before and after finding the clustering so as to subtract the c...

  8. Historical aspects and causes of the synergy beginning as a science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimtsov V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the historical aspects of the beginning and development of a new popular science – synergy, as a means of interdisciplinary communication among scholars. Using methodological apparatus of synergy here were considered the basics of studies. Historical aspects of the origin, beginning and formation of synergy as a science and its application in all aspects of human life were analyzed. Current research areas within synergy and nonlinear dynamics were presented. Was presented a question of order and organization of global issues (energetic, environmental, social and economic and systems, that were developed by human using synergy. The conclusion was made on the need for a synergistic approach to all aspects of human life and especially to the economy – it is undeniable in the science of human development in society and especially within the manufacturing process.

  9. Patterns, entropy, and predictability of human mobility and life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Meng Qin

    Full Text Available Cellular phones are now offering an ubiquitous means for scientists to observe life: how people act, move and respond to external influences. They can be utilized as measurement devices of individual persons and for groups of people of the social context and the related interactions. The picture of human life that emerges shows complexity, which is manifested in such data in properties of the spatiotemporal tracks of individuals. We extract from smartphone-based data for a set of persons important locations such as "home", "work" and so forth over fixed length time-slots covering the days in the data-set (see also [1], [2]. This set of typical places is heavy-tailed, a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1.7. To analyze the regularities and stochastic features present, the days are classified for each person into regular, personal patterns. To this are superimposed fluctuations for each day. This randomness is measured by "life" entropy, computed both before and after finding the clustering so as to subtract the contribution of a number of patterns. The main issue that we then address is how predictable individuals are in their mobility. The patterns and entropy are reflected in the predictability of the mobility of the life both individually and on average. We explore the simple approaches to guess the location from the typical behavior, and of exploiting the transition probabilities with time from location or activity A to B. The patterns allow an enhanced predictability, at least up to a few hours into the future from the current location. Such fixed habits are most clearly visible in the working-day length.

  10. Aspects in the religious life of Romanians from the Balkan Peninsula – the end of the 19th century – the beginning of of the 20th century. Archive Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Berciu-Drăghicescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents on the basis of the archive documents aspects related to the religious life of Romanians from the Balkan Peninsula between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. It also presents the position which the Patriarchy in Constantinople had during all this period of time concerning the actions of Romanians. These were not successful but the situation changed after the issue of the imperial resolution of 1905 which ensured the use of the Romanian language and of the A-romanian dialect in church.

  11. The Beginnings of Experimental Petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1971-01-01

    An account of Van't Hoff's change from theoretical chemistry to petrology provides data on the European intellectual climate of the early 1900's and shows how his work laid the foundation for experimental petrology of hard rocks." (AL)

  12. Beginnings of the Cauchy problem

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Brief account of results on the Cauchy problem for the Einstein equations starting with early the works of Darmois and Lichnerowicz and going up to the proofs of the existence and uniqueness of solutions global in space and local in time, in Sobolev spaces, for the general equations either in vacuum or with classical sources.

  13. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days. The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow. Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  15. Politics drives human functioning, dignity, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; McNeely, Clea; Page, Paul D; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu

    2014-12-01

    Too little is known about human functioning amidst chronic adversity. We addressed that need by studying adult Palestinians in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), a population that has experienced longstanding economic and political hardships. Fourteen group interviews were conducted in February, 2010 in Arabic by local fieldworkers with 68 participants representing the main stratifications of Palestinian society: gender, region, refugee status, and political affiliation. Interview tasks included each participant: describing someone doing well and not well, free listing domains of functioning, and prioritizing domains to the three most important. Thematic analyses highlighted the dominating role of the political domain of functioning (e.g., political structures, constraints, effects, identity, and activism) and the degree to which political conditions impacted all other realms of functioning (economic, education, family, psychological, etc.). The discussion links the findings to relevant theory and empirical work that has called attention to the need to include the political in frameworks of quality of life. It also emphasized that values, such as justice, rights, dignity and self-determination, that underlie political structures and policies, are key elements of human functioning. This is the case not only in the oPt, but in any society where power imbalances marginalize segments of the population.

  16. The Beginning and End of Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmannová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Resolution of questions the beginning and end of marriage falls within the area of family law. Marriage can not be linked only to the area of law and we must take into account the economic and sociological aspects, where the intercultural differences. At the beginning of the thesis was summed up general issues relating to marriage. The content of this literature review was characteristic of the current legal situation governing marriage. The practical part describes the course of divorce proc...

  17. [Power and everyday life in a lunatic asylum environment - a case example from Glasgow at the beginning of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründler, Jens

    In this article the focus of analysis lies on power relations in everyday life in one of Glasgow's Pauper Lunatic Asylums at the turn of the twentieth century. Taking a sample of patient case files I examine the daily processes of negotiation between inmates and their relatives, physicians, attendants and nurses as well as the poor law administration. Some cases especially exemplify the complex relationships between the actors. They show which opportunities and boundaries existed for "power brokering" for the more powerless. At the same time these cases illustrate the formal and practical limits of enforcement by doctors and nursing staff. Without turning a blind eve to hierarchies and power imbalances the analysis shows that even in settings like "total institutions" power remains volatile. Even there the more powerful actors have to actualize, seize and prevail on a regular basis. PMID:27501547

  18. Galen and the beginnings of Western physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2014-07-15

    Galen (129-c. 216 AD) was a key figure in the early development of Western physiology. His teachings incorporated much of the ancient Greek traditions including the work of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Galen himself was a well-educated Greco-Roman physician and physiologist who at one time was a physician to the gladiators in Pergamon. Later he moved to Rome, where he was associated with the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. The Galenical school was responsible for voluminous writings, many of which are still extant. One emphasis was on the humors of the body, which were believed to be important in disease. Another was the cardiopulmonary system, including the belief that part of the blood from the right ventricle could enter the left through the interventricular septum. An extraordinary feature of these teachings is that they dominated thinking for some 1,300 years and became accepted as dogma by both the State and Church. One of the first anatomists to challenge the Galenical teachings was Andreas Vesalius, who produced a magnificent atlas of human anatomy in 1543. At about the same time Michael Servetus described the pulmonary transit of blood, but he was burned at the stake for heresy. Finally, with William Harvey and others in the first part of the 17th century, the beginnings of modern physiology emerged with an emphasis on hypotheses and experimental data. Nevertheless, vestiges of Galen's teaching survived into the 19th century. PMID:24879053

  19. Influence of sports on human mental and physical development in various stages of life

    OpenAIRE

    Sládková, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the impact of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental development in various developmental stages of life. It contains a brief description of the stages of life and presents the possibilities, nature and influence of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental state.

  20. Oocyte activation and latent HIV-1 reactivation: AMPK as a common mechanism of action linking the beginnings of life and the potential eradication of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jahahreeh

    2016-08-01

    In all mammalian species studied to date, the initiation of oocyte activation is orchestrated through alterations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling. Upon sperm binding to the oocyte plasma membrane, a sperm-associated phospholipase C (PLC) isoform, PLC zeta (PLCζ), is released into the oocyte cytoplasm. PLCζ hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), which activates protein kinase C (PKC), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which induces the release of Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores. Subsequent Ca(2+) oscillations are generated that drive oocyte activation to completion. Ca(2+) ionophores such as ionomycin have been successfully used to induce artificial human oocyte activation, facilitating fertilization during intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures. Early studies have also demonstrated that the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) acts synergistically with Ca(2+) ionophores to induce parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocytes. Interestingly, the Ca(2+)-induced signaling cascade characterizing sperm or chemically-induced oocyte activation, i.e. the "shock and live" approach, bears a striking resemblance to the reactivation of latently infected HIV-1 viral reservoirs via the so called "shock and kill" approach, a method currently being pursued to eradicate HIV-1 from infected individuals. PMA and ionomycin combined, used as positive controls in HIV-1 latency reversal studies, have been shown to be extremely efficient in reactivating latent HIV-1 in CD4(+) memory T cells by inducing T cell activation. Similar to oocyte activation, T cell activation by PMA and ionomycin induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations and activation of DAG, PKC, and downstream Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways necessary for proviral transcription. Interestingly, AMPK, a master regulator of cell metabolism that is activated thorough the induction of cellular

  1. Chronomics and ``Glocal'' (Combined Globaland Local) Assessment of Human Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, K.; Cornélissen, G.; Norboo, T.; Takasugi, E.; Halberg, F.

    Most organisms, from cyanobacteria to mammals, are known to use circadian mechanisms to coordinate their activities with the natural 24-hour light/dark cycle and/or interacting socio-ecologic schedules. When the human clock gene was discovered in 1997, it was surprising to see that it was very similar in all earthly life. Recent findings suggest that organisms which evolved on Earth acquired many of the visible and invisible cycles of their habitat and/or of their cosmos. While circadian systems are well documented both time-macroscopically and time-microscopically, the temporal organization of physiological function is much more extensive. Long-term physiological quasi-ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate, among other variables, such as those of the ECG and other tools of the neuroendocrinologic armamentarium, have already yielded information, among others, on circaseptan (about 7-day), transyears and cisyears (with periods slightly longer or shorter tha n one year, respectively), and circadecennian (about 10-year) cycles; the nervous system displays rhythms, chaos and trends, mapped as chronomes. Chronomes are time structures consisting of multifrequency rhythms covering frequencies over 18 orders of magnitude, elements of chaos, trends in chaotic and rhythmic endpoints, and other, as-yet unresolved variability. These resolvable time structures, chronomes, in us have counterparts around us, also consisting of rhythms, trends and chaos, as is increasingly being recognized. In 2000, we began a community-based study, relying on 7-day/24-hour monitoring of blood pressure as a public service. Our goal was the prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction and of the decline in cognitive function of the elderly in a community. Chronomic detection of elevated illness-risks aim at the prevention of diseases of individuals, such as myocardial infarctions and strokes, and, equally important, chronomics resolves illness of societies, such as crime and war

  2. Beginning Readers for Speakers of Divergent Dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratz, Joan C.

    Linguistic interference as a key factor in the acquisition of reading skills by inner-city black children is explored. Examples of syntactic and phonetic structures in the black dialect which are different from standard English and the role these differences play in beginning reading are given. The use of dialect-based texts allows the child to…

  3. Vector Knowledge of Beginning Physics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Randall D.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Vector Knowledge Test that was designed to see if beginning physics students possess the minimal basic knowledge of vectors that will allow them to proceed with a study of Newtonian mechanics. Concludes that only one-third of the students in a calculus-based introductory course at California Polytechnic had sufficient vector…

  4. Professional Identity Tensions of Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillen, Marieke; Beijaard, Douwe; den Brok, Perry

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on interviews with 24 beginning teachers about tensions they experienced regarding their professional identity. The interviewees reported a total of 59 tensions of tension that fell into three themes: (1) the change in role from student to teacher; (2) conflicts between desired and actual support given to students; and (3)…

  5. Work Environment Predictors of Beginning Teacher Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Richard; O'Brien, Patrick; Goddard, Marion

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated elements of school environments that explain variance in burnout scores in a sample of university graduates from Brisbane, Australia, two years after they commenced work as teachers. Using a longitudinal survey methodology, 79 beginning teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) on four occasions over a two-year…

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL Measures: There are Still Many Unanswered Questions about Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayowa Ojo Owolabi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL measures are used to assess the multifaceted impact of disease, and determine the utility and associated disability. In addition, the impact of medical interventions must be assessed by psychometrically robust HRQOL measures based on a comprehensive and dynamic model. To develop such a model, the concepts of life, its quality, domains, essence, and purpose must be properly and clearly understood. The correct understanding of these entities is specifically important for patient-centered medicine and has universal implications for all fields of human endeavor. Therefore, in order to explore questions about life and quality of life adequately, every necessary field of knowledge should be employed. A multilinguistic and etymological appraisal reveals that life is related to medicine, freedom, being, soul, and spirit, all of which must therefore be considered in its conceptualization.

  7. Dreptul omului de a fi protejat de stresul negativ excesiv – un nou drept fundamental al omului postmodern, la începutul sec. XXI (The right to be protected from the negative stress – a new fundamental right of the post-modern human, at the begining of the XXIst century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Virginia ANTONESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the human rights field, at the beginning of XXIst century, brings new challenges for the legal academic school under the pressure to realize a continuous effort to adapt itself to multiple changes of the global world and equally, to those changes resulted from the state and non-state entities actions, under the impact of specific threats and problems. Within this context, we propose in this paper “a right of human being to be protected from stress -the negative excessive stress-“; in our opinion, this right can be considered, from the beginning, to belong to the IVth generation of human rights, after the category of solidarity rights. Particularly, we consider that it should be adopted (under the aegis of UN.GA a “Charter for the human rigths protection of the metropolitan man”, facing the situations and conditions of life generating a level of stress that is an exclusive feature of the metropolitan style of life, an action prescribed in order to rise concretely the level of protection for human rights, face to challenges brought by postmodern lifestyle. This Charter would realize a consecration of human rights starting from a specific quality of human being (as “living into great urban agglomerations”- metropolis, megalopolis, and by taking into account the universality of the urbanization phenomena, as specific phenomena of the global age, at the beginning of the XXIst century. Quality of the human being “to live into great urban agglomerations” should be taken, in our opinion, into consideration, more attentively, by the XXIst century legal academic school, this quality shifting towards a legal quality, and generating rights and obligations specific to the human being of the XXIst century global society. Also, it should be recommended to ellaborate (possibly, through a Romanian proposal within UN.GA a declaration, signed by UN states, regarding an international day of fighting against negative excessive

  8. How long did it take for life to begin and evolve to cyanobacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, A.; Miller, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    There is convincing paleontological evidence showing that stromatolite-building phototactic prokaryotes were already in existence 3.5 x 10(9) years ago. Late accretion impacts may have killed off life on our planet as late as 3.8 x 10(9) years ago. This leaves only 300 million years to go from the prebiotic soup to the RNA world and to cyanobacteria. However, 300 million years should be more than sufficient time. All known prebiotic reactions take place in geologically rapid time scales, and very slow prebiotic reactions are not feasible because the intermediate compounds would have been destroyed due to the passage of the entire ocean through deep-sea vents every 10(7) years or in even less time. Therefore, it is likely that self-replicating systems capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution emerged in a period shorter than the destruction rates of its components (cyanobacteria is usually thought to be very long. However, the similarities of many enzymatic reactions, together with the analysis of the available sequence data, suggest that a significant number of the components involved in basic biological processes are the result of ancient gene duplication events. Assuming that the rate of gene duplication of ancient prokaryotes was comparable to today's present values, the development of a filamentous cyanobacterial-like genome would require approximately 7 x 10(6) years--or perhaps much less. Thus, in spite of the many uncertainties involved in the estimates of time for life to arise and evolve to cyanobacteria, we see no compelling reason to assume that this process, from the beginning of the primitive soup to cyanobacteria, took more than 10 million years.

  9. Economic assessment of human life as a diagnostic indicator of the crisis phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yevgenyevna Shipitsyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper to reveal the essence of the term “economic assessment of human life” the methodological approaches used in the economic theory and estimation theory are applied, the categorical apparatus revealing the meaning of the economic cost, price and value of human life is created. To define the cost of human life, the income, cost-based, and comparative approaches are analyzed. Various types of living costs depending on the purpose of assessment application are allocated. For the state purposes and definition of social payments, the concept of cadastral value of human life is introduced. The introduction of the macroeconomic indicator reflecting level and quality of life in the country is substantiated. The author's technique of the economic assessment of human life is given in the article and is approved on the example of the Russian Federation. Besides, the interrelations between manifestations of the crisis phenomena and their tendencies in society, quality of life and a size of life assessment at the calculation of regional coefficients for an assessment of risks to the citizens' life or health are revealed

  10. From the beginning of radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revival of the radon therapy in several countries since the end of the Second World War was the occasion for a review to the beginnings of this special form of radiotherapy. Initially the early history of radioactivity research is described which among others led to the detection of the emanation as a daughter product of radium. After this followed the evidence of the emanation as a constituent of the natural atmosphere. The establishment of its presence in spring-waters led to the knowledge that there are more than average concentrations of emanation in several mineral springs. In the second part of the article the therapeutic use of the natural radon springs initiated by this is described in its development and importance for Austria (Badgastein, St. Joachimsthal) and Germany (Bad Brambach) up to the beginning of the First World War. (author)

  11. JSC Human Life Sciences Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication includes articles entitled: (1) E029 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Exposure to Microgravity; (2) E030 - Extended Studies of Pulmonary Function in Weightlessness; (3) E074 - Direct Measurement of the Initial Bone Response to Spaceflight in Humans; (4) E401 - The Effects of Microgravity on Skeletal Muscle Contractile Properties; (5) E407 - Effects of Microgravity on the Biochemical and Bioenergetic Characteristics of Human Skeletal Muscle; (6) E410 - Torso Rotation Experiment; (7) E920 - Effect of Weightlessness on Human Single Muscle Fiber Function; (8) E948 - Human Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Performance in Space; (9) E963 - Microgravity Effects on Standardized Cognitive Performance Measures; and (10) E971 - Measurement of Energy Expenditures During Spaceflight Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method

  12. Performance Stable at the Beginning of 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Textile industry this year will face more pressure Q1 Textile Industry’s Performance Conference was unveiled by China National Textile & Apparel Council on May 13.Since the beginning of 2011,the standard for defin ing large-scale enterprises was raised from the annual income of 5 million yuan of main business to the annual income of 20 million yuan of main business, according to the latest news.

  13. Difficulties encountered at the beginning of professional life: results of a 2003 pilot survey among undergraduate students in Paris Rene Descartes University (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbelaïd, R; Dot, D; Levy, G; Eid, N

    2006-11-01

    In addition to dental hospital clinical activity, dental students at Paris Rene Descartes University have the opportunity in their final year of study to practise clinically in a dental office, as associates. This paper outlines a pilot, experimental study designed to assess student reaction to this Vocational Clinical Activity (VCA) in order to identify relevant weaknesses of the undergraduate programme. Using questionnaires, data were collected for each of the following clinical or management skills: clinical difficulty, therapeutic decision-making, patient/practitioner relationship, time management, administrative matters and technical problems. Students were asked to rank each item in order of difficulty (1, high level to 6, low level). A high response rate was observed (90%) among the 50 undergraduate VCA students. The results pointed out three main difficulties encountered by undergraduate students during the VCA: time management (90% of the students), administrative matters (85% of the students) and clinical decision-making (80% of the students). These preliminary results need further investigation. However, they give us the incentive to carry on with this type of assessment and to extend it to young, qualified colleagues' perceptions and to other French Universities.

  14. 42 CFR 407.25 - Beginning of entitlement: Individual enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT Individual Enrollment and Entitlement for SMI § 407.25 Beginning of entitlement: Individual enrollment. The following apply whether an individual is self-enrolled or automatically enrolled in SMI: (a)...

  15. The Grammar of the Human Life Process: John Dewey's New Theory of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Dewey proposed a new theory of language, in which the form (such as symbols) and content of language are not separated. The content of language includes the physical aspects of the world, which are purely quantitative: the life process, which involves functional responses to qualities, and the human life process, which involves the conscious…

  16. Complexity, Natural Selection and the Evolution of Life and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstig, Börje

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss the concept of complexity. I show that the principle of natural selection as acting on complexity gives a solution to the problem of reconciling the seemingly contradictory notion of generally increasing complexity and the observation that most species don’t follow such a trend. I suggest the process of evolution to be illustrated by means of a schematic diagram of complexity versus time, interpreted as a form of the Tree of Life. The suggested model implies that comp...

  17. THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Mariana CODREANU

    2012-01-01

    The concept of QoL can both relate to the overall assessment of life and evaluate the spheres of life: quality of work, quality of the environment, quality of interpersonal relationships and quality of family life. The human development index is aimed at showing the evolution of the living standards and includes a three-dimensional approach that covers items such as life expectancy, literacy and real per capita GDP. The proposed indicator is an attempt to develop a tool for tracking the evolu...

  18. The beginning of uranium production in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of uranium available in the Estonian black alum (Dictyonema) shale created intense interest towards this low-grade ore in the very beginning of the atomic era. Various selective leaching and concentration technologies were tried with both roasted and native shale, at first at the Narva Pilot Plant and thereafter at the Sillamaee. Even though most of the USSR leading research and development centers participated in this effort, industrial uranium production turned out to be both technologically possible, but at the same time economically untenable at this time, just as it was the case in Sweden. (author)

  19. Coat color variation at the beginning of horse domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Arne; Pruvost, Melanie; Reissmann, Monika; Benecke, Norbert; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Castaños, Pedro; Cieslak, Michael; Lippold, Sebastian; Llorente, Laura; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Slatkin, Montgomery; Hofreiter, Michael

    2009-04-24

    The transformation of wild animals into domestic ones available for human nutrition was a key prerequisite for modern human societies. However, no other domestic species has had such a substantial impact on the warfare, transportation, and communication capabilities of human societies as the horse. Here, we show that the analysis of ancient DNA targeting nuclear genes responsible for coat coloration allows us to shed light on the timing and place of horse domestication. We conclude that it is unlikely that horse domestication substantially predates the occurrence of coat color variation, which was found to begin around the third millennium before the common era. PMID:19390039

  20. The Desymbolization of Human Life in Contemporary Mass Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Judaism and Christianity, the religious traditions most influential on Western civilization, taught that the universe was created by the Word and that human beings were distinguished from all other animals by their use of words. What characterizes our age is a growing reliance on images as our words are being desymbolized. This desymbolization of…

  1. Frontiers of Life Sciences: The Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Regina M.; Pellis, Neal R.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid development of the productive processes after World War II extended human settlements into new ecological niches. Advances in Life Sciences played a decisive role supporting the establishment of human presence in areas of the planet where human life could have not existed otherwise. The evolution of life support systems, and the fabrication of new materials and technologies has enabled humans to inhabit Polar Regions, ocean surfaces and depths; and to leave Earth and occupy Low Earth Orbit. By the end of the 20 th Century, stations in the Antarctic and Arctic, off shore oil platforms, submarines, and space stations had become the ultimate demonstration of human ability to engineer habitats at Earth extreme environments and outer space. As we enter the 21st Century, the next development of human settlements will occur through the exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The major risks of space exploration derive from long exposure of humans and other life systems to radiation, microgravity, isolation and confinement, dependence on artificial life support systems, and unknown effects (e.g., altered magnetic fields, ultrahigh vacuum on bacteria, fungi, etc.). Countermeasures will require a complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes. To sustain life in transit and on the surface of the Moon and Mars will require a balance of spacecraft, cargo, astronaut crews, and the use of in situ resources. Limitations on the number of crewmembers, payloads, and the barrenness of the terrain require a novel design for the capabilities needed in transit and at exploration outpost sites. The planned destinations have resources that may be accessed to produce materials, food, shelter, power, and to provide an environment compatible with successful occupation of longterm exploration sites. Once more, the advancements of Life Sciences will be essential for the design of interplanetary voyages and planetary surface operations. This

  2. Influence of quality of life on the state and development of human capital in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Tsaurkubule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.

  3. A journey of a thousand miles begins with one small step – human agency, hydrological processes and time in socio-hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.; Murphy, J.T.; Purdue, L.E.; Zhu, T.

    2013-01-01

    When simulating social action in modeling efforts, as in socio-hydrology, an issue of obvious importance is how to ensure that social action by human agents is wellrepresented in the analysis and the model. Generally, human decision-making is either modeled on a yearly basis or lumped together as co

  4. A journey of a thousand miles begins with one small step – human agency, hydrological processes and time in socio-hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.; Murphy, J.T.; Purdue, L.E.; Zhu, T.

    2014-01-01

    When simulating social action in modeling efforts, as in socio-hydrology, an issue of obvious importance is how to ensure that social action by human agents is well-represented in the analysis and the model. Generally, human decision-making is either modeled on a yearly basis or lumped together as c

  5. The Beginning and End of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Cosmology is the scientific study of how the Universe began more than 13 billion years ago, how its properties have changed, and what its future might be. The balance of forces and energy cause the Universe to expand, first accelerating, then decelerating and then accelerating again. Within this overall structure, the interplay of atoms and light with the mysterious dark matter and dark energy causes stars and galaxies to form and evolve, leading to galaxies like our own home, the Milky Way. Observational cosmology uses telescopes on Earth and in space to reach back in time to find the faint remaining echoes of the Big Bang and to trace the formation and evolution of the galaxies and structures that fill the Universe. In this lecture, Dr. Gradner will give an overview of cosmology, outlining the 13-billion year history of the Universe, and highlighting the very rapid progress this field has made i the last decade. He will discuss the role that NASA space telescopes have played in this progress and wil continue to play in the years to come. He will give a time-based history of the Universe, discussing the successive processes that formed matter, particles, atoms, stars and galaxies. In particular, he will focus on cosmological inflation, the rapid accelerated expansion that marks the beginning of the Universe, and dark energy, a tenuous substance that overcomes gravity and whose properties will determine its final fate.

  6. First Day of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day of Life Print A A A Text Size What's in ... usually begin within the first few hours of life. previous continue Your Feelings Having a baby is ...

  7. What about Non-Human Life? An "Ecological" Reading of Michel Henry's Critique of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Gschwandtner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes its departure from Michel Henry’s criticism of a technological view that “extends its reign to the whole planet, sowing desolation and ruin everywhere” (I am the Truth, 271. It argues that although Henry’s critique of technology is helpful and important, it does not go far enough, inasmuch as it excludes all non-human beings from the Truth of “Life” he advocates against the destructive truths of technology and therefore cannot fully articulate the way in which technology does in fact cause “desolation and ruin” on the entire planet. At the same time I suggest that this strict division between human and non-human life is not essential to Henry’s project, which may well have resources for a more environmentally friendly proposal. The first part of the paper lays out Henry’s critique of technology in some detail, highlighting the ways in which it contains important insights for our contemporary situation. The second part of the paper explores the stark division Henry draws between human generation from the divine life and the creation of everything else, including his rejection of any identification of humans with “protozoa and honey bees,” which would seem to suggest a complete lack of concern for non-human life. The final part of the paper seeks to find a way beyond this dichotomy by showing how non-human life may be included in Henry’s proposal in a way that extends his critique of technology in environmentally conscious ways without losing his phenomenological insights about the human condition.

  8. Social Media: Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Couldry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the idea that research into media communications and information has recently undergone a normative turn as more and more writers reflect on the ever deeper embedding of our lives in media, and the possible costs that this entails. Possible ways forward for deepening and addressing this normative turn are explored, based on the particular contribution to media and communications research of social theory.

  9. Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckhed, Fredrik; Roswall, Josefine; Peng, Yangqing; Feng, Qiang; Jia, Huijue; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Li, Yin; Xia, Yan; Xie, Hailiang; Zhong, Huanzi; Khan, Muhammad Tanweer; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Junhua; Xiao, Liang; Al-Aama, Jumana; Zhang, Dongya; Lee, Ying Shiuan; Kotowska, Dorota; Colding, Camilla; Tremaroli, Valentina; Yin, Ye; Bergman, Stefan; Xu, Xun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Wang, Jun; Jun, Wang

    2015-05-13

    The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first year of life and assessed the impact of mode of delivery and feeding on its establishment. In contrast to vaginally delivered infants, the gut microbiota of infants delivered by C-section showed significantly less resemblance to their mothers. Nutrition had a major impact on early microbiota composition and function, with cessation of breast-feeding, rather than introduction of solid food, being required for maturation into an adult-like microbiota. Microbiota composition and ecological network had distinctive features at each sampled stage, in accordance with functional maturation of the microbiome. Our findings establish a framework for understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and the human body in early life. PMID:25974306

  10. Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckhed, Fredrik; Roswall, Josefine; Peng, Yangqing; Feng, Qiang; Jia, Huijue; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Li, Yin; Xia, Yan; Xie, Hailiang; Zhong, Huanzi; Khan, Muhammad Tanweer; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Junhua; Xiao, Liang; Al-Aama, Jumana; Zhang, Dongya; Lee, Ying Shiuan; Kotowska, Dorota; Colding, Camilla; Tremaroli, Valentina; Yin, Ye; Bergman, Stefan; Xu, Xun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Wang, Jun; Jun, Wang

    2015-05-13

    The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first year of life and assessed the impact of mode of delivery and feeding on its establishment. In contrast to vaginally delivered infants, the gut microbiota of infants delivered by C-section showed significantly less resemblance to their mothers. Nutrition had a major impact on early microbiota composition and function, with cessation of breast-feeding, rather than introduction of solid food, being required for maturation into an adult-like microbiota. Microbiota composition and ecological network had distinctive features at each sampled stage, in accordance with functional maturation of the microbiome. Our findings establish a framework for understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and the human body in early life.

  11. CRIMEA – THE BEGINNING OF THE END

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Ioana Cozianu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present approach studies the probability of the decomposition of the current international geopolitical system in the context of the EU’s socio-economical and political stagnation. We do not intend to say that European Union represents the determinant factor for the system’s decomposition, since we have not found EU as a major player on the International Relations arena, but we are more pointing out that EU’s dream to recover a lost greatness will not so soon fulfil. We also intend to refer to those elements that actually connect EU to a changing world: competitive human resources engaged in the market economy, and hardly its values, like the promotion of the human rights and democracy. So, is it possible to play by the rules and be regarded as a powerful player on the same time?! International Relations system diversity makes it almost impossible. (NeoLiberal concepts like “democratic peace” or “international institutions”, the promotion of the human rights and of democracy get pale in the face of a reality dominated by an emerging Russian Federation that plays by the (Neo Realism power commandments. And so we get to deal with the Ukrainian situation where to each Western sanction, The Russian Federation opposes a “tank”.

  12. Influence of indoor hygrothermal conditions on human quality of life in social housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modern societies spend most of their time indoors, namely at home, and the indoor environment quality turns out to be a crucial factor to health, quality of life and well-being of the residents. The present study aims to understand how indoor environment relates with quality of life and how improving housing conditions impacts on individuals’ health. Design and Methods: This study case will rely on the following assessments in both rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated social housing: i field measurements, in social dwellings (namely temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, air velocity, air change rate, level of mould spores and energy consumption; ii residents’ questionnaires on social, demogaphic, behavioural, health characteristics and quality of life. Also, iii qualitative interviews performed with social housing residents from the rehabilitated houses, addressing the self-perception of living conditions and their influence in health status and quality of life. All the collected information will be combined and analysed in order to achieve the main objective. Expected impact: It is expected to define a Predicted Human Life Quality (PHLQ index, that combines physical parameters describing the indoor environment measured through engineering techniques with residents’ and neighbourhood quality of life characteristics assessed by health questionnaires. Improvement in social housing should be related with better health indicators and the new index might be an important tool contributing to enhance quality of life of the residents.

  13. Multidisciplinary perspectives on the history of human interactions with life in the ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDiarmid, Alison; MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn

    2016-01-01

    There is an essentially circular interaction between the human social system and the marine ecosystem. The Oceans Past V Conference "Multidisciplinary perspectives on the history of human interactions with life in the ocean" held in Tallinn, Estonia, in May 2015 was an opportunity for the present......There is an essentially circular interaction between the human social system and the marine ecosystem. The Oceans Past V Conference "Multidisciplinary perspectives on the history of human interactions with life in the ocean" held in Tallinn, Estonia, in May 2015 was an opportunity...... volume of the ICES JMS and highlight issues which arose during general discussion. We make two conclusions. First, to have greater impact and ensure more efficient use of knowledge gained from marine historical ecology (MHE) and marine environmental history (MEH) in ecosystem-based management and related...

  14. Fermi's paradox, extraterrestrial life and the future of humanity: a Bayesian analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Verendel, Vilhelm

    2015-01-01

    The Great Filter interpretation of Fermi's great silence asserts that $Npq$ is not a very large number, where $N$ is the number of potentially life-supporting planets in the observable universe, $p$ is the probability that a randomly chosen such planet develops intelligent life to the level of present-day human civilization, and $q$ is the conditional probability that it then goes on to develop a technological supercivilization visible all over the observable universe. Evidence suggests that $N$ is huge, which implies that $pq$ is very small. Hanson (1998) and Bostrom (2008) have argued that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would point towards $p$ not being small and therefore a very small $q$, which can be seen as bad news for humanity's prospects of colonizing the universe. Here we investigate whether a Bayesian analysis supports their argument, and the answer turns out to depend critically on the choice of prior distribution.

  15. Human life, media and market: a sociotechnical perspective of research with embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar de Almeida Nobre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnologies of reproduction emerge nowadays as radical destabilizing agents of what we understand as human life. Within this context, research involving stem cells are on the agenda of several academic articles and major newspapers and magazines around the world. The arguments vary from a sort of pride about the emancipatory power of technology to a fear about the absence of limits to restrict undesirable advances. Amid such controversies, our proposal is, based on Actor Network Theory, to draw a map of networks that produce what we understand as human life, insofar as it seems to be unstabled by the new biotechnologies of reproduction. We followed different mediators along their deviations, in order to produce a report based on the analysis of current bioethical controversies involving, specifically, embryonic stem cell research. These controversies led to a strong connection between media, new biotechnologies of human reproduction and a market logic.

  16. The probability of extraterrestrial life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since beginning of times, human beings need to live in the company of other humans, beings developing what we now know as human societies. According to this idea there has been speculation, specially in the present century, about the possibility that human society has company of the other thinking creatures living in other planets somewhere in our galaxy. In this talk we will only use reliable data from scientific observers in order to establish a probability. We will explain the analysis on the physico-chemical principles which allow the evolution of organic molecules in our planet and establish these as the forerunners of life in our planet. On the other hand, the physical process governing stars, their characteristics and their effects on planets will also be explained as well as the amount of energy that a planet receives, its mass, atmosphere and kind of orbit. Finally, considering all this information, a probability of life from outer space will be given. (Author)

  17. Ethnocentrism and the value of a human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratto, Felicia; Glasford, Demis E

    2008-12-01

    Drawing on theories of intergroup prejudice and decision making, the authors examined how much participants valued lives of conationals and enemy civilians. Using decisions made under risk, Experiment 1 showed that Americans valued Iraqi and American lives equally when outcomes for those nations did not compete but valued American lives more under outcome competition. Experiments 2 and 3 extended this finding by illustrating ethnocentric valuation even when large numbers of lives were at stake: The number of lives at stake mattered less for enemy civilians than it did for conational combatants. Experiment 4 provided additional evidence of this ethnocentric indifference to magnitude, regardless of combatant status of the conationals' lives. In all experiments, individual difference measures associated with prejudice (e.g., group identification and prejudice, empathy, social dominance orientation, social attitudes) corresponded to ethnocentric valuation measured in decisions. Results demonstrate that categorization, competitive context, and individual propensities for prejudice influence how much one values lives. PMID:19025292

  18. Mapping Human Induced Landscape Changes in Israel Between the end of the 19Th Century and the Beginning of the 21Th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Gad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines changes in Israel's landscape by comparing two time periods, 1881 and 2011. For this purpose we compared land cover derived from the Palestine Exploration Fund historical map to a present land cover map that was compiled from 38 different present-day GIS layers. The research aims were (1 to quantitatively examine what were the changes in Israel's landscape between 1881 and 2011; (2 to identify and explain spatial patterns in these landscape changes. Landscape transformation was categorized into five classes: 'residual bare' (no change in natural vegetation, mostly in desert areas; 'residual' (i.e. remnant; no change in natural vegetation class; 'transformed' (changes between different natural vegetation areas; 'replaced' (area which became managed; 'removed' (no or minimal natural vegetation. We found that only 21% of the area retained similar landscape classes as in the past, with the largest changes taking place in ecoregions that were favorable for developing agriculture - Jezreel Valley and the Sharon Plain. Two physical factors had a strong effect on the type of change in the landscape: (1 most of the agricultural areas and human settlements were found in areas ranging between 400-600 mm/year (2 natural land cover features were more common in areas with steeper slopes. We found that the majority of protected areas, 54.6%, are comprised of remnant vegetation classes (i.e. residual transformation class however more than half of protected areas are located in desert areas and are thus biased in their representation of land cover classes.

  19. Tractatus; The beginning of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach to philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, Wittgenstein considers philosophy as a generator of mental confusion, but on the other hand, he desires philosopher as a therapist. This two-sided attitude to philosophy begins with Tractatus and then admitting the various therapeutic methods, reaches to the second period of his life. Recently, the origins of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach in Tractatus are neglected by most of his positivist commentators, instead, this approach have been followed in the second period of his thought, especially in Philosophical Investigations. In this essay, we have tried to clarify this obscurity and to indicate the roots of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach in Tractatus. Since mentioning the "symptom" or symptoms of mental confusion resulting from philosophical thinking and stage of its "diagnosis" is considered as preparations of therapy, we, by emphasizing on the therapeutic value of clarity, will survey "symptom", "diagnosis" and finally Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach toward philosophy in Tractatus, and then we will point out some reasons causing negligence to Tractatus therapeutic approach. In this way, we will show that Wittgenstein, from the beginning of his philosophical thinking, has believed in this approach and in Philosophical Investigations he has just declared it in the everyday language. Here, we will also unveil restriction of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach to philosophy.

  20. Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    with specific confidence intervals for each factor. Results and discussion Intake fractions aggregating exposure via crop residues and exposure via fractions lost to air and soil for pesticides applied to agricultural crops vary between 10−8 and 10−1 kg intake per kilogram applied as a function of pesticide...

  1. Management of Environmental Risks in the Life Cycle of Human Pharmaceuticals in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Jolita Kruopienė; Jolanta Dvarionienė

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes and outlines the peculiarities and importance of different stages of the life cycle of human pharmaceuticals in Lithuania with regard to their environmental impact, and points out to the need of risk reduction measures.Use stage and disposal of unused, unwanted or expired medicines are those stages when the biggest emissions occur and risk management is not adequate yet. Pharmaceuticals consumption distribution profile is presented in the article. Environmental risk assessm...

  2. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Efrem S; Zhou, Yanjiao; Zhao, Guoyan; Bauer, Irma K; Droit, Lindsay; Ndao, I Malick; Warner, Barbara B; Tarr, Phillip I; Wang, David; Holtz, Lori R

    2015-10-01

    The early years of life are important for immune development and influence health in adulthood. Although it has been established that the gut bacterial microbiome is rapidly acquired after birth, less is known about the viral microbiome (or 'virome'), consisting of bacteriophages and eukaryotic RNA and DNA viruses, during the first years of life. Here, we characterized the gut virome and bacterial microbiome in a longitudinal cohort of healthy infant twins. The virome and bacterial microbiome were more similar between co-twins than between unrelated infants. From birth to 2 years of age, the eukaryotic virome and the bacterial microbiome expanded, but this was accompanied by a contraction of and shift in the bacteriophage virome composition. The bacteriophage-bacteria relationship begins from birth with a high predator-low prey dynamic, consistent with the Lotka-Volterra prey model. Thus, in contrast to the stable microbiome observed in adults, the infant microbiome is highly dynamic and associated with early life changes in the composition of bacteria, viruses and bacteriophages with age. PMID:26366711

  3. Genetic determinants of human health span and life span: progress and new opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Martin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We review three approaches to the genetic analysis of the biology and pathobiology of human aging. The first and so far the best-developed is the search for the biochemical genetic basis of varying susceptibilities to major geriatric disorders. These include a range of progeroid syndromes. Collectively, they tell us much about the genetics of health span. Given that the major risk factor for virtually all geriatric disorders is biological aging, they may also serve as markers for the study of intrinsic biological aging. The second approach seeks to identify allelic contributions to exceptionally long life spans. While linkage to a locus on Chromosome 4 has not been confirmed, association studies have revealed a number of significant polymorphisms that impact upon late-life diseases and life span. The third approach remains theoretical. It would require longitudinal studies of large numbers of middle-aged sib-pairs who are extremely discordant or concordant for their rates of decline in various physiological functions. We can conclude that there are great opportunities for research on the genetics of human aging, particularly given the huge fund of information on human biology and pathobiology, and the rapidly developing knowledge of the human genome.

  4. Facets of a life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is physicist's tribute to Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov. This out-standing person - a talented physicist and citizen of the world - has played an extremely important role in the deep-going changes occurring in our country. His name belongs to history. Accounts of people who met him and are capable of assessing his scientific work and public activism are just beginning to pour in. In our view, this collection of reminiscences is only a small but essential, contribution to the restoration of A.D. Sakharov's image. Most of the authors, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists from many countries, knew him as a colleague. To a varying extent, they were a part of his difficult life. This is what this collection is about. Both professional and humanistic facets of his life are described. The book begins with the texts published when he ran for a post of a people's deputy of the USSR and the biographical note printed in the Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk journal after his death. They are mutually complementary for the former contains a short description of his biography and human rights activism, and the latter emphasizes Sakharov's scientific work. The authors' index contains basic data about them. The Annexes contain some previously unpublished Sakharov's documents. Among them there is 'The Letter to Soviet Scientists' with an appeal which, unfortunately, did not get the support it deserved

  5. Meta-theoretical underpinnings of human rights in the intermediate phase Life Skills curriculum / Maria Charlotte Verster

    OpenAIRE

    Verster, Maria Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a much-investigated area of research; however, what teachers understand about human rights and the Life Skills explicit, enacted and supplementary curriculum seems to be vague. The vagueness related to the understanding of human rights emanated from multiple understandings of human rights that could be adhered to. Meta-theoretical underpinnings for the understanding of human rights have been discussed in the human rights body of scholarship. These meta...

  6. From yeast to human: exploring the comparative biology of methionine restriction in extending eukaryotic life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, R Scott; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Gibney, Patrick A; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Methionine restriction is a widely reported intervention for increasing life span in several model organisms. Low circulating levels of methionine are evident in the long-lived naked mole-rat, suggesting that it naturally presents with a life-extending phenotype akin to that observed in methionine-restricted animals. Similarly, long-lived dwarf mice also appear to have altered methionine metabolism. The mechanisms underlying methionine-restriction effects on life-span extension, however, remain unknown, as do their potential connections with caloric restriction, another well-established intervention for prolonging life span. Paradoxically, methionine is enriched in proteins expressed in mitochondria and may itself serve an important role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and may thereby contribute to delayed aging. Collectively, we highlight the evidence that modulation of the methionine metabolic network can extend life span-from yeast to humans-and explore the evidence that sulfur amino acids and the concomitant transsulfuration pathway play a privileged role in this regard. However, systematic studies in single organisms (particularly those that exhibit extreme longevity) are still required to distinguish the fundamental principles concerning the role of methionine and other amino acids in regulating life span.

  7. Computer-Assisted Synthetic Planning: The End of the Beginning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkuć, Sara; Gajewska, Ewa P; Klucznik, Tomasz; Molga, Karol; Dittwald, Piotr; Startek, Michał; Bajczyk, Michał; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2016-05-10

    Exactly half a century has passed since the launch of the first documented research project (1965 Dendral) on computer-assisted organic synthesis. Many more programs were created in the 1970s and 1980s but the enthusiasm of these pioneering days had largely dissipated by the 2000s, and the challenge of teaching the computer how to plan organic syntheses earned itself the reputation of a "mission impossible". This is quite curious given that, in the meantime, computers have "learned" many other skills that had been considered exclusive domains of human intellect and creativity-for example, machines can nowadays play chess better than human world champions and they can compose classical music pleasant to the human ear. Although there have been no similar feats in organic synthesis, this Review argues that to concede defeat would be premature. Indeed, bringing together the combination of modern computational power and algorithms from graph/network theory, chemical rules (with full stereo- and regiochemistry) coded in appropriate formats, and the elements of quantum mechanics, the machine can finally be "taught" how to plan syntheses of non-trivial organic molecules in a matter of seconds to minutes. The Review begins with an overview of some basic theoretical concepts essential for the big-data analysis of chemical syntheses. It progresses to the problem of optimizing pathways involving known reactions. It culminates with discussion of algorithms that allow for a completely de novo and fully automated design of syntheses leading to relatively complex targets, including those that have not been made before. Of course, there are still things to be improved, but computers are finally becoming relevant and helpful to the practice of organic-synthetic planning. Paraphrasing Churchill's famous words after the Allies' first major victory over the Axis forces in Africa, it is not the end, it is not even the beginning of the end, but it is the end of the beginning for the

  8. Assessment of Human Bio-Behavior During Gait Process Using LifeMOD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rogozea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a set of observations concerning the
    analysis and assessment of human bio-behavior during gait process. In the first part of the paper the fundamental and theoretical considerations of the gait process are approached and aspects connected to malfunctions are expressed. In the second part of the paper we present the modeling methodology using
    the LifeMOD software, while in the third part the results and conclusions are presented.

  9. Overview of EPA CSS Intramural Research on Life Cycle and Human Exposure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved human exposure modeling in life cycle assessmentsModeling and assessment for chemicals/products with less extensive dataMore rapid and higher throughput assessmentsLife Cycle-Human Exposure Modeling (LC-HEM) tool usable by Offices/Regions and by external stakeholders

  10. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Garbe, James C.

    2016-06-28

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  11. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  12. Grandmothering life histories and human pair bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxworth, James E; Kim, Peter S; McQueen, John S; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-09-22

    The evolution of distinctively human life history and social organization is generally attributed to paternal provisioning based on pair bonds. Here we develop an alternative argument that connects the evolution of human pair bonds to the male-biased mating sex ratios that accompanied the evolution of human life history. We simulate an agent-based model of the grandmother hypothesis, compare simulated sex ratios to data on great apes and human hunter-gatherers, and note associations between a preponderance of males and mate guarding across taxa. Then we explore a recent model that highlights the importance of mating sex ratios for differences between birds and mammals and conclude that lessons for human evolution cannot ignore mammalian reproductive constraints. In contradiction to our claim that male-biased sex ratios are characteristically human, female-biased ratios are reported in some populations. We consider the likelihood that fertile men are undercounted and conclude that the mate-guarding hypothesis for human pair bonds gains strength from explicit links with our grandmothering life history. PMID:26351687

  13. Understanding the Impacts of Induction Programs on Beginning Teacher Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok

    2010-01-01

    This study examines impacts of mentoring and induction activities on beginning teacher turnover using the School and Staffing Survey (SASS) of 1999-2000 and the Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) of 2000-2001. In order to improve understanding of the influence of induction programs on beginning teacher turnover, three models are developed to achieve…

  14. A need for definition: a matter of life and death for human embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Shurpyak, Serhiy A; Walsh, Anthony PH; Walsh, David J.; Sills, E Scott

    2009-01-01

    A recent IMJ commentaryon brain stem death criteria summarised ethical and technical issues concerning “end of life decisions”, and we concur that physicians should have competence in eliciting the proper sequence of brain stem signs in clinical practice. However, a truly comprehensive dialogue on the definition of death should address another question that confronts IVF clinics in Ireland each day—when does a human embryo die? Despite the enormous social and political energy focused on “righ...

  15. What do we mean by Human-Centered Design of Life-Critical Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    Human-centered design is not a new approach to design. Aerospace is a good example of a life-critical systems domain where participatory design was fully integrated, involving experimental test pilots and design engineers as well as many other actors of the aerospace engineering community. This paper provides six topics that are currently part of the requirements of the Ph.D. Program in Human-Centered Design of the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT.) This Human-Centered Design program offers principles, methods and tools that support human-centered sustainable products such as mission or process control environments, cockpits and hospital operating rooms. It supports education and training of design thinkers who are natural leaders, and understand complex relationships among technology, organizations and people. We all need to understand what we want to do with technology, how we should organize ourselves to a better life and finally find out whom we are and have become. Human-centered design is being developed for all these reasons and issues.

  16. What do we mean by Human-Centered Design of Life-Critical Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    Human-centered design is not a new approach to design. Aerospace is a good example of a life-critical systems domain where participatory design was fully integrated, involving experimental test pilots and design engineers as well as many other actors of the aerospace engineering community. This paper provides six topics that are currently part of the requirements of the Ph.D. Program in Human-Centered Design of the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT.) This Human-Centered Design program offers principles, methods and tools that support human-centered sustainable products such as mission or process control environments, cockpits and hospital operating rooms. It supports education and training of design thinkers who are natural leaders, and understand complex relationships among technology, organizations and people. We all need to understand what we want to do with technology, how we should organize ourselves to a better life and finally find out whom we are and have become. Human-centered design is being developed for all these reasons and issues. PMID:22317415

  17. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  18. Beginning Students' Perceptions of Effective Activities for Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Leland, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates what beginning learners of Chinese perceive as helpful in learning to recognize characters. Thirteen English-speaking participants in a beginning Chinese class answered journal questions and completed a survey over one semester at a large Midwestern university. Findings suggest that participants perceived the usefulness of…

  19. The Life Mission Theory VI. A Theory for the Human Character: Healing with Holistic Medicine Through Recovery of Character and Purpose of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The human character can be understood as an extension of the life mission or purpose of life, and explained as the primary tool of a person to impact others and express the purpose of life. Repression of the human character makes it impossible for a person to realize his personal mission in life and, therefore, is one of the primary causes of self-repression resulting in poor quality of life, health, and ability. From Hippocrates to Hahnemann, repression of physical, mental, and spiritual character can be seen as the prime cause of disease, while recovery of character has been the primary intention of the treatment. In this paper, human character is explained as an intersubjective aspect of consciousness with the ability to influence the consciousness of another person directly. To understand consciousness, we reintroduce the seven-ray theory of consciousness explaining consciousness in accordance with a fractal ontology with a bifurcation number of seven (the numbers four to ten work almost as well. A case report on a female, aged 35 years, with severe hormonal disturbances, diagnosed with extremely early menopause, is presented and treated according to the theory of holistic existential healing (the holistic process theory of healing. After recovery of her character and purpose of life, her quality of life dramatically improved and hormonal status normalized. We believe that the recovery of human character and purpose of life was the central intention of Hippocrates and thus the original essence of western medicine. Interestingly, there are strong parallels to the peyote medicine of the Native Americans, the African Sangomas, the Australian Aboriginal healers, and the old Nordic medicine. The recovery of human character was also the intention of Hahnemann's homeopathy. We believe that we are at the core of consciousness-based medicine, as recovery of purpose of life and human character has been practiced as medicine in most human cultures

  20. The beginning of quantum nonlinear optics [Invited

    OpenAIRE

    Yariv, Amnon

    2011-01-01

    A description by the author of the early days of nonlinear optics (NLO), and the motivation for the formulation of the quantum theory of NLO, implications to a number of diverse areas, and the background for the prediction of spontaneous parametric fluorescence.

  1. The Beginnings of Danish Speech Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerbye, Torkil

    reductions of speech sounds evident in the pronunciation of the language. This book (originally a PhD thesis) consists of three studies based on the results of two experiments. The experiments were designed to provide knowledge of the perception of Danish speech sounds by Danish adults and infants......, in the light of the rich and complex Danish sound system. The first two studies report on native adults’ perception of Danish speech sounds in quiet and noise. The third study examined the development of language-specific perception in native Danish infants at 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The book points...... to interesting differences in speech perception and acquisition of Danish adults and infants when compared to English. The book is useful for professionals as well as students of linguistics, psycholinguistics and phonetics/phonology, or anyone else who may be interested in language....

  2. The Beginning of Semiconductor Research in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltfort, Theodore

    I was invited to Cuba in 1962 to initiate some efforts in semiconductor development. I had been a physicist and senior research engineer with various electronic companies of the "Silicon Valley" of California, south of San Francisco. I had heard of the efforts made by the new revolutionary government of Cuba to advance the level of science and technology, and I was anxious to see what I could do to help.

  3. The Mythical Beginnings of Intellectual Property

    OpenAIRE

    Silbey, Jessica M

    2007-01-01

    It has become commonplace to justify intellectual property protection with homage to utilitarianism (maximizing the incentive to create, invent or produce quality goods) or natural rights (people should own the product of their creative, inventive or commercial labor). Despite the on-going dominance of these theories, there remains a dissatisfying lack of a comprehensive explanation for the value of intellectual property protection. This is in part because the economic analysis of law tends...

  4. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system. Here we see the transport vehicle alongside the magnet supports. Visible in the background is the first magnet in place.

  5. [The beginnings of orthopedic surgery in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Chanan

    2013-08-01

    In early mandatory Israel, orthopedics was mainly conservative, The first modern orthopedic surgeon was Ernst Spira from Czechoslovakia who established an orthopedic service at the Beilinson Hospital in Petah Tikva and left in 1948 to establish the Orthopedic Department and the Rehabilitation Center in Tel Hashomer, which treated the War of Independence casualties including amputees and victims of spinal cord injuries. A second orthopedic department was opened in Tel Hashomer by Shmuel Weissman who left in 1961 to open the Orthopedic Department at the Ichilov hospital in Tel Aviv. Shmuel Weissman became the first Chairman of Orthopedic Surgery at the Tel Aviv University medical school. In 1955, Myer Makin opened a modern orthopedic department in the Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem and the Alyn Hospital for crippled children. In 1951, Assaf Harofeh Hospital opened the Department of Orthopedic Surgery headed by Anatol Axer who specialized in the treatment and rehabilitation of polio patients. The majority of the second generation of orthopedic department directors was trained by these four surgeons. Major developments in the 1960s and 1970s were the introduction of the AO system revolutionizing fracture treatment from conservative to operative treatment, the advent of total hip and knee replacements, Harrington instrumentation in spinal surgery and arthroscopy were major advances in orthopedic patient care brought to Israel by the aforementioned second generation of orthopedic surgeons. Hand surgery became an independent subspecialty of orthopedics and was lead by the internationally renowned hand surgeon, Isidore Kessler. PMID:24167938

  6. Beginnings of PSSC, Film Experiences, Later Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, John

    2007-03-01

    As an MIT student and faculty member I worked with Jerrold Zacharias and Francis Friedman, and was in on the genesis, planning and early evolution of what became the PSSC program. Zach's experiences with high school students and the views on education of Edwin Land (inventor of polaroid and founder of the Polaroid Co.) were important in forming the program. I was involved in the PSSC movies and had roles in about a dozen films as principal or advisor or builder of apparatus. I will tell about this aided by excerpts from memos, speeches and films. I will also describe how this has led to my view of what needs to be done in education now.

  7. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel.Pho...

  8. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel. Th...

  9. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel. We...

  10. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system.Photos 01, 02: Pictured with the newly installed magnet and transport system in the transfer line tunnel are LHC project leader Lyn Evans (second left, white helmet); Volker Mertens, responsible for the LHC injecti...

  11. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system.Photo 01: Pictured with the newly installed magnet and transport system in the transfer line tunnel are (left to right) Volker Mertens, responsible for the LHC injection and transfer lines; personnel involved in tr...

  12. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  13. Higgs: the beginning of the exploration

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Even in the most specialized circles, the new particle discovered in July is not called the “Higgs boson” yet. Physicists still hesitate to give it this name because they want to be sure that its properties fit with those predicted by the Higgs theory. This week, at the HCP conference in Kyoto, CMS and ATLAS presented their latest results: a more refined data analysis has produced a more accurate value of the mass of the particle and has started to show decay channels never before observed.   Since July, both ATLAS and CMS have been working on extending the capabilities of their data analysis. The large teams of physicists have studied in even greater detail all the signals and the information that can be extracted from the data. Following this collective effort, both collaborations have recently presented an update on the mass of the new particle, together with several new measurements which are starting to unveil its properties. ATLAS has analysed a large sample of 13 fb-1 ...

  14. Apexification: the beginning of its end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G T-J

    2009-10-01

    Apexification is a procedure for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. It contrasts apexogenesis in terms of its outcome in that apical maturation and normal root thickness cannot be obtained. Apexification has been a routine practice for such teeth for many decades, and despite a literature replete with discussion, including recent artificial barrier methods with mineral trioxide aggregate, ultimately there has been no major breakthrough to improve this treatment. Recently, two new clinical concepts have emerged. One involves a revitalization approach to achieve tissue generation and regeneration. In this method, new living tissue is expected to form in the cleaned canal space, allowing continued root development in terms of both length and thickness. The other is the active pursuit of pulp/dentine regeneration via tissue engineering technology to implant or re-grow pulps. Although the technology is still at its infancy, it has the potential to benefit immature pulpless teeth by allowing continued growth and maturation. With this understanding, it may be predicted that apexification will become less needed in years to come. This study will overview the recent concept of pulp revitalization in the treatment of immature teeth with nonvital pulps and the emerging research on pulp tissue engineering and regeneration.

  15. Rapid human-induced divergence of life-history strategies in Bahamian livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Easter, Tara; Layman, Craig A; Langerhans, Randall Brian

    2015-11-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) can have dramatic impacts on ecosystems, leading to rapid trait changes in some organisms and extinction in others. Such changes in traits signify that human actions can lead to cases of increased phenotypic diversity and consequently can strongly impact population-, community- and ecosystem-level dynamics. Here, we examine whether the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation have led to changes in the life histories of three native species of mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) inhabiting tidal creeks on six different Bahamian islands. We address two important questions: (i) How predictable and parallel are life-history changes in response to HIREC across islands and species, and (ii) what is the relative importance of shared (i.e. parallel) responses to fragmentation, differences between species or islands and species- or island-specific responses to fragmentation? Phenotypic differences between fragmentation regimes were as great or greater than differences between species or islands. While some adult life histories (lean weight and fat content) showed strong, shared responses to fragmentation, offspring-related life histories (embryo fat and fecundity) exhibited idiosyncratic, island-specific responses. While shared responses to fragmentation appeared largely driven by a reduction in piscivorous fish density, increased conspecific density and changes in salinity, we found some evidence that among-population variation in male reproductive investment and embryo fat content may have arisen via variation in conspecific density. Our results suggest that phenotypic responses to HIREC can be complex, with the predictability of response varying across traits. We therefore emphasize the need for more theoretical and empirical work to better understand the predictability of phenotypic responses to human-induced disturbances. PMID:26237432

  16. Rapid human-induced divergence of life-history strategies in Bahamian livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Easter, Tara; Layman, Craig A; Langerhans, Randall Brian

    2015-11-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) can have dramatic impacts on ecosystems, leading to rapid trait changes in some organisms and extinction in others. Such changes in traits signify that human actions can lead to cases of increased phenotypic diversity and consequently can strongly impact population-, community- and ecosystem-level dynamics. Here, we examine whether the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation have led to changes in the life histories of three native species of mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) inhabiting tidal creeks on six different Bahamian islands. We address two important questions: (i) How predictable and parallel are life-history changes in response to HIREC across islands and species, and (ii) what is the relative importance of shared (i.e. parallel) responses to fragmentation, differences between species or islands and species- or island-specific responses to fragmentation? Phenotypic differences between fragmentation regimes were as great or greater than differences between species or islands. While some adult life histories (lean weight and fat content) showed strong, shared responses to fragmentation, offspring-related life histories (embryo fat and fecundity) exhibited idiosyncratic, island-specific responses. While shared responses to fragmentation appeared largely driven by a reduction in piscivorous fish density, increased conspecific density and changes in salinity, we found some evidence that among-population variation in male reproductive investment and embryo fat content may have arisen via variation in conspecific density. Our results suggest that phenotypic responses to HIREC can be complex, with the predictability of response varying across traits. We therefore emphasize the need for more theoretical and empirical work to better understand the predictability of phenotypic responses to human-induced disturbances.

  17. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 19 February, the very first magnet was installed in one of the two tunnels that will house the transfer lines leading to the LHC. This magnet, recycled from a previous facility, was transported and positioned using a novel system designed for conveying large objects through narrow tunnels.

  18. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion.

  19. Dynamics and stabilization of the human gut microbiome during the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik; Roswall, Josefine; Peng, Yangqing;

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first...... composition and function, with cessation of breast-feeding, rather than introduction of solid food, being required for maturation into an adult-like microbiota. Microbiota composition and ecological network had distinctive features at each sampled stage, in accordance with functional maturation...

  20. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  1. Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Life support system architectures for long duration space missions are often explored analytically in the human spaceflight community to find optimum solutions for mass, performance, and reliability. But in reality, many other constraints can guide the design when the life support system is examined within the context of an overall vehicle, as well as specific programmatic goals and needs. Between the end of the Constellation program and the development of the "Evolvable Mars Campaign", NASA explored a broad range of mission possibilities. Most of these missions will never be implemented but the lessons learned during these concept development phases may color and guide future analytical studies and eventual life support system architectures. This paper discusses several iterations of design studies from the life support system perspective to examine which requirements and assumptions, programmatic needs, or interfaces drive design. When doing early concept studies, many assumptions have to be made about technology and operations. Data can be pulled from a variety of sources depending on the study needs, including parametric models, historical data, new technologies, and even predictive analysis. In the end, assumptions must be made in the face of uncertainty. Some of these may introduce more risk as to whether the solution for the conceptual design study will still work when designs mature and data becomes available.

  2. The value of human life and the attitude towards abortion A christian and bioethic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI Gabriela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abortion, the cruel reality of the contemporary mankind, bites with no mercy our life and lacerates the humanity face, relativizing life’s ultimate value. We fight for the animal’s lives and rights, but we kill our children in womb. We are confused and living up to the rules imposed by us, and we fail, because we do not see the „Light of the world” (John 8,12 - Jesus Christ, losing sight of the reference frame – the divinity. We have declared God dead [1], the fountain of life , and we put ourselves in His place. We lost indiscriminatingly the values of “as Gods” ( Genesis 3,5 and “as God’s image” (Genesis 1, 27 drifting on the gradient of big fails, as big as God we have chased but never listened. So, that, from the survival outlook and lacking of love in our life, the fight for survival targets against the somebody ‘s else life, and no illustration is more eloquent and tragic as the mothers, families and society’s fight against the procreation generally, and particularly against the unborn child.

  3. Substantial Goodness and Nascent Human Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Shawn

    2015-09-01

    Many believe that moral value is--at least to some extent--dependent on the developmental states necessary for supporting rational activity. My paper rejects this view, but does not aim simply to register objections to it. Rather, my essay aims to answer the following question: if a human being's developmental state and occurrent capacities do not bequeath moral standing, what does? The question is intended to prompt careful consideration of what makes human beings objects of moral value, dignity, or (to employ my preferred term) goodness. Not only do I think we can answer this question, I think we can show that nascent human life possesses goodness of precisely this sort. I appeal to Aquinas's metaethics to establish the conclusion that the goodness of a human being--even if that being is an embryo or fetus--resides at the substratum of her existence. If she possesses goodness, it is because human existence is good. PMID:25633227

  4. Thought of the Education of Human Life%关于对人的生命教育的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴贵春

    2011-01-01

    Human life is the most precious of all that is characteristics of sociality,irreversibility and creativity.And the value of life lies in life's responsibility,influence and creation and it means life is a kind of process.Everybody is supposed to be in love of life,to be in reverence for life,to be in appreciation of life,and to be in creation for life.%人的生命无比宝贵。生命具有社会性、不可逆性、有限性和创造性特征。生命的价值体现为生命是一种责任、影响、创造,是一个过程。每个人都要热爱生命、敬畏生命、欣赏生命和创造生命。

  5. Life history trade-offs explain the evolution of human pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Vinicius, Lucio; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2007-12-18

    Explanations for the evolution of human pygmies continue to be a matter of controversy, recently fuelled by the disagreements surrounding the interpretation of the fossil hominin Homo floresiensis. Traditional hypotheses assume that the small body size of human pygmies is an adaptation to special challenges, such as thermoregulation, locomotion in dense forests, or endurance against starvation. Here, we present an analysis of stature, growth, and individual fitness for a large population of Aeta and a smaller one of Batak from the Philippines and compare it with data on other pygmy groups accumulated by anthropologists for a century. The results challenge traditional explanations of human pygmy body size. We argue that human pygmy populations and adaptations evolved independently as the result of a life history tradeoff between the fertility benefits of larger body size against the costs of late growth cessation, under circumstances of significant young and adult mortality. Human pygmies do not appear to have evolved through positive selection for small stature-this was a by-product of selection for early onset of reproduction.

  6. Cell surface proteome analysis of human-hosted Trypanosoma cruzi life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queiroz, Rayner M L; Charneau, Sébastien; Bastos, Izabela M D;

    2014-01-01

    addressed the analysis of the plasma membrane (PM) subproteome from T. cruzi human-hosted life stages, trypomastigote and axenic amastigote, by two complementary PM protein enrichment techniques followed by identification using an LC-MS/MS approach. The results revealed an extensive repertoire of proteins...... in the PM subproteomes, including enzymes that might be suitable candidates for drug intervention. The comparison of the cell surface proteome among the life forms revealed some potentially stage-specific enzymes, although the majority was shared by both stages. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the vast......Chagas' disease is a neglected infectious illness, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It remains a challenging health issue in Latin America, where it is endemic, and so far there is no immunoprophylatic vaccine or satisfactory chemotherapic treatment for its chronic stage. The present work...

  7. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  8. Human Resource and Work Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    of human beings the nurses are – what they priorities in their lives and therefore what they priorities in their work. In my Ph.D. I have described the staffing challenges that characterize the Danish labor market as a way to illustrate the relevance of the thesis. More specifically a clarification...

  9. A Conceptual Model for Teaching the Relationship of Daily Life and Human Environmental Impact to Ecological Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    In the general activity of daily life, it is easy to miss our dependency on the Earth's ecology. At the same time that people are living apparently separate from the environment, our impact on the Earth is increasing. This study seeks to understand how teachers can bridge this persistent disconnect of daily life from ecology and human impact.…

  10. Biospheric Life Support - integrating biological regeneration into protection of humans in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mauricio; Iha, Koshun

    2016-07-01

    retirement (2016). The extension will allow partner agencies to deploy new experiments there, resuming basic research focusing more forward-looking goals. For deep-space, since consumables logistics becomes more difficult- and habitability an issue, with diminishing Earth's view, further research has been recommended. Four major areas have been identified for human protection: (1) radiation mitigation; (2) highly recyclable bio-regenerative (BR) LSS; (3) micro-gravity countermeasures- including artificial gravity (AG), and (4) psychological safety. To contribute to the efforts to address these issues, a basic lab/virtual iterative research has been proposed, assuming (in a worst case scenario) that: I) It won't be possible to send people to long deep space missions, safely, with the current (low quality of life) support technology (ISS micro-gravity 'up-gradings'); II) The alternative to implant a Mars surface human supportive biosphere would also not be possible, due to environmental/ evolutionary restraints (life could adapt and survive, but not necessarily to favor humans). From the above considerations arises the question: Would an average approach be possible where, by applying the artificial gravity concept to S/Cs, a fragment of Earth bio-regenerative environment could be integrated inside reusable manned vehicles- thus enhancing its habitability/autonomy in long deep space missions? For this research question a provisory answer/hypothesis has been provided. And to test it, a small AG+BR bench simulator (plus computer methods) has been devised.

  11. Human growth: evolutionary and life history perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Peter D; Beedle, Alan S; Hanson, Mark A; Low, Felicia M

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary and life history perspectives allow a fuller understanding of both patterns of growth and development and variations in disease risk. Evolutionary processes act to ensure successful reproduction and not the preservation of health and longevity, and this entails trade-offs both between traits and across the life course. Developmental plasticity adjusts the developmental trajectory so that the phenotype in childhood and through peak reproduction will suit predicted environmental conditions - a capacity that may become maladaptive should early-life predictions be inaccurate. Bipedalism and consequent pelvic narrowing in humans have led to the evolution of secondary altricialism. Shorter inter-birth intervals enabled by appropriate social support structures have allowed increased fecundity/fitness. The age at puberty has fallen over the past two centuries, perhaps resulting from changes in maternal and infant health and nutrition. The timing of puberty is also advanced by conditions of high extrinsic mortality in hunter-gatherers and is reflected in developed countries where a poor or disadvantaged start to life may also accelerate maturation. The postpubertal individual is physically and psychosexually mature, but neural executive function only reaches full maturity in the third decade of life; this mismatch may account for increased adolescent morbidity and mortality in those with earlier pubertal onset. PMID:23502143

  12. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris with human urine in multibiological life support system experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei

    The Integrative Experimental System (IES) was established as a tool to evaluate the rela-tionship of the subsystems in Bioregenerative Life Support System, and Multibiological Life Support System Experiments (MLSSE) have been conducted in the IES. The IES consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a plate photo bioreactor (PPB) which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), respectively. In MLSSE, four volunteers took turns breathing the system air through a tube connected with the animal chamber periodically. According to the CO2 concentration in the IES, the automotive control system of the PPB changed the light intensity regulating the photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels. Chlorella vulgaris grew with human urine by carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with synthetic urine replenished into the system, and O2 was regenerated, at the same time human urine was purified. Results showed that this IES worked stably and Chlorella vulgaris grew well; The culture of Chlorella vulgaris could be used to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 , and the change of light intensity could control the gas composition in the IES; Microalgae culture could be used in emergency in the system, the culture of Chlorella vulgaris could recover to original state in 5 days; 15.6 ml of condensation water was obtained every day by the culture of Chlorella vulgaris; The removal efficiencies of N, P in human urine could reach to 98.2% and 99.5%.

  13. Is Vacation Apprenticeship of Undergraduate Life Science Students a Model for Human Capacity Development in the Life Sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Colleen Thelma

    2010-01-01

    A life sciences undergraduate apprenticeship initiative was run during the vacations at a South African university. In particular, the initiative aimed to increase the number of students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Annually 12-18 undergraduate biology students were apprenticed to various institutions during the January and July vacations from…

  14. Recombinant human erythropoietin and the quality of life of end-stage renal disease patients: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R W

    1991-10-01

    The clinical and quality of life outcomes of hemodialysis patients improve remarkably following treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo). However, few studies have compared the quality of life of Epo patients with that of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on various treatment modalities. Data obtained in three separate studies of ESRD patients were comparatively analyzed. Over 1,500 patients from 23 dialysis and transplant centers were studied. Both objective and subjective quality of life were examined. Objective quality of life indicators included employment status, functional ability, and health status. Subjective quality of life indicators included well-being, life satisfaction, psychological affect, and happiness. Quality of life varied significantly across treatment modality, with transplant recipients generally reporting the highest levels of objective and subjective quality of life. However, hemodialysis patients treated with Epo reported a statistically significant improvement between baseline and 10 months' follow-up on all quality of life indicators, except employment. Epo patients reported a level of overall life satisfaction that exceeded that of patients on all ESRD treatment modalities. Among transplant recipients, diabetics reported the poorest quality of life, while patients on conventional immunosuppressive therapy often had a quality of life that exceeded that of patients on cyclosporine therapy. Some of these findings may be explained by case-mix differences, as well as differing study designs. Quality of life remains a significant concern among ESRD patients and the physicians and medical professionals responsible for their care. Unfortunately, the rehabilitation potential of many patients, despite the availability of Epo, and the success of transplantation, remains unmet. PMID:1928082

  15. Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Adam D; Rigby, Francesca L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-08-01

    A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component of fitness through which selection acts upon life-history strategy. We collected data from seven 18th- and 19th-century Finnish populations experiencing naturally varying mortality and fertility levels. We quantified early-life disease exposure as the detrended child mortality rate from infectious diseases during an individual's first 5 y, controlling for important social factors. We found no support for an association between early-life disease exposure and all-cause mortality risk after age 15 or 50. We also found no link between early-life disease exposure and probability of death specifically from cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer. Independent of survival, there was no evidence to support associations between early-life disease exposure and any of several aspects of reproductive performance, including lifetime reproductive success and age at first birth, in either males or females. Our results do not support the prevailing assertion that exposure to infectious diseases in early life has long-lasting associations with later-life all-cause mortality risk or mortality putatively linked to chronic inflammation. Variation in adulthood conditions could therefore be the most likely source of recent increases in adult life span. PMID:27457937

  16. Modelling the life insurance needs using the human life value revision method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Haslifah; Service, David

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous methods to determine the appropriate amount of life insurance a person needs - it can be scientific or simplistic. Many life insurance agents and financial advisors simply rely on traditional rules of thumb using the multiple of income method. The more scientific methods are the needs analysis and the human life value. The needs analysis is regarded as the most commonly used sales tool and the human life value is the most agreed academic expression for the purpose of life insurance. However, there are several weaknesses of using both methods. By using needs analysis as a sales tool, the recommendation amount of life insurance would leave a person underinsured. Similar goes to the human life value method. Nevertheless, both methods can be improved with a few revisions. The post-death needs under the needs analysis must be revised to incorporate the reality that the family's standard of living changes over time. The projection of a changing standard of living is a part of human life value analysis. Therefore, this research looked into both methods and combines both concept of needs analysis and human life value to create a powerful methodology that provide adequate life insurance protection - a method we name it as 'the Human Life Value Revision Method'.

  17. Beginning teachers’ challenges in their pursuit of effective teaching practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Confait

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the context and experiences of three beginning teachers in their effort to improve their teaching and to implement and align themselves with their schools’ expectations of effective teaching practices. Research findings emerging from a sociocultural-ethnographic framework revealed that participants challenged their own beliefs about effective teaching practices in aligning themselves with their schools’ expectations. In complying with routine expectations, they embraced predominantly teacher-centred practices, rather than a student-centred approach. Given the ongoing effort to augment the quality of education in the Seychelles, beginning teachers’ implementation of and access to evidenced-based practices could be recognised as part of this endeavour.

  18. 3 CFR 8339 - Proclamation 8339 of January 15, 2009. National Sanctity of Human Life Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... has been committed to building a culture of life by vigorously promoting adoption and parental... building a culture of life in America. Also, I was proud to sign the Unborn Victims of Violence Act of 2004... citizens, we will prevail. NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America,...

  19. Beginning Reading Skills in the Palm of Your Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Greg

    1985-01-01

    Describes a technique for beginning levels of an approach to teaching reading skills to students of English as a second language. Considers three reading skills--scanning, skimming, and reading for deeper comprehension. The technique uses a reading objectives grid which describes the types and objectives of questions to ask. (SED)

  20. Beginning Learners' Development of Interactional Competence: Alignment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecedor, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the development of interactional competence (Hall, 1993; He & Young, 1998) by beginning learners of Spanish as indexed by their use of alignment moves. Discourse analysis techniques and quantitative data analysis were used to explore how 52 learners expressed alignment and changes in participation patterns in two sets of…

  1. Beginning Teachers' Challenges in Their Pursuit of Effective Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confait, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the context and experiences of three beginning teachers in their effort to improve their teaching and to implement and align themselves with their schools' expectations of effective teaching practices. Research findings emerging from a sociocultural-ethnographic framework revealed that participants challenged their own…

  2. Beginning science teachers' performances: Assessment in times of reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinsky, Fie K.

    2000-10-01

    The current reform in science education and the research on effective teaching and student learning have reinforced the importance of teacher competency. To better measure performances in the teaching of science, performance assessment has been added to Connecticut's licensure process for beginning science teachers. Teaching portfolios are used to document teaching and learning over time. Portfolios, however, are not without problems. One of the major concerns with the portfolio assessment process is its subjectivity. Assessors may not have opportunities to ask clarifying or follow-up questions to enhance the interpretation of a teacher's performance. In addition, portfolios often contain components based on self-documentation, which are subjective. Furthermore, the use of portfolios raises test equity issues. These concerns present challenges for persons in charge of establishing the validity of a portfolio-based licensure process. In high-stakes decision processes, such as teaching licensure, the validity of the assessment instruments must be studied. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the criterion-related validity of the Connecticut State Department of Education's Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio by comparing the interpretations of performances from science teaching portfolios to those derived from another assessment method, the Expert Science Teaching Educational and Evaluation Model, (ESTEEM). The analysis of correlations between the Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM instrument scores was the primary method for establishing support for validity. The results indicated moderate correlations between all Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM category and total variables. Multiple regression was used to examine whether differences existed in beginning science teachers' performances based on gender, poverty group, school level, and science discipline taught. None of these variables significantly contributed to the

  3. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  4. The Role of Hand Dominance in Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the role of "hand dominance" in beginning braille readers. "Hand dominance" refers to whether an individual is "right handed" or "left handed." The data for these analyses were taken from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study). The ABC Braille Study was a five-year nonrandomized…

  5. Mastering Inflectional Suffixes: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning Writers' Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Kathryn; Deacon, S. Helene; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining

    2011-01-01

    This study tracked the order in which ten beginning spellers (M age = 5 ; 05; SD = 0.21 years) mastered the correct spellings of common inflectional suffixes in English. Spellings from children's journals from kindergarten and grade 1 were coded. An inflectional suffix was judged to be mastered when children spelled it accurately in 90 percent of…

  6. Some methods of human liquid and solid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. Á.; Tikhomirov, A. Á.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J. B.

    The possibility of stepwise utilization of human liquid and solid wastes with the purpose of an increase of a closure degree of bioregenerative life support systems BLSS and sodium chloride inclusion in the organic matter turnover was investigated On the first stage urine and faeces were subjected to oxidation by Yu A Kudenko physicochemical method On the next stage the products of human liquid and solid wastes oxidation were used for roots nutrition of wheat grown by substrate culture method Soil-like substrate the technology of which was described earlier was used as a substrate After the wheat cultivation the irrigational solution and the solution obtained in the result of substrate washing containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used for cultivation of salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea plants The above-ground biomass of these vegetables can be used as a food and roots washed from dissoluble mineral elements can be added to the soil-like substrate Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia europaea vegetations were cultivated In the result of this complex technology of wheat and Salicornia europaea cultivation the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl introduced into the irrigational solution together with the products of urine oxidation has considerably decreased

  7. Management of Environmental Risks in the Life Cycle of Human Pharmaceuticals in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Kruopienė

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes and outlines the peculiarities and importance of different stages of the life cycle of human pharmaceuticals in Lithuania with regard to their environmental impact, and points out to the need of risk reduction measures.Use stage and disposal of unused, unwanted or expired medicines are those stages when the biggest emissions occur and risk management is not adequate yet. Pharmaceuticals consumption distribution profile is presented in the article. Environmental risk assessment was carried out indicating that for Lithuania pharmaceutical substances consumed in amounts over 25 kg/year might be causing a risk to the environment. Three substances  have PEC/PNEC ratios above 1 under the worst case calculations. In reality in spite of high environmental load, one of them - amoxicillin - is not likely to pose a risk due to its low environmantal stability and high removal rates in WWTPs. The other two substances show a potential of environmental risk even after calculation of the refined PEC/PNEC ratio. The importance of proper wastewater treatment needs to be underlined due to inevitable excretion of pharmaceutical substances from the use phase.The most popular way to dispose of unused, unwanted or expired medicines in Lithuania is via the household waste. The system for collection of residual medicines is not properly functioning yet. Good management of environmental risk requires establishment of an effective system to collect and destroy pharmaceuticals in an environmentally sound manner.

  8. Ars Longa, Vita Brevis. The Importance Of Art In Human Life. A Proustian Interpretation Of Honigmann’s Forever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noortwijk, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to present an exploration of the theme of art’s power within human life in Heddy Honigmann’s documentary film Forever (2006), which exemplifies her obsession with this topic. The film’s contemplation of art is a self-reflexive one, as it uses the medium of film to explore represent

  9. Uses of the cost of human life in protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management of radiation protection is based on the assumption that there is no safe level of exposure. Rathier, the risk (e.g. probability of induction of fatal cancers) is assumed to decrease in a linear way with the dose (measured by the effective dose in Sievert: Sv). Therefore, regulations state that all doses must be kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) ranges among the methods that allow identification of an 'optimum' protection level, balancing the risk reduction against the costs. That can be derived from exposure, expressed as a 'collective dose', with the help of the dose exposure relationship (100 Person-Sievert leads to 5 lethal cancers plus 2.2' equivalent lethal cancers 'due to non fatal cancers and heredity effect). Thus the 'Value of the Collective Dose', the usual parameter in decision making, is assigned a monetary value, and it is linked to the 'Value of Human Life'. Nevertheless, Cost Benefit Analysis is not the only possible method and pricing the Person-Sievert is therefore not necessary. Traditional pragmatic approaches and engineering judgement can be used. At present there is a development within Europe of CBA in radiation protection and 'Value of Person-Sievert' is put forward. A study was conducted in order better to understand what figures are cited, in which conditions those figures are really used, and what perspectives may be offered. (authors)

  10. Geotectonic hypotheses at the beginning of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Strutinski, C.; Stan, R.; Puste, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution to the volume honouring Ott Ch. Hilgenberg the main directions of thought in the field of geotectonics at the beginning of the 21st century are reviewed. However, because of its seminal importance for the geological thinking during most of the last century, the Wegener (continental drift) hypothesis is also included and opens the review. It is followed by the critical presentation of Plate tectonics and the hypotheses of Earth expansion, Surge tectonics and Wrench tectoni...

  11. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lynnerup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon dating is made possible by comparing the (14C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric (14C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close relationship may be further expressed as a mathematical model, which takes into account the timing of the crystalline formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such a life-long permanence of human tissue has hitherto only been described for dental enamel. In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the (14C content of various tissues may be used to assess turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA. Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre

  12. Machine integration into human life:Mankind and Cyborgization

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Muhammad Ali Khan Abstract August 31, 2012 Machine integration into human life: Mankind & Cyborgization Embracing technology and its utilization has always been a certain goal for human beings so it would provide benefits in long run through different ways. However access to such knowledge not only helps mankind to prosper but also reveals its dark side in form of a dilemma. My paper explores the same subject of scientific knowledge as a dilemma to human life while providing its advantage...

  13. [Burundi, a new beginning? The burden of the past].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidi, H

    1988-03-01

    Burundi, unlike most Central African nations, had a relatively rich precolonial history. A well-structured monarchy reigned from the beginning of the 16th century, according to some historians. A strong monarch of the early 19th century extended the borders of the country to approximately their current limits. In 1903, the country was conquered by the Germans, to be ceded to Belgium after Germany's defeat in World War I. After World War II, political parties seeking independence began to form. The UPRONA (Union for National Progress) party was founded by Prince Louis Rwagasore, and became the most active and best organized, attracting mass support. The party was banned by the colonial authorities on the grounds that the family of the king could not participate in elections or political activities. Nevertheless, the party triumphed in legislative elections in September 1961. Rwagasore was assassinated in October 1961. Independence was declared in July 1962. Successional struggles and tribal rivalries blocked efforts at reform of the government and economy. Civil war in 1972 saw the slaughter of between 100,000 and 300,000 citizens before order was restored with the aid of the Zairean army. The Second Republic was declared in a bloodless coup in 1976 by Colonel Bagaza. In the 1st years of his rule production increased, tentative efforts at industrialization were made, and schools and roads were constructed. Toward the end of his reign, however, he became increasingly jealous of his prerogatives and expelled, fired, or imprisoned members of government and high functionaries, and curbed the activities of the Catholic Church to which 65% of the population belonged. Relations with neighboring countries deteriorated while the nation's economic situation worsened. A coup in 1987 led by Major Buyoya was rapidly followed by release of political prisoners and improved relations with the Church and neighboring countries. Nevertheless, the country had a huge debt, prices for

  14. Application of duckweed for human urine treatment in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    The object of the study was the common duckweed Lemna minor L. Thanks to the ability to assimilate mineral and organic substances, duckweed is used to purify water in sewage lagoons. In addition, duckweed biomass is known to be a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. The aim of the study was to estimate an application of duckweed in a two-stage treatment of human urine in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). At the first stage, the urine’s organic matter is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Diluted solution of oxidized urine is used for cultivation of duckweed. The appointment of duckweed is the assimilation of mineralized substances of urine. Part of the duckweed biomass yield directly or after composting could be embedded in the soil-like substrate as organic fertilizer to compensate the carry-over in consequence of plant growing. The rest duckweed biomass could be used as a feed for animals in BLSS. Then, the residual culture liquid is concentrated and used as a source of dietary salt. It takes 10-15 m2 of duckweed culture per crewmember to treat oxidized urine. The BLSS configuration including two-component subsystem of urine treatment is presented.

  15. The Map of My Life

    CERN Document Server

    Shimura, Goro

    2008-01-01

    Tells about the author's life, beginning with his earliest childhood days. This book describes his survival of American bombing raids when he was a teenager in Japan, his emergence as a researcher in a post-war university system that was seriously deficient, and his life as a mathematician in Princeton and in the international academic community.

  16. Sustainable Wearables: Wearable Technology for Enhancing the Quality of Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to elicit insights about sustainable wearables by investigating recent advancements in wearable technology and their applications. Wearable technology has advanced considerably from a technical perspective, but it has stagnated due to barriers without penetrating wider society despite early positive expectations. This situation is the motivation behind the focus on studies by many research groups in recent years into wearable applications that can provide the best value from a human-oriented perspective. The expectation is that a new means to resolve the issue can be found from a viewpoint of sustainability; this is the main point of this paper. This paper first focuses on the trend of wearable technology like bodily status monitoring, multi-wearable device control, and smart networking between wearable sensors. Second, the development intention of such technology is investigated. Finally, this paper discusses about the applications of current wearable technology from the sustainable perspective, rather than detailed description of the component technologies employed in wearables. In this paper, the definition of sustainable wearables is discussed in the context of improving the quality of individual life, social impact, and social public interest; those wearable applications include the areas of wellness, healthcare, assistance for the visually impaired, disaster relief, and public safety. In the future, wearables will not be simple data trackers or fun accessories but will gain extended objectives and meanings that play a valuable role for individuals and societies. Successful and sustainable wearables will lead to positive changes for both individuals and societies overall.

  17. Developing Orthographic Awareness among Beginning Chinese Language Learners: Investigating the Influence of Beginning Level Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hui-Mei

    2010-01-01

    The present study is based on the theoretical assumptions that frequency of characters and their structural components, as well as the frequency types of structural components, are important to enable learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) to discover the underlying structure of Chinese characters. In the CFL context, since reliable…

  18. Model systems to study the life cycle of human papillomaviruses and HPV-associated cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Louise; T.Chow

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent human papillomaviruses(HPVs) infect either cutaneous or mucosal epithelium. Active Infections lead to epithelial hyperprolifeation and are usually cleared in healthy individuals within a year. Persistent infections in the anogenital tracts by certain high-risk genotypes such as HPV-16, HPV-18 and closely related types, can progress to high grade dysplasias and carcinomas in women and men, including cervical, vulva, penile and anal cancers. A significant fraction of the head and neck cancers are also caused by HPV-16. The viral oncogenes responsible for neoplastic conversion are E6 and E7 that disrupt the pathways controlled by the two major tumor suppressor genes, p53 and members of p RB family. Because HPV cannot be propagated in conventional submerged monolayer cell cultures, organotypic epithelial raft cultures that generate a stratified and differentiated epithelium have been used to study the viral life cycle. This article describes several systems to examine aspects of the viral productive phase, along with the advantages and limitations. Animal model systems of HPV carcinogenesis are also briefly described.

  19. Human life history evolution explains dissociation between the timing of tooth eruption and peak rates of root growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Christopher Dean

    Full Text Available We explored the relationship between growth in tooth root length and the modern human extended period of childhood. Tooth roots provide support to counter chewing forces and so it is advantageous to grow roots quickly to allow teeth to erupt into function as early as possible. Growth in tooth root length occurs with a characteristic spurt or peak in rate sometime between tooth crown completion and root apex closure. Here we show that in Pan troglodytes the peak in root growth rate coincides with the period of time teeth are erupting into function. However, the timing of peak root velocity in modern humans occurs earlier than expected and coincides better with estimates for tooth eruption times in Homo erectus. With more time to grow longer roots prior to eruption and smaller teeth that now require less support at the time they come into function, the root growth spurt no longer confers any advantage in modern humans. We suggest that a prolonged life history schedule eventually neutralised this adaptation some time after the appearance of Homo erectus. The root spurt persists in modern humans as an intrinsic marker event that shows selection operated, not primarily on tooth tissue growth, but on the process of tooth eruption. This demonstrates the overarching influence of life history evolution on several aspects of dental development. These new insights into tooth root growth now provide an additional line of enquiry that may contribute to future studies of more recent life history and dietary adaptations within the genus Homo.

  20. Human life history evolution explains dissociation between the timing of tooth eruption and peak rates of root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M Christopher; Cole, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between growth in tooth root length and the modern human extended period of childhood. Tooth roots provide support to counter chewing forces and so it is advantageous to grow roots quickly to allow teeth to erupt into function as early as possible. Growth in tooth root length occurs with a characteristic spurt or peak in rate sometime between tooth crown completion and root apex closure. Here we show that in Pan troglodytes the peak in root growth rate coincides with the period of time teeth are erupting into function. However, the timing of peak root velocity in modern humans occurs earlier than expected and coincides better with estimates for tooth eruption times in Homo erectus. With more time to grow longer roots prior to eruption and smaller teeth that now require less support at the time they come into function, the root growth spurt no longer confers any advantage in modern humans. We suggest that a prolonged life history schedule eventually neutralised this adaptation some time after the appearance of Homo erectus. The root spurt persists in modern humans as an intrinsic marker event that shows selection operated, not primarily on tooth tissue growth, but on the process of tooth eruption. This demonstrates the overarching influence of life history evolution on several aspects of dental development. These new insights into tooth root growth now provide an additional line of enquiry that may contribute to future studies of more recent life history and dietary adaptations within the genus Homo. PMID:23342167

  1. The Era of International Space Station Utilization Begins: Research Strategy, International Collaboration, and Realized Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Jean, Sabbagh

    2010-01-01

    With the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) nearing completion and the support of a full-time crew of six, a new era of utilization for research is beginning. For more than 15 years, the ISS international partnership has weathered financial, technical and political challenges proving that nations can work together to complete assembly of the largest space vehicle in history. And while the ISS partners can be proud of having completed one of the most ambitious engineering projects ever conceived, the challenge of successfully using the platform remains. During the ISS assembly phase, the potential benefits of space-based research and development were demonstrated; including the advancement of scientific knowledge based on experiments conducted in space, development and testing of new technologies, and derivation of Earth applications from new understanding. The configurability and human-tended capabilities of the ISS provide a unique platform. The international utilization strategy is based on research ranging from physical sciences, biology, medicine, psychology, to Earth observation, human exploration preparation and technology demonstration. The ability to complete follow-on investigations in a period of months allows researchers to make rapid advances based on new knowledge gained from ISS activities. During the utilization phase, the ISS partners are working together to track the objectives, accomplishments, and the applications of the new knowledge gained. This presentation will summarize the consolidated international results of these tracking activities and approaches. Areas of current research on ISS with strong international cooperation will be highlighted including cardiovascular studies, cell and plant biology studies, radiation, physics of matter, and advanced alloys. Scientific knowledge and new technologies derived from research on the ISS will be realized through improving quality of life on Earth and future spaceflight endeavours

  2. Lexical orthographic knowledge develops from the beginning of literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Catherine; Valdois, Sylviane; Fayol, Michel

    2004-03-01

    This study reports two experiments assessing the spelling performance of French first graders after 3 months and after 9 months of literacy instruction. The participants were asked to spell high and low frequency irregular words (Experiment 1) and pseudowords, some of which had lexical neighbours (Experiment 2). The lexical database which children had been exposed to was strictly controlled. Both a frequency effect in word spelling accuracy and an analogy effect in pseudoword spelling were obtained after only 3 months of reading instruction. The results suggest that children establish specific orthographic knowledge from the very beginning of literacy acquisition. PMID:14738774

  3. Quality of life technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wac, Katarzyna; Fiordelli, M.; Gustarini, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Inevitably, as basic human needs are assured in any developed society, differentiating factors for quality of life (QoL) relate to a greater capacity to make informed decisions across daily life activities, especially those related to health. The availability of powerful, personalized, and wearable...

  4. The possibility of aromorphosis in further development of closed human life support systems using genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef

    Creation of closed systems that would be able to support human life outside the biosphere for extended periods of time (CES) was started after humans went into outer space. The last fifty years have seen the construction of experimental variants of the CES in Russia, USA, and Japan. The "MELISSA" project of the European Space Agency is being prepared to be launched. Much success has been achieved in closing material loops in the CES. An obstacle to constructing a fully closed ecosystem is significant imbalance in material exchange between the producing components and the decomposing ones in the CES. The spectrum of metabolites released by humans does not fully correspond to the requirements of the main producer of the CES -plants. However, this imbalance can be corrected by rather simple physicochemical processes that can be used in the CES without unclosing the system. The major disagreement that prevents further improvement of human life support systems (LSS) is that the spectrum of products of photosynthesis in the CES does not correspond to human food requirements qual-itatively, quantitatively, or in terms of diversity. In the normal, physiologically sound, human diet, this discrepancy is resolved by adding animal products. However, there are technical, technological, and hygienic obstacles to including animals in the closed human life support systems, and if higher animals are considered, there are also ethical arguments. If between the photoautotrophic link, plants, and the heterotrophic link, the human, there were one more heterotrophic link, farm animals, the energy requirements of the system would be increased by nearly an order of magnitude, decreasing its efficiency and making it heavier and bulkier. Is there another way to close loops in human life support systems? In biology, such "findings" of evolution, which open up new perspectives and offer ample opportunities for possible adapta-tions, are termed aromorphoses (Schmalhausen, 1948). In further

  5. Automatic UltraWideband Radar System for Life Detection of Hidden Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Chengchung

    2012-01-01

    The ultra-wideband (UWB) is a radio technology which can be used at very low energy levels for short-range high-bandwidth communications by using a large portion of the radio spectrum. In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) gave the permission for UWB to be used for imaging and radar production. The corresponding technology is continuing to be developed furthermore, especially the radar applications of life detection. In various situations, the life-detection sy...

  6. Climate and Life: A Human Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    A renaissance scientist, Cesare Emiliani was also interested in climate change and its influence on human origins, ancient cultures, and our future. Climate shapes life across a range of time and space scales - seasons pace the cycle of death and renewal, and the diversity of all life is bounded by latitude. Each of the "big five" mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic is linked to environmental crisis. Has climate change also shaped us? Analytical advances, new sediment archives, and heroic international collaborations have brought new light to this question. Gone is the dated view of our ancestors emerging from some ancient dark forest to assert dominion over the grassy plains. In its place is new evidence for rapid and large orbital-scale climate cycles that shifted, stepwise after 2.8 and then again after 1.8 million years ago to establish the African savannah we know today. These climate events are coincident with clusters of hominin speciation, extinction, and behavioral innovation milestones that came to define us as human. The African Humid Period is one of the best and oldest examples of human cultural responses to climate change. Between 15,000-5,000 years ago the Saharan desert supported grassy, wooded plains, large lakes, and clusters of human settlements due to orbital increases in monsoonal rainfall. While there is an ongoing debate whether the end of this wet phase was fast (centuries) or slow (millennia), the rich archeological record shows that this region was depopulated and, within centuries, the first settlements appear along the Nile River near 5 ka BP. Many "firsts" are associated with these predynastic cultures of the Naqada III Period including the first named kings, pyramids, and hieroglyphs, resulting in political unification and Dynastic rule along the Nile. As these diverse lines of evidence come together, it appears as if an answer to the age-old question "How did I get here?" is no longer beyond our reach. Climate has played an important

  7. [People, the environment and health: the "Oneness" of human health from the perspective of universal life presented in "Changes"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke-Ping

    2008-12-01

    This paper aimed to expand the paradigm of nursing and expand the essential factors of nursing theories beyond "environment" to encompass universal life. While individuals live between the sky and earth, we are an inseparable part of the universe. "Health" is derived from a oneness that embraces the body, mind and spirit. The human body contains the wisdom of the universe, known in Chinese philosophy as the wisdom of "Changes". The body has its own consciousness and possesses great powers of self-healing. Healthiness is the original condition of life. Modern medicine assumes sickness to be a natural phenomenon, with the essential nature of "Changes" neglected as a universal law for maintaining health. Dr. Sun, a renowned physician from the Tang Dynasty, was quoted as saying "Knowing Changes is the prerequisite of knowing medicine." Another saying holds that, "Every word and every sentence in the Book of Changes is an indicator of medicine." Much emphasis has been placed on the relationship between "Changes" and "medicine" in the past. This paper elaborates the relationship between nature and human health in order to provide a clear understanding of the nature of true health, described from the perspectives of medicine and "Changes", an evaluation of modern medical science and the oneness of body-mind-spirit, which is the reality of health. The human body is thus a reflection of the mind and spirit, while the mind and spirit is the "inner body". The body is a highly intelligent organism that truly reflects our inner world. Our inner world is also displayed through physical symptoms. As human suffering is caused by separation from our inner life, the only path to enjoying a healthy and joyful life is to achieve a oneness between our body-mind-spirit. Such is a universal law, which is called "Changes" or "Oneness". PMID:19051177

  8. Beginning of the end of Onchocerciasis in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Ines Palma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis, also known as River Blindness, is a parasitic disease caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by black flies of the genus Simulium. It is endemic in Africa, where an estimated 37 million people are infected. It is almost certain that the slave trade in the 17th and 18th centuries brought onchocerciasis from West Africa to the Americas (1,  where transmission foci  where established  in  six  countries: Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela,  Brazil, Ecuador  and Colombia.  Since the beginning of the 20th century it was suspected that this vector borne disease was present in Colombia but the first confirmed case was not reported until 1965. The exact location of the single focus in the country was confirmed almost thirty years later in the locality of Naicioná, on the stream that bears the same name

  9. Green PC Saves Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Shaik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. This give idea about reduce the use of hazardous materials maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability. Green computing can be broadly defined as the problem of reducing the overall carbon footprint of computing and communication infrastructure, such as data centers, by using energy-efficient design and operations. As the environmentalists and energy conservationists ponder over the issue of conserving environment, technologists have come out with a simple solution to let you contribute to the “Go Green” campaign- with the help of Green PCs. By using green computing practices; you can improve energy management, increase energy efficiency, reduce e-waste, and save money. Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before. It is worth emphasizing that this “green technology” should not be just about sound bytes to impress activists but concrete action and organizational policy. The plan towards Green PC should include new electronic products and services with optimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings and technical issues in high-performance green computing span the spectrum from green infrastructure like energy-efficient buildings, intelligent cooling systems, green power sources for green hardware multi-core computing systems, energy-efficient server design, energy-efficient solid-state storage for green software and applications.

  10. Effects of Technological Applications on Human Resources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    There are two tasks the human resources are entrusted with. The first one is to increase productivity, and the second is to increase qualification of professional life. At the beginning of 1990s, personnel management left its duty to the human resources management. The human factor gains a strategic importance as the result of developments in communication and information technologies. Human resources started to develop strategies and plans for to reach the suitable target of organisation in ...

  11. The Beginning of Life. A Topic Worthy of Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Delineates four compelling reasons for placing bioethical issues, including abortion, in a curricular context. These include linking ethics and civics, preparing informed decision makers, public debate, and studying the future today. Includes activities and questions designed to provide students with a conceptual focus. (MJP)

  12. [Richard Freiherr v. Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freud--discourse on the "normality" and "perversion" of human sexuality at the close of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality has been defined a central feature of personal identity since the epoch of enlightenment and has gradually become a decisive issue also in societal and political terms. A major transfer from religion and religious institutions to medicine and medical experts and later on to neuropsychiatrists has to be underlined in the primary position to assess "normal" and "deviant" manifestations of sexuality. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freund play an eminent role in this "discourse on sexuality" (M. Foucault) during the nineteenth and beginning twentieth century on the way to modern sexology. Within this overarching context Krafft-Ebing's and Freud's theoretical conceptualizations of sexuality and perversion will be sketched and basic clinical and societal implications there out will be discussed.

  13. Quality of life, socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitude toward sexuality from the perspectives of individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiry Fernanda Pinto Okuno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the quality of life of "patients" with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and relate it to their socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality. Method: crosssectional and analytical study with 201 individuals who are 50 years old or older. The Targeted Quality of Life and Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scales were applied during interviews. Multiple Linear Regression was used in data analysis. Results: dimensions of quality of life more strongly compromised were disclosure worries (39.0, sexual function (45.9, and financial worries (55.6. Scores concerning knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality were 31.7 and 14.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between attitudes and the domains of overall function, health worries, medication worries, and HIV mastery. Conclusion: guidance concerning how the disease is transmitted, treated and how it progresses, in addition to providing social and psychological support, could minimize the negative effects of the disease on the quality of life of patients living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

  14. Association between recombinant human erythropoietin and quality of life and exercise capacity of patients receiving haemodialysis. Canadian Erythropoietin Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether recombinant human erythropoietin improves the quality of life and exercise capacity of anaemic patients receiving haemodialysis. DESIGN--A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study. SETTING--Eight Canadian university haemodialysis centres. PATIENTS--118 Patients receiving haemodialysis aged 18-75 with haemoglobin concentrations less than 90 g/l, no causes of anaemia other than erythropoietin deficiency, and no other serious diseases. INTERVENTIONS--Pat...

  15. "Dark Victory" (prognosis negative): The beginnings of neurology on screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-04-12

    In "Dark Victory," released in theaters in 1939, the diagnosis and management of a progressive brain tumor was a central part of the screenplay, and this film marked the beginnings of the depiction of neurologic disease in cinema. Bette Davis' cinematic portrayal of a young woman dying from a brain tumor is close to the reality of denial, bargaining, a hope for a cure, and final acceptance. "Dark Victory" includes part of a neurologic examination (funduscopy, testing of strength, testing of stereognosis, and tendon reflexes). The film also alludes to decisions on what to tell the patient (better say nothing) and shows an implausible clinical course (an abrupt peaceful ending). The film is unusual in depicting the presentation of a brain tumor, but the cinematic portrayal of the vicissitudes of living with a brain tumor is often close to reality. PMID:27163660

  16. Leaching potential of nanomaterials during different human contact scenarios and end-of-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Mackevica, Aiga; Heggelund, Laura Roverskov;

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand how much, when and by which mechanisms nanomaterials are released during the life cycle of a given application, we have experimentally investigated the release of nanoparticles (NP) from a wide range of products. These include silver and titanium dioxide NP released from food...... of the life cycle seem to be especially important and not well understood. In order to get an estimation of the overall release potential of nanomaterials during the consumer use phase and the waste phase, we also mapped consumer products on the EU marked claiming to be nano-enabledand commercially available...... online (see www.nanodb.dk) as well as the waste flows of these consumer products. We identified more than 1275 products to be available in the EU. Almost 200 products of these are claimed to contain nanosilver, but for more than 800 products the identity of the nanomaterial used was not reported. Based...

  17. The epidemiology of AIDS in Iran from beginning until now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi F

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of AIDS had not been recognized up to 1981 and in 1984 it was found that HIV virus is factor of this disease. For the time beings AIDS/HIV infection has chanched to a pandemic and cases affected to it are now reported from all over the world. In our country the first case was reported in 1987. Regarding the importance of disease and recognition of its prevention and transmission routes, based on disease epidemiology in country, this survey was conducted. This study was performed in 1999-2000 and is retrospective descriptive study. The main purpose of study is epidemiology of AIDS in Iran from beginning until now. Total information of cases of AIDS/HIV from beginning in Iran and all performed activities were obtained from ministry of health center for disease control-AIDS Dept. 95 files existing in the archives of Imam Khomeini hospital related to AIDS were also studied. 1953 cases of HIV+ have been reported until March of year 2000. At the same time 250 cases of AIDS have been reported which 215 of them died. Among transmission routes, in AIDS disease the most common way of transmission was transfusion of infected blood or its components but in HIV+ case the most one was drug injection. With respect to age, the higher and lower rate of affected people were in 30-39 and 0-4 ranges years respectively. The sex percentage in AIDS affected and HIV+ persons were 90.8% and 9.2%; 95.2% and 4.8% male and female respectively. 130 from 1953 HIV+ cases had travel to abroad.

  18. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  19. Education, Human Development and Quality of Life: Measurement Issues and Implications for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses and compares the measurement of indicators and variables in the construction of education index in Human Development Index (HDI) at the global, national and 18 sub-national human development reports in India since 1990. The results show non-comparability of measurement of the education indicators and variables. This implies…

  20. Beginning C

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Ivor

    2013-01-01

    Beginning C, 5th Edition teaches you how to program using the widely-available C language. You'll begin from first-principles and progress through step-by-step examples to become a competent, C-language programmer. All you need are this book and any of the widely available free or commercial C or C++ compilers, and you'll soon be writing real C programs. C is a foundational language that every programmer ought to know. C is the basis for C# used in Microsoft .NET programming. It is the basis for Objective-C used in programming for the iPhone, the iPad, and other Apple devices. It is the basis

  1. Jacopo da Firenze and the Beginning of Italian Vernacular Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In 1307, one Jacobus de Florentia located at that moment in Montpellier wrote a Tractatus algorismi containing a chapter on algebra. This earliest extant algebra in a European vernacular is noteworthy in several respects: 1.For decades, every writing on algebra in Italy or Montpellier which we know...... mediated through a Romance-speaking area. The obvious guess (supported by supplementary evidence) is that this area was Catalonia, even though the Catalan-Provencal tradition is only known to us from considerably later sources. Further inspection of Jacopo's algebra and other slightly later Italian...... writings of enigmatic origin suggest that the earliest beginnings of formal operations (on schemes and on fractions involving cossic expressions) may also have come from the same area....

  2. The right to life and criminal-law protection of the human person in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etlon Peppo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle for which a democratic governance stands, are expressed in the “Declaration of Independence of the United States of America with the words of Thomas Jefferson: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” The government of a democratic state does not exist to recognize the basic human rights, but to respect and guarantee the protection of these rights that any person possesses and benefits due to his existence starting from the most important right: The right to life, which is faced against the duty of the state for the protection of the human person’s life! In this sense this article analyzes the criminal-law protection of life in the Western Balkans.

  3. Human factor observations of the Biosphere 2, 1991-1993, closed life support human experiment and its application to a long-term manned mission to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alling, Abigail; Nelson, Mark; Silverstone, Sally; Van Thillo, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Human factors are a key component to the success of long-term space missions such as those necessitated by the human exploration of Mars and the development of bioregenerative and eventually self-sufficient life support systems for permanent space outposts. Observations by participants living inside the 1991-1993 Biosphere 2 closed system experiment provide the following insights. (1) Crew members should be involved in the design and construction of their life support systems to gain maximum knowledge about the systems. (2) Individuals living in closed life support systems should expect a process of physiological and psychological adaptation to their new environment. (3) Far from simply being a workplace, the participants in such extended missions will discover the importance of creating a cohesive and satisfying life style. (4) The crew will be dependent on the use of varied crops to create satisfying cuisine, a social life with sufficient outlets of expression such as art and music, and to have down-time from purely task-driven work. (5) The success of the Biosphere 2 first 2-year mission suggests that crews with high cultural diversity, high commitment to task, and work democracy principles for individual responsibility may increase the probability of both mission success and personal satisfaction. (6) Remaining challenges are many, including the need for far more comprehensive real-time modeling and information systems (a "cybersphere") operating to provide real-time data necessary for decision-making in a complex life support system. (7) And, the aim will be to create a noosphere, or sphere of intelligence, where the people and their living systems are in sustainable balance.

  4. Human factor observations of the Biosphere 2, 1991-1993, closed life support human experiment and its application to a long-term manned mission to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alling, Abigail; Nelson, Mark; Silverstone, Sally; Van Thillo, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Human factors are a key component to the success of long-term space missions such as those necessitated by the human exploration of Mars and the development of bioregenerative and eventually self-sufficient life support systems for permanent space outposts. Observations by participants living inside the 1991-1993 Biosphere 2 closed system experiment provide the following insights. (1) Crew members should be involved in the design and construction of their life support systems to gain maximum knowledge about the systems. (2) Individuals living in closed life support systems should expect a process of physiological and psychological adaptation to their new environment. (3) Far from simply being a workplace, the participants in such extended missions will discover the importance of creating a cohesive and satisfying life style. (4) The crew will be dependent on the use of varied crops to create satisfying cuisine, a social life with sufficient outlets of expression such as art and music, and to have down-time from purely task-driven work. (5) The success of the Biosphere 2 first 2-year mission suggests that crews with high cultural diversity, high commitment to task, and work democracy principles for individual responsibility may increase the probability of both mission success and personal satisfaction. (6) Remaining challenges are many, including the need for far more comprehensive real-time modeling and information systems (a "cybersphere") operating to provide real-time data necessary for decision-making in a complex life support system. (7) And, the aim will be to create a noosphere, or sphere of intelligence, where the people and their living systems are in sustainable balance. PMID:11987306

  5. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving;

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...... lost (mortality) and years of impaired life (morbidity). Qualitative severity approaches tend to arrange potency-based indicators in categories, avoiding the need to quantitatively express differences in severity. Based on the proposed criteria and current state of the knowledge, toxicological potency...

  6. Towards a Pedagogy of Listening: Teaching and Learning from Life Stories of Human Rights Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Bronwen E.; Sonntag, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    In response to the task of designing curriculum that helps youth engage thoughtfully with digital stories of human rights violations, the authors articulate the central tenets of a pedagogy of listening that draws upon elements of oral history, concepts of witnessing and testimony, the work on listening of Dewey, Freire and Rinaldi and the…

  7. Development of Human Resources Using New Technologies in Long-Life Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micu Bogdan Ghilic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT offer new opportunities to reinvent the education and to make people and makes learning more fun and contemporary but poses many problems to educational institutions. Implementation of ICT determines major structural changes in the organizations and mental switch from bureaucratic mentality to customer-oriented one. In this paper I try to evaluate methods of developing the lifelong learning programs, impact to human resources training and development and the impact of this process on educational institutions. E-learning usage in training the human resources can make a new step in development of the education institutions, human resources and companies.

  8. The Right to Concerted Action as Part of Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiQi,; ZhuShida; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    Associations existed in primitive human society. Only when the human race entered modem society, however, did concerted actions begin to enjoy institutionalized space and exercise tremendous impact on human life. In the late 20th century a worldwide revolution of associations took place. Concerted actions may be classified as economic,

  9. Semiotics of making: beginnings of a theoretical frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Monson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary problem of semiotics in architecture is an inherited struggle, not a chosen one. We consider the question of architectural communication because we inevitably recognize its centrality to the problem ofarchitecture itself. While the twentieth-century impact of Saussure and his birthing of structuralism gave architecture a new ground from which to reconceive its own semiotic functions, it was probably never possible that such a synchronic and undialogic theory would suit such a disparate and intersubjective activity. This is not to say that semiotics offers no guidance for the problem of architecture. It may say, however, that to use semiotics productively is not to start from its constructs but instead from architecture’s own.To that end, this study intends to establish a conceptualbasis for communication and meaning in architectural form by an inquiry into making. The initial judgment about why making might prove to be more useful than otherarchitectural characteristics is due to is its essential dialogicnature; it already is a semiotic. In that sense what follows is an opportunistic examination. It arises from what should be considered a powerful—if somewhat neglected—text on making: Elaine Scarry’s 1985 The Body in Pain. A deeper consideration of this work is long overdue. While Scarry’sbook seems to enjoy a rather wide readership, its potential impact has been largely unrealized since few scholars have developed its implications. Given the extraordinary originality of its argument, the artful construction of its prose, and the complex sophistication of its logic, it offers a rich—albeit demanding—place from which to begin.The objective of this study is to schematize Scarry’s theory of making such that connections to a semiotic understanding of its potentials may be realized. Following this effort, a short examination of one particular semiotic aspect of making will be argued as a tentative ground from which to

  10. The Sanctity of human life. A perspective from New Testament anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C. van Zyl

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with sanctity of life issues such as abortion, euthanasia, treatment of the disabled, war, and capital punishment. These matters are not treated individually but collectively from the perspective of New Testament anthropology. Having taken care of a few methodological considerations, the main focus falls on a discussion of man as sinner, man in Christ, and the category of the least.

  11. On the state of nature and social life: thinking about humans and chimpanzees1

    OpenAIRE

    Sebeika Rapchan, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    The anatomical similarity observed in chimpanzees and humans has been recognized since Linnaeus. The debates on the attribution of the human condition to non-Western people date back to the 15th century. However, only in the 20th century did Social and Cultural Anthropology demonstrate through ethnography that the Enlightenment project of defining an universal and unique humankind has a consistent and real face as a result of research and reformulation of ideas. Only since the 1960s has the c...

  12. Beginning Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, James

    2010-01-01

    This is a book for those of us who believed that we didn't need to learn Perl, and now we know it is more ubiquitous than ever. Perl is extremely flexible and powerful, and it isn't afraid of Web 2.0 or the cloud. Originally touted as the duct tape of the Internet, Perl has since evolved into a multipurpose, multiplatform language present absolutely everywhere: heavy-duty web applications, the cloud, systems administration, natural language processing, and financial engineering. Beginning Perl, Third Edition provides valuable insight into Perl's role regarding all of these tasks and more. Comm

  13. [William Harvey and the beginnings of modern medical science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Modern medical science was born in the post-Renaissance age and began to consolidate towards the middle of the XVII century thanks to physicists, physiologists, and biologists, most of whom were direct or indirect pupils, of Galilei. The discovery of blood circulation by Harvey is now considered the only progress in physiology at the beginning of the XVII century, comparable to the current advances seen in physical sciences. The history of this achievement could be written from the view point of the progressive advance in knowledge. In his experiments, Harvey referred to the authentic, not the imaginary experiments, and put forward irrefutable quantitative arguments. We can therefore claim that his discovery of blood circulation was the first proper explanation of an organic process and the starting point leading to experimental physiology. Nevertheless, the second monograph of the English researcher, dealing with the generation of animals, published in 1651, has some passages that correspond to modern scientific reasoning yet in others he includes confused, vague and capricious assertions compatible with the prescientific era that the author was not able to escape completely. In conclusion, it seems justified to assert that modern medical science did not all rise suddenly, but was gradually structured starting from the middle of the XVII century following the path traced by William Harvey in light of Galilei's thought.

  14. Acquisition of Human Polyomaviruses in the First 18 Months of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Rockett, Rebecca J.; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Mhango, Lebogang; Gaydon, Jane; Holding, Rebecca; Whiley, David M.; Lambert, Stephen B.; Ware, Robert S.; Michael D Nissen; Grimwood, Keith; Theo P Sloots

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the presence of 4 human polyomaviruses (PyVs) (WU, KI, Merkel cell, and Malawi) in respiratory specimens from a community-based birth cohort. These viruses typically were acquired when children were ≈1 year of age. We provide evidence that WU, KI, and Malawi, but not Merkel cell PyVs, might have a role in respiratory infections.

  15. Aeons the search for the beginning of time

    CERN Document Server

    Gorst, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The story of man's attempt to discover the moment that time began, from James Ussher's confident assertion in 1650 that the world was 5654 years old to the Hubble Space telescope's images of a world 13 billion years old, with a starry cast of eccentrics, mystics, scientists and visonaries. The moment of the beginning of time is one of science's Holy Grails, pursued by devotees and obsessives across the ages. Few were more committed than Bishop James Ussher who lost his sight in his 50-year quest, laboriously outlined in his 2000 Latin pages of Annals - a chronology of all known history - that is now famous only for one spectacularly inaccurate date: 4004BC, the creation of the world. Theology failed Ussher, just as it thwarted Theophilus of Antioch and many others before him. Geology was next to fail the test of time: the Comte de Buffon, working out the rate at which the Earth was supposed to have cooled, came up with age of 74,832 years, even though he suspected this was far too little. Biology had a go in ...

  16. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  17. Beginning Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Poe, Curtis 'Ovid'

    2012-01-01

    Everything beginners need to start programming with Perl Perl is the ever-popular, flexible, open source programming language that has been called the programmers’ Swiss army knife. This book introduces Perl to both new programmers and experienced ones who are looking to learn a new language. In the tradition of the popular Wrox Beginning guides, it presents step-by-step guidance in getting started, a host of try-it-out exercises, real-world examples, and everything necessary for a Perl novice to start programming with confidence. Introduces Perl to both new programmers and experienced o

  18. Life in our hands? Some ethical perspectives on the human genome and human genome diversity projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius W. du Toit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with implications of the human genome and the human genome diversity project. It examined some theological implications, such as: humans as the image of God, God as the creator of life, the changed role of miracles and healings in religion, the sacredness of nature, life and the genome. Ethical issues that were addressed include eugenics, germline intervention, determinism and the human genome diversity project. Economic and legal factors that play a role were also discussed. Whilst positive aspects of genome research were considered, a critical stance was adopted towards patenting the human genome and some concluding guidelines were proposed.

  19. Morphological description and life cycle of Paragonimus sp. (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae): causal agent of human paragonimiasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Imelda; Velásquez, Luz E; Vélez, Iván D

    2003-08-01

    The first morphological description is made of all stages of the life cycle of a Paragonimus species infecting humans in Colombia. Larval stages were obtained both in vitro and from field collections. Adult Paragonimus spp. are described. The aquatic snail Aroapyrgus sp. serves as an intermediate host of this species, both naturally and experimentally, yielding rediae and cercariae. Crabs (Hypolobocera bouvieri monticola and H. emberarum) were found to be the natural second intermediate hosts, and individuals of another crab species (Strengeria sp.) were also infected in the laboratory.

  20. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Minter, Dave; Ottinger, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Beginning Hibernate, Third Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open-source, lightweight Hibernate, a leading object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework.This book packs in information about the release of the Hibernate 4.x persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you'll be able to immediately star

  1. Categorial Ontology of Complex Systems, Meta-Systems and Levels: The Emergence of Life, Human Consciousness and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Glazebrook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Relational structures of organisms and the human mind are naturally represented in terms of novel variable topology concepts, non-Abelian categories and Higher Dimensional Algebra{ relatively new concepts that would be defined in
    this tutorial paper. A unifying theme of local-to-global approaches to organismic development, evolution and human consciousness leads to novel patterns of relations that emerge in super- and ultra- complex systems in terms of compositions of local procedures [1]. The claim is defended in this paper that human consciousness is unique and should be viewed as an ultra-complex, global process of processes, at a meta-level not sub{summed by, but compatible with, human brain dynamics [2]-[5]. The emergence of consciousness and its existence
    are considered to be dependent upon an extremely complex structural and functional unit with an asymmetric network topology and connectivities{the human brain. However, the appearance of human consciousness is shown to be critically dependent upon societal co-evolution, elaborate language-symbolic communication and `virtual', higher dimensional, non{commutative processes involving separate space and time perceptions. Theories of the mind are approached from the theory of levels and ultra-complexity viewpoints that throw
    new light on previous semantic models in cognitive science. Anticipatory systems and complex causality at the top levels of reality are discussed in the context of psychology, sociology and ecology. A paradigm shift towards non-commutative, or more generally, non-Abelian theories of highly complex dynamics [6] is suggested to unfold now in physics, mathematics, life and cognitive sciences, thus leading to the realizations of higher dimensional algebras in neurosciences and psychology, as well as in human genomics, bioinformatics and interactomics. The presence of strange attractors in modern society dynamics gives rise to very serious concerns for the future

  2. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  3. [Concerning: aging, the beginning of dialysis, the beginning of dependence: repercussions on the psychopathology of the very old dialysis patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, V; Edy, T; Souid, M; Barthélémy, F; Saint-Jean, O

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of psychopathology, particularly depression, is high in dialysed elderly patients whereas their perceived level of health in the mental domain is similar to that of a non-dialysed and, even younger, population. Although the losses associated with advancing years, chronic disease and then entry into dialysis renders the psyche of elderly people frail, they do not strictly add in negative terms: their psychological reserve or resignation helps very elderly people to tolerate dialysis and its constraints. However, maintaining functional autonomy (ability to provide for one's fundamental needs and preserve leisure activities) while remaining independent to take decisions (particularly in controlling ways of receiving assistance) and preserving close relationships emerge as major determinant factors of the quality of life of very elderly dialysed patients. Added to the dependency due to dialysis, losses in these domains very often represent a turning point by changing the patient's identity, predisposing to the development of relationship problems, leading the patient to question his self-esteem or even resulting in psychological dependency, which itself adversely affects the quality of life. These mechanisms of psychopathology may not hide the possibility of an underlying dementia. PMID:15185555

  4. Life on Human Surfaces: Skin Metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Alban Mathieu; Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Patrick Robe; Renaud Nalin; Pascal Simonet

    2013-01-01

    The human skin microbiome could provide another example, after the gut, of the strong positive or negative impact that human colonizing bacteria can have on health. Deciphering functional diversity and dynamics within human skin microbial communities is critical for understanding their involvement and for developing the appropriate substances for improving or correcting their action. We present a direct PCR-free high throughput sequencing approach to unravel the human skin microbiota specific...

  5. The Tree of Life Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…

  6. Brain-based origins of change language: a beginning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Yezhuvath, Uma; Houck, Jon M; Filbey, Francesca M

    2014-12-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising treatment for heavy drinking. Client change talk (CT), a critical component of MI, has been associated with differential brain activation. The goal of this study was to begin to deconstruct how and why CT may affect the brain. Specifically, we sought to determine whether simply repeating statements in favor of change would cause differential brain activation, or whether client statements must be spontaneously generated within a therapeutic milieu in order to influence brain activation. We therefore examined blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response following two types of client language (CT; and sustain talk, ST) across two conditions: (1) Self-Generated: CT and ST were elicited during an MI session vs. (2) Experimenter-Selected: a pre-established list of CT and ST was provided to the individual in the absence of an MI session. Across both conditions, participants' CT and ST were visually and aurally presented during fMRI. We enrolled 39 recent binge drinkers (41% male; M age=19.9; n=18 in Self-Generated group; n=21 in Experimenter-Selected group). We found that both types of client language (CT and ST) elicited greater BOLD activation in the Self-Generated vs. the Experimenter-Selected group in the left inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and superior temporal gyri (p≤0.001). These findings indicate that the nature of client language matters. It appears that it is not just the words themselves, but the origin (naturally generated within a therapeutic session) that influences brain-based effects.

  7. Closest to the Heart--The Life of Emerson Hynes: A Biographical Study of Human Goodness with a Focus on the College Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofell, Jeanne Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined human goodness as lived through the life of Emerson Hynes with a focus on the college years. Emerson Hynes was an ethics and sociology professor at St. John's University during the 1940s and 50s before he became legislative assistant to Senator Eugene McCarthy. He cared deeply about ethics and was a leader in family life,…

  8. N-glycosylation increases the circulatory half-life of human growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flintegaard, Thomas V; Thygesen, Peter; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic use of recombinant GH typically involves daily sc injections. We examined the possibilities for prolonging the in vivo circulation of GH by introducing N-glycans. Human GH variants with a single potential N-glycosylation site (N-X-S/T) introduced by site-directed mutagenesis were expr...

  9. [Marjorie Brierley and the beginnings of the London Middle Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppke, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to the life and work of Marjory Brierley (1893-1984) who, but for her paper on affects published in 1936, is nowadays relatively unknown. A member of the British Psychoanalytical Society since 1927, she withdrew from active work around 1950. In the 30s, she developed her psychoanalytic and scientific approach, centered on metapsychological issues. In the early 40s she played an important role in the Controversial Discussions between the groups around Melanie Klein and Anna Freud. She remained independent, refusing any idealization, bound only by her obligation to her scientific principles. With this attitude, she can be regarded as a typical pioneer of the later Middle Group or the Independents. After the controversy, Brierley elaborated her metapsychological and ethical ideas in four major papers.

  10. Aesthetics of the Human Image in Life and Iconography of the Ancient Philosophers in Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic and visual understanding of man is a hotly debated issue in contemporary culture. I found it important therefore to look at certain historical, cultural, aesthetical, philosophical and anthropological peculiarities of human image in Antiquity as reflected in the arts. The following aspects deserve special attention: the visualization of sense and values; the interaction of “ethos” (character and “soma” (body; the influence of the plastic images on the narrative ones; a normative typology of man; the significance of visual and acoustic perception. In this context, I studied ancient physiognomic; Aristotelian understanding of the acoustic and plastic arts; genesis, evolution and significance of the sculptural portrait image of man and the image of philosopher in Antiquity. I also pay attention to some methodological aspects of the study. As a result, there emerges an integral image of philosopher, which allows looking at the Greek culture from a fresh angle.

  11. Child labour, human capital and life expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Giam Pietro Cipriani

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies new mechanisms through which human capital and longevity interact with child labour and endogenous fertility. When children provide old age support in the form of care and companionship, the economy may display multiple development regimes: a development trap with low human capital and large use of child labour or a high steady state with high longevity and human capital and low child labour. A situation with indeterminacy of equilibrium outcomes may also occur if child mor...

  12. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2014-07-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  13. Toxicity of arsenic in humans. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning arsenic toxicity to humans. Citations examine arsenic assays, neurological effects, epidemiological studies, arsenic levels in drinking water, carcinogenesis, excretion studies, and industrial sources of arsenic poisoning. The interaction of arsenic with other heavy metals such as cadmium and lead is also discussed. In vivo and in vitro studies are described. (Contains a minimum of 123 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Human practice in the life cycle of complex systems. Challenges and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the current and near future challenges in work and traffic environments in light of the rapid technology development. It focuses on the following domains: road and vessel traffic, nuclear power production, automatic mining, steel factory and the pulp and paper industry. Each example concerns complex technical systems where human practice and behaviour has an important role for the safety, efficiency and productivity of the system. The articles illustrate the enormous field of human-related research when considering the design, validation, implementation, operation and maintenance of complex sociotechnical systems. Nevertheless, these 14 chapters are only examples of the range of questions related to the issue. The authors of the book are VTT experts in work or traffic psychology and research, system usability, risk and safety analysis, virtual environments and they have experience in studying different domains. This book is an attempt to open up the complex world of human-technology interaction for readers facing practical problems with complex systems. It is aimed to help a technical or organisational designer, a policy-maker, an expert or 'a user', the one who works or lives within the technology. (orig.)

  15. Early-life compartmentalization of human T cell differentiation and regulatory function in mucosal and lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Joseph J C; Bickham, Kara L; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Masaru; Matsuoka, Nobuhide; Gordon, Claire; Granot, Tomer; Griesemer, Adam; Lerner, Harvey; Kato, Tomoaki; Farber, Donna L

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how the immune response in early life becomes appropriately stimulated to provide protection while also avoiding excessive activation as a result of diverse new antigens. T cells are integral to adaptive immunity; mouse studies indicate that tissue localization of T cell subsets is important for both protective immunity and immunoregulation. In humans, however, the early development and function of T cells in tissues remain unexplored. We present here an analysis of lymphoid and mucosal tissue T cells derived from pediatric organ donors in the first two years of life, as compared to adult organ donors, revealing early compartmentalization of T cell differentiation and regulation. Whereas adult tissues contain a predominance of memory T cells, in pediatric blood and tissues the main subset consists of naive recent thymic emigrants, with effector memory T cells (T(EM)) found only in the lungs and small intestine. Additionally, regulatory T (T(reg)) cells comprise a high proportion (30-40%) of CD4(+) T cells in pediatric tissues but are present at much lower frequencies (1-10%) in adult tissues. Pediatric tissue T(reg) cells suppress endogenous T cell activation, and early T cell functionality is confined to the mucosal sites that have the lowest T(reg):T(EM) cell ratios, which suggests control in situ of immune responses in early life.

  16. Alexander von Humboldt and the Beginning of the Environmental Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard Weigl

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in English, Abstracts in English and German.In the middle of the 19th century the question whether expanding civilization and industrialization had an effect on climate was discussed intensely worldwide. It was feared that increasing deforestation would lead to continuous decrease in rainfall. This first scientific discussion about climate change as the result of human intervention was strongly influenced by the research Alexander von Humboldt and Jean-Baptiste Boussingault had undertaken when they investigated the falling water levels of Lake Valencia in Venezuela. This essay aims to clarify the question whether Alexander von Humboldt can be counted among the leading figures of modern environmentalism on account of this research as is being claimed by Richard H. Grove in his influential book Green Imperialism. Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860 (1995.

  17. Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Gillespie, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    According to life-history theory, any organism that maximizes fitness will face a trade-off between female fertility and offspring survivorship. This trade-off has been demonstrated in a variety of species, but explicit tests in humans have found a positive linear relationship between fitness and fertility. The failure to demonstrate a maximum beyond which additional births cease to enhance fitness is potentially at odds with the view that human fertility behaviour is currently adaptive. Here...

  18. In the beginning was information

    CERN Document Server

    Gitt, Werner, Dr

    2006-01-01

    Information is the cornerstone of life, yet it is something people don't often think about. In his fascinating new book, In the Beginning Was Information, Dr. Werner Gitt helps the reader see how the very presence of information reveals a Designer.

  19. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  20. What Teachers Should Know about the Evolution-Intentional Design Debate on the Origin of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    This paper discusses the beginning of life on Earth, the formation of life forms, evolution, and the origin of life. The paper suggests that how life first appeared on earth is not known and may never be known. (YDS)

  1. Family Life and Human Development: Grades 9-12. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD.

    This resource curriculum outline for grades 9 through 12 contains a content outline; sample teaching strategies; illustrations for making transparencies and dittoes; print, non-print, and film resources for teaching family life and human development. The activities are adaptable to a variety of classroom situations and teaching styles. The…

  2. Reymont's The Vampire: the beginning of infernal doom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adamczyk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In The Vampire Reymont presents London as the imperial city falling into decline, where Polish immigrants, who lack identity, wander timelessly. It is also a place where a mercantile society is immersed in a reality dominated by technological development. Reymont's novel allows us to analyse the space of London at the end of the 19th century, and the human fate which is determined by this space. In my paper I would like to focus on the analysis of the city space,including the division into centre and suburbs of London, and losing the way in a maze (a maze of streets and a maze of subconsciousness of the main characters, the consequences of abandoning sacrum, entropy, and the crisis of family and art. The interesting vision of London created by Reymont gives us answers to a few important questions. Do the Polish immigrants find themselves in a new reality? How does the experience of a modern city affect people's lives? Why cannot contemporary man find his place in the surrounding world?

  3. The probability of extraterrestrial life; La probabilidad de vida extraterrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A

    1991-06-15

    Since beginning of times, human beings need to live in the company of other humans, beings developing what we now know as human societies. According to this idea there has been speculation, specially in the present century, about the possibility that human society has company of the other thinking creatures living in other planets somewhere in our galaxy. In this talk we will only use reliable data from scientific observers in order to establish a probability. We will explain the analysis on the physico-chemical principles which allow the evolution of organic molecules in our planet and establish these as the forerunners of life in our planet. On the other hand, the physical process governing stars, their characteristics and their effects on planets will also be explained as well as the amount of energy that a planet receives, its mass, atmosphere and kind of orbit. Finally, considering all this information, a probability of life from outer space will be given. (Author)

  4. Use of halophytic plants for recycling NaCl in human liquid waste in a bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Nikolai, Myasoedov; Larisa, Popova; Alexander, Tikhomirov; Sofya, Ushakova; Christophe, Lasseur; Jean-Bernard, Gros

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop technology for recycling NaCl containing in human liquid waste as intrasystem matter in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). The circulation of Na + and Cl - excreted in urine is achieved by inclusion of halophytes, i.e. plants that naturally inhabit salt-rich soils and accumulate NaCl in their organs. A model of Na + and Cl - recycling in a BLSS was designed, based on the NaCl turnover in the human-urine-nutrient solution-halophytic plant-human cycle. The study consisted of (i) selecting a halophyte suitable for inclusion in a BLSS, and (ii) determining growth conditions supporting maximal Na + and Cl - accumulation in the shoots of the halophyte growing in a nutrient solution simulating mineralized urine. For the selected halophytic plant, Salicornia europaea, growth rate under optimal conditions, biomass production and quantities of Na + and Cl - absorbed were determined. Characteristics of a plant production conveyor consisting of S.europaea at various ages, and allowing continuity of Na + and Cl - turnover, were estimated. It was shown that closure of the NaCl cycle in a BLSS can be attained if the daily ration of fresh Salicornia biomass for a BLSS inhabitant is approximately 360 g.

  5. My Idea of A Happy Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿红奕; 何文琴

    2005-01-01

    Every one of us wants a happy life,but different people have different opinions about it.When I begin to talk about my iaea of a happy life,I think first of a happy homelife,then the necessity of material things,good health,and the satisfactory job.

  6. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-β signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-β1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15INK4B and p57KIP2. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-β1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15INK4B and p57KIP2. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-β-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15INK4B, and p57KIP2. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-β antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling pathway in NHOK.

  7. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Reuben H., E-mail: rkim@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lieberman, Mark B.; Lee, Rachel [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shin, Ki-Hyuk [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Park, No-Hee [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kang, Mo K., E-mail: mkang@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-{beta}-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15{sup INK4B}, and p57{sup KIP2}. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-{beta} receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-{beta} antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in NHOK.

  8. Development and validation of the Functional Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (FAHI) quality of life instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, D F; McCain, N L; Peterman, A H; Mo, F; Wolen, D

    1996-08-01

    The Functional Assessment of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) Infection (FAHI) quality of life instrument was developed using a combination of conceptual and empirical strategies. The core, general health-related quality of life instrument is the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) questionnaire. The FACT-G was selected to enable comparison of data across two similar, life-threatening conditions and because of its desirable psychometric properties. Initial data on both the relevance (applicability) of the FACT-G to the HIV population and the generation and testing of questions for an HIV-specific subscale were encouraging. Consequently, the FACT-G and a 9-item HIV-specific subscale were combined and tested in 196 patients in three categories: an English-speaking stress management sample from Chicago, illinois (n = 110); an English-speaking urban, mixed race sample from Chicago (n = 71); and a Spanish-speaking urban sample from Chicago and San Juan, Puerto Rico (n = 64). With the exception of the Social Well-being subscale, the subscales of the FACT-G demonstrated good internal consistency reliability across all three samples (alpha range = 0.72-0.88). Total FAHI scores produced consistently high alpha coefficients (0.89-0.91). Concurrent validity data included moderately strong associations with other measures of similar concepts and an ability to distinguish groups of patients by activity level and disease severity. Sensitivity to change in mood disturbance and responsiveness to a stress management intervention were also evident. The 9-item HIV-specific subscale demonstrated relatively low alpha coefficients (range = 0.53-0.71) and marginal sensitivity to change, leading to supplementation of content with an additional 11 items, creating a 20-item HIV-specific subscale that is currently being tested. Clinical trial and clinical practice investigators are encouraged to use the FACT-G in its current (version 3) form when evaluating group

  9. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Preiss, Philipp; van Goethem, Thomas; Van Dingenen, Rita; Huijbregts, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We developed regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for human health damage from particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and for damage to vegetation from ozone, at the global scale. These factors can be used in the impact assessment phase of an environmental life cycle assessment. CFs express the overall damage of a certain pollutant per unit of emission of a precursor, i.e. primary PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The global chemical transport model TM5 was used to calculate intake fractions of PM2.5 and ozone for 56 world regions covering the whole globe. Furthermore, region-specific effect and damage factors were derived, using mortality rates, background concentrations and years of life lost. The emission-weighted world average CF for primary PM2.5 emissions is 629 yr kton-1, varying up to 3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Larger CFs were obtained for emissions in central Asia and Europe, and smaller factors in Australia and South America. The world average CFs for PM2.5 from secondary aerosols, i.e. NOx, NH3, and SO2, is 67.2 to 183.4 yr kton-1. We found that the CFs for ozone human health damage are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower compared to the CFs for damage due to primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. Human health damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.7·10-2 yr capita-1 worldwide in year 2010, with primary PM2.5 emissions as the main contributor (62%). The emission-weighted world average CF for ecosystem damage due to ozone was 2.5 km2 yr kton-1 for NMVOCs and 8.7 m2 yr kg-1 for NOx emissions, varying 2-3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Ecosystem damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.6·10-4 km2 capita-1 worldwide in 2010, with NOx as the main contributor (72%). The spatial range in CFs stresses the importance of including spatial variation in life cycle impact assessment of

  10. 论“五四”小说的人生意蕴%On the Meaning of Human Life in the Novels of May 4th Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健

    2001-01-01

    During the time of the May 4th Movement, Luxun and writers from a dozen of literary societies broke the bondage of feudal ideology, took human life as the principal theme of their literary creation, described rich and colourful features of human life in their writings, thus manifesting fully the meaning and value of human life in various aspects.%“五四”时期,鲁迅、文学研究会、创造社、乡土小说家的小说创作,突破了封建思想的束缚,以人为创作主体,展现了丰富多彩的人生,多元化地表现出人生意义和人的价值。

  11. Origin of Life and Definition of Life, from Buffon to Oparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirard, Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Many theories on origin of life at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth, generally use conceptions of life instead of explicit definitions of life. This paper presents ideas on the origin of life as studied by Buffon (1707-1788), Lamarck (1744-1829), Darwin (1809-1882), Huxley (1825-1895), Oparin (1894-1980) and Haldane (1892-1964). We show that their conceptions on the evolution of matter and life reveal their conceptions of life rather than their definitions of life.

  12. Origin of life and definition of life, from Buffon to Oparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirard, Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Many theories on origin of life at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth, generally use conceptions of life instead of explicit definitions of life. This paper presents ideas on the origin of life as studied by Buffon (1707-1788), Lamarck (1744-1829), Darwin (1809-1882), Huxley (1825-1895), Oparin (1894-1980) and Haldane (1892-1964). We show that their conceptions on the evolution of matter and life reveal their conceptions of life rather than their definitions of life.

  13. Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

  14. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    presently deprived of funding, but would also increase the compliance of US animal researchers with internationally-accepted animal welfare and bioethical standards. It could even result in the first global moratorium on invasive research, for any non-human species, unless conducted in the best interests of the individual or species. PMID:18518999

  15. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Andrew

    2008-06-01

    chimpanzees, and other research fields presently deprived of funding, but would also increase the compliance of US animal researchers with internationally-accepted animal welfare and bioethical standards. It could even result in the first global moratorium on invasive research, for any non-human species, unless conducted in the best interests of the individual or species.

  16. 攀登医学生命树观看人生%Watching human lire from top of medical life tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚树印

    2009-01-01

    以关于人身心的全方位的医学科研管理学为理论基础,在认同自然抗病力假说的前提下,对笔者提出的以神为根、以人为本、以物为枝叶的医学生命树哲学猜想的特定概念,特别是关于神的概念,做出了自我认知的诠释.通过分析、综合,归纳、演绎,推理、判断,从中医、中西医结合的原则与现代生物-心理-社会医学模式相整合,义通过四川汶川大地震的突发自然暴力事件中所显示出医学与生命的关系,力求印证这个哲学猜想的理论价值和现实意义.%All-round Medical science research management is based on the hypothesis that human body has nature resistance to diseases.Under this principle,the author put forward and annotated a specific concept about philosophical guess:medical and life tree consists in spirit-guided,human-oriented and matter-based.Especially,the idea on the supernatural was originally explained by the author.The relationship between the medicine and life was proposed using the strategy of analysis,synthesis,inducing,deducing,discursiveness and judgment,combining Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM)with western medicine,as well as following the integrated modern biology-mentality-society medicinal mode.Wenchuan's earthquake of Sichuan province shaked all over the world.It also showed that the relation between the medicine and life,which confirmed that philosophical hypothesis(i.e.life tree)is theoretical value and practical significance in both theory and reality perspective.

  17. Disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy. Effect on psychosocial support requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiotherapy brings a tumor patient into a special life situation in which different variables play a role of often unknown importance. The goal of this study was to investigate disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy with established psychodiagnostic questionnaires and to evaluate the effect on psychosocial support requirement in order to reduce stress and to improve quality of life and compliance during radiotherapeutical treatment. Patients and Methods: 732 patients were screened, of whom 446 (60.9%) fulfilled the criteria for inclusion (refusals 21.0%, low Karnofsky performance status 6.6%, management problems 3.4%, language barriers 3.0%, cognitive restrictions 2.6%, death 2.5%). Disease specific aspects of stress in the questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Belastung von Krebspatienten, FBK), life situation (LS) and self-defined care requirements (BB) were self-rated by patients with different tumor types before radiotherapy. Medical and sociodemographic data were also documented. We investigated 446 patients (262 male, 184 female; median age 60.0 years) with different diagnoses. Results: Stress was observed mainly due to reduction of efficiency, anxiety and pain on the subscales. Women had a significant higher stress on subscales of pain (p=0.016) and anxiety (p=0.009), patients younger than 45 years in the subscale information (p=0.002) and patients older than 45 and younger than 60 years in the subscale anxiety (p=0.002) and the total score (p=0.003). Patients with mamma carcinoma had the highest stress. The maximum percentages of patients under high stress were found for the subscales of efficiency (43%) and anxiety (40%). The support requirement was characterized by the need of more medical information and dialogue with the doctor. We saw a significant correlation of high stress and high care requirement. Conclusions: Psychosocial support should be founded on psychosocial stress diagnostic and self-defined care

  18. Proteomic Analysis of the Developmental Trajectory of Human Hepatic Membrane Transporter Proteins in the First Three Months of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Miriam G; van de Steeg, Evita; van Rosmalen, Joost; Windster, Jonathan D; de Koning, Barbara A E; Vaes, Wouter H J; van Groen, Bianca D; Tibboel, Dick; Wortelboer, Heleen M; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2016-07-01

    Human hepatic membrane-embedded transporter proteins are involved in trafficking endogenous and exogenous substrates. Even though impact of transporters on pharmacokinetics is recognized, little is known on maturation of transporter protein expression levels, especially during early life. We aimed to study the protein expression of 10 transporters in liver tissue from fetuses, infants, and adults. Transporter protein expression levels [ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC)B1, ABCG2, ABCC2, ABCC3, bile salt efflux pump, glucose transporter 1, monocarboxylate transporter 1, organic anion transporter polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP2B1, and organic cation/carnitine transporter 2) were quantified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in snap-frozen postmortem fetal, infant, and adult liver samples. Protein expression was quantified in isolated crude membrane fractions. The possible association between postnatal and postmenstrual age versus protein expression was studied. We studied 25 liver samples, as follows: 10 fetal [median gestational age 23.2 wk (range 16.4-37.9)], 12 infantile [gestational age at birth 35.1 wk (27.1-41.0), postnatal age 1 wk (0-11.4)], and 3 adult. The relationship of protein expression with age was explored by comparing age groups. Correlating age within the fetal/infant age group suggested four specific protein expression patterns, as follows: stable, low to high, high to low, and low-high-low. The impact of growth and development on human membrane transporter protein expression is transporter-dependent. The suggested age-related differences in transporter protein expression may aid our understanding of normal growth and development, and also may impact the disposition of substrate drugs in neonates and young infants. PMID:27103634

  19. Life-long endurance exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Couppé, C; Karlsen, A;

    2013-01-01

    Human aging is associated with a loss of skeletal muscle and an increase in circulating inflammatory markers. It is unknown whether endurance training (Tr) can prevent these changes. Therefore we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young-Tr...

  20. A curated transcriptome dataset collection to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbuba; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Cugno, Chiara; Chaussabel, Damien; Marr, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Compendia of large-scale datasets made available in public repositories provide an opportunity to identify and fill gaps in biomedical knowledge. But first, these data need to be made readily accessible to research investigators for interpretation. Here we make available a collection of transcriptome datasets to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life. Thirty two datasets were retrieved from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and loaded in a custom web application called the Gene Expression Browser (GXB), which was designed for interactive query and visualization of integrated large-scale data. Quality control checks were performed. Multiple sample groupings and gene rank lists were created allowing users to reveal age-related differences in transcriptome profiles, changes in the gene expression of neonatal hematopoietic cells to a variety of immune stimulators and modulators, as well as during cell differentiation. Available demographic, clinical, and cell phenotypic information can be overlaid with the gene expression data and used to sort samples. Web links to customized graphical views can be generated and subsequently inserted in manuscripts to report novel findings. GXB also enables browsing of a single gene across projects, thereby providing new perspectives on age- and developmental stage-specific expression of a given gene across the human hematopoietic system. This dataset collection is available at: http://developmentalimmunology.gxbsidra.org/dm3/geneBrowser/list. PMID:27347375

  1. Cancer immunotherapy: the beginning of the end of cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkona, Sofia; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Blasutig, Ivan M

    2016-05-05

    These are exciting times for cancer immunotherapy. After many years of disappointing results, the tide has finally changed and immunotherapy has become a clinically validated treatment for many cancers. Immunotherapeutic strategies include cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T and natural killer cells, and administration of antibodies or recombinant proteins that either costimulate cells or block the so-called immune checkpoint pathways. The recent success of several immunotherapeutic regimes, such as monoclonal antibody blocking of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), has boosted the development of this treatment modality, with the consequence that new therapeutic targets and schemes which combine various immunological agents are now being described at a breathtaking pace. In this review, we outline some of the main strategies in cancer immunotherapy (cancer vaccines, adoptive cellular immunotherapy, immune checkpoint blockade, and oncolytic viruses) and discuss the progress in the synergistic design of immune-targeting combination therapies.

  2. Use of Human Modeling Simulation Software in the Task Analysis of the Environmental Control and Life Support System Component Installation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation applications are becoming widespread in human task analysis. These programs have many benefits for the Human Factors Engineering field. Not only do creating and using virtual environments for human engineering analyses save money and time, this approach also promotes user experimentation and provides increased quality of analyses. This paper explains the human engineering task analysis performed on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) space station rack and its Distillation Assembly (DA) subsystem using EAI's human modeling simulation software, Jack. When installed on the International Space Station (ISS), ECLSS will provide the life and environment support needed to adequately sustain crew life. The DA is an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) that provides means of wastewater (primarily urine from flight crew and experimental animals) reclamation. Jack was used to create a model of the weightless environment of the ISS Node 3, where the ECLSS is housed. Computer aided drawings of the ECLSS rack and DA system were also brought into the environment. Anthropometric models of a 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female were used to examine the human interfaces encountered during various ECLSS and DA tasks. The results of the task analyses were used in suggesting modifications to hardware and crew task procedures to improve accessibility, conserve crew time, and add convenience for the crew. This paper will address some of those suggested modifications and the method of presenting final analyses for requirements verification.

  3. Outline of the beginnings of alchemy and its antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S

    1984-01-01

    There had been a long use of Simples as drugs of longevity. Among these red substances predominated, red ochre and cinnabar as minerals, ephedra bearing red berries and pomegranate and peach as vegetable products. In China herbalism became a cult of longevity with its legendary founder as Emperor Shen Nung and with the god of longevity finally emerging from the peach as Shou-Sing. To excell simple drugs of longevity the first synthetic drug was prepared as brick red colloidal gold. It was called Chin-I. Gold-cum-herbal juice. Dialectally it was pronounced Kim-Iya, whence Alkimiya in Arabic, and finally alchemy. Chin-I was Herbo-golden drug and also gold-making-juice, a miraculous substance. But it was not blood-red. Now came Chin-Tan, Cinnabar-gold, red like blood. Its redness equalled blood and as such was soul, gold as its acceptor had an everlasting body. Chin-Tan was designed as the ideal drug of longevity. Alchemy started by making red gold but degenerated, trying to make bullion gold. PMID:6388307

  4. Utilization of liquid human wastes and introduction into the material cycling in biological life-support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N. P.>; Ushakova, S. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, U. A.

    The possibilities of step-by-step utilization of liquid human wastes in biological life-support systems on long-functioning space stations have been considered in this work. Utilization involves "wet" urine incineration with hydrogen peroxide at normal pressure and 90 - 95°C temperature, urease-enzymic decomposition of urine and biological desalination in the higher plant link. The soybean flour was used as a source of urease. Growing soya plants as a component of the higher plant link would give a steady source of urease to the system. To decompose urea (9-15g) contained in 1l of incinerated urine we used 0.5 - 1 g of soy flour. The duration of hydrolysis of daily urea excreted by a human is 70 - 95 hours. It is supposed that ammonia excreted in the reaction of urea decomposition will be processed by nitrifying bacteria. The concentration of total nitrogen in urine after urea hydrolysis and removal of ammonia formed during the reaction constituted 0.6 - 1.2 g/l. Further biological desalination was carried out in the higher plant link, for that the edible salt-accumulating halophytes Salicornia europaea were used. To grow this plant under the aqueous culture conditions, the urine was additionally mineralized at 180 °C after incineration and decomposition of urea. The process of additional mineralization was related to the necessity of removal of organic materials and nitrogen residues, which higher concentration under the aqueous culture conditions has negative effect on plants. The volume of the nutrient solution for growing 6 plants of Salicornia europaea was 1.5 l (daily norm of urine excreted by human), the planting area was 0.032 m2. By the end of vegetation the productivity and mineral composition of Salicornia europaea plants were analyzed. The productivity of plants grown on liquid human wastes (the experiment) practically was not different from the productivity of plants grown on the mineral solution with sodium chloride (checkout). In experimental

  5. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  6. 41 CFR 109-39.101 - Notice of intention to begin a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of intention to begin a study. 109-39.101 Section 109-39.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 109-39.101 Notice of intention to begin a study....

  7. The Problems of the Beginning Teacher in the Arab Schools in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toren, Zehava; Iliyan, Salman

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the problems of beginning teachers in the Arab sector in Israel. The participants were 146 beginning teachers, 5 mentors, and 5 advisors. The research measurements included an open-ended question and a semi-structured interview. Our research revealed many different cultural aspects related to most of the problems of the…

  8. Beginning Teachers' Conceptions of Competency: Implications to Educational Policy and Teacher Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Wong, Kung Teck

    2014-01-01

    When any innovations or measurement procedures are introduced into the education system to improve or judge the quality of its teaching force, beginning teachers often have to adapt to these new concepts of what constitute a high quality teaching. This article contends that these new concepts neither necessarily match beginning teachers' own…

  9. 41 CFR 101-39.101 - Notice of intention to begin a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notice of intention to begin a study. 101-39.101 Section 101-39.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.101 Notice of intention to begin a study. The Administrator,...

  10. A community study of clinical traits and risk factors for human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection during the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Høgh, Mette; Nordbø, Svein;

    2008-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are important respiratory pathogens with similar symptomatology. The aim of this prospective birth cohort study was to identify risk factors for an hMPV or RSV infection during the first year of life in unselected healthy children...

  11. The Importance of the Beginning Teachers' Psychological Contract: A Pathway toward Flourishing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollansky, Tracy D.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the profession with notions about what their school organization will provide for them and what they will give their organization, in exchange. Psychological contracts, as defined by Schein exist between beginning teachers and their organization. I contend, with the use of a conceptual framework, that if the implicit terms…

  12. Beginning Teachers' Job Satisfaction: The Impact of School-Based Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Bick-har; Yan, Hoi-fai

    2011-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the job satisfaction and career development of beginning teachers are explored in the present study. Beginning teachers were initially interviewed after graduation from the teacher training programme and then after gaining a two-year teaching experience. The results are presented in a fourfold typology in which the…

  13. The effects of biological and life-style factors on baseline frequencies of chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilada Nefic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the influence of sex and ageing on chromosomal damage and the role of life-style habits on the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs of healthy Bosnian subjects. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 100 healthy, unrelated individuals in Bosnia and Herzegovina during 2010 and 2011. Chromosome preparations were made by dropping and air drying and slides were stained with 10% Giemsa solution (pH 6.8. The cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a cytogenetic laboratory in the Department of Biology of the Faculty of Science in Sarajevo. The category of total structural CAs was sub classified as chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs and chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs while the category of total numerical CAs was sub classified as aneuploid and polyploid mitoses. All statistical analyses were carried out using Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft Corporation and the Windows Kwikstat Winks SDA 7.0.2 statistical software package (Texa Soft Cedar Hill, Texas. Results: Cytogenetic analysis revealed the average number of structural CAs was 2.84 and of numerical CAs was 9.56. There was a significant increase in the frequency of chromosome-type aberrations (1.92 compared with chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs (0.92 and a significant increase in the frequency of aneuploid (8.83 compared with polyploid (0.73 mitoses. Significant positive correlations between age and CTAs in human PBLs were also demonstrated. Additional statistical analysis showed that ageing increase number of numerical CAs in lymphocytes of drinkers. The frequency of structural CAs of females exposed to radiation was significantly greater than in males. Analysis indicates the presence of a positive association between CAs and smoking in younger subjects but a negative correlation between aberrant cells frequencies and alcohol in older drinkers. Conclusion: The results of the study support the

  14. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  15. Remarks on the ''beginning'' and the ''end'' of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of time is discussed. If time is defined with physical objects, one is led to the contradiction of eternity with finite duration. It is possible to avoid this contradiction by the introduction of different types of time. The concepts of superspace and ''many-fingered time'' are expressions for the variety of times, and not for the breakdown of the concept of time. With the aid of the distinctions of different well-defined notions of time, knowledge about the time-dependent laws of Nature increases

  16. Life's crucible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetsky, P

    1998-02-01

    Research by German chemists Gunter Wachtershauser and Claudia Huber about the origins of life is reviewed. Other theories about the beginning of life on Earth are examined with comments by noted researchers. PMID:11541839

  17. Tacit Beginnings towards a Model of Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Rory J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an examination of the role tacit knowledge plays in understanding, and to provide a model to make such knowledge identifiable. To do this I first consider the needs of society, the ubiquity of information in our world and the future demands of the science classroom. I propose the use of more implicit or…

  18. Elaboration of selective solar energy absorbers beginning with stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aries, L.; Bonino, J.P.; Benavente, R.; Laaouini, A.; Traverse, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    An original simple and cheap method of elaboration of selective surfaces is described. The method involves anodic oxydation of stainless steel in acid solution with addition of sulfides; chemical conversion of the metallic surface is achieved. The selective surfaces exhibit an excellent thermal stability.

  19. The right to respect for (private and) family life in the case-law of the European Court of Human rights: the protection of new forms of family

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Comunicação apresentada no 5th World Congress on Family Law and Children’s Rights, Halifax, Canada, 23th-26th August 2009. This paper examines the scope of protection granted to new forms of family by Article 8 of the European Convention of Human Rights, which guarantees the right to respect for family life. In particular, the paper intends to analyze the complex and evolving interpretive task of the European Court of Human Rights in regard to the definition of the term “family life” unde...

  20. [The and beginnings of Chilean endocrinology in the 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Delgado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Rejuvenation was a chapter of critical importance for the worldwide development of endocrinology in the 1920s. This work explores the acceptance of these techniques in Chile. Starting in the late 19th century, the Chilean Medical Journal (Revista Médica de Chile) incorporated references to experiments with endocrine gland preparations that were being conducted in Europe at the time. An appropriation of the experiments by the Austrian Eugen Steinach began in 1920, with prominent figures such as the Italian professor Juan Noe Crevani and the young Chilean student Ottmar Wilhelm. Between 1922 and 1924, Wilhelm developed a series of experiments on dogs, bulls, pigs, rats and Welfare Board patients through the so-called Steinach operation, which consisted of the sectioning of the efferent channel in one of the testicles. Professor Noe's scientific patronage policy and Wilhelm's strategy of succession in the field led the latter to hold a chair in the new School of Medicine of Universidad de Concepci6n at the age of 25. From this position, the. figure of Wilhelm was fundamental for the development of a line of endocrinological research that was able to position Universidad de Concepci6n as a scientific development centre, which was strengthened by the arrival of another disciple of Steinach in Chile, the Latvian professor Alejandro Lipschütz. PMID:27363250

  1. China at the beginning of 3rd millennium: geopolitical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pintescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and briefly examines the main geohistorical, geoeconomic and geostrategic advantages of China, related to this attempt to become a regional hegemonic power and, in special circumstances, a worldwide superpower. First, is presented a historical background of the country, a source of self-confidence and rise of the so-called “Chinese mentality”, different of Western mentality. Further is shown the essence of the Chinese contemporary naval strategy (Haijun Zhanlue, currently an essential element of geostrategy of this country. Policies and economic resources of the country – the fundamental elements of its geopolitics – are more detailed presented. The final part of the article reviews and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of strategic policy towards Central Asia and China’s fundamental goal – gaining of the regional hegemonic power status.In conclusion, the authors consider that in order to become the first superpower of the world in the next 2-3 decades, China needs a mixture of brilliant leadership, economic growth, modernization (not Westernization!, Chinese mentality and “Chinese way of life” (last two based on Tao. If a single element of this combination will not work properly, this “Chinese dream” will not be achieved.

  2. Effect of Selected Recruiting Strategies on Beginning Instrumentalists' Participation Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierman, Glenn E.; Veak, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the effect of aptitude, two methods of introducing wind and string instruments, and the effect of socioeconomic status on children's attitude toward playing an instrument. Finds no relationship between musical aptitude and musical attitude, but that the method of introduction and socioeconomic status combined to affect children's…

  3. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B

    2015-04-01

    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society.

  4. Double beta decay experiments: beginning of a new era

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S

    2012-01-01

    The review of current experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed and values of modern limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass ($) are given. New results on two neutrino double beta decay are presented. The special attention is given to new current experiments with mass of studied isotopes more than 100 kg, EXO--200 and KamLAND--Zen. These experiments open a new era in research of double beta decay. In the second part of the review prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to $$ at the level of $\\sim 0.01-0.1$ eV are discussed. Parameters and characteristics of the most perspective projects (CUORE, GERDA, MAJORANA, SuperNEMO, EXO, KamLAND--Zen, SNO+) are given.

  5. Beginnings of fruit growing in the old world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohary, D; Spiegel-Roy, P

    1975-01-31

    The article reviews the available information on the start of fruit tree cultivation in the Old World. On the basis of (i) evaluation of the available archeological remains and (ii) examination of the wild relatives of the cultivated crops, it was concluded that olive, grape, date, and fig were the first important horticultural additions to the Mediterranean grain agriculture. They were most likely domesticated in the Near East in protohistoric time (fourth and third millennia B.C.) and they emerge as important food elements in the early Bronze Age. Domestication of all four fruit trees was based on a shift from sexual reproduction (in the wild) to vegetative propagation of clones (under domestication). Olive, grape, date, and fig can be vegetatively propagated by simple techniques (cuttings, basal knobs, suckers) and were thus preadapted for domestication early in the development of agriculture. The shift to clonal propagation placed serious limitations on selection and on fruit set under cultivation. We have examined the consequences of this shift in terms of the genetic makeup of the cultivars and traced the various countermeasures that evolved to ensure fruit set. Finally, it was pointed out that in each of these classic fruit trees we are confronted with a variable complex of genuinely wild types, secondary weedy derivatives and feral plants, and groups of the domesticated clones, which are all interfertile and interconnected by occasional hybridization. It was concluded that introgression from the diversified wild gene pool facilitated the rapid buildup of variation in the domesticated crops.

  6. [Foundational questions in the beginning of clinical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Glauco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes an initial survey on the origins of American clinical psychology between the nineteenth and twentieth century, against a backdrop of historiographical interpretation that hypothesizes a "plurality of matrices" of clinical psychology, linked to different theoretical perspectives and different socio-cultural contexts. Particular attention is focused upon the main foundational issues of the discipline, drawing from some of the writings of Lightner Witmer, to whom we owe the founding of the first "clinical psychology" for subjects in childhood characterized by "retardation or physical defects interfering with school progress"; and of a lesser-known scholar, John E.W. Wallin. Both authors, indeed, worry themselves anxious to define clinical psychology, differentiating it from other medical and psychological branches; to establish which is the field of competence of the clinical psychologist; and to outline their training and specify the aims and contents of their intervention. Attention is then addressed to the relationship psychologists-psychiatrists at the time of its emergence, making specific reference to a document of the New York Psychiatrical Society--which represents one of the first attempts to exclude clinical psychologists from the field of mental health--and reporting also on the response to this position signed by Shepherd Franz. After an allusion to the Italian situation from the 1950s to today, the article concludes by emphasizing that at least some of the basic questions that clinical psychology had to deal with at its birth are still present, though filtered through the intense debate that has taken place over the years, and consequently supporting the importance of a historical component in the training of contemporary clinical psychologists.

  7. The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Panosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of writing as a system for communication, since its origins, in terms of its uses and socio-cultural context. We shall also look to review and comment on the way in which it has evolved in time and space and its primordial domains for expression. Likewise, we shall look at the current state of affairs with respect to graphic communication, which includes the alphabet, logographic systems and symbols. From a more global point of view, the relationship between the concept of writing and the concept of civilisation is studied and two dimensions are set out: the oral culture and the written culture.

  8. Tacit Beginnings Towards a Model of Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Rory J.

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an examination of the role tacit knowledge plays in understanding, and to provide a model to make such knowledge identifiable. To do this I first consider the needs of society, the ubiquity of information in our world and the future demands of the science classroom. I propose the use of more implicit or tacit understandings as foundational elements for the development of student knowledge. To justify this proposition I consider a wide range of philosophical and psychological perspectives on knowledge. Then develop a Model of Scientific Knowledge, based in large part on a similar model created by Paul Ernest (Social constructivism as a philosophy of mathematics, SUNY Press, Albany, NY, 1998a; Situated cognition and the learning of mathematics, University of Oxford Department of Educational Studies, Oxford, 1998b). Finally, I consider the work that has been done by those in fields beyond education and the ways in which tacit knowledge can be used as a starting point for knowledge building.

  9. General relativistic cosmology with no beginning of time

    CERN Document Server

    Fakir, R

    1998-01-01

    We find that general relativity can be naturally free of cosmological singularities. Several nonsingular models are currently available that either assume ad hoc matter contents, or are nonsingular only over a sector of solution space of zero measure, or depart drastically from general relativity at high energies. After much uncertainty over whether cosmological inflation could help solve the initial-singularity problem, the prevailing belief today is that general relativistic cosmology, with inflation or without, is endemically singular. This belief was reinforced by recent singularity theorems that take account specifically of inflation. Here, a viable inflationary cosmology is worked out that is naturally free of singularities despite the fact that 1) it uses only classical general relativity, 2) it assumes only the most generic inflationary matter contents, and 3) it is a theory of the chaotic-inflation type. That type of inflation is the most widely accepted today, as it demands the least fine-tuning of ...

  10. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions.

  11. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 2. Quantitative comparison of pathogen risk to other impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-08-19

    Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential. PMID:25058416

  12. A beginning in the reversible logic synthesis of sequential circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Thapliyal, Himanshu; Srinivas, M. B; Zwolinski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides the initial threshold to building of more complex system having reversible sequential circuits as a primitive component and which can execute more complicated operations using quantum computers. The reversible circuits form the basic building block of quantum computers as all quantum operations are reversible. The important reversible gates used for reversible logic synthesis are Feynman Gate, New Gate and Fredkin gate. The novelty of the paper is the reversible designs of...

  13. The Job Realities of Beginning and Experienced Assistant Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Shoho, Alan R.; Oleszewski, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of a cross section of new and experienced assistant principals regarding the realities of their jobs. Findings indicated that their challenges pertain to workload and task management, conflicts with adults and students, and curriculum and instruction issues. Novice and experienced assistant principals' responses…

  14. Voigt's transformations and the beginning of the relativistic revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Heras, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In 1887 W. Voigt published a paper on the Doppler effect, which marked the birth of the relativistic revolution. In his paper Voigt derived a set of spacetime transformations by demanding covariance to the homogeneous wave equation in inertial frames, and this was an application of the first postulate of special relativity. Voigt assumed in his derivation the invariance of the speed of light in inertial frames, and this is the second postulate of special relativity. He then applied the postulates of special relativity to the wave equation 18 years before Einstein explicitly enunciated these postulates. Voigt's transformations questioned the Newtonian notion of absolute time for the first time in physics by suggesting that the absolute time should be replaced by the non-absolute time $t'=t-vx/c^2$. Unfortunately, Voigt's 1887 paper was not appreciated by most physicists of that time. Voigt's transformations do not form a group and are an example of the conformal symmetry of spacetime. In the present paper we e...

  15. Nuclear PDFs in the beginning of the LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Paukkunen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    The status of the global fits of nuclear parton distributions (nPDFs) is reviewed. In addition to comparing the contemporary analyses of nPDFs, difficulties and controversies posed by the neutrino-nucleus deeply inelastic scattering data is overviewed. At the end, the first dijet data from the LHC proton+lead collisions is briefly discussed.

  16. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  17. Nurse leaders as stewards: the beginning of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Norma Sinnott

    2009-08-20

    In understanding fully persons' moral predicaments, a core component of forming perceptual judgments, nurses may need to shift the epistemology of their practice from instrumental reasoning, or means-ends thinking, integrating a virtue-based practical reasoning. A bearing witness that achieves understanding of clients' moral qualities is attained through the articulation of nurses' self-identities within matrices, such as MacIntyre's theory of virtue ethics and standards and codes of ethics. Moreover, nurse leaders who exercise stewardship could apply the concept of communities of inquiry to structure learning conditions by which nurses may engage in experiential learning. This leadership enhanced by the nurse steward's phronetic knowledge, or practical wisdom, which guides understanding of how the clockwork of practical reasoning may evolve within such communities, is critical to nurses' shift in reasoning. Nonetheless, nurse leaders need empirical evidence to comprehend how stewards' accumulated moral insights may shape their character qualities, hence selection of values upon which to act in facilitating nurses' self-expression.

  18. John Ambrose Fleming and the Beginning of Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Dylla; Steve Corneliussen

    2004-11-01

    2004 was the centenary of John Ambrose Fleming's momentous patent on the thermionic diode that can be called the birth of electronics. The ''Edison effect'' was discovered in 1882; this was later shown to be the result of thermionic emission of electrons from a heated filament into a vacuum. Edison did not make any significant devices based on this discovery, and the effect was ignored for more than 8 years. In 1890 Fleming explained the effect and showed that the thermionic diode could be used as a rectifier. Fourteen years later Fleming filed his 1904 patent on the thermionic diode. It was the first public announcement of the electron tube; this revolutionized the development of radio and led to the invention of the thermionic triode by Lee de Forest in 1906. The background to these events will be described.

  19. Marginalia as the beginning of written culture: The Glosas Emilianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šabec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Glosas emilianenses are notes in Latin and in a Romance language dating from the eleventh century, written by an anonymous monk between the lines and in the margins of a Latin manuscript known as Codex Aemilianensis 60 to explicate syntactic, morphological, and semantic difficulties in understanding the original. The document was named after its place of origin, a monastery in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, known as “the cradle of Castilian.” The non-Latin Romance glosses are believed to be the first written accounts of the language that later evolved into present-day Castilian or Spanish; they are therefore invaluable historical, linguistic, literary, and cultural material. The place and time of the origin of the glosses are not a coincidence, but a consequence of particular historical circumstances in the Iberian Peninsula. The Moorish invasion in 711 AD destroyed the Visigothic Kingdom and constrained the development of Christian culture, confining it to two independent cores in the north. The ninth century therefore saw the establishment of the County of Castile emerging from the two cores as the predecessor of the Kingdom of Castile (1065. Due to turbulent historical events, the place was populated by people from various adjacent and rather distant countries, thus making the spoken language a mixture of several varieties of Vulgar Latin, Mozarabic, and Navarrian (Basque elements. All of these features are reflected in the glosses in the San Millán manuscript. Therefore, it is difficult for linguists to name the variant of the Romance language the glosses were written in: “the Riojan dialect,” “a vernacular Castilian-Riojan dialect of the second half of the eleventh century displaying tendencies towards learned Latin,” or “a Riojan dialect with elements more common to neighboring dialects (Aragon, Navarrian, Léon, and Mozarabic than to Castilian.” However, because the San Millán glosses also include elements

  20. Componential skills of beginning writing: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Wagner, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined the components of end of kindergarten writing, using data from 242 kindergartners. Specifically of interest was the importance of spelling, letter writing fluency, reading, and word- and syntax-level oral language skills in writing. The results from structural equation modeling revealed that oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were positively and uniquely related to writing skill after accounting for reading skills. Reading skill was not uniquely related to writing once oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were taken into account. These findings are discussed from a developmental perspective.

  1. LHC Report: perhaps the end of the beginning

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 6.5 TeV proton run will end on the morning of 4 November as we approach the close of an interesting but somewhat challenging year. Following machine development time and a technical stop, the LHC will restart operation with a proton-proton configuration at 2.51 TeV in the middle of November. Data from this special run will be used by the experiments as a reference point for the proton-lead and lead-lead collisions.     The rate of UFOs per hour has dropped since the first high-intensity runs. Here it is seen after the first scrubbing run (SR1), through the second technical stop (TS2) until now (right end of the abscissae). As of the end of October, the LHC is delivering luminosity in the order of 4.8x1033 cm-2s-1 to ATLAS and CMS, 3x1032 cm-2s-1 to LHCb and 5x1030 cm-2s-1 to ALICE, with an integrated luminosity of around 3.5 fb-1 for both ATLAS and CMS. Looking back, the year’s operations can be roughly divided into four main phases, interspersed with technica...

  2. Cortical sequence of word perception in beginning readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Tiina; Helenius, Päivi; Poskiparta, Elisa; Niemi, Pekka; Salmelin, Riitta

    2006-05-31

    Efficient analysis of written words in normal reading is likely to reflect use of neural circuits formed by experience during childhood rather than an innate process. We investigated the cortical sequence of word perception in first-graders (7-8 years old), with special emphasis on occipitotemporal cortex in which, in adults, letter-string-sensitive responses are detected at 150 ms after stimulus. To identify neural activation that is sensitive to either the amount of basic visual features or specifically to letter strings, we recorded whole-head magnetoencephalography responses to words embedded in three different levels of noise and to symbol strings. As was shown previously in adults, activation reflecting stimulus nonspecific visual feature analysis was localized to occipital cortex in children. It was followed by letter-string-sensitive activation in the left occipitotemporal cortex and, subsequently, in the temporal cortex. These processing stages were correlated in timing and activation strength. Compared with adults, however, the timing of activation was clearly delayed in children, and the delay was progressively increased from occipital to occipitotemporal and further to temporal areas. This finding is likely to reflect increasing immaturity of the underlying neural generators when advancing from low-level visual analysis to higher-order areas involved in written word perception. When a salient occipitotemporal letter-string-sensitive activation was detected (10 of 18 children), its strength was correlated with phonological skills, in line with the known relevance of phonological awareness in reading acquisition.

  3. Numerical Modelling of Subduction Zones: a New Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficini, Eleonora; Dal Zilio, Luca; Doglioni, Carlo; Gerya, Taras V.

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zones are one of the most studied although still controversial geodynamic process. Is it a passive or an active mechanism in the frame of plate tectonics? How subduction initiates? What controls the differences among the slabs and related orogens and accretionary wedges? The geometry and kinematics at plate boundaries point to a "westerly" polarized flow of plates, which implies a relative opposed flow of the underlying Earth's mantle, being the decoupling located at about 100-200 km depth in the low-velocity zone or LVZ (Doglioni and Panza, 2015 and references therein). This flow is the simplest explanation for determining the asymmetric pattern of subduction zones; in fact "westerly" directed slabs are steeper and deeper with respect to the "easterly or northeasterly" directed ones, that are less steep and shallower, and two end members of orogens associated to the downgoing slabs can be distinguished in terms of topography, type of rocks, magmatism, backarc spreading or not, foredeep subsidence rate, etc.. The classic asymmetry comparing the western Pacific slabs and orogens (low topography and backarc spreading in the upper plate) and the eastern Pacific subduction zones (high topography and deep rocks involved in the upper plate) cannot be ascribed to the age of the subducting lithosphere. In fact, the same asymmetry can be recognized all over the world regardless the type and age of the subducting lithosphere, being rather controlled by the geographic polarity of the subduction. All plate boundaries move "west". Present numerical modelling set of subduction zones is based on the idea that a subducting slab is primarily controlled by its negative buoyancy. However, there are several counterarguments against this assumption, which is not able to explain the global asymmetric aforementioned signatures. Moreover, petrological reconstructions of the lithospheric and underlying mantle composition, point for a much smaller negative buoyancy than predicted

  4. Understanding Beginning Teacher Induction: A Contextualized Examination of Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The problems that teachers face early in their careers are a major factor in growing rates of attrition among neophyte teachers. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, high rates of attrition, coupled with and aging teacher population in many countries in the developed world, may cause a teacher shortage crisis in…

  5. Beginnings of rocket development in the czech lands (Czechoslovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, Michal

    2011-11-01

    Although the first references are from the 15th Century when both Hussites and crusaders are said to have used rockets during the Hussite Wars (also known as the Bohemian Wars) there is no strong evidence that rockets were actually used at that time. It is worth noting that Konrad Kyeser, who described several rockets in his Bellifortis manuscript written 1402-1405, served as advisor to Bohemian King Wenceslas IV. Rockets were in fact used as fireworks from the 16th century in noble circles. Some of these were built by Vavřinec Křička z Bitý\\vsky, who also published a book on fireworks, in which he described how to build rockets for firework displays. Czech soldiers were also involved in the creation of a rocket regiment in the Austrian (Austro-Hungarian) army in the first half of the 19th century. The pioneering era of modern rocket development began in the Czech lands during the 1920s. The first rockets were succesfully launched by Ludvík Očenášek in 1930 with one of them possibly reaching an altitude of 2000 metres. Vladimír Mandl, lawyer and author of the first book on the subject of space law, patented his project for a stage rocket (vysokostoupající raketa) in 1932, but this project never came to fruition. There were several factories during the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in 1939-1945, when the Czech lands were occupied by Nazi Germany, where parts for German Mark A-4/V-2 rockets were produced, but none of the Czech technicians or constructors were able to build an entire rocket. The main goal of the Czech aircraft industry after WW2 was to revive the stagnant aircraft industry. There was no place to create a rocket industry. Concerns about a rocket industry appeared at the end of the 1950s. The Political Board of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party started to study the possibilities of creating a rocket industry after the first flight into space and particularly after US nuclear weapons were based in Italy

  6. Beginnings of remote handling at the RAL Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expenditure of funds and resources for remote maintenance systems traditionally are delayed until late in an accelerator's development. However, simple remote-surveillance equipment can be included early in facility planning to set the stage for future remote-handling needs and to identify appropriate personnel. Some basic equipment developed in the UK at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) that serves this function and that has been used to monitor beam loss during commissioning is described. A photograph of this equipment, positioned over the extractor septum magnet, is shown. This method can serve as a pattern approach to the problem of initiating remote-handling activities in other facilities

  7. Beginning of Universe through large field hybrid inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Recent detection of $B$-mode polarization induced from tensor perturbations by the BICEP2 experiment implies so-called large field inflation, where an inflaton field takes super-Planckian expectation value during inflation, at a high energy scale. We show however, if another inflation follows hybrid inflation, the hybrid inflation can generate a large tensor perturbation with not super-Plankian but Planckian field value. This scenario would relax the tension between BICEP2 and Planck concerning the tensor-to-scalar ratio, because a negative large running can also be obtained for a certain number of e-fold of the hybrid inflation. A natural interpretation of a large gravitational wave mode with or without the scalar spectral running might be multiple inflation in the early Universe.

  8. [The fragile beginning of the vaccine cold chain in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuells, José

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aiming to analyze the vaccine cold chain throughout Spain, performed from 1988-89, sparked interest in vaccine logistics among public health authorities. The studies were performed using evaluation methodology based on cold chain monitor cards with a time-temperature indicator (Battersby's report) and cross-sectional surveys on the conditions of the cold chain (Ferrando's report) in the second and third levels (provincial and local stores). The technical reports revealed the precariousness of the situation, identified the weak points that were jeopardizing the vaccines' efficiency, and favored awareness of an activity that constitutes the vertebral column of any immunization program. The improvements proposed were gradually implemented by regional governments. More funds for equipment and personnel training were provided and specific management protocols were established. PMID:19939512

  9. Rainforests at the beginning of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Mics, F.; Rozak, A. H.; Kocsis, M.; Homoródi, Réka; Hufnagel, Levente

    2013-01-01

    Rainforests are situated at low latitude where forests enjoy steady and strong radiation. Biodiversity in rainforests has been very high, for historical and climatic reasons. The number of species is very high and tends to increase with precipitation and decrease with seasonality. Disturbance, soil fertility and forest stature also influence the species richness and high turnover of species contribute to diversity. Field observation and studies revealed that large scale deforestat...

  10. The Beginning of the End for Digital Forensic Recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Baxter Bell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-AU X-NONE X-NONE Digital evidence is increasingly relied upon in computer forensic examinations and legal proceedings in the modern courtroom. The primary storage technology used for digital information has remained constant over the last two decades, in the form of the magnetic disc. Consequently, investigative, forensic, and judicial procedures are well-established for magnetic disc storage devices (Carrier, 2005. However, a paradigm shift has taken place in technology storage and complex, transistor-based devices for primary storage are now increasingly common. Most people are aware of the transition from portable magnetic floppy discs to portable USB transistor flash devices, yet the transition from magnetic hard drives to solid-state drives inside modern computers has so far attracted very little attention from the research community.Here we show that it is imprudent and potentially reckless to rely on existing evidence collection processes and procedures, and we demonstrate that conventional assumptions about the behaviour of storage media are no longer valid. In particular we demonstrate that modern storage devices can operate under their own volition in the absence of computer instructions. Such operations are highly destructive of traditionally recoverable data. This can contaminate evidence; can obfuscate and make validation of digital evidence reports difficult; can complicate the process of live and dead analysis recovery; and can complicate and frustrate the post recovery forensic analysis. Our experimental findings demonstrate that solid-state drives (SSDs have the capacity to destroy evidence catastrophically under their own volition, in the absence of specific instructions to do so from a computer.

  11. The beginnings of dermatopathology and dermatologic microbiology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, E

    2014-03-01

    Crisóstomo Martínez from Valencia was a pioneering microscopist in 17th-century Europe. The first microscopic representations of skin in Spain appeared in an 18th-century work by Martín Martínez. Microbiology and histopathology progressed considerably in the late 19th century thanks to anatomists like Maestre de San Juan and surgeons like Federico Rubio Galí. The first Spanish pathologist to specialize in dermatology was Antonio Mendoza, a colleague of José Eugenio de Olavide at the Hospital San Juan de Dios in Madrid. Claudio Sala and Juan de Azúa also made significant contributions, including the description of pseudoepithelioma. Several disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Jorge FranciscoTello, such as Lorenzo Ruiz de Arcaute and Guillermo de la Rosa King, consolidated the dermatology laboratory, but the Civil War sent many into exile or deprived them of their professional status. Juan Rubió in Barcelona and Julio Rodríguez Puchol in Madrid were the immediate predecessors of today's dermatopathologists.

  12. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors a review of the beginnings

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with µW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm2, retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at > 10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities > 10 cm-2. The noise in a channel was ~100 e- r.m.s. and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level 30 Mrad, respectively.

  13. The End of Public Schools? Or a New Beginning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, David; Martina, Camille Anne

    2016-01-01

    Public education is becoming increasingly privatized as private philanthropic organizations, such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and corporations, such as Pearson, dominate the policy-making process, and more students enroll in publicly funded but privately administered charter schools. The privatization of education results from the…

  14. Protocells: At the Interface of Life and Non-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Ma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cellular form, manifesting as a membrane-bounded system (comprising various functional molecules, is essential to life. The ultimate reason for this is that, typically, one functional molecule can only adopt one “correct” structure to perform one special function (e.g., an enzyme, and thus molecular cooperation is inevitable. While this is particularly true for advanced life with complex functions, it should have already been true for life at its outset with only limited functions, which entailed some sort of primitive cellular form—“protocells”. At the very beginning, the protocells may have even been unable to intervene in the growth of their own membrane, which can be called “pseudo-protocells”. Then, the ability to synthesize membrane components (amphiphiles may have emerged under selective pressure, leading to “true-protocells”. The emergence of a “chromosome” (with genes linked together—thus avoiding “gene-loss” during the protocell division, was another key event in the evolution of protocells. Such “unitary-protocells”, containing a central genetic molecule, may have appeared as a milestone—in principle, since then life could evolve endlessly, “gaining” more and more functions by introducing new genes. To synthesize in laboratory these different types of protocells, which stand at the interface between life and non-life, would greatly enhance our understanding on the essence of life.

  15. Protocells: at the interface of life and non-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wentao; Feng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The cellular form, manifesting as a membrane-bounded system (comprising various functional molecules), is essential to life. The ultimate reason for this is that, typically, one functional molecule can only adopt one "correct" structure to perform one special function (e.g., an enzyme), and thus molecular cooperation is inevitable. While this is particularly true for advanced life with complex functions, it should have already been true for life at its outset with only limited functions, which entailed some sort of primitive cellular form-"protocells". At the very beginning, the protocells may have even been unable to intervene in the growth of their own membrane, which can be called "pseudo-protocells". Then, the ability to synthesize membrane components (amphiphiles) may have emerged under selective pressure, leading to "true-protocells". The emergence of a "chromosome" (with genes linked together)-thus avoiding "gene-loss" during the protocell division, was another key event in the evolution of protocells. Such "unitary-protocells", containing a central genetic molecule, may have appeared as a milestone-in principle, since then life could evolve endlessly, "gaining" more and more functions by introducing new genes. To synthesize in laboratory these different types of protocells, which stand at the interface between life and non-life, would greatly enhance our understanding on the essence of life. PMID:25809963

  16. Features from the non-attractor beginning of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Wang, Dong-Gang; Wang, Ziwei

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of the non-attractor initial conditions for the canonical single-field inflation. The non-attractor stage can last only several $e$-folding numbers, and should be followed by hilltop inflation. This two-stage evolution leads to large scale suppression in the primordial power spectrum, which is favored by recent observations. Moreover we give a detailed calculation of primordial non-Guassianity due to the "from non-attractor to slow-roll" transition, and find step features in the local and equilateral shapes. We conclude that a plateau-like inflaton potential with an initial non-attractor phase yields interesting features in both power spectrum and bispectrum.

  17. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild – as many older research chimpanzees once were – and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has mad...

  18. Are Beginning Teachers Ready for the Job? The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure the Basic Skills of Beginning Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Elke; Adriaensens, Stefanie; Meynen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Society has become more complex in recent decades, and this has increased the demands placed on the educational system and the teaching profession. This study focuses on the development and validation of an instrument that measures the basic skills of beginning teachers. The instrument was developed according to scientific knowledge on teacher…

  19. Jacopo da Firenze and the Beginning of Italian Vernacular Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In 1307, one Jacobus de Florentia located at that moment in Montpellier wrote a Tractatus algorismi containing a chapter on algebra. This earliest extant algebra in a European vernacular is noteworthy in several respects: 1.For decades, every writing on algebra in Italy or Montpellier which we know...... but mediated through a Romance-speaking area. The obvious guess (supported by supplementary evidence) is that this area was Catalonia, even though the Catalan-Provencal tradition is only known to us from considerably later sources. Further inspection of Jacopo's algebra and other slightly later Italian...

  20. The beginning of a new era - OTC's satellite business services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Erik

    OTC has developed a new range of digital services which will provide business organizations in Australia with high quality private international telecommunications. This range will be known as Satnet and the paper deals with Satnet 2 which is the service offerings using medium-size earth stations (nominally 5- and 7-meter antenna apertures), installed at customers' premises. These services will rely on the Intelsat 6/4 GHz space segment. Operation will be totally digital and will be integrated with no distinction between individual applications such as voice, data, video, etc. Carrier capacities between 64 kb/s and 8.448 Mb/s can be provided and ISDN performance requirements can be supported. The paper describes key service features, systems design and transmission analysis. Consideration is also given to operation, installation and frequency coordination aspects.

  1. The beginnings of the concept of corporate social responsibility and Andrew Carnegie’s writings

    OpenAIRE

    Radu LOLESCU

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the beginnings of corporate social responsibility. In my opinion Andrew Carnegie is among the first ones who presented the difference between philanthropy and corporate social responsibility. From Andrew Carnegie and up to the present this concept went under different changes both for the benefit of the community and for the sake of the companies, but what is very important is the beginning of this process.

  2. The Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, D.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an outline of lectures given on this topic to British secondary students. Man's various ideas about the origin of life are included in three categories: those that consider life to have been created by a Divine Being; those that consider life to have developed from non-living matter; and those that consider life to be eternal. (MLH)

  3. The Metaphorical Applications of Heavenly Bodies and Phenomena in Western Armenian Poetry at the Beginning of the XX Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, Karine

    2015-07-01

    The metaphorical applications of heavenly bodies and phenomena in Western Armenian poetry at the beginning of the XX century are very diverse and of great variety. Art Workers eulogize the creation of God, admire the beauty of stars, and perceive the man as a part of nature and in the close connection with all other parts. These units are often used for bringing to light one's inner life, his old gone paths, expectations and hopes, many times they become the heart and the basis of poetical image and create unique beauty.

  4. Life Sciences Division and Center for Human Genome Studies 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, L.S.; Stafford, C. [comp.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Life Sciences Division and the biological aspects of the Center for Human Genome Studies for the calendar year 1994. The technical portion of the report is divided into two parts, (1) selected research highlights and (2) research projects and accomplishments. The research highlights provide a more detailed description of a select set of projects. A technical description of all projects is presented in sufficient detail so that the informed reader will be able to assess the scope and significance of each project. Summaries useful to the casual reader desiring general information have been prepared by the group leaders and appear in each group overview. Investigators on the staff of the Life Sciences Division will be pleased to provide further information.

  5. Healty lifestyles a fundamental rigth on human being life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salas Cabrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the impact of certain lifestyles in our daily lives, and to reference some of them, among which are a sedentary lifestyle, diet, physical activity, social and family support, and the impact they have on people’ quality of life. It is clear that as a human beings, the developments in everyday life are addressed by duties and rights that affect our way of living, hence all individuals should enjoy the right to a better quality of life; to achieve this, it is necessary to maintain healthy lifestyle habits that create mechanisms to protect people against the development of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically it has been shown that people who have unhealthy life habits develop over time no only hypokinetic diseases, but also neurological ones such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Under this scenario this paper is intended to present clear and concise information about what lifestyles represent to people and their importance as a right for everyone who decides to adapt them to their daily lives.

  6. 人类进入再生生命世界%Human Steps into the World of Regenerative Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐荣祥

    2013-01-01

    As the self negation of Watson on gene therapy and the rise of Human Body Regenerative Restora-tion Science ( HBRRS) , great changes have taken place in the pattern of life science around the world. Throughout the his-tory, the development of science and technology inevitably influences and impacts the revolution of economy, politics, relat-ed industry and agriculture, and life energy industry. In such a situation, Professor XU Rong-xiang, the founder of HBRRS, recently made an academic report under the title of“ Historical Development and Prospect of Life Science” to pro-spectively analyze the development history of natural science, life science and medicine in a penetrating way and finally con-cluded the gene therapy theory coming to its end and HBRRS coming in and enjoying broad prospects, which is the reality of today’ s most cutting-edge science. The report made by Professor XU impressed the attendees a lot by its profound meaning, strategic views and humorous and easy-to-understand language. In order to benefit more scholars and professionals, we spe-cially organized, edited and published it in the academic journal according to the report video to share with readers.%   随着詹姆斯·沃森( James Watson)在基因治疗学上的自我否定和人体再生复原科学的兴起,世界生命科学的格局将发生巨大的变化。纵观古今中外科学发展史,科技的发展必然对世界政治、经济、工业、农业以及其他产业产生一定的影响。在这样的形势下,人体再生复原科学创始人徐荣祥教授,最近以“人类进入再生生命世界”为题作了学术讲座,把世界的自然科学、生命科学、医学的发展历史做了精辟的分析与前瞻,最后归结到基因治疗学说的终结,人体再生复原科学的兴起与广阔前景,这个当今最前沿的科学现实。演讲含义深邃,高屋建瓴,通俗易懂,聆听了此报告的人无

  7. Allostasis and the Human Brain: Integrating Models of Stress from the Social and Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzel, Barbara L.; Morris, Pamela A.; Wethington, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    We draw on the theory of allostasis to develop an integrative model of the current stress process that highlights the brain as a dynamically adapting interface between the changing environment and the biological self. We review evidence that the core emotional regions of the brain constitute the primary mediator of the well-established association…

  8. Visible humans, vanishing bodies, and virtual nursing: complications of life, presence, place, and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2002-03-01

    The emergence of the posthuman body and the disappearance of the humanist body serve as background for the rediscovery of the body as resource and problem in nursing. At the precise moment when the fleshy body is deemed increasingly irrelevant and immaterial in cyberspace come divergent moves in nursing toward not only resurrecting this body, but also toward virtual environments of nursing care, where fleshy bodies never encounter each other. The posthuman conflation of bodies and information poses the greatest challenge yet to the secure place, presence, and identity of nursing in health care.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule) completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is ......BACKGROUND: Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule) completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area...... dating is made possible by comparing the (14)C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric (14)C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even...... turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA). Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre-senile degradation, as well as other highly specialised structures of the eyes. The precision with which the year of birth may be calculated points to forensic uses...

  10. Pedagogy as a Scientific Discipline in Latvia from 1920s till the Beginning of 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Ozola, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    ANNOTATION The doctoral thesis „Genesis of Pedagogy as a Scientific Discipline in Latvia from 1920s till the Beginning of 1960s” elaborated by Ms Iveta Ozola aims to investigate how pedagogy in Latvia was founded and developed as an independent scientific discipline in the context of processes of science and socio-political changes from 1920s till the beginning of 1960s. The work analyses theoretical background of science development defining dimensions which characterize the evolution of ...

  11. Ethical consideration of experimentation using living human embryos: the Catholic Church's position on human embryonic stem cell research and human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, N

    2003-01-01

    Although the potential applications of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning hold promise for the alleged medical benefits, these technologies have posed profound ethical issues because they necessitate the destruction of human embryos. A fundamental point in the issues is the concept of the moral status of human embryos. The Catholic Church has held that human life begins at the moment of conception and therefore, has defended the dignity, inviolable right to life and integrity of human embryos. The Catholic Church has opposed human embryonic stem cell research and any kind of human cloning because they are contrary to the dignity of procreation, of conjugal union and of human embryos. Moreover, these techniques have the risk of creating a sub-category of human beings that are destined basically for the convenience of others. In conclusion, science and technology can never be independent of the criterion of morality, since technology exists for man and must respect his finality.

  12. Enhancement of human performance with developing ergonomic workplace environment and providing work-life balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Forgacs,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomy aims at creating a work place that suits the employee’s needs. A well-developed office does not only increase work efficiency but it can also significantly reduce costs. This study researches and reveals the specific personal attributes and the factors of workplace environment, which have an effect on the efficiency of the workforce. We were searching for studies, where the core work wasn’t changed -the increase in work efficiency was reached only by changing the work environment.

  13. Longitudinal patterns of emerging literacy in beginning deaf and hearing readers

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle, F. E.; Harris, M

    2011-01-01

    The emerging reading and spelling abilities of 24 deaf and 23 hearing beginning readers were followed over 2 years. The deaf children varied in their language backgrounds and preferred mode of communication. All children were given a range of literacy, cognitive and language-based tasks every 12 months. Deaf and hearing children made similar progress in literacy in the beginning stages of reading development and then their trajectories began to diverge. The longitudinal correlates of beginnin...

  14. 76 FR 67376 - Anglers for Christ Ministries, Inc., New Beginning Ministries; Petitioners; Interpretation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 79 Anglers for Christ Ministries, Inc., New Beginning Ministries; Petitioners; Interpretation of Economically Burdensome Standard AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  15. 76 FR 67397 - Anglers for Christ Ministries, Inc., New Beginning Ministries; Petitioners; Interpretation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 79 Anglers for Christ Ministries, Inc., New Beginning Ministries; Petitioners; Interpretation of Economically Burdensome Standard AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  16. Multiple origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  17. Trends in basic mathematical competencies of beginning undergraduates in Ireland, 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Páraic; Faulkner, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    Deficiencies in beginning undergraduate students' basic mathematical skills has been an issue of concern in higher education, particularly in the past 15 years. This issue has been tracked and analysed in a number of universities in Ireland and internationally through student scores recorded in mathematics diagnostic tests. Students beginning their science-based and technology-based undergraduate courses in the University of Limerick have had their basic mathematics skills tested without any prior warning through a 40 question diagnostic test during their initial service mathematics lecture since 1998. Data gathered through this diagnostic test have been recorded in a database kept at the university and explored to track trends in mathematical competency of these beginning undergraduates. This paper details findings surrounding an analysis of the database between 2003 and 2013, outlining changes in mathematical competencies of these beginning undergraduates in an attempt to determine reasons for such changes. The analysis found that the proportion of students tested through this diagnostic test that are predicted to be at risk of failing their service mathematics end-of-semester examinations has increased significantly between 2003 and 2013. Furthermore, when students' performance in secondary level mathematics was controlled, it was determined that the performance of beginning undergraduates in 2013 was statistically significantly below that of the performance of the beginning undergraduates recorded 10 years previously.

  18. Discovering Genes Essential to the Hypothalamic Regulation of Human Reproduction Using a Human Disease Model: Adjusting to Life in the "-Omics" Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamou, M I; Cox, K H; Crowley, William F

    2016-02-01

    The neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction is an intricate process requiring the exquisite coordination of an assortment of cellular networks, all converging on the GnRH neurons. These neurons have a complex life history, migrating mainly from the olfactory placode into the hypothalamus, where GnRH is secreted and acts as the master regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Much of what we know about the biology of the GnRH neurons has been aided by discoveries made using the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD), a family of rare Mendelian disorders that share a common failure of secretion and/or action of GnRH causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Over the last 30 years, research groups around the world have been investigating the genetic basis of IGD using different strategies based on complex cases that harbor structural abnormalities or single pleiotropic genes, endogamous pedigrees, candidate gene approaches as well as pathway gene analyses. Although such traditional approaches, based on well-validated tools, have been critical to establish the field, new strategies, such as next-generation sequencing, are now providing speed and robustness, but also revealing a surprising number of variants in known IGD genes in both patients and healthy controls. Thus, before the field moves forward with new genetic tools and continues discovery efforts, we must reassess what we know about IGD genetics and prepare to hold our work to a different standard. The purpose of this review is to: 1) look back at the strategies used to discover the "known" genes implicated in the rare forms of IGD; 2) examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used to validate genetic variation; 3)substantiate the role of known genes in the pathophysiology of the disease; and 4) project forward as we embark upon a widening use of these new and powerful technologies for gene discovery. (Endocrine Reviews 36: 603-621, 2015).

  19. The Social Life of Dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijnen, Adriënne

    The Social Life of Dreams: Thousand Years of Negotiated Meanings in Iceland is the first anthropological work that discusses how dreams, remembered upon awakening, motivate human action and influence social relations in contemporary Europe. Through detailed anthropological analyses of the ways...... in which many Icelanders see dreams as legitimate sources of knowledge, this book argues that sleeping and dreaming -- activities which are often considered to be psychological and “non-social”-- should be included in the analysis of social life....

  20. The valuation of prenatal life in economic evaluations of perinatal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Judit; Petrou, Stavros; Gray, Alastair

    2009-04-01

    Perinatal interventions delivered during the prenatal period have the potential to directly impact prenatal life. The decision on when to begin 'counting' the life of an infant in the calculus has received little attention in previous economic evaluations of perinatal interventions. We illustrate, using data from a recent trial-based economic evaluation of magnesium sulphate given to women with pre-eclampsia to prevent eclampsia, how different definitions of when human life commences can have a significant impact upon cost-effectiveness estimates based on composite outcome measures such as life years or quality-adjusted life years gained or disability-adjusted life years averted. Further, we suggest ways in which methods in this area can be improved.

  1. What Little Remains of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben G. Yacobi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life is a non-equilibrium process involving a series of biochemical reactions that use external energy to build the cellular structure and the complexity of the organism. Humans strive for the continuation of their existence. This can be based on an illusory afterlife according to religion or on practical efforts through technology. But the temporality of individual lives is inevitable. Death in the universe, governed by the law of entropy, is unavoidable. Thus, as all traces of human existence fade away,what is most important in life is what one thinks and does at the present moment, when one is fully aware of life. Capturing each moment and filling it with some meaning is the only consolation in life.

  2. Human dignity and ethical treatment: Remarks on family concepts and family life in the era of the Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Martin Kirn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Martin Luther and the Reformation movement placed the household family anew at the centre of Christian life and ethics. In the wider sphere this religious “upgrading” cannot be overestimated in view of its effect on the process of confessionalization 

    and Human beings, believe me, are not born, but formed. Steven Ozment once maintained, that the family of the 16th century was a nurturing institution, characterized by love, respect and mutual dependence among the members of the family modernization in European history. The education of children held a prominent place within the responsibilities of the household family; it was regarded as a divine task. Through this the Reformation movement intensified and specified humanist endeavours, which Erasmus summarized with the words:  Human beings, believe me, are not born, but formed. Health-Related Quality of Life of Young Adults Treated with Recombinant Human Growth Hormone during Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grit Sommer

    Full Text Available Since recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH became available in 1985, the spectrum of indications has broadened and the number of treated patients increased. However, long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL after childhood rhGH treatment has rarely been documented. We assessed HRQoL and its determinants in young adults treated with rhGH during childhood.For this study, we retrospectively identified former rhGH patients in 11 centers of paediatric endocrinology, including university hospitals and private practices. We sent a questionnaire to all patients treated with rhGH for any diagnosis, who were older than 18 years, and who resided in Switzerland at time of the survey. Three hundred participants (58% of 514 eligible returned the questionnaire. Mean age was 23 years; 56% were women; 43% had isolated growth hormone deficiency, or idiopathic short stature; 43% had associated diseases or syndromes, and 14% had growth hormone deficiency after childhood cancer. Swiss siblings of childhood cancer survivors and the German norm population served as comparison groups. HRQoL was assessed using the Short Form-36. We found that the Physical Component Summary of healthy patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency or idiopathic short stature resembled that of the control group (53.8 vs. 54.9. Patients with associated diseases or syndromes scored slightly lower (52.5, and former cancer patients scored lowest (42.6. The Mental Component Summary was similar for all groups. Lower Physical Component Summary was associated with lower educational level (coeff. -1.9. Final height was not associated with HRQoL.In conclusion, HRQoL after treatment with rhGH in childhood depended mainly on the underlying indication for rhGH treatment. Patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency/idiopathic short stature or patients with associated diseases or syndromes had HRQoL comparable to peers. Patients with growth hormone deficiency after childhood cancer were

  3. Can life history trade-offs explain the evolution of short stature in human pygmies? A response to Migliano et al. (2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Noémie S A; Verdu, Paul; Hewlett, Barry; Pavard, Samuel

    2010-02-01

    Walker et al. ["Growth rates and life histories in twenty-two small-scale societies," Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:295-311 (2006)] used life history theory to develop an innovative explanation for human diversity in stature. Short stature could have been selected for in some human populations as a result of the advantage of an earlier growth cessation and earlier reproduction in a context of high mortality. Migliano et al. ["Life history trade-offs explain the evolution of human pygmies," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:20,216-20,219 (2007)] recently published an important article that tested this hypothesis to explain short stature in human pygmy populations. However innovative this work may be, we believe that some of the data and results presented are controversial if not questionable. As problematic points we note (1) the use of an arbitrary threshold of height (155 cm) to categorize populations into pygmies and nonpygmies; (2) the use of demographic data from Philippine pygmy groups that have experienced dramatic cultural and environmental changes in the last 20 years, and (3) the use of demographic data concerning African pygmy groups because good systematic data on these groups are not available. Finally, we report here mathematical errors and loopholes in the optimization model developed by Migliano and colleagues. In this paper we suggest alternative trade-offs that can be used to explain Migliano's results on more reliable bases.

  4. A Life with the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his death in 2000 and…

  5. Quality of Life Philosophy I. Quality of Life, Happiness, and Meaning in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Danish Quality of Life Survey, we asked 10,000 people about their quality of life with the validated SEQOL questionnaire with more than 300 questions on their quality of life. How did they feel? How content were they with their lives? How happy were they? Did they feel their needs were fulfilled? And many more questions. We asked the questions we believed to be important for their quality of life (QOL. The results were quite surprising and forced us to recontemplate the following philosophical questions: What is quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life? What is a human being? Do we need a new biology? Is the brain the seat of consciousness? How do we seize the meaning of life and by doing so, will we become well again? What are the key concepts of quality of life? The meaning of life is connectedness and development. It is about realizing every opportunity and potential in one’s existence. The opportunities must be found and acknowledged. What do you find when you find yourself deep down? You find your real self and your purpose in life. You realize that you are already a part of a larger totality. Antonovsky called it “coherence”. Maslow called it “transcendence”. Frankl called it “meaning of life”. We call it simply “being”.To test if these philosophical questions are actually relevant for medicine, we looked at the consequences for patients being taught the quality of life philosophy. Quite surprisingly we learned from our pilot studies with “quality of life as medicine” that just by assimilating the basic concepts of the quality of life philosophy presented in this series of papers, patients felt better and saw their lives as more meaningful. The improvement of the patient’s personal philosophy of life seems to be the essence of holistic medicine, helping the patient to assume more responsibility for his or her own existence.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of IBS in Malaysia and Comparing Human Health on Timber and Concrete Pre-cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tighnavard Balasbaneh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the life cycle assessment of IBS and compares the environmental impacts of building. There are two different kinds of structure has been assessed in this project namely: Timber prefabricate and concrete pre-cast. IBS is a prefabricated structure which component manufacturing in the factory and then transfer to site work for erect. Timbers prefabricate and concrete pre-cast is compared from the initial stage of extracting material to end of life. The method of LCIA in the project is Impact 2002. This project reveals that the total environmental impact of Timber prefabricated is lower than concrete pre-cast in both manufacturing and use phase 100 year life cycle of IBS. Secondly global warming and ozone layer depletion emissions from timber are also much lower than concrete.

  7. The Notion of Life in the Work of Agamben

    OpenAIRE

    Salzani, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    In his article "The Notion of Life in the Work of Agamben" Carlo Salzani analyzes the notion of "nudity" Giorgio Agamben's understanding of Western culture. Beginning with a reading of the essay "Nudity," in which Agamben proposes an archaeological investigation of the theological apparatus of the concept, Salzani analyzes the pivotal trope in Agamben's Homo Sacer project, "bare" or "naked life," that is, the nudity of life in the grip of sovereign power. Nudity and the nudity of life are con...

  8. The Russian religious painting of the end of XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickу Natalya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of religious art, namely – religious painting, its specifics, in Russia of the end XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries, caused by system changes in the Russian society, on the example of painters – V. M. Vasnetsov, M. V. Nesterov, M. A. Vrubel is analyzed in article.

  9. Peace-Making Ideas by M.M. Kovalevsky at the Beginning of 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAEV N.Yu.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the peace-making ideas of famous historian, sociologist and lawyer M.M. Kovalevsky at the beginning of 20th century and analyzes the sociological conception of solidarity which served as the basis for his views on war and peace. He considered social progress as broadening of solidarity sphere which was unavoidably promoted to the consciousness of political integration society. The scientist approximately compared the progress with concentric circles which embodied of uninterruptedly widing human solidarity. The final stage of social and political development should be the creation of national and federal unions, which in their turn would unify in international union. The union built on the principles of democracy and observance of international right standards was destined not only to keep and to ensure the common peace, but also to promote the development of international trade and industry. Kovalevsky played important role in building the peace-making movement in Russia by supporting it with his high scientific and moral authority. In particular, he headed the St. Petersburg’s peace society, established in 1909. Besides, there were a lot of contradictions in his peaceful views. Being the patriot and supporter of the state, the scientist was very far from peace when Russian national interests were taken ino account. This contradiction was clearly revealed during Balkan’s conflict (1912-1913 and the First World War.

  10. End of Life Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planning for the end of life can be difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, you can ... right choices when the time comes. End-of-life planning usually includes making choices about the following: ...

  11. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers’ transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Agyei, Douglas; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning in utilizing Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program characterized by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’

  12. Pregnancy outcome is associated with maternal marital status in Austria--even at the beginning of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Mayer, Michael; Voigt, Manfred

    2007-12-01

    Human reproduction is a biological phenomenon, however, sociocultural factors such as marital status influence pregnancy outcome and reproductive success. In the present study the impact of maternal marital status on pregnancy outcome was tested for all births, which had taken place in Austria between 1999 and 2004, which met the following criteria: single births, nulliparity, mothers older than 19 years (n = 179 830). The rate of preterm delivery (< 37 beginning weeks of gestation) and rate of low birth weight (< 2500 g) among term births were significantly higher among unmarried mothers in comparison to married mothers. Additionally the newborns of unmarried mothers were significantly lighter and shorter than those of married mothers. This was especially true of immigrant mothers. No significant differences between married and unmarried mothers were found regarding mode of delivery. Even at the beginning of the 21st century unmarried status represents an important stress factor for pregnant women.

  13. Cost Effectiveness, Quality-Adjusted Life-Years and Supportive Care: Recombinant Human Erythropoietin as a Treatment of Cancer-Associated Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Yves Cremieux; Stan N. Finkelstein; Berndt, Ernst R.; Jeffrey Crawford; Mitchell B. Slavin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To measure the cost effectiveness of a supportive care intervention when the no-treatment option is unrealistic in an analysis of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) treatment for anaemic patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Further, to assess whether quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) can provide the basis for an appropriate measure of the value of supportive care interventions. Design: A modelling study drawing cost and effectiveness assumptions from a literature...

  14. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  15. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES. PMID:24195778

  16. Absorption and biological half-life in humans of intrinsic and extrinsic 54Mn tracers from foods of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption and biological half-life of 54Mn were measured in adult men and women fed foods labeled intrinsically or extrinsically with 54Mn. Each subject consumed a series of three test meals consisting of a food labeled intrinsically, a food labeled extrinsically or MnCl2 (control) served in random order. The foods tested were lettuce, spinach, wheat and sunflower seeds. Lettuce meals and their controls contained 9.65 mumol Mn; other meals contained 22.50 mumol Mn. In addition to the test food or MnCl2, each meal consisted of vegetable oil (5 g), salt (NaCl, 0.15 g) and crackers (10 g), which provided 0.55 mumol Mn. There were no differences in percentage of Mn absorption or biological half-life of 54Mn for any of the intrinsically/extrinsically labeled food pairs. Absorption of 54Mn from MnCl2 (8.90%) was greater than from lettuce (5.20%), spinach (3.81%), wheat (2.16%) or sunflower seeds (1.71%), but the biological half-life did not vary with the source of Mn. Absorption of 54Mn from lettuce was significantly (P less than 0.05) greater than from wheat or sunflower seeds. Although the Mn dose in the test meal was less for lettuce than for the other foods, there was no difference in Mn absorption from MnCl2 between the subjects fed lettuce and subjects fed other foods. There was no correlation of either 54Mn absorption or biological half-life with whole blood or plasma Mn

  17. Houttuynia cordata targets the beginning stage of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Hung

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata, a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-κB-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-κB activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-κB activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV.

  18. The Impact of Professional Development on Beginning Teachers’ Practices in One Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Hinds

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study was conducted in 2004-2005 on the professional development experiences of beginning teachers (1-5 years of experience in an Ontario, Canada secondary school (Grades 7-12 and the impact of those experiences in improving their practices. For comparative purposes, the study included the perspectives of administrators from the same school on the impact of professional development on these teachers. The findings revealed that the literacy training program was successfully implemented at the school and positively affected beginning teachers’ knowledge, instructional strategies, and planning practices. Other findings indicated that beginning teachers needed subject content and instructional strategies, ongoing mentoring, and skills in both classroom management and mapping the curriculum. Based on the findings of the study, a new framework for professional development is suggested. A number of recommendations propose ways of connecting research, policy and practice that could ultimately improve the effectiveness of professional development programs for beginning teachers.   Key words: teacher professional development, beginning teacher, adult learning, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, supervision, organizational policies and culture

  19. Treatment satisfaction and quality of life with insulin glargine plus insulin lispro compared with NPH insulin plus unmodified human insulin in people with Type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwell , SG; Stephens, JW; Witthaus, E; Home, PD; Bradley, Clare

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— The purpose of this study was to compare quality of life and treatment satisfaction using insulin glargine plus insulin lispro with that using NPH insulin plus unmodified human insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes managed with multiple injection regimens. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— As part of a 32-week, five-center, two-way crossover study in 56 individuals with type 1 diabetes randomized to evening insulin glargine plus mealtime insulin lispro or to NPH insulin (once or twi...

  1. THE INTENSITY OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX, RESPECTIVELY THE HAPPY PLANET INDEX AND THE LIFE EXPECTANCY, IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Opait

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects the research concerning the intensity of the correlation between the Human Development Index, respectively the Happy Planet Index and the Life Expectancy in Romania, through by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient and the correlation report. The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is a new indicator which expresses the progress in any country, and also, we can say that the Happy Planet Index is a measure of sustainable well-being.

  2. THE INTENSITY OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX, RESPECTIVELY THE HAPPY PLANET INDEX AND THE LIFE EXPECTANCY, IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Opait

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects the research concerning the intensity of the correlation between the Human Development Index, respectively the Happy Planet Index and the Life Expectancy in Romania, through by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient and the correlation report. The Happy Planet Index (HPI is a new indicator which expresses the progress in any country, and also, we can say that the Happy Planet Index is a measure of sustainable well-being.

  3. [Quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, N

    1991-01-01

    The term "Quality of life" appeared at the end of the fifties of this century, it seems in the philosophical and sociological vocabulary at first, and soon after that it became adjusted in medical and non-medical (politics, ethology, mass media) use. In the last few years this term has been used all the more frequently in different branches of medicine because of a more extended human lifetime, due to the development of medicine, the domination of chronic diseases in the pathology of well-developed environments, and because of the growing influence of socio-psychological viewpoints in the bounds of medicine as well. Time will show whether only a transient, "fashionable" term is in question, or if a lasting survival in medical vocabulary has been ensured. This paper analyses the development and the contents of the quality of life concept, it's ethical connotation, the application in different branches of medicine, as well as the principals and problems of it's measurement for clinical purposes. The literature contributed includes 75 domestic and foreign authentic references. PMID:1921860

  4. Small Beginnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Emerging Sino-Japanese defense cooperation could have far-reaching implications for the two countries and the region at large,despite the largely symbolic start History was made when a Chinese mis- sile destroyer sailed into Tokyo har- bor on November 28.Shenzhen,with 345 officials and crew onboard,head- ed by Rear Admiral Xiao Xinnian, Vice Chief of Staff of the South China Sea Fleet,became the first warship of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to visit Japan.

  5. Beginning Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    A thorough introduction that lessens the learning curve to Drupal development. Drupal is a free, open source modular framework and content management system written in the programming language PHP that carries with it a reputation of a steep learning curve. This guide to Drupal methodically demystifies Drupal and even aims shorten the learning curve. Author Jacob Redding is deeply embedded in the Drupal community, and walks first-time Drupal developers through the installation and configuration of a Drupal system. In-depth information on key areas of Drupal explore the Drupal hook system, Drup

  6. Managing the Risky Humanity of Academic Workers: Risk and Reciprocity in University Work-Life Balance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh, Sue; Randell-Moon, Holly

    2015-01-01

    University work-life balance policies increasingly offer academic workers a range of possible options for managing the competing demands of work, family, and community obligations. Flexible work arrangements, family-friendly hours and campus facilities, physical well-being and mental health programs typify strategies for formally acknowledging the…

  7. Moralization y Work and Education at the beginnings of the assistentialpolicy in the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene PALACIO LIS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coinciding with the growth of poverty at the beginning of the XIX century, we see how the State gradually begins to assume control over social affairs. The private and eclesiastic charity of the Old Regime begins to transform in public charity although marginal society still receives the same treatment, which basically intends their moralization. Basic elements of this moralization were work and education, that are the main points of this article, which in particular refers to charity establishments. Work and education for the poors were requirements that were reiterated in the writings of philantropists, politicians and moralists, following the tradition of the preceding centuries, and which were written into the legislation of the XIX century, the same as in the statutes of the poor houses. An always basic education and with a strong practical character, that intended basically to neutralize the risks of social dangers, transmitting the values of the dominant society.

  8. The influence of video recordings on beginning therapist’s learning in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Olesen, Mette Kirk; Kløve, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to the development of technologies and the low costs, video recording of psychotherapy sessions have gained ground in training and supervision. While some praise the advantages others decline to use this technological aid for ethical, theoretical or clinical reasons. Despite...... the current relatively widespread use of video, one finds only a very limited number of empirical studies on how these recordings specifically influence the learning process of the beginning therapist. Aim: After a brief discussion of the pro and cons of the use of video recordings this paper presents...... a qualitative, explorative study of the influence video recordings have on the beginning therapist and his/her evolving learning process in becoming a psychotherapist. Methods: 24 beginning therapists in training at an outpatient university clinic setting filled out a questionnaire containing ten open...

  9. The influence of video recordings on beginning therapists’ learning in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Olesen, Mette Kirk; Kløve, Astrid

    Background: Due to the development of technologies and the low costs, video recording of psychotherapy sessions have gained ground in training and supervision. While some praise the advantages others decline to use this technological aid for ethical, theoretical or clinical reasons. Despite...... the current relatively widespread use of video, one finds only a very limited number of empirical studies on how these recordings specifically influence the learning process of the beginning therapist. Aim: After a brief discussion of the pro and cons of the use of video recordings this paper presents...... a qualitative, explorative study of the influence video recordings have on the beginning therapist and his/her evolving learning process in becoming a psychotherapist. Methods: 24 beginning therapists in training at an outpatient university clinic setting filled out a questionnaire containing ten open...

  10. Longitudinal patterns of emerging literacy in beginning deaf and hearing readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Fiona E; Harris, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The emerging reading and spelling abilities of 24 deaf and 23 hearing beginning readers were followed over 2 years. The deaf children varied in their language backgrounds and preferred mode of communication. All children were given a range of literacy, cognitive and language-based tasks every 12 months. Deaf and hearing children made similar progress in literacy in the beginning stages of reading development and then their trajectories began to diverge. The longitudinal correlates of beginning reading in the deaf children were earlier vocabulary, letter-sound knowledge, and speechreading. Earlier phonological awareness was not a longitudinal correlate of reading ability once earlier reading levels were controlled. Only letter name knowledge was longitudinally related to spelling ability. Speechreading was also a strong longitudinal correlate of reading and spelling in the hearing children. The findings suggested that deaf and hearing children utilize slightly different reading strategies over the first 2 years of schooling.

  11. Landmarks in the Evolution of (t)-RNAs from the Origin of Life up to Their Present Role in Human Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Darko; Kuss, Andreas; Müller, Sabine

    2015-12-23

    How could modern life have evolved? The answer to that question still remains unclear. However, evidence is growing that, since the origin of life, RNA could have played an important role throughout evolution, right up to the development of complex organisms and even highly sophisticated features such as human cognition. RNA mediated RNA-aminoacylation can be seen as a first landmark on the path from the RNA world to modern DNA- and protein-based life. Likewise, the generation of the RNA modifications that can be found in various RNA species today may already have started in the RNA world, where such modifications most likely entailed functional advantages. This association of modification patterns with functional features was apparently maintained throughout the further course of evolution, and particularly tRNAs can now be seen as paradigms for the developing interdependence between structure, modification and function. It is in this spirit that this review highlights important stepping stones of the development of (t)RNAs and their modifications (including aminoacylation) from the ancient RNA world up until their present role in the development and maintenance of human cognition. The latter can be seen as a high point of evolution at its present stage, and the susceptibility of cognitive features to even small alterations in the proper structure and functioning of tRNAs underscores the evolutionary relevance of this RNA species.

  12. Conceptions of Competency: A Phenomenographic Investigation of Beginning Teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Pauline Swee Choo

    2013-01-01

    I use phenomenography, which is an interpretive research approach, to seek and to discover what beginning teachers in Malaysia conceive and understand as competence in relation to what they do everyday as teachers. Phenomenographic approach is used because of its potential to capture variation of understanding, or way of constituting, the…

  13. An Examination of "Wash-Out" and Workplace Conditions of Beginning Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma; Colem, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the extent of wash-out in two beginning physical education teachers; and (2) determine the workplace conditions these novice teachers experienced that may have influenced the extent of wash-out for them. The interactive factors influencing workplace conditions for physical education teachers…

  14. Analysis of Factors That Influence Beginning Teachers' Perception of Their Instructional Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia; Loh, Wai Mun; Mak, Xueling Mabelene

    2014-01-01

    Literature concerning teacher quality indicates that there is a core body of knowledge and skills that a teacher must be equipped with to develop competencies of effective teaching. Beginning teachers (n = 3,353; 1-3 teaching years) participated in an online quality evaluation project at the National Institute of Education, Singapore. Factors…

  15. Voices of Equity: Beginning Teachers Are Crucial Partners and Emerging Leaders of Equity Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Burns, Nicole; Murray, Karen; Watt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an equity education program established in 2009 by Ontario's (Canada) Ministry of Education to improve outcomes for students at risk and create the conditions needed for student success. Beginning teachers were crucial partners and emerging leaders of equity education. Some of the equity concerns these teachers faced…

  16. Transculturalism and the Meaning of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tartaglia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available I begin by introducing the standoff between the transculturalist aim of moving beyond cultural inheritances, and the worry that this project is itself a product of cultural inheritances. I argue that this is rooted in concerns about the meaning of life, and in particular, the prospect of nihilism. I then distinguish two diametrically opposed humanistic responses to nihilism, post-Nietzschean rejections of objective truth, and the moral objectivism favoured by some analytic philosophers, claiming that both attempt, in different ways, to break down the distinction between description and evaluation. I argue that the evaluative sense of a “meaningful life” favoured by moral objectivists cannot track objective meaningfulness in human lives, and that there are manifest dangers to treating social meaning judgements as a secular substitute for the meaning of life. I then conclude that the problems of the post-Nietzscheans and moral objectivists can be avoided, and the transculturalist standoff alleviated, if we recognise that nihilism is descriptive, and maintain a principled distinction between description and evaluation.

  17. Longitudinal effects of induction on teaching skills and attrition rates of beginning teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Wim; Maulana, Ridwan

    2016-01-01

    The teaching profession faces a shortage as well as a decline of teaching skills. A possible way to mitigate this is to implement evidence-based induction arrangements. Seventy-one schools with 338 beginning secondary education teachers were randomly allocated to an experimental or a control group.

  18. Characteristics of Teacher Induction Programs and Turnover Rates of Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The federal School and Staffing Survey (SASS) and Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) were used to examine the impacts of induction activities on beginning teacher turnover. This study excluded those teachers who moved or left schools for unavoidable and involuntary reasons, a confounding factor in previous research. This analysis revealed that three…

  19. Longitudinal Effects of Induction on Teaching Skills and Attrition Rates of Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Wim; Maulana, Ridwan

    2016-01-01

    The teaching profession faces a shortage as well as a decline of teaching skills. A possible way to mitigate this is to implement evidence-based induction arrangements. Seventy-one schools with 338 beginning secondary education teachers were randomly allocated to an experimental or a control group. The experimental schools used induction…

  20. The Role of Perception, Interpretation, and Decision Making in the Development of Beginning Teachers' Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Rossella; Yeh, Cathery

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates beginning US elementary teachers' competence for teaching mathematics and its development during teacher preparation and into the first 2 years of full-time teaching. Data are drawn from three longitudinal case studies and include the classroom video analysis survey, classroom observations and interviews about teachers'…

  1. From the Beginning: The "Journal of Chemical Education" and Secondary School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The people, events, and issues that were involved in the beginning and the evolution of the "Journal of Chemical Education" and the Division of Chemical Education (DivCHED) are traced and discussed. The constitution of the American Chemical Society incorporates the roots of chemical education as an area of interest to the Society. Both…

  2. Do training programs help AFDC recipients leave the welfare rolls? An evaluation of New York City's BEGIN (Begin Employment Gain Independence Now) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, L; March, J A

    1997-01-01

    Guided by the Federal Family Support Act of 1988 and the Job Opportunity and Basic Skills Program (JOBS), welfare reform initiatives on state and local levels were designed to foster employability among the public assistance population. Reform has focused on enhancing the supply of labor rather than the demand for labor as a route to labor force participation for the public assistance population. Program reforms assume that, by providing job training, educational services, and training-related expenses, labor market entry of the participating clientele would be facilitated while caseloads and public expenditures would decline. To date, analysis of similar programs in many states indicates that the impact of such programs in reducing public assistance caseloads is marginal. In New York City, despite the large investment of public funds in such programs, prior to this study the outcome of program implementation remained largely unknown. This study evaluates New York City's BEGIN program outcome target defined as the ability of the program to move welfare clients off public assistance and into the labor market. While the results of the study indicate that New York City's BEGIN program does not improve client's odds of leaving welfare, when compared to the odds of a non-participation client, there are several significant findings. The impact of program participation can be distinguished among distinct age groups. While older clients responded positively to BEGIN participation, access to day care was the only factor that significantly improved the probability that clients younger than 36 years of age would leave the welfare rolls within a two-year period. In response to the findings, the researchers suggest that future welfare reform efforts should grant localities broader flexibility to determine their own target population so that resources can be allocated to those groups that are most likely to benefit from specific programs. PMID:10177354

  3. Do training programs help AFDC recipients leave the welfare rolls? An evaluation of New York City's BEGIN (Begin Employment Gain Independence Now) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, L; March, J A

    1997-01-01

    Guided by the Federal Family Support Act of 1988 and the Job Opportunity and Basic Skills Program (JOBS), welfare reform initiatives on state and local levels were designed to foster employability among the public assistance population. Reform has focused on enhancing the supply of labor rather than the demand for labor as a route to labor force participation for the public assistance population. Program reforms assume that, by providing job training, educational services, and training-related expenses, labor market entry of the participating clientele would be facilitated while caseloads and public expenditures would decline. To date, analysis of similar programs in many states indicates that the impact of such programs in reducing public assistance caseloads is marginal. In New York City, despite the large investment of public funds in such programs, prior to this study the outcome of program implementation remained largely unknown. This study evaluates New York City's BEGIN program outcome target defined as the ability of the program to move welfare clients off public assistance and into the labor market. While the results of the study indicate that New York City's BEGIN program does not improve client's odds of leaving welfare, when compared to the odds of a non-participation client, there are several significant findings. The impact of program participation can be distinguished among distinct age groups. While older clients responded positively to BEGIN participation, access to day care was the only factor that significantly improved the probability that clients younger than 36 years of age would leave the welfare rolls within a two-year period. In response to the findings, the researchers suggest that future welfare reform efforts should grant localities broader flexibility to determine their own target population so that resources can be allocated to those groups that are most likely to benefit from specific programs.

  4. Smart Body or the Problem of Human Corporeality Development in the Context of Outsourced Life. Part 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov S.A.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the issue of a popular trend called ‘life outsourcing’ which affects the structure of personality in an individual. Basing on the works of L.S. Vygotsky and others, the author explores the methodology of the concept of cultural development as a process of formation of an embodied personality or non-organic body. He outlines the search for the approaches to the process of cultural development and for its descriptions in terms of personality construction and ‘soul organism’ which can be traced down in Vygotsky’s works. According to these works, cultural-historical psychology employed a concept of tool- and activity-based personality body, or soul organism. As it is argued in the paper, this concept is to a certain extent incomplete. What happens to the individual’s personality body in a situation of increasingly popular life outsourcing, i.e. when more and more basic functions and actions are transferred from the individual to various devices? Using artistic creativity as an example, the author explores the artist’s transition from working with natural materials to working with devices and focuses on the problem of the artist’s ‘smart body’ losing the feeling of texture and form. The issue is to be continued in the second paper.

  5. Tracing a Beginning Elementary Teacher’s Development of Identity for Science Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine a beginning elementary teacher’s development of identity for science teaching from her first year at university, her field experience, and through her first year of teaching. Several kinds of data were collected over a period of 5 years through different

  6. Induction Programs Effect on Beginning Teachers' Feelings of Preparedness and Plans to Remain in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted for the purpose of reporting the possible relationships between induction programs on beginning teachers' feelings of preparedness as well as their plans to remain in teaching. The exploration of the experiences of teachers during their first year of teaching aims to evaluate the support system they are offered during…

  7. Revealing Interactions between Human Resources, Quality of Life and Environmental Changes within Socially-oriented Observations : Results from the IPY PPS Arctic Project in the Russian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and

  8. Inclination of the soul toward obscenity in the human life from viewpoint of the Quran and School of the analytical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Banaeian Esfahani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human being sometimes inclines toward the goodness and beauty, and sometimes toward the obscenity. So, Allah in the Quran has reminded man of dangers and wicked thoughts of the soul, and has described “al-Nafsul Ammāra” (commanding soul as a source of the souls` inclination toward the obscenity which is quite deceptive. It has also been mentioned that self-scrutiny would act as cause for attaining the way of life recommended by Quran. One of the duties of the psychology is to elaborate on the sources of the souls` inclination toward obscenity and the factors that deviating the human life. One of the psychological schools that especially studies this issue is the School of analytical psychology. Among psychologists of this school, viewpoints of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung need to be compared with the Islamic-Quranic viewpoint. This article firstly tries to clarify the concept of the soul and its characteristics, and then explains the process through which “al-Nafsul Ammāra”, influences. It also describes the origin of the soul's tendency toward obscenity from Freuds` viewpoint and satanic influences from viewpoint of Carl Jung comparing them with the Quranic attitude. The origin of inclination of the soul toward the obscenity is called “al-Nafsul Ammāra” based in the Quranic text while according to the Frauds` theory it is called ID. From the Quranic viewpoint, “al-Nafsul Ammāra” that is affected by the internal negative tendencies of the soul (Haway-e Nafs and external invisible stimuli(Satan commands the human and leads him to the obscenity. So the Quran introduces the Satan as the enemy of the human being that brings about his decadence. The Quran presents the human being a practical plan for struggling against the Satan. Analytical psychology of Jung also emphasizes the role of the satanic influences on the human tendency toward the obscenity and considers struggling with the Satan as a way for freedom and sublimation

  9. Thermodynamic Origin of Life

    OpenAIRE

    K. Michaelian

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Life, as are all irreversible processes, is contingent on entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the tendency of Nature to explore available microstates. The most important irreversible process generating entropy in the biosphere, and thus facilitating this exploration, is the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat. Here we hypothesize that life began, and persists today, as...

  10. Life Expectancy and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Maternal Mortality Declines. NBER Working Paper No. 13947

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Seema; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Longer life expectancy should encourage human capital accumulation, since a longer time horizon increases the value of investments that pay out over time. Previous work has been unable to determine the empirical importance of this life-expectancy effect due to the difficulty of isolating it from other effects of health on education. We examine a…

  11. Improving Technology Competency and Disposition of Beginning Pre-Service Teachers with Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Misook

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the digital storytelling experience of beginning pre-service teachers on their self-efficacy in educational technology and disposition toward change with regard to new technological approaches to teaching. A total of 76 freshmen participated in the study. After participating in a brief tutorial session, the…

  12. The Effect of Beginning Shorthand on Learning in Selected Language Arts Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jack E.

    Eleventh-grade students from 11 high schools participated in this study of the effect of beginning shorthand on language arts skills. Pre- and posttests drawn from the California Achievement Test for Language Arts were administered to experimental groups and control groups in September and April of the 1974-75 academic year. Results indicated that…

  13. Beginning Science Teachers' Use of a Digital Video Annotation Tool to Promote Reflective Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Justin; Ellis, Joshua; Anwar, Tasneem; Roehrig, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    The development of teachers as reflective practitioners is a central concept in national guidelines for teacher preparation and induction (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education 2008). The Teacher Induction Network (TIN) supports the development of reflective practice for beginning secondary science teachers through the creation…

  14. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne

    2013-01-01

    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  15. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  16. Placing Care in the Human Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanucci, Jane S.

    1996-01-01

    While Carol Gilligan was countering Lawrence Kohlberg's justice theories with feminist theories of caring, Kohlberg was inaugurating an alternative, caring-centered, "just-community" high school. The just-community approach draws on Dewey's and Piaget's notions of schools as democracies nourishing moral development and Durkheim's vision of schools…

  17. The Effects of E-Mentoring on Beginning Teacher Competencies and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Powell, Selma; Little, Mary E.; Mike, Alyson

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need to mentor novice special education teachers to meet the current and projected teacher shortages. However, due to the various skill-levels of beginning special education teachers in schools and the small number of current special educators in each school who could serve as mentors, there is difficulty finding…

  18. Beginning Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs of Subject Matter and Instructional Actions Documented over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; McGinnis, J. Randy

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report the results of survey research that collected responses of an identical sample (31 beginning mathematics and science teachers, elementary and middle school level) that graduated from a reform-based mathematics and science teacher preparation program, the Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation (MCTP). Our aim was to…

  19. Where to Attend? Estimating the Effects of Beginning College at a Two-Year Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. Lockwood

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges are an important part of the higher education system in the United States but there are concerns as to how attendance at these institutions affects educational attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper uses data from a nationally representative survey to examine the impact of students beginning their college career at a…

  20. The Impact of Disrupted and Disjointed Early Professional Development on Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Ashley; Weir, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study is set in the national and international contexts of early professional development, teacher careers, and teacher retention. It provides qualitative insights into key factors shaping beginning teachers' early professional learning (EPL) journeys and considers the impact of policy initiatives on new teachers in Scotland.…

  1. Does the Social Working Environment Predict Beginning Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Feelings of Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Christelle; Dupriez, Vincent; Paquay, Leopold

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how the social working environment predicts beginning teachers' self-efficacy and feelings of depression. Two quantitative studies are presented. The results show that the goal structure of the school culture (mastery or performance orientation) predicts both outcomes. Frequent collaborative interactions with colleagues are related…

  2. Developing Leadership Potential for Technology Integration: Perspectives of Three Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Wong, Angela F. L.; Choy, Doris; Wu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports one major finding from a large two-year, mixed-methods study that investigated the process of beginning teachers' learning to teach with information and communication technology (ICT). Among the ten participants involved in the qualitative portion of the study, three stood out from the rest in their effort to use ICT in…

  3. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    the already well-defined community state types. In addition, we showed that for most women the vaginal microbiota at week 24 of pregnancy is similar to the microbiota twelve weeks later at week 36. The manuscript also contains a novel description of how mothers’ vaginal microbiota has affected the microbiota.......g. Streptococcus and Moraxella) become increasingly dominant. By defining the core microbiota for each infant, the manuscript shows that 69% of the microbiota, three months after birth, represent bacteria that were present at both one week and one month after birth. Lastly, the manuscript describes how...... the microbiota can be separated into five distinct pneumotypes: four having a single dominating genus and one without a common defining genus. The last manuscript, Manuscript III, compares the microbiota descriptions obtained by classical identification using culturing and high throughput sequencing of amplified...

  4. Human organs from prisoners: kidneys for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, L D

    2003-06-01

    A proposal to allow prisoners to save their lives or to be eligible for commutation of sentence by donating kidneys for transplantation has been a subject of controversy in the Philippines. Notwithstanding the vulnerabilities associated with imprisonment, there are good reasons for allowing organ donations by prisoners. Under certain conditions, such donations can be very beneficial not only to the recipients but to the prisoners themselves. While protection needs to be given to avoid coercion and exploitation, overprotection has to be avoided. The prohibition on the involvement of prisoners in organ transplantation constitutes unjustified overprotection. Under certain conditions, prisoners can make genuinely independent decisions. When it can be reasonably ascertained that they are able to decide freely, society should recognise an obligation to help them implement their decisions, such as when they intend to donate an organ as a way of asserting their religious faith and performing a sacrifice in atonement for their sins. PMID:12796439

  5. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael A; Wiggins, Osborne P

    2010-01-01

    Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time.We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human

  6. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiggins Osborne P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1 Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2 World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3 Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time. We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of

  7. The activity approach to the pedagogical process in the comprehensive school of Western Europe and Russia at the end of XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Kotryakhov

    2013-01-01

    The intensive theoretical development of the problems of the activity approach to the pedagogical process was happening at the end of XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries. It was the special period in the history of a mankind. The rapid development of science and equipment, mechanical production, city building, railroads and communication lines led to the basic changes in the life of people. There was an urgent need in the education reforming. The comprehensive school was exposed to the sh...

  8. The Feast of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕静

    2003-01-01

    The enjoyment of life covers many things: the enjoyment of ourselves, of home life, of trees, flowers, clouds, winding rivers and falling cataracts and the myriad things in Nature, and then the enjoyment of poetry, art, contemplation, friendship, conversation, and reading, which are all some form or other of the communion of soirits.

  9. The Growth of Reflective Practice among Three Beginning Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Michael; Prescott, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study of three beginning secondary mathematics teachers and how their reflective practice developed during a one-year university teacher education program and concurrent professional fieldwork experience or practicum. The participants were interviewed three times during the practicum and once more in their first year of…

  10. Student understanding of quantum mechanics at the beginning of graduate instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    A survey was developed to probe student understanding of quantum mechanics at the beginning of graduate instruction. The survey was administered to 202 physics graduate students enrolled in first-year quantum mechanics courses from seven universities at the beginning of the first semester. We also conducted one-on-one interviews with fifteen graduate or advanced undergraduate students who had just completed a course in which all the content on the survey was covered. Although students from some universities performed better on average than others, we found that students share universal difficulties understanding the concepts of quantum mechanics. The difficulties were often due to over-generalizations of concepts learned in one context to other contexts where they are not directly applicable. Difficulties in distinguishing between closely related concepts and making sense of the formalism of quantum mechanics were common. The results of this study can sensitize instructors of first-year graduate quantum physi...

  11. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  12. Life-Cycle Wage Growth and Heterogeneous Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Sanders; Christopher Taber

    2012-01-01

    Wages grow rapidly for young workers, and the human capital investment model is the classic framework to explain this growth. While estimation and the theory of human capital have traditionally focused on general human capital, both have evolved toward models of heterogeneous human capital. In this article, we review and evaluate the current state of this literature. We exposit the classic model of general human capital investment and extend it to show how a model of heterogeneous human capit...

  13. Creating a vision of teaching: Two cases of beginning teachers' beliefs and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, R. Ann

    The purpose of this study was three-fold: (1) to examine the teaching philosophies of two new teachers involved in the Salish I Research Project; (2) to uncover any relationship between the beginning teacher's instruction and personal practical philosophy of instruction; and, (3) to seek to understand the relationship between a written research-based rationale and instructional practice. This qualitative study consisted of two case studies of beginning teachers. Through the use of classroom observation, written anecdotal records, written reflections during student teaching, written research-based rationales, unstructured interview, and audiotaped formal exit interviews, a thick, rich description of the participants was compiled. Using the constant comparative method, an inductive analysis of the data was conducted by coding, unitizing, and categorizing the data to determine the beliefs of the participants. Both the exposed beliefs and those acted on during the first year of teaching are described. Results indicate that beginning teachers enter the classroom with images of their role in the classroom and that preservice programs have an influence on that image. Those images, however, are not always clear and clarity was an influential factor in the participants' ability to implement the knowledge and skills they had examined in their preservice program. Two images were particularly potent to the implementation of new teaching strategies. One of those images was the role and the influence of the teacher in the classroom. The second was the type of student outcomes that should result. These two images were "sharpened" when the participants were forced to assign language to describe the relationship between theory and practice. The results further indicate that beginning teachers who come from the same preservice programs enter their first year with a variety of images of teaching. The degree to which the image is implemented in the classroom appeared to be related to

  14. Perspectives for the Development of a Working Life Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge; Hasle, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A discussion of the perspectives in a working life policy with development of both a humane working life and productivity.......A discussion of the perspectives in a working life policy with development of both a humane working life and productivity....

  15. The Characteristics and Skills of Filipino Caregivers : FOW as human resources for work life balance in Japan (2)

    OpenAIRE

    IMAMURA, Taiko; Saito, Isamu; MIYAGI, Mariko

    2010-01-01

    This study is a part of a social psychology research to compare work/life balance on an international basis, and to consider international mutual dependence of social support. Filipinos work all over the world as caregivers and behind the success of the Filipinos in the field of care service are the unique aspects of some skills and traits they bring along with them to foreign lands. Data was gathered to define the traits and cultural values most associated with Filipinos. The following are d...

  16. Aspirations of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Ningxin

    2012-01-01

    After entering Senior Three, besides strenuous revisions and examinations, what the students think most and discuss most is aspirations of life. As far as I know, most of my classmates have already specified their choices of majors and their aspirations of life. Some classmates excel in science subjects, so they have chosen science and engineering subjects, hoping that they will become scientists or engineers.

  17. The promise and perils of Antarctic fishes: The remarkable life forms of the Southern Ocean have much to teach science about survival, but human activity is threatening their existence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Kristin M; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    The waters around the Antarctic are a treasure trove of fauna specially adapted to extreme cold temperatures. However, as with many other marine ecosystems, its life forms are threatened by human actions.

  18. Epidemiology of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus and Quality of Life for People Living with HIV/AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ommari Baaliy Mkangara; Shaofa NIE; Chongjian WANG; Yihua XU; Saumu Tobbi Mweri; Theresia M Kobelo; Mustaafa Bapumiia

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is increasing in prevalence in China and spread of infection from highly risk populations to the general populations was recognized. Despite the fact, there are still only few scien- tific reviews on quality of life (QOL) for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). However, many PLWHAs are struggling with social and psychological influences such as substances abuse, cultural beliefs, depression, stigma, poverty, which can affect their QOL. Public unawareness about infection and disease, willingness to seek medical care and motivation to follow therapy are indirectly influ- encing health outcome. In 2003 Chinese government has established the so-called the "Four Frees and One Care" policy. The policy was officially implemented from 2004 in some areas, yet to date it is not implemented nationwide. This paper discussed the epidemiology of HIV, underlying psychoso- cial factors affecting PLWHAs and their impact on QOL. We put forward some recommendations for stakeholders, advocacy groups, non-government organizations and Chinese government.

  19. Emergence of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Paule Bassez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with

  20. A Life-Cycle Model of Human Social Groups Produces a U-Shaped Distribution in Group Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available One of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution is how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. Here we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, we build a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic and expansion behaviours. We find that once the transition from small-scale to large-scale groups occurs, a few large-scale groups continue expanding while small-scale groups gradually become scarcer, and large-scale groups become larger in size and fewer in number over time. Demographic and expansion behaviours of groups are largely influenced by the distribution and availability of resources. Our results conform to a pattern of human political change in which religions and nation states come to be represented by a few large units and many smaller ones. Future enhancements of the model should include decision-making rules and probabilities of fragmentation for large-scale societies. We suggest that the synthesis of population ecology and social evolution will generate increasingly plausible models of human group dynamics.

  1. Clonal expansion of early to mid-life mitochondrial DNA point mutations drives mitochondrial dysfunction during human ageing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greaves, L.C.; Nooteboom, M.; Elson, J.L.; Tuppen, H.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Commane, D.M.; Arasaradnam, R.P.; Khrapko, K.; Taylor, R.W.; Kirkwood, T.B.; Mathers, J.C.; Turnbull, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related decline in the integrity of mitochondria is an important contributor to the human ageing process. In a number of ageing stem cell populations, this decline in mitochondrial function is due to clonal expansion of individual mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations within single cells. Ho

  2. Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, astrophysics and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA(ribonucleic acid) world, iron-sulphur world, panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kickstarting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  3. How Did the Universe Make People? A Brief History of the Universe from the Beginning to the End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers are beginning to know the easy part: How did the Big Bang make stars and galaxies and the chemical elements? How did solar systems form and evolve? How did the Earth and the Moon form, and how did water and carbon come to the Earth? Geologists are piecing together the history of the Earth, and biologists are coming to know the history and process of life from the earliest times. But is our planet the only life-supporting place in the universe, or are there many? Astronomers are working on that too. I will tell the story of the discovery of the Big Bang by Edwin Hubble, and how the primordial heat radiation tells the details of that universal explosion. I will tell how the James Webb Space Telescope will extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope to ever greater distances, will look inside dust clouds to see stars being born today, will measure planets around other stars, and examine the dwarf planets in the outer Solar System. I will show concepts for great new space telescopes to follow the JWST and how they could use future moon rockets to hunt for signs of life on planets around other stars.

  4. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Warren C.; Scherbov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interp...

  5. Faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging

    OpenAIRE

    W.C. Sanderson; Scherbov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people's time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interp...

  6. Impacts of “metals” on human health: uncertainties in using different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Christensen, Per; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup;

    or ecosystems. Various methodologies for LCIA are at the present time available, but we believe that big differences exist in the way they address human toxicity of metals. After a research on relevant literature sources, we identified four scientific criteria for the definition of which metals should...

  7. Two approaches to the study of the origin of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares two approaches that attempt to explain the origin of life, or biogenesis. The more established approach is one based on chemical principles, whereas a new, yet not widely known approach begins from a physical perspective. According to the first approach, life would have begun wit

  8. A Closer Look at Bacteroides: Phylogenetic Relationship and Genomic Implications of a Life in the Human Gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Fredrik H.; Ussery, David; Nielsen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    The human gut is extremely densely inhabited by bacteria mainly from two phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and there is a great interest in analyzing whole-genome sequences for these species because of their relation to human health and disease. Here, we do whole-genome comparison of 105 Bacte...... of members of the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi phylum by whole genome comparison. Gut living Bacteroides have an enriched set of glycan, vitamin, and cofactor enzymes important for diet digestion.......The human gut is extremely densely inhabited by bacteria mainly from two phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and there is a great interest in analyzing whole-genome sequences for these species because of their relation to human health and disease. Here, we do whole-genome comparison of 105...... Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi genomes to elucidate their phylogenetic relationship and to gain insight into what is separating the gut living Bacteroides and Parabacteroides genera from other Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi species. A comprehensive analysis shows that Bacteroides species have a higher number...

  9. The healthcare system in the Caucasus at the beginning of the XX century: the development features

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani; Rashad A. Kurbanov; Teymur E. Zulfugarzade

    2016-01-01

    The article based on the archival material deals with the healthcare system in the Caucasus at the beginning of the XX century. In writing this article, the authors made use of reports from national archives of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia), the archival department of administration of Sochi (Sochi, Russian Federation). There is given the statistics from the works of Russian and foreign authors, and also reference literature. The authors‘ use of the principles of objectivity, historicism, ...

  10. The diversity of the life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodiversity is the entirety of the genes, the species and the ecosystems of a region. The current wealth of the life of the earth is the product of the hundred of millions of years of historical evolution. Along the time they arose human cultures that adapted to the local environment discovering, using and modifying resource local biotic. Many environments, that now seem natural they take the mark of millennia of human room, cultivate of plants and gathering of resources. The author enlarges the biodiversity concept, and it divides it in categories, describing each one of them

  11. "The ladder of the law has no top and no bottom": how therapeutic jurisprudence can give life to international human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) has become one of the most important theoretical approaches to the law. But, there has, as of yet, been puzzlingly little written about the relationship between TJ and international human rights law. To be sure, there has been some preliminary and exploratory work on the relationship between TJ and international law in general, but virtually nothing on its relationship to international human rights law in a mental disability law context. This paper seeks to focus on this lack of consideration, to speculate as to why that might be, and to offer some suggestions as to how to infuse some new vitality and vigor into this important area of law and social policy. In this article, first, I offer a brief explanation of TJ. Next, I discuss, also briefly, the impact (and the potential future greater impact) of the recently-ratified United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on this area. Then, I consider the sparse commentary currently available on the intersection between TJ and international law in general, and will speculate as to why this is so sparse. Then, I offer some thoughts as to the TJ/international human rights law connection, looking specifically at three questions that require far more attention from this perspective (access to counsel, the use of state-sanctioned psychiatry as a tool of political oppression, and the potential redemptive power of the CRPD), and describe a research agenda that scholars might turn to in furtherance of the investigation of the relationships between therapeutic jurisprudence, international human rights law and mental disability law. I conclude by calling on scholars, activists, advocates and practitioners to begin to take this connection seriously in their future work.

  12. HOSPITAL ADVERTISING IN THE BEGINNING: MARKETPLACE DYNAMICS AND THE LIFTING OF THE BAN

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Strach

    2004-01-01

    The beginning of the hospital advertising industry followed the successful Federal Trade Commission’s application of the antitrust laws to healthcare, fully opening the competitive floodgates. The 1982 Supreme Court decision, upholding the FTC petition, triggered the start of a new era of advertising—hospital advertising. This paper will examine the unique qualities of this service industry that challenged marketers; the turbulent industry environment of the 1980’s with the introduction of ne...

  13. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers' transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    OpenAIRE

    Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’ in their final year of their pre-service preparation program. Transfer of learning was proposed as characteristic of (i) the professional development program,(ii) beginning teachers and...

  14. Peace-Making Ideas by M.M. Kovalevsky at the Beginning of 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    NIKOLAEV N.Yu.

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals the peace-making ideas of famous historian, sociologist and lawyer M.M. Kovalevsky at the beginning of 20th century and analyzes the sociological conception of solidarity which served as the basis for his views on war and peace. He considered social progress as broadening of solidarity sphere which was unavoidably promoted to the consciousness of political integration society. The scientist approximately compared the progress with concentric circles which embodied of unint...

  15. Creating academic economics in Brazil: the Ford Foundation and the beginnings of ANPEC

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón García Fernández; Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak

    2015-01-01

    The 1960s saw the beginning of an effort to improve professional standards in Brazilian academia through cooperation with a few North American institutions, in the context of an important and controversial set of agreements between the Brazilian Ministry of Education (MEC) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). In the case of economics, the Ford Foundation was especially relevant, providing substantial funding for the creation of the first graduate programs in the...

  16. Pagan and bible beginning in the creative work of B.Shulz and F.Kafka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina M. Reguretskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern literature pays great attention to the study of biblical and pagan aspects of the classical works of the twentieth century. Franz Kafka and Bruno Schulz – two classics of modernity, residents of “Republic of dreams”, if to use a beautiful metaphor of Schultz, were from Jewish families lived in a multicultural and multilingual Austro-Hungarian Empire absorbed with best achievements of the Austrian culture. As noted by J. Updike: «Kafka and Schulz – two unremarkable man, born in the backyard of once powerful empire, took a bite at the same apple myth, but from different sides». Both were able to transform the insightful observation in prophecy, describing the dreams and nightmares as precisely as if they were facts of life, both shed light on human nature and witnessed history, complementing each other. I. Klekh rightly observes certain «commonness» of their creative method, stressing the importance for the two writers’ motif of transformation, transformation, mutual penetration of books and worlds. Shulz’s «fairy tale», his myth-making, guided by its own laws, “mythological” rules, which, unlike Kafka, is not «mythological» of closeness exclusively on internal self-perception.

  17. From the deep sea to the stars: human life support through minimal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Larissa; Mergeay, Max

    2007-06-01

    Support of human life during long-distance exploratory space travel or in the creation of human habitats in extreme environments can be accomplished using the action of microbial consortia inhabiting interconnected bioreactors, designed for the purpose of reconversion of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes produced by the human crew or by one of the compartments of the bioregenerative loop, into nutritional biomass, oxygen and potable water. The microorganisms responsible for bioregenerative life support are part of Earth's own geomicrobial reconversion cycle. Depending on the resources and conditions available, minimal life support systems can be assembled using appropriately selected microorganisms that possess metabolic routes for each specific purpose in the transformation cycle. Under control of an engineered system, a reliable life-support system can hence be provided for.

  18. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  19. In the Beginning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify and sea level rises, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we develop an alternative to fossil fuels in time to make a difference for our children and the "children" of all species? NASA puts people into outer space, where all resources (food, water, air, pressure, gravity, energy) are limited and far away and where conditions (temperature, radiation, vacuum) are problematic and dangerous-the life expectancy of an unprotected astronaut (physically exposed to the space environment) is 15 seconds. Therefore, by necessity, NASA has explored and developed "life-support systems" that optimize the use of resources, minimize the use of energy, and recycle, refurbish, re-use everything that on earth would be considered a waste material. Emerging from the legacy of life-support systems, the NASA OMEGA project uses microalgae, municipal wastewater, and the encroaching oceans to address our global needs for a sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally friendly energy supply that does not compete with agriculture. The OMEGA project is focused on producing aviation fuel, treating municipal wastewater, and sequestering carbon dioxide. More generally, however, OMEGA is an example of an "ecology of technologies" in which all processes are integrated and inter-dependent and wastes become resources. From a NASA perspective, the OMEGA project is also a reminder that "we are not passengers on Spaceship Earth, we are the crew."

  20. Physiological and serological variation in S. mitis biovar 1 from the human oral cavity during the first year of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchherr, Jennifer L.; Bowden, George H.; Cole, Michael F.; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Richmond, Dorothy A.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Wirth, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The purpose of the study was to explore the physiological and antigenic diversity of a large number of S. mitis biovar 1 isolates in order to begin to determine whether these properties contribute to species persistence. Design S. mitis biovar 1 was collected from four infants from birth to one year of age. At each of 8–9 visits 60 isolates each were obtained from the cheeks, tongue and incisors (once erupted) yielding 4,440 in total. These were tested for production of neuraminidase, β1-N-acetylglucosaminidase, β1-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, IgA1 protease, and amylase-binding. Antigenic diversity was examined by ELISA and Western immunoblotting using antisera raised against S. mitis biovar 1 NCTC 12261T and SK145. Results 3,330 (75%) of the isolates were identified as S. mitis biovar 1 and 3,144 (94.4%) could be divided into four large phenotypic groups based on glycosidase production. 54% of the isolates produced IgA1 protease, but production was disproportionate among the phenotypes. Between 1/3 to 1/2 of the strains of each phenotype bound salivary α-amylase. Antisera against strains NCTC 12261T and SK145 displayed different patterns of reactivity with randomly selected representatives of the four phenotypes. Conclusions S. mitis biovar 1 is physiologically and antigenically diverse, properties which could aid strains in avoiding host immunity and promote re-colonization of a habitat or transfer to a new habitat. PMID:17045561

  1. The Development of Attitude to School by Children Beginning School Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    KŘIŽANOVÁ, Jaroslava

    2009-01-01

    The aim of my diploma thesis is to ascertain how is developed attitude to school by children beginning school attendance. The theoretical part is devoted to pre-school children and primary school children with specialization in socialization in their family and out of it. There is also included concept of primary school. The practical part is devoted to the research of the developmet attitude to school by three children. Information was found out of that three children, their parents and teac...

  2. System of Rewards - Instrument of Fundamental Human Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Ph.D.Gheorghita Caprarescu; Prof. Ph.D. Catalina Bonciu

    2008-01-01

    Although not the only nor the most important factor of human motivation, reward remains one of the oldest visible, direct and rapid tools for behavioral targeting to work towards a convergence of individual objectives with the group and organizational. Recognized as instrumental value right from the beginning of civilization, projections of various cultures and religions - happiness and eternal life, Heaven, Nirvana - reward was to influence gift mentality, behavior and attitudes of individua...

  3. Multibiological life support system experiments with humans partially involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu

    To establish bioregenerative life support system in lunar or mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between human beings and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, Chlorella vulgaris and so on must be investigated in order to place different organisms with appropriate numbers and proportions. This research cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) in the Closed Integrative Cultivating System (CICS) of the Integrative Experimental Sys-tem (IES) with Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the Plate Photo Bioreactor (PPB) of the IES. Gas exchange between testers and the IES were conducted periodically. The automotive control system of the PPB changed the illumination intensity of the photo bioreactor according to the CO2 concentration in the IES to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels by regu-lating the photosynthesis of alga. The conveyor-type cultivation method which was harvesting the biggest batch of lettuce and silkworms through the mass exchange chamber of IES every four days and transferring the smallest batch of lettuce and silkworms into the system; carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with nutrient liquid replenished into the system was implemented in the experiments. In terms of gas circulation, CO2 /O2 concentration changes in the system with trace gas contaminants (CH4 , NH3 and C2 H4 ) were measured. As to the mass transfer and transformation, element (C, H, O, N) contents, height, crown width and biomasses of lettuce in different developing stages, silkworms' bioconversion rates, alga's biomass changes, the amount and community change trends of the microorganism in different positions of the system, the quality of condensates gained under different running conditions and so on were studied. Results showed

  4. Implications for tertiary education: managerial competencies required of beginning practitioners in the health service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Barbara J.; Cant, Rosemary V.; Atyeo, John W.

    2001-03-01

    Five hundred and three experienced practitioners involved in management from four professional fields (medical radiation science, occupational therapy, speech pathology and physiotherapy) representing a range of health care settings participated in a survey. The survey examined the importance attached to managerial competencies for the beginning practitioner. The most important grouping related to management of future planning. Underlying competencies included decision making regarding time management and communication with other staff. The second most important grouping of managerial competencies related to organisational practices. These competencies included strategic and organisation-wide management processes associated with change, vision, organisational awareness and decision making. The third grouping of managerial competencies related to knowledge regarding legislation and in particular compliance with occupational health and safety regulations. Other competencies were seen as less important for the beginning practitioner. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to health science curriculum development in higher education. PMID:11371299

  5. The beginnings of Serbian music historiography: Serbian music periodicals between the world wars

    OpenAIRE

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    The transition of the 19th into the 20th century in Serbian music history was a period of music criticism, journalism and essay writing. At that time, Serbian musicology had not yet been developed as an academic discipline. After WWI there were many more academic writings on this subject; therefore, the interwar period represents the beginning of Serbian music historiography. This paper analyses Serbian interwar music magazines as source material for the hi...

  6. Beginning Ubuntu Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Raggi, Emilio; Channelle, Andy; Parsons, Trevor; Van Vugt, Sander

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu Linux is the fastest growing Linux-based operating system, and Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Fifth Edition teaches all of us - including those who have never used Linux - how to use it productively, whether you come from Windows or the Mac or the world of open source. Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Fifth Edition shows you how to take advantage of the newest Ubuntu release, Lucid Lynx. Based on the best-selling previous edition, Emilio Raggi maintains a fine balance between teaching Ubuntu and introducing new features. Whether you aim to use it in the home or in the office, you'll be introduced to th

  7. Beginning Rails 3

    CERN Document Server

    Barazi, Rida Al

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Rails 3 is the practical starting point for anyone wanting to learn how to build dynamic web applications using the latest release of the Rails framework for Ruby. You'll learn how all of the components of Rails fit together and how you can leverage them to create sophisticated web applications with less code and more joy. This book is particularly well suited to those with little or no experience with web application development, or who have some experience but are new to Rails. Beginning Rails 3 assumes basic familiarity with web terms and technologies, but doesn't require you to b

  8. Effect of two commercial herbicides on life history traits of a human disease vector, Aedes aegypti, in the laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alexandra; Murrell, Ebony G; Klein, Talan; Noden, Bruce H

    2016-07-01

    Some mosquito species utilize the small niches of water that are abundant in farmland habitats. These niches are susceptible to effects from agricultural pesticides, many of which are applied aerially over large tracts of land. One principal form of weed control in agricultural systems involves the development of herbicide-tolerant crops. The impact of sub-agricultural levels of these herbicides on mosquito survival and life-history traits of resulting adults have not been determined. The aim of this study was to test the effect of two commercial herbicides (Beyond and Roundup) on the survivorship, eclosion time, and body mass of Aedes aegypti. First instar A. aegypti larvae were exposed to varying concentrations (270, 550 and 820 μg/m(2) of glyphosate and 0.74, 1.49, 2.24 μL imazamox/m(2)), all treatments being below recommended application rates, of commercial herbicides in a controlled environment and resulting adult mosquitoes were collected and weighed. Exposure to Roundup had a significant negative effect on A. aegypti survivorship at medium and high sub-agricultural application concentrations, and negatively affected adult eclosion time at the highest concentration. However, exposure to low concentrations of Beyond significantly increased A. aegypti survivorship, although adult female mass was decreased at medium sub-agricultural concentrations. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of two different herbicides, which can occur in rural larval habitats as a result of spray drift, can affect the same species of mosquito in both positive and negative ways depending on the herbicide applied. The effects of commercial herbicides on mosquito populations could have an important effect on disease transmission within agricultural settings, where these and other herbicides are extensively applied to reduce weed growth. PMID:26965703

  9. Beginning ASPNET Security

    CERN Document Server

    Dorrans, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Beginning ASP.NET 3.5 Security is geared for novice to intermediate ASP.NET programmers who wish to protect and defend their web sites against attack and exploitation. Beginning with a discussion of why we need security and the things that may occur when it is ignored and an overview of how ASP.NET works, readers are taken through the common steps in developing a web site, the security problems each area exposes and how these can be exploited. Visual Studio Security MVP Barry Dorrans teaches readers how they can defend their applications using the standard .NET framework, industry patterns and

  10. Midlatitude ice-rich ground on mars as a target in the search for evidence of life and for in situ resource utilization on human missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J L; Schurmeier, L; McKay, C; Davila, A; Stoker, C; Marinova, M; Wilhelm, M B

    2014-02-01

    Midlatitude ground ice on Mars is of significant scientific interest for understanding the history and evolution of ice stability on Mars and is relevant for human exploration as a possible in situ resource. For both science and exploration, assessing the astrobiological potential of the ice is important in terms of (1) understanding the potential for life on Mars and (2) evaluating the presence of possible biohazards in advance of human exploration. In the present study, we review the evidence for midlatitude ground ice on Mars, discuss the possible explanations for its occurrence, and assess its potential habitability. During the course of study, we systematically analyzed remote-sensing data sets to determine whether a viable landing site exists in the northern midlatitudes to enable a robotic mission that conducts in situ characterization and searches for evidence of life in the ice. We classified each site according to (1) presence of polygons as a proxy for subsurface ice, (2) presence and abundance of rough topographic obstacles (e.g., large cracks, cliffs, uneven topography), (3) rock density, (4) presence and abundance of large boulders, and (5) presence of craters. We found that a suitable landing site exists within Amazonis Planitia near ground ice that was recently excavated by a meteorite impact.

  11. Thermodynamic Function of Life

    OpenAIRE

    K. Michaelian

    2009-01-01

    Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that disti...

  12. Social Life of Values

    OpenAIRE

    Magala, Slawomir

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe case of the Danish “cartoon war” was a premonition of things to come: accelerated social construction of inequalities and their accelerated symbolic communication, translation and negotiation. New uses of values in organizing and managing inequalities emerge. Values lead active social life as bourgeois virtues (McCloskey, 2006), their subversive alternatives or translated “memes” of cultural history. Since social life of values went global and online, tracing their hybrid mani...

  13. Comparison of effective I-131 half-life between thyroid hormone withdrawal and recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyroid cancer: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation for postoperative radioiodine ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is performed by either thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) administration. There is little information on the impact of the method of preparation with respect to whole-body effective I-131 half-life and its potential clinical implications in the Australian setting. A retrospective study was performed on patients admitted for adjuvant radioiodine ablation for non-metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the Royal Adelaide Hospital over a 4½-year period from 2009. Dose rate measurements were analysed for 19 rhTSH and 31 thyroid hormone withdrawal patients. The mean effective I-131 half-lives were 11.51 and 13.29 h for the rhTSH and thyroid hormone withdrawal groups, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.761). This result differs from previously published data where withdrawal periods were typically longer, resulting in slower renal clearance and longer half-lives for withdrawal patients. Our study did not demonstrate a significant difference in whole-body effective half-life of I-131 between the two methods of preparation for radioiodine ablation. This suggests that putative advantages of rhTSH over withdrawal in terms of whole-body radiation dose, duration of hospital admission and quality of life may be sensitive to duration of withdrawal.

  14. Thermodynamic Function of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, K

    2009-01-01

    Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The water cycle, including the absorption of sunlight in the biosphere, is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can therefore be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants ...

  15. On the beginnings of cinema historiography: the architecture of a modern commercial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ávila Gómez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a structured critical reflection of Ben Hall´s analysis in his The Best Remaining Seats. The Golden Age of the Movie Palace. When it was published in 1961, this article progressively provoked interest in commercial architecture. Its mutations foretold its own disappearance, in the ways that were known at that time: it was architecture for cinematographic exhibition. Beginning with the identification of the main historic elements that are suggested by Hall, this analysis seeks to establish some of the continuities or lack of continuities that they subsequently have in renowned researchers’ written works on the ever-changing cinema architecture.

  16. Quality of work life

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Anshul

    2014-01-01

    Although studies on the Quality of work Life (QWL) have been conducted since the early 20th century, there is no consensus about the real meaning of this term. Over the last years, QWL has been understood as the dynamic and comprehensive management of physical, technological, social and psychological factors that affect culture and renew the organizational environment. Quality of work life (QWL) and employee job satisfaction are increasingly being identified as progressive indicators related ...

  17. Origin of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the fields of biochemistry, astrobiology, and astrophysics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mind-boggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevail...

  18. Life insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Topič, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor's project is life insurance. The theoretical part consists of literary research focussed not only on life insurance. The research begins with general introduction to the insurance issue, the basic division of insurance, its rules of law and as well some historical facts. The rest of the theoretical part is focussed on life insurance, where we can find basic division of life insurance, description of particular insurance types and various supplementary insurances. In...

  19. Beginning to edit physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.W.

    1995-02-01

    A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

  20. Supporting Beginning Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Julie A.; Bang, EunJin; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this article is the more immediate way to help new science teachers, which comes from the experienced and professionally active teacher--you! As science teacher educators who work with and study the development of beginning teachers, the authors found the support offered knowingly and unknowingly by the teacher next door was a…

  1. The beginnings of Serbian music historiography: Serbian music periodicals between the world wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition of the 19th into the 20th century in Serbian music history was a period of music criticism, journalism and essay writing. At that time, Serbian musicology had not yet been developed as an academic discipline. After WWI there were many more academic writings on this subject; therefore, the interwar period represents the beginning of Serbian music historiography. This paper analyses Serbian interwar music magazines as source material for the history of Serbian musicology. The following music magazines were published in Belgrade at the time: Muzički glasnik (Music Herald, 1922, Muzika (Music, 1928-1929, Glasnik Muzičkog društva „Stanković” (Stanković Music Society Herald, 1928-1934, 1938-1941; from January 1931. known as Muzički glasnik /Music Herald/, Zvuk ( Sound, 1932-1936, Vesnik Južnoslovesnkog pevačkog saveza (The South Slav Singing Union Courier, 1935-1936, 1938, Slavenska muzika ( Slavonic Music, 1939-1941, and Revija muzike (The Music Review, 1940. A great number of historical studies and writings on Serbian music were published in the interwar periodicals. A significant contribution was made above all to the study of Serbian musicians’ biographies and bibliographies of the 19th century. Vladimir R. Đorđević published several short biographies in Muzički glasnik (1922 in an article called Ogled biografskog rečnika srpskih muzičara (An Introduction to Serbian Musicians’ Biographies. Writers on music obviously understood that the starting point in the study of Serbian music history had to be the composers’ biographical data. Other magazines (such as Muzički glasnik in 1928 and 1931, Zvuk, Vesnik Južnoslovenskog pevačkog saveza, and Slavenska muzika published a number of essays on distinguished Serbian and Yugoslav musicians of the 19th and 20th centuries, most of which deal with both composers’ biographical data and analysis of their compositions. Their narrative style reflects the habits of 19th

  2. INTEGRATION OF EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Antoaneta RADOI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest four decades have marked by their width, speed and radicality a true “revolution” on the financial market, a transformation and restructuring of financial services, of financial instruments which were used, of transaction systems, but also of competitive processes. The importance that should be given to such transformations of financial systems is given, as well, by their impact, both at the micro- and at the macro- levels, on the economy as a whole.The evolution of the European financial market at the beginning of the 21st century has followed the general trend of global markets. As a main tendency of financial market restructuring at the European level we should keep in mind the fact that there was an opening towards private financing according to the American model, due to the necessity to attract international capital resources, a process which is still ongoing.The integration of the European financial markets at the beginning of the 21st century follows the general process of financial globalization which develops rapidly on several structures of financial systems.

  3. Physiotherapy students' conceptions of skill at the beginning of their Bachelor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurunsaari, Merja; Piirainen, Arja; Tynjälä, Päivi

    2015-05-01

    Skills have recently received widespread attention in education policy documents and discussions. This article reports the results of research on Bachelor's degree physiotherapy students' conceptions of skill at the beginning of their studies. The aim of the present study was to examine how beginning students understand skill, and the focus was on conceptions of skill in general rather than on any particular skills. The participants of the study were 35 physiotherapy students. The data were gathered within the first two weeks of their university studies. Specifically, requested essays written by the students were analyzed using the phenomenographic approach. The data-driven analysis yielded four descriptive categories which reflect the students' conceptions of skill: (1) Talents; (2) Skills requiring individual practice; (3) Skills requiring social practice; and (4) Competence requiring collaboration. The categories form a hierarchy. The differences between the categories are described along seven themes of variation. The themes were named: (1) Acquisition; (2) Emotions; (3) Motivation; (4) Reflection; (5) Evaluation; (6) Agency; and (7) Social Environment. This hierarchical system of categories sheds new light on students' understanding of the skill. The findings can be used as a basis for planning physiotherapy curricula, especially for designing skills education and training, and for supporting students along their educational path, especially in offering opportunities for students to reflect on their skill conceptions. Ultimately, physiotherapy students' awareness of different skill conceptions and developing their skills to advise and treat will benefit patients. PMID:25556599

  4. Rehabilitation Idea Begins at Sumers

    OpenAIRE

    Sumerians, The idea of rehabilitation began with th

    2013-01-01

    of the long-lasting fight by PWD and their families and friends in the West (3), in this letter, we wanted to visualize that the human mind in Mesopotamia (3–4000 BC) has been simply enough to recognize real goodness (in Turkish, “erdem”) (5). Since Sumer was the first civilization to use a writing system and initiated many other contemporary social institutions, Kramer pronounced that history begins with the Sumerians (7). This legend shows that the contemporary rehabilitation idea a...

  5. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations

    OpenAIRE

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PT...

  6. A scientific view of radioactivity from its beginnings to our days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annals of this seminar organized in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the radioactivity decade (1895-1907) verse on the beginnings and history of the nuclear science and its applications. It highlights the contributions of Maria Sklodowska Curie; it presents an overview of the main discoveries in physics during the late nineteenth century; it presents some considerations regarding a proper use of radiation and finally it discusses the importance that currently have biomedical applications of radiation and the pioneer role of Argentina in this topic

  7. A Small Special Needs Class or a Smaller Class at the Beginning of the Educational Path?

    OpenAIRE

    Valli, Raine; Jokinen, Katja

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the case study which focuses on the small class (in this article used to describe a small special needs class) operation of one medium-sized Finnish town. In the study an attempt was made to clarify what kind of alternative the small class is to the first grade of general education at the beginning of the child's educational path, what kind of experiences the teachers had of the pupils of the small class, of multi-vocational cooperation and of pupils' i...

  8. A probabilistic approach to the assessment of some life history pattern parameters in a Middle Pleistocene human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, A I; Ipina, S L; Bermúdez de Castro, J M

    2000-06-01

    Parameters of a Middle Pleistocene human population such as the expected length of the female reproductive period (E(Y)), the expected interbirth interval (E(X)), the survival rate (tau) for females after the expected reproductive period, the rate (phi(2)) of women who, given that they reach first birth, do not survive to the end of the expected reproductive period, and the female infant plus juvenile mortality rate (phi(1)) have been assessed from a probabilistic standpoint provided that such a population were stationary. The hominid sample studied, the Sima de los Huesos (SH) cave site, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain), is the most exhaustive human fossil sample currently available. Results suggest that the Atapuerca (SH) sample can derive from a stationary population. Further, in the case that the expected reproductive period ends between 37 and 40 yr of age, then 24 less, similarE(Y) less, similar27 yr, E(X)=3 yr, 0.224of the expected reproductive period occurs after 40 yr of age, it turns out that 24 less, similarE(Y) less, similar30 yr, E(X)=3 yr, 0.204

  9. Basic status of uranium mine production at the beginning of the new century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the new century, the global uranium mine production declined slightly, the spot uranium price was close to or slightly higher than that of the last century. The uranium consumption in global nuclear electricity generation does not fluctuate greatly, remains stable as a whole. Although certain accidents have taken place during the period of uranium mine production, uranium production remains stable, uranium's demand and supply remain balanced basically. In the global uranium mine production at the beginning of the new century, production from hard rock uranium mines still plays the leading role, and production from in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium mines increases by a small margin and makes up one fifth of the total global uranium mine production. Several transnational uranium industry companies have become the main stockholders of low cost uranium production centers all around the world. Most mining uranium deposits and uranium production centers have centralized in a few countries. The globalized distribution of uranium resources during the progress of the world's economy globalization has taken shape in the uranium industry. (authors)

  10. The susteinable enterprise at the beginning of the 21st century

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    Ph. D. Vladimir Codrin Ionescu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the IIIrd millennium faces a more and more concrete threatening: exhaustion of Earth resources and the entrance in a state of collapse as long as the states of the world will not find,as soon as possible, some alternative resources that they can use in the most important fields of activities.Aeolian energy represents a solution in what concerns the exhaustion of resources of fossil fuels, but not only. Aeolian energy also represents an alternative in what concerns the protection of the surrounding environment, its noxious effects being incomparable smaller than the ones produces by conventional energy.

  11. Examining Factors Affecting Beginning Teachers' Transfer of Learning of ICT-Enhanced Learning Activities in Their Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers' transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by "learning technology by collaborative design" in their final year of…

  12. Beginning of heaven and earth has no name seven days with second-order cybernetics

    CERN Document Server

    von Foerster, Heinz; Muller, Karl H

    2013-01-01

    Heinz von Foerster was the inventor of second-order cybernetics, which recognizes the investigator as part of the system he is investigating. The Beginning of Heaven and Earth Has No Name provides an accessible, nonmathematical, and comprehensive overview of von Foerster's cybernetic ideas and of the philosophy latent within them. It distills concepts scattered across the lifework of this scientific polymath and influential interdisciplinarian. At the same time, as a book-length interview, it does justice to von Foerster's elan as a speaker and improviser, his skill as a raconteur. Developed f

  13. Mining Industry of the Future Vision: The Future Begins with Mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-09-01

    The Mining Industry of the Future was started in June 1998 when the Chairman of the National Mining Association and the Secretary of Energy entered into a Compact to pursue a collaborative technology research partnership. After the Compact signing, the mining industry developed its vision document, The Future Begins with Mining, A Vision of the Mining Industry of the Future, in September 1998. This vision document lists long-term goals for the mining industry. Stemming from this vision document, targeted technology roadmaps were developed that describe pathways of research to achieve the vision goals.

  14. Influence of Niobium on the Beginning of the Plastic Flow of Material during Cold Deformation

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    Stoja Rešković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on low-carbon steel and the steel with same chemical composition with addition of microalloying element niobium. While tensile testing was carried out, the thermographic measurement was tacking place simultaneously. A specific behavior of niobium microalloyed steel was noticed. Test results have shown that, in the elastic deformation region, thermoelastic effect occurs, which is more pronounced in niobium microalloyed steel. Start of plastic flow in steel which is not microalloyed with niobium begins later in comparison to the microalloyed steel, and it is conducted so that, at the point of maximum stress, deformation zone is formed within which stresses grow. In steel microalloyed with niobium after proportionality limit, comes the occurrence of the localized increase in temperature and the occurrence of Lüders band, which propagate along the sample forming a deformation zone.

  15. Beginning therapists’ experiences of what constitutes good and bad psychotherapy supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2009-01-01

    events. Also included were the importance of peers in the supervision group and the organisational setting of the supervision. The objective was to give detailed descriptions in the form of condensed narratives of each student’s preferences concerning supervision. Furthermore, a cross-sectional analysis...... in the existing literature in the field. The beginning therapist prefer supervision in which advice and clear and specific instructions are given on how to do the job, where theoretical considerations are included, and the supervisor supports, affirms and structures the sessions. However, of particular interest...

  16. Reports from Ministry of Finance: China Nay Begin to Collect Carbon Tax in the Next Five Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The investigation team of Research Institute for Fiscal Science, Ministry of Finance, just published a report on the "Study on the Issue of Beginning to Levy Carbon Tax in China." The report said that the beginning of the collection of carbon tax could be considered in the next five years.

  17. Beginning Chemistry Teachers Use of the Triplet Relationship During their First Three Years in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Krista

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been described as the knowledge teachers' use in the process of designing and implementing lessons to a particular group of students. This includes the most effective representations that make the content understandable to students, together with the preconceptions and misconceptions that students hold. For chemistry, students have been found to have difficulty with the discipline due to its reliance upon three levels of representation called the triplet: the macro, the submicro, and the symbolic. This study examines eight beginning chemistry teachers' depiction of the chemistry content through the triplet relationship and modifications as a result of considering students' understanding across the teacher's first three years in the classroom. The data collected included classroom observations, interviews, and artifacts for the purpose of triangulation. The analysis of the data revealed that beginning chemistry teachers utilized the abstract components, submicro and symbolic, primarily in the first year. However, the teachers began to engage more macro representations over time building a more developed instructional repertoire. Additionally, teachers' developed an awareness of and responded to their students' understanding of learning atomic structure during the second and third year teaching. The results of this study call for preservice and induction programs to help novice chemistry teachers build a beginning repertoire that focuses on the triplet relationship. In so doing, the teachers enter the classroom with a repertoire that allows them to address the needs of their students. Finally, the study suggests that the triplet relationship framework should be revisited to include an additional component that frames learning to account for socioscientific issues and historical contributions.

  18. Lead isotopes tracing the life cycle of a catchment: From source rock via weathering to human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, P. J.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Guerrot, C.; Millot, R.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical weathering of rocks involves consumption of CO2, a greenhouse gas with a strong influence on climate. Among rocks exposed to weathering, basalt plays a major role in the carbon cycle as it is more easily weathered than other crystalline silicate rocks. This means that basalt weathering acts as a major atmospheric CO2 sink. The present study investigated the lead isotopes in rock, soil and sediment for constraining the life cycle of a catchment, covering source rocks, erosion processes and products, and anthropogenic activities. For this, we investigated the Allanche river drainage basin in the Massif Central, the largest volcanic areas in France, that offers opportunities for selected geochemical studies since it drains a single type of virtually unpolluted volcanic rock, with agricultural activity increasing downstream. Soil and sediment are derived exclusively from basalt weathering, and their chemistry, coupled to isotope tracing, should shed light on the behavior of chemical species during weathering from parental bedrock. Bedrock samples of the basin, compared to regional bedrock of the volcanic province, resulted from a complex history and multiple mantle reservoir sources and mixing. Regarding soils and sediments, comparison of Pb and Zr normalized to mobile K shows a linear evolution of weathering processes, whereby lead enrichment from atmospheric deposition is the other major contributor. Lead-isotope ratios showed that most of the lead budget in sediment and soil results from bedrock weathering with an influence of past mining and mineral processing of ores in the Massif Central, and deposition of lead-rich particles from gasoline combustion, but no lead input from agricultural activity. A classic box model was used to investigate the dynamics of sediment transfer at the catchment scale, the lead behavior in the continuum bedrock-soil-sediment and the historical evolution of anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  19. Toward a Developmental Psychology of Sehnsucht (Life Longings): The Optimal (Utopian) Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Susanne; Freund, Alexandra M.; Baltes, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of an optimal or utopian life has received much attention across the humanities and the arts but not in psychology. The German concept of Sehnsucht captures individual and collective thoughts and feelings about one's optimal or utopian life. Sehnsucht (life longings; LLs) is defined as an intense desire for alternative states and…

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BEGINNING READING SKILLS PROGRAM USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENTS INSTRUMENT. FOURTH PROGRESS REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOTKIN, LASSAR G.; MCSWEENEY, JOSEPH

    A FOURTH PROGRESS REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BEGINNING READING SKILLS PROGRAM USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENTS INSTRUMENT IS PRESENTED. THE ACQUISITION OF A SEQUENCE OF COMPLEX BEGINNING READING SKILLS IS EXAMINED. MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES ARE DISCUSSED. THE FOLLOWING HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED IN FIELD STUDIES--(1) THE EFFECTS OF TWO TYPES…