WorldWideScience

Sample records for beginning of human life

  1. [The beginning of human life: ethical and legal perspectives in the context of biotechnological progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Vicente de Paulo; Lauxen, Elis Cristina Uhry

    2017-07-13

    Questions concerning the beginning of human life have pervaded society since antiquity. In the post-modern world, scientific and technological advances have fueled discussions on the issue, such that debates previously concentrated on abortion now also focus on biotechnological interventions. The article addresses the latter, reflecting on the extent to which human dignity can be considered a (hermeneutic) reference in establishing ethical and legal parameters for biotechnological advances in the definition of the beginning of human life. The study's method was critical hermeneutic ethics, with ethics at the center of the process of understanding and interpretation, observing the contours of facticity. No consensus was found on the beginning of human life, so it is essential to engage in dialogue with the new reality resulting from biotechnological advances in the process of defining ethical and legal principles for protecting the embryo and human nature, with human dignity as the reference.

  2. Controversies on the beginning of human life - science and religions closer and closer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjak, Asim

    2017-04-01

    One of the most controversial topics in modern bioethics, science, and philosophy is the beginning of individual human life. In the seemingly endless debate, strongly stimulated by recent technologic advances in human reproduction, a synthesis between scientific data and hypothesis, philosophical thought, and issues of humanities has become a necessity to deal with ethical, juridical, and social problems. Furthermore, in this field there is a temptation to ask science to choose between opinions and beliefs, which neutralize one another. The question of when human life begins requires the essential aid of different forms of knowledge. Here we become involved in the juncture between science and religion, which needs to be carefully explored.

  3. The facts and doubts about beginning of the human life and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Kurjak

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available “What a piece of work is a man!” William Shakespeare, Hamlet“To those of average curiosity about the wonders of nature, it is likely that two great mysteries have stirred the imagination; and each concerns a birth. Who has not gazed into the heavens on the starlit night and wondered about the birth of the universe? And who has not been stimulated by the sight of the newly born baby to the marvel at the unseen events within the mother’s uterus that have led to the birth of such a perfect creation?”(1 These words written by the Professor Sir Graham (Mont Liggins open Pandora’s box of questions, dilemmas, doubts and controversies about human life and its beginning offering everybody lifelong challenge to solve mystery of life.Entering this filed scientists have been remiss in failing to translate science into the terms that allow mankind to share their excitement of discovering life before birth. Regardless to remarkable scientific development, curiosity, and speculations dating back to Hippocrates, life before birth still remains a big secret. Different kinds of intellectuals involved themselves trying to contribute to the solution of human life puzzle. They are led by the idea that each newborn child will only reach its full potential if its development in uterus is free from any adverse influence, providing the best possible environment for the embryo/foetus. Considering embryo/foetus, it should be always kept in mind amazing aspect of these parts of human life in which the mother and the embryo/foetus, although locked in the most intimate relationships, are at ALL TIMES two separate people. Accepting embryo/foetus as the person opened new set of questions about its personality and human rights. Today, synthesis between scientific data and hypotheses, philosophical thought, and issues in the humanities, has become pressing necessity in order to deal with ethical, juridical and social problems arising from man’s interference

  4. Bryophyte in the Beginning of Terrestrial Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan ŞİMŞEK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of life has been wondered by human beings since ancient ages. The widely accepted opinion is that life began in water and after that landed. In this process, the landing of plants and adapting to terrestrial life of plants are important stages. The last 20 years it’s been done many researches to find out the relationship of bryophytes and tracheophytes. The results of these researches revealed that in evolutionary development process bryophytes and tracheophytes are sister groups. Thesis about earliest land plants are bryophytes is widely accepted recent years. To understand evolutionary process and plants of today’s better, researches about bryophytes must increase.

  5. The Questions of the Beginning and the End of Human Life

    OpenAIRE

    ČADOVÁ, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the problems of conception, gravidity and abortion in the first part and in the second part than deals with problems of death and dying. It concerns two cut-off points, which are component parts of human life. The first part surveis the biginning of human life and tries to find answers for questions, which have a connection with the conception, artifical insemination, surrogative maternity and abortion. It describes paradoxes, which comes from such situations. It apprecia...

  6. Structure and dynamics of human communication at the beginning of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, H; Papousek, M

    1986-01-01

    Although the beginning of postpartum social integration and communication has been long viewed as relevant to psychiatric theories, early parent-infant communication has become a matter of scientific investigation only recently. The present survey explains the significance of an approach based upon the general systems theory and explores to what extent the early parent-infant interaction can function as a didactic system to support the development of thought and speech. Evidence of this function has been found in those forms of parental behavior that escape the parent's conscious awareness and control, as exemplified in the vocal communication with presyllabic infants. Parents unknowingly adjust the structure and dynamics of speech to the constraints of infant capacities, detach prosodic musicality from lexical structure, and use it in particularly expressive forms for the delivery of the first prototypical messages. In this and other similar ways, parents offer an abundance of learning situations in which infants can try out various integrative operations. A biological rather than cultural provenience of the support of communicative development indicates a potential relevance for the interpretation of speech evolution. In addition to qualities of the vocal tract and to complex symbolic capacities in humans, the early intuitive support of communicative development and its playful character are suggested as species-specific determinants of speech evolution. Implications for clinical research are suggested.

  7. Bidrag til "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Bidrag til: "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians". Uddrag fra Human Genetics, vol. 119 p 1432. Udgivelsesdato: 5 september......Bidrag til: "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians". Uddrag fra Human Genetics, vol. 119 p 1432. Udgivelsesdato: 5 september...

  8. Centrioles in the beginning of human development.

    OpenAIRE

    Sathananthan, A H; Kola, I; Osborne, J; Trounson, A; Ng, S C; Bongso, A; Ratnam, S S

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate the presence of centrioles in fertilized human oocytes at syngamy. Single or double centrioles within centrosomes were detected by transmission electron microscopy at one pole of the first cleavage spindle in normal and dispermic embryos (25-26 hr after insemination). Sperm centrioles were also closely associated with the male pronucleus (16-20 hr after insemination) in pronuclear stage embryos. A tripolar spindle derived from a tripronuclear embryo is also demonstrated with tw...

  9. Where life begins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, C [University Coll. of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff (UK)

    1977-04-21

    Recent laboratory studies of meteorites which, when combined with astronomical data on interstellar dust and prestellar molecular clouds, point to the evolution of a primitive biological system in interstellar space, are discussed. It is suggested that meteorites, which carried such systems, could have brought life to our planet.

  10. Where life begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, C.

    1977-01-01

    Recent laboratory studies of meteorites which, when combined with astronomical data on interstellar dust and prestellar molecular clouds, point to the evolution of a primitive biological system in interstellar space, are discussed. It is suggested that meteorites, which carried such systems, could have brought life to our planet. (U.K.)

  11. The beginnings of life as a cosmic phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2015-09-01

    The emerging consensus that comets carry the biochemical seeds of life coincides with the first step that was reached as early as 1977 in the historical development of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of cosmic life. To mark the centenary of the birth of Sir Fred Hoyle on 24 June 2015 this brief article retraces early developments that essentially heralded the new science of astrobiology.

  12. Life begins at 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, L.

    1995-01-01

    A new rule makes nuclear power plant license renewal a viable option. A small group of corporate executives will soon face one of the toughest decisions of their careers-a decision that will affect 17 million American homes. Forty-five commercial nuclear power plants will reach the end of their operating licenses early in the next century. They represent billions of dollars in capital investment, and the companies that own them must decide whether to keep them on the grid or scrap them. But before a company decides whether to pull the plug on a big generating plant, it will have to do some homework. Company executives will have to roll up their sleeves and dig deep into projections of electricity demand, assessments of generating options and cold, hard economics. At the same time, they must keep wary eyes on the political landscape, scanning ahead for roadblocks and quicksand

  13. Mediation Approaches at the Beginning or End of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Edmund G

    2015-01-01

    The approaches used in mediation may help ethics consultants, especially in difficult cases. In this piece, I primarily discuss these techniques. I also discuss how clinicians may be of the most help to parents of infants with severe genetic conditions, to research participants, and to patients who may be at risk for Alzheimer's disease and their surrogate decision makers. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  14. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in

  15. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in

  16. [The human meaning of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J

    1989-01-01

    Technical development has produced a curious phenomenon, the ebbing of the moral imperative of reproduction. After 2000 years of fight against diseases and death, the respect for life has declined threatening the destruction of Western civilization and family by destroying unborn babies via abortion. Artificial in vitro experimentation can potentially lead to elimination of very young, old, or sick people. Dr. Bernard Nathanson in his book "Aborting America" called abortion infanticide, one of the most abominable crimes. The beginning of life start at conception as shown by recent extra-corporal, in vitro fertilization resulting in a viable fetus, as in the case of Luisa Brown who was conceived in a tube by Drs. Edwards' and Steptoe's technique. The creation of human embryo banks and experimentation on human embryos amount to biological pronography. Respect for the human species and reproduction should manifest itself in the fight against sterility and genetic diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, Down's syndrome, and Huntington's chorea. The fight against AIDS and the elimination of the risk of contracting it by contaminated blood is also a medical priority. In the end, the question still remains: can science itself save the world without moral imperatives, is not the dilemma of Faust and the vileness of Mephistopheles conjured with the nuclear experience and human experimentation.

  17. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of School Human Resource Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Human resource (HR) management is defined as the sum of activities employed by an organization to attract, develop, and retain people with the appropriate knowledge and skills for effectively and efficiently achieving organizational goals. An understanding of the HR practices in schools is important, as the assembly of a team of qualified and…

  18. The beginnings of human palaeontology: prehistory, craniometry and the 'fossil human races'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Since the nineteenth century, hominid palaeontology has offered critical information about prehistoric humans and evidence for human evolution. Human fossils discovered at a time when there was growing agreement that humans existed during the Ice Age became especially significant but also controversial. This paper argues that the techniques used to study human fossils from the 1850s to the 1870s and the way that these specimens were interpreted owed much to the anthropological examination of Stone, Bronze, and Iron Age skeletons retrieved by archaeologists from prehistoric tombs throughout Europe. What emerged was the idea that a succession of distinct human races, which were identified using techniques such as craniometry, had occupied and migrated into Europe beginning in the Ice Age and continuing into the historic period. This marks a phase in the history of human palaeontology that gradually gave way to a science of palaeoanthropology that viewed hominid fossils more from the perspective of evolutionary theory and hominid phylogeny.

  19. Emergency Contraceptives and the Beginning of Human Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Eze

    2016-07-01

    Emergency contraceptives may sometimes prevent implantation, thereby causing the death of the embryo. According to some positions contrary to abortion, because the embryo is a human animal, there are usually decisive moral reasons not to use them. In this article, I will show that objecting to the use of emergency contraceptives on those grounds is unjustified. If organisms are real existents, then according to the most plausible conception of what is required for a group of cells to compose one, the embryo cannot qualify as a single organism. On the other hand, if organisms are virtual objects, then whether or not the embryo qualifies as one is morally irrelevant. I conclude that even if those positions are right about the morality of abortion, they are not entitled to oppose the use of emergency contraceptives. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The beginning and the end the meaning of life in a cosmological perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal, Clément

    2014-01-01

    In this fascinating journey to the edge of science, Vidal takes on big philosophical questions: Does our universe have a beginning and an end or is it cyclic? Are we alone in the universe? What is the role of intelligent life, if any, in cosmic evolution? Grounded in science and committed to philosophical rigor, this book presents an evolutionary worldview where the rise of intelligent life is not an accident, but may well be the key to unlocking the universe's deepest mysteries. Vidal shows how the fine-tuning controversy can be advanced with computer simulations. He also explores whether nat

  1. Benchmarking of NESTLE against measured PWR data at beginning of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The NESTLE advanced nodal code was developed at North Carolina State University with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This paper presents the first comparisons of NESTLE predictions with measured data from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Specifically, NESTLE predictions for critical soluble boron concentrations and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity (ITCs) are compared with beginning-of-life (BoL) measurements from four PWRs. All of those measurements were made at hot-zero-power (HZP) conditions prior to ascension to power

  2. Benchmarking of NESTLE against measured PWR data at beginning of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The NESTLE advanced nodal code was developed at North Carolina State University with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This paper presents the first comparisons of NESTLE predictions with measured data from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Specifically, NESTLE predictions for critical soluble boron concentrations and isothermal temperature coefficients (ITCs) of reactivity are compared with beginning-of-life (BOL) measurements from four PWRs. All of those measurements were made at hot-zero-power (HZP) conditions prior to ascension to power

  3. Participative Facility Planning for Obstetrical and Neonatal Care Processes: Beginning of Life Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jori Reijula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Old hospitals may promote inefficient patient care processes and safety. A new, functionally planned hospital presents a chance to create an environment that supports streamlined, patient-centered healthcare processes and adapts to users’ needs. This study depicts the phases of a facility planning project for pregnant women and newborn care processes (beginning of life process at Turku University Hospital. Materials and Methods. Project design reports and meeting documents were utilized to assess the beginning of life process as well as the work processes of the Women’s and Children’s Hospital. Results. The main elements of the facility design (FD project included rigorous preparation for the FD phase, functional planning throughout the FD process, and setting key values: (1 family-centered care, (2 Lean thinking and Lean tools as the framework for the FD process, (3 safety, and (4 cooperation. Conclusions. A well-prepared FD project with sufficient insight into functional planning, Lean thinking, and user-centricity seemed to facilitate the actual FD process. Although challenges occurred, the key values were not forgone and were successfully incorporated into the new hospital building.

  4. Beginning-of-life neutronic analysis of a 3000-MW(t) HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.C.

    1975-12-01

    The results of a study of safety-related neutronic characteristics for the beginning-of-life core of a 3000-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor are presented. Emphasis was placed on the temperature-dependent reactivity effects of fuel, moderator, control poisons, and fission products. Other neutronic characteristics studied were gross and local power distributions, neutron kinetics parameters, control rod and other material worths and worth distributions, and the reactivity worth of a selected hypothetical perturbation in the core configuration. The study was performed for the most part using discrete-ordinates transport theory codes and neutron cross sections that were interpolated from a four-parameter nine-group library supplied by the HTGR vendor. A few comparison calculations were also performed using nine-group data generated with an independent cross-section processing code system. Results from the study generally agree well with results reported by the HTGR vendor

  5. [Construction vs. development: the source of our misunderstandings concerning the beginning of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stith, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues that the failure of our public debates over abortion and embryo-destructive research is due, to a large extent, not to different valuation of individual human life but to different conceptions and intuitions concerning the process of gestation, one group treating the process as construction and another treating it as development. These two incompatible models of reproduction are shown to explain the various positions commonly encountered in these life-related debates. Finally, the historical, theoretical, and intuitive strengths of each model are examined.

  6. Uncertainty analysis of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors at beginning of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhanen, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to estimate breeding ratio, radiation damage rate and minor actinide transmutation rate of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors. Uncertainty analysis is performed taking into account uncertainty in nuclear data and composition of the reactors. We use the recently released ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data library and restrict the work to the beginning of reactor life. We work under multigroup approximation. The Bondarenko method is used to acquire effective cross sections for the homogeneous reactor. Modeling error and numerical error are estimated. The adjoint sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate generalized adjoint fluxes for the responses. The generalized adjoint fluxes are used to calculate first order sensitivities of the responses to model parameters. The acquired sensitivities are used to propagate uncertainties in the input data to find out uncertainties in the responses. We show that the uncertainty in model parameters is the dominant source of uncertainty, followed by modeling error, input data precision and numerical error. The uncertainty due to composition of the reactor is low. We identify main sources of uncertainty and note that the low-fidelity evaluation of 16 O is problematic due to lack of correlation between total and elastic reactions

  7. Uncertainty analysis of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors at beginning of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, R., E-mail: risto.vanhanen@aalto.fi

    2015-03-15

    The objective of the present work is to estimate breeding ratio, radiation damage rate and minor actinide transmutation rate of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors. Uncertainty analysis is performed taking into account uncertainty in nuclear data and composition of the reactors. We use the recently released ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data library and restrict the work to the beginning of reactor life. We work under multigroup approximation. The Bondarenko method is used to acquire effective cross sections for the homogeneous reactor. Modeling error and numerical error are estimated. The adjoint sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate generalized adjoint fluxes for the responses. The generalized adjoint fluxes are used to calculate first order sensitivities of the responses to model parameters. The acquired sensitivities are used to propagate uncertainties in the input data to find out uncertainties in the responses. We show that the uncertainty in model parameters is the dominant source of uncertainty, followed by modeling error, input data precision and numerical error. The uncertainty due to composition of the reactor is low. We identify main sources of uncertainty and note that the low-fidelity evaluation of {sup 16}O is problematic due to lack of correlation between total and elastic reactions.

  8. Ethics teaching on 'Beginning of Life' issues in UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Christopher; Fialova, Lydie

    2014-12-01

    Medical ethics forms an essential component of an undergraduate medical programme. In the UK the Institute of Medical Ethics has released a consensus statement detailing its recommendations for a minimum curriculum for ethics. One important issue it highlights for inclusion is 'Beginning of Life', which includes a wide range of themes. This paper presents an evaluation of the current teaching and assessment of these important issues in UK medical schools, complemented by a specific analysis of students' reaction to the teaching they received at the University of Edinburgh as part of their Obstetrics and Gynaecology rotation. Schools which responded to the survey reported a wide range of teaching and assessment methods. While there was a good overall coverage of topics, only one of them was covered by every institution and the religious/cultural elements of those topics were often neglected. The medical schools viewed better clinical integration of ethics teaching as the best route to improvement, but the students reported a desire for more ethics teaching in the form of specific tutorials, lectures or discussions. It is likely that a combination of these approaches will lead to significant improvements in the delivery of ethics teaching in this area and in others. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Beginning-of-Life Data Report for the Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA)-527

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, D. D.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents beginning-of-life (BOL) data from the first four months of operation of the six-rod instrumented fuel assembly (IFA)-527 in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), Halden, Norway. This assembly is the last in a series of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored tests to verify steady-state fuel performance computer codes. IFA-527 contains five identical rods with high-density stable fuel pellets and 0.23-mm diametral gaps and one rod with similar fuel pellets but with a 0.06-mm diametral gap. All six rods were xenon-filled to provide simulation of the effects of fission gas and to enhance the observable effects of fuel cracking and relocation on fuel temperatures. The assembly operated successfully from July 1, 1980, to August 15, 1980; and then the reactor was shut down until September 10, 1980. Sometime during the shutdown, four of the six rods suffered pressure boundary failure. The decision was made to restart the reactor to collect operating data with failed rods. This report presents both pre- and postfailure data for IFA-527.

  10. The development of the temporal macrostructure of life narratives across adolescence: beginnings, linear narrative form, and endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Ehlert-Lerche, Silvia; de Silveira, Cybèle

    2009-04-01

    The ontogeny of the ability to describe people culminates in adolescence in the development of the life story. An overarching temporal macrostructure and framing by a prehistory and a future-oriented global evaluation of life helps integrate disparate autobiographical memories into a coherent story. Two life narratives each of 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-year-olds (N=102) were analyzed in terms of how well-formed their beginnings and endings are and how much they follow a linear temporal order. By age 12, the majority of life narratives began with birth, ended in the present, and followed a chronological order. In late adolescence and early adulthood, more elaborate birth narratives and retrospective evaluations of life and outlooks into the future were added. These formal characteristics were related to biographical practices, biographical knowledge, and fluid intelligence. Text-analytical methods are proposed as a method for the analysis of biographical and autobiographical reasoning and understanding.

  11. Prevention of late-life Depression in Primary Care: Do we know where to begin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoevers, R.; Smit, H.F.E.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Cuijpers, P.; Dekker, J.J.M.; van Tilburg, W.; Beekman, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to compare two models for selective (people at elevated risk) and indicated (those with subsyndromal depressive symptoms) prevention and to determine the optimal strategy for prevention of late-life depression. METHOD: Onset was assessed at 3 years with the Geriatric

  12. Quality of Life Theory II. Quality of Life as the Realization of Life Potential: A Biological Theory of Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life, which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research.Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life.

  13. Thermal conductivity of beginning-of-life uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel for fast reactor (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Asaga, Takeo

    1997-11-01

    Thermal conductivity of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel for fast reactor at beginning-of-life was correlated based on the recent results in order to apply to the fuel design and the fuel performance analysis. A number of experimental results of unirradiated fuel specimens were corrected from open literatures and PNC internal reports and examined for the database. In this work two porosity correction factors were needed for high density fuel and low density fuel (around the current Monju specification). The universal porosity correction factor was not determined in this work. In the next step, theoretical and analytical considerations should be taken into account. (J.P.N.)

  14. The beginning of Space Life Science in China exploration rockets for biological experiment during 1960's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peidong; Zhang, Jingxue

    The first step of space biological experiment in China was a set of five exploration rockets launched during 1964 to 1966, by Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electricity, and Institute of Biophysics of The Chinese Academy of Sciences. Three T-7AS1rockets for rats, mice and other samples in a biological cabin were launched and recovered safely in July of 1964 and June of 1965. Two T-7AS2rockets for dog, rats, mice and other samples in a biological cabin were launched and recovered safely in July of 1966. Institute of Biophysics in charged of the general design of biological experiments, telemetry of physiological parameters, and selection and training of experiment animals. The samples on-board were: rats, mice, dogs, and test tubes with fruit fly, enzyme, bacteria, E. Coli., lysozyme, bacteriaphage, RNAase, DNAase, crystals of enzyme, etc. Physiological, biochemical, bacte-riological, immunological, genetic, histochemical studies had been conducted, in cellular and sub cellular level. The postures of rat and dog were monitored during flight and under weight-lessness. Physiological parameters of ECG, blood pressure, respiration rate, body temperature were recorded. A dog named"Xiao Bao"was flight in 1966 with video monitor, life support system and conditioned reflex equipment. It flighted for more than 20 minutes and about 70km high. After 40 years, the experimental data recorded of its four physiological parameters during the flight process was reviewed. The change of 4 parameters during various phase of total flight process were compared, analyzed and discussed.

  15. In the Beginning was the Genome: Genomics and the Bi-textuality of Human Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, H A E Hub

    2018-04-01

    This paper addresses the cultural impact of genomics and the Human Genome Project (HGP) on human self-understanding. Notably, it addresses the claim made by Francis Collins (director of the HGP) that the genome is the language of God and the claim made by Max Delbrück (founding father of molecular life sciences research) that Aristotle must be credited with having predicted DNA as the soul that organises bio-matter. From a continental philosophical perspective I will argue that human existence results from a dialectical interaction between two types of texts: the language of molecular biology and the language of civilisation; the language of the genome and the language of our socio-cultural, symbolic ambiance. Whereas the former ultimately builds on the alphabets of genes and nucleotides, the latter is informed by primordial texts such as the Bible and the Quran. In applied bioethics deliberations on genomics, science is easily framed as liberating and progressive, religious world-views as conservative and restrictive (Zwart 1993). This paper focusses on the broader cultural ambiance of the debate to discern how the bi-textuality of human existence is currently undergoing a transition, as not only the physiological, but also the normative dimension is being reframed in biomolecular and terabyte terms.

  16. [Dignity of human life: euthanasia and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebrój, Lesław

    2005-07-01

    Euthanasia is commonly considered as a form of suicide. The study aims to explore if such a presumption could be justified. Philosophical analysis of concepts of "human being", "human person", "biological life" and "life of human person", undertaken in this article, proved that the effective cause of suicide is obviously different from such a cause of euthanasia. Suicide aims to destruct life of a human person which is considered deprived of its dignity. Euthanasia's effective cause is to protect the dignity of such a life which is threatened by low quality of biological life caused both by the disease as well as by the applied treatment even if palliative only. On the basis of these considerations the main conclusion is drawn: suicide and euthanasia having different moral (material) subjects should be also ethically evaluated in a different way.

  17. Laying the Foundations of Lifelong Health at the Beginning of Life: Islamic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Jafari-Mianaei, Soheila; Bankipoor-Fard, Amir-Hossein; Hasanpour, Marzieh

    2017-08-23

    In this systematic literature review, all the Shiite-Islamic documents (Quran and Hadith) without any time limitation were surveyed, analyzed and synthesized for the purpose of determining the foundations of lifelong health. The data were analyzed and combined using inductive qualitative content analysis method. Two main categories were emerged from the analysis: "prevention of health problems" and "health maintenance and promotion." In conclusion based on Islamic perspective, the foundations of comprehensive health of a person, i.e., health in all physical, mental, social, and spiritual dimensions, are begun to form at four stages: the time of marriage of his parents, the moment of their conception, when he is unborn in his mother womb, and during infancy period. Observing religion instructions in this regard is not the sufficient condition for being completely healthy; however, such instructions can provide a base for being a healthy person.

  18. Beginnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2012-01-01

    in the history of gastrointestinal endocrinology from classic studies of digestive juice secretion over peptide chemistry, immunochemistry, and molecular genetics to modern receptor pharmacology and drug development. From shadowy beginnings, gastrointestinal endocrinology has emerged as a central discipline...

  19. Beginning-of-life gap closure behaviour of experimental PFBR MOX fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, V.V.; Padalakshmi, M.; Ojha, B.K.; Padma Prabu, C.; Saravanan, T.; Venkiteswaran, C.N.; Philip, John; Muralidharan, N.G.; Joseph, Jojo; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed oxide fuel with 22 % and 29% plutonium is chosen as the fuel for PFBR for the two fissile zones. Due to the fabrication tolerances in the pellet diameter, fuel has to be preconditioned at a lower linear power for a brief period before raising the power to the rated value of 450 W/cm. PIE was done on an experimental MOX fuel pin irradiated in FBTR for 13 days at a linear power of 400 W/cm for gap closure studies with the objective of optimising the duration of pre-conditioning before raising the power to the design value of 450 W/cm. X-radiography and remote metallography was done on the fuel pin to estimate the axial fuel column elongation and fuel-clad gap. Remote metallography of the fuel pin cross-sections at five axial locations of the fuel column and the subsequent fuel-clad gap measurement has indicated that the average radial gap has reduced from the pre-irradiation value of 75-110 microns to around 12-13 microns along the entire length of the fuel column. This paper will describe the details of examinations and results of the PIE carried out on the MOX fuel pin. (author)

  20. DESAIN TERAS PLTN JENIS PEBBLE BED MODULAR REACTOR (PBMR MENGGUNAKAN PAKET PROGRAM MCNP-5 PADA KONDISI BEGINNING OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralind Re Marla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan desain teras Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (PLTN untuk jenis Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR dengan daya 70 MWe untuk keperluan proses smelter pada keadaan beginning of life (BOL. Analisis ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persen pengkayaan, distribusi suhu dan nilai keselamatan dengan koefisien reaktivitas teras yang negatif pada reaktor jenis PBMR apabila daya reaktor 70 MWe. Analisis menggunakan program Monte Carlo N-Particle-5 (MCNP5 dan dari hasil analisis ini diharapkan dapat memenuhi syarat dalam mendukung program percepatan pembangunan kelistrikan batubara 10.000 MWe khususnya untuk proses smelter, yang tersebar merata di wilayah Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, faktor perlipatan efektif (k-eff Reaktor jenis PBMR daya 70 MWe mengalami kondisi kritis pada pengkayaan 5,626 % dengan nilai faktor perlipatan efektif 1,00031±0,00087 dan nilai koefisien reaktivitas suhu pada -10,0006 pcm/K. Dari hasil analisis daat disimpulkan bahwa reaktor jenis PBMR daya 70 MWe adalah aman.   ABSTRACT The core design of Nuclear Power Plant for Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR type with 70 MWe capacity power in Beginning of Life (BOL has been performed. The aim of this analysis, to know percent enrichment, temperature distribution and safety value by negative temperature coefficient at type PBMR if reactor power become lower equal to 70 MWe. This analysis was expected become one part of overview project development the power plant with 10.000 MWe of total capacity, spread evenly in territory of Indonesia especially to support of smelter industries. The results showed that, effective multiplication factor (keff with power 70 MWe critical condition at enrichment 5,626 %is 1,00031±0,00087, based on enrichment result, a value of the temperature coefficient reactivity is - 10,0006 pcm/K. Based on the results of these studies, it can beconcluded that the PBMR 70 MWe design is theoritically safe.

  1. On the value of human life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višňovský Emil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The author reflects on the issue of the value of human life in the contexts of current “posthuman” era. There is a host of evidence that the value of human for human beings themselves has been radically reduced or ignored, or replaced by other non-human values, and even neglected. The axiological crisis of humanity, as envisioned by Nietzsche, has become the existential and moral crisis of humanity today. No matter how contemporary technological culture challenges the traditional values, the ancient questions of “how to live?”, “what makes us happy?”, and “what makes life significant?” are still here with us and provide even greater challenges to every individual. The author points to pluralist ways of how to deal with these questions including the “stoic pragmatism” among them.

  2. Can Life Begin on Enceladus? A Perspective from Hydrothermal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamer, David; Damer, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    Enceladus is a target of future missions designed to search for existing life or its precursors. Recent flybys of Enceladus by the Cassini probe have confirmed the existence of a long-lived global ocean laced with organic compounds and biologically available nitrogen. This immediately suggests the possibility that life could have begun and may still exist on Enceladus. Here we will compare the properties of two proposed sites for the origin of life on Earth-hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor and hydrothermal volcanic fields at the surface-and ask whether similar conditions could have fostered the origin of life on Enceladus. The answer depends on which of the two sites would be more conducive for the chemical evolution leading to life's origin. A hydrothermal vent origin would allow life to begin in the Enceladus ocean, but if the origin of life requires freshwater hydrothermal pools undergoing wet-dry cycles, the Enceladus ocean could be habitable but lifeless. These arguments also apply directly to Europa and indirectly to early Mars. Key Words: Enceladus-Hydrothermal vents-Hydrothermal fields-Origin of life. Astrobiology 17, 834-839.

  3. Fuel pellet relocation behavior in fast reactor uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel pin at beginning-of-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Asaga, Takeo

    1999-08-01

    The effects of fabrication parameters, irradiation conditions and fuel microstructural feature on fuel pellet relocation behavior in fast reactor fuel pins were investigated. This work focused only on beginning-of-life conditions, when fuel centerline temperature depends largely on the behavior. Fuel pellet relocation behavior in Joyo Mk-II driver could not be characterized because of the lack of data. And the behavior in FFTF driver and its larger diameter type fuel pins could not be characterized because of the extensive lot-by-lot scatters. The behavior both in Monju type and in Joyo power-to-melt type fuel pins were similar to each other, and depends largely on the as-fabricated gap width while the effects of linear heat rate and the extent of microstructural evolution were negligible. And fuel pellet centerline melting seems to affect slightly the behavior. The correlation, which describes the extent of relocation both in Monju type and in Joyo power-to-melt type fuel pins, were newly formulated and extrapolated for Joyo Mk-II driver, FFTF driver and its larger diameter type fuel pins. And the behavior in Joyo Mk-II driver seemed to be similar. On the contrary, the similarity with JNC fuel pins was observed case-by-case in FFTF driver and its larger diameter type fuel pins. (author)

  4. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  5. Measuring quality of life in Macedonia - using human development indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Eftimoski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1980s, the central issue of development was focused on the growth of income and not on the growth of quality of life. Therefore, the development strategies were oriented towards production and left no significant space for improving the welfare of individuals.In the beginning of the 1990s, the human development concept emerged, stressing that economic development ultimately should result in growth of quality of life of individuals, while the goal of the development process was to expand the capabilities of individuals by placing them in the focus of the efforts for development.This paper if focused on the quality of life of the individuals. Moreover, in addition to the previous practice in Macedonia of calculating the human development index (HDI - as a measure of quality of life, an attempt will be made to calculate the humanpoverty index (HPI-2 - as a measure of non-income poverty, gender development index (GDI - as a measure of inequality between men and women, as well as the human development index at the level of aggregated urban and rural municipalities.We hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of decisions made by the state and local authorities in Macedonia when it comes to issues concerning the human development.

  6. [The beginnings of physiology of the human brain, from antiquity to the Renaissance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, R

    1999-06-01

    For more than 3,000 years in Western civilizations, the knowledge of the human body gained very little ground at first, due to taboos. The body was regarded as sacred and Medicine only resorted to plants in order to heal. Hippocrates was not familiar with anatomy as the human body could not be dissected. He developed a theory of humors connected with the primary elements and opposing the dry and the moist. Even though he did not know the nervous system, he nonetheless pointed out that emotions stemmed from the brain and were caused ty particles (pneuma) emitted by the objects around us. Galien was one of the first to mention physiology but could only dissect animals to understand Man. He took up the theory of humors but did not reach any concrete results as he considered the brain as made up of faeces. Only in 1000 AD did Avicenne try to shape the cell theory with its three cells (the ventricles in today's parlance) in direct relation to the nerves, which he described but did not represent. Representation of the nerves was only be given in the mid-13th century by Khalifah in his ophtalmology treaty. Finally, during the Renaissance, when books started conveying both text and pictures, brain physiology emerged; Albert le Grand was its first expounder and his work was then taken up in a 1475 inculabulum in which 5 cells instead of 3 are described and represented. Leonardo da Vinci was the second one; at the end of the 15th century he dissected may corpses to understand human morphology. Unfortunately his work, which was conducted very rigorously from an anatomical point of view only surfaced at the end of the 19th century. He was the first to conduct the anatomical cross-dissection of the brain. Last came Magnus Hundt and Georg Reisch; in the early 16th century they still represented the three cells of Avicenne even though Reisch described more sophisticated connections between the organs of the senses.

  7. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalay Kouprina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  8. Athens: New capital of traditional Greek music: Testimonies on musical life at the beginning of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During its long Byzantine and Post-Byzantine history Constantinople was the center for church art in general, but especially for music. This old city on the Bosporus maintained its prime position until the beginning of the 20th century when, because of new political and social conditions, the Greek people started to acquire their independence and freedom, and Athens became the new capital in the cultural as well as the political sense. During the first decades of the 20th century the Athenian music scene was marked by an intensive dispute between those musicians who leaned towards the European musical heritage and its methods in musical pedagogy, and those who called themselves traditionalists and were engaged in the preservation of traditional values of church and folk music. The best insight into the circumstances in which Greek musical life was getting a new direction are offered by the numerous musical journals published in Athens before the First World War. Among them, The Formigs is of the special interest, firstly because of the long period during which it was published (1901-1912, and secondly because of its main orientation. The editor Ioannes Tsoklis, a church chanter, and his main collaborator, the famous Constantinopolitan musician and theorist and later Principal of the Department for Byzantine music at Athens musical school Konstantinos Psahos, with other associates firmly represented the traditional position. That is why most of the published articles and the orientation of the journal generally were dedicated to the controversial problems and current musical events that were attracting public attention. The editorial board believed that there was a connection between the preservation of musical traditions and their development on one side, and foreign musical influences that were evident in the promotion of polyphonic church music, which had been totally foreign to the Greek Orthodox church until the end of the 19th century, on

  9. MUSICAL LANDSCAPE IN THE CULTURAL LIFE OF CHISINAU AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21st CENTURY (PRELIMINARY TO A CASE STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    BADRAJAN SVETLANA

    2015-01-01

    This article covers some aspects of the cultural musical phenomenon at the beginning of the 21st century in the social area of Chisinau, which represents is a kaleidoscope of musical events; these address a specific audience and reflect the fashion, needs and preferences of different social strata. We outlined some musical landscapes, which we consider to be representative, having continuity, history, and tradition in the cultural life of Chisinau or even perhaps they are relatively new, but ...

  10. Human resource development in the beginning phase of nuclear technology development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-01-01

    Japan Research Reactor No.1 (JRR-1) was constructed as the first nuclear reactor in Japan and reached the first criticality in 1957. The construction of both the first BWR and the first PWR were started in the same year 1967 and they started power operation in the same year 1970. Engineers of electrical utilities and vendors gave efforts to have knowledge for reactor engineering mainly on the job training with high self-motivation to contribute for nuclear technology development. A part of them participated in the reactor engineering training course of the JAERI. (author)

  11. Role of Russian Orthodox Church in Life of Peasants in Russia in XIX – the beginning of the XXth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LarisaS. Perevozchikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of the Russian Orthodox Church in the outlook of the peasantry in Russia in XIX – early XX centuries. It is shown that the priests have helped peasants in their households and even in the sickness, for which they used their special favour. In addition, our attention is given to the Orthodox Church holidays, with which the peasants tied the most significant events in their lives. We have analyzed the value of the parish in the life of the peasants, which determines the formation of the moral character of the peasantry. The attitude of the peasants to the different events, their assessment were often based on the judgment of the priest, not only obliged to hold services in the Church, but also to carry on business, has become a factor of integration of the clergy in the world of Russian village. In the article, on the archive material, the charity of peasants is differentiated. The peasants took an active part in the affairs of philanthropy, not only in their parishes or dioceses, but also in charity events throughout Russia. The scientific problem solved in this article makes it possible to identify that it is in the village of Russian Orthodox Church rallied the population, and it was considered citizens as a spiritual institution, where the cleric was in constant and close contact with the peasants, with the result that there is a certain transformation in the national consciousness. On the specific examples given in the article, we can say that the priests were authentic spiritual teachers of their congregations. Cautionary preaching of the clergy has played an important role in ritual and religious life of the Russian peasants.

  12. Survival of the fittest before the beginning of life: selection of the first oligonucleotide-like polymers by UV light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherepanov Dmitry A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key event in the origin of life on this planet has been formation of self-replicating RNA-type molecules, which were complex enough to undergo a Darwinian-type evolution (origin of the "RNA world". However, so far there has been no explanation of how the first RNA-like biopolymers could originate and survive on the primordial Earth. Results As condensation of sugar phosphates and nitrogenous bases is thermodynamically unfavorable, these compounds, if ever formed, should have undergone rapid hydrolysis. Thus, formation of oligonucleotide-like structures could have happened only if and when these structures had some selective advantage over simpler compounds. It is well known that nitrogenous bases are powerful quenchers of UV quanta and effectively protect the pentose-phosphate backbones of RNA and DNA from UV cleavage. To check if such a protection could play a role in abiogenic evolution on the primordial Earth (in the absence of the UV-protecting ozone layer, we simulated, by using Monte Carlo approach, the formation of the first oligonucleotides under continuous UV illumination. The simulations confirmed that UV irradiation could have worked as a selective factor leading to a relative enrichment of the system in longer sugar-phosphate polymers carrying nitrogenous bases as UV-protectors. Partial funneling of the UV energy into the condensation reactions could provide a further boost for the oligomerization. Conclusion These results suggest that accumulation of the first polynucleotides could be explained by their abiogenic selection as the most UV-resistant biopolymers.

  13. Aspartame administered in feed, beginning prenatally through life span, induces cancers of the liver and lung in male Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservigi, Marco; Tibaldi, Eva; Lauriola, Michelina; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano

    2010-12-01

    Aspartame (APM) is a well-known intense artificial sweetener used in more than 6,000 products. Among the major users of aspartame are children and women of childbearing age. In previous lifespan experiments conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats we have shown that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites and that its effects are increased when exposure starts from prenatal life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of APM to induce carcinogenic effects in mice. Six groups of 62-122 male and female Swiss mice were treated with APM in feed at doses of 32,000, 16,000, 8,000, 2,000, or 0  ppm from prenatal life (12 days of gestation) until death. At death each animal underwent complete necropsy and all tissues and organs of all animals in the experiment were microscopically examined. APM in our experimental conditions induces in males a significant dose-related increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (P < 0.01), and a significant increase at the dose levels of 32,000  ppm (P < 0.01) and 16,000  ppm (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results show a significant dose-related increased incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in males (P < 0.05), and a significant increase at 32,000  ppm (P < 0.05). The results of the present study confirm that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites in rodents, and that this effect is induced in two species, rats (males and females) and mice (males). No carcinogenic effects were observed in female mice. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:1197-1206, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The Beginning of Protohaykian Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutian, G. H.

    2017-07-01

    From its foundation, studies in the field of history of Armenian astronomy and Armenian calendars were integral to astrophysical researches of the Byurakan Observatory. It is important to note the monographs and articles of H. Badalian and B. Toumanian in this field. As the result of our work in this field, beginning of the Haykian calendar (BC 2341) and the concept of Protohaykian calendar were established. In the present work an attempt is made to determine the beginning of the oldest Armenian calendar-the Protohaykian calendar. It is shown that Protohaykian calendar was originated when the heliacal rising of the star Spica (α Virgo) was observable from Armenia 8 days before summer solstice. Calculations made on this basis provide date of the beginning of this calendar as BC 9000 with an error not to exceed 80 years. This date is in correspondence with the date of observations of the Pleiades from Metsamor (about BC 9000), that was found a few years ago. Meanwhile, it also corresponds to the geological data, which prove, that the oldest lake (Araratian Sea) in the territory of modern Araratian valley was dried out at the same time. There is also good correlation with the time of cultivation of crops that was done in the territory of historical Armenia about 12000 years ago.

  15. MUSICAL LANDSCAPE IN THE CULTURAL LIFE OF CHISINAU AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21st CENTURY (PRELIMINARY TO A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADRAJAN SVETLANA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article covers some aspects of the cultural musical phenomenon at the beginning of the 21st century in the social area of Chisinau, which represents is a kaleidoscope of musical events; these address a specific audience and reflect the fashion, needs and preferences of different social strata. We outlined some musical landscapes, which we consider to be representative, having continuity, history, and tradition in the cultural life of Chisinau or even perhaps they are relatively new, but prominent and the results of modern technological advancements: Western literate music; Secular choral music with rich local traditions; Religious worship music; Music related to state representation; Music for film and dramatic performance; Band music; Jazz-pop-rock music; Western pop music and Latin American music; Folk music; Traditional romance music; Concert café music; Mainstream pop music; Music used in advertising; Street music; Intonations used by street sellers.

  16. Body as First Space of Communication: The Tonic-Emotional Dialogue in the Beginning of Psychic Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Martins

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early stages of ontogenesis, when thesupport for development relies upon the relational function of the mother–baby dyad, the child will organise the foundation of the Self. This process involves a physiological and emotional symbiosis, in a relation with predominance of a tonic-emotional dialogue. The presence or absence of the other, the dynamics of nearness/farness, the postural and gestural dynamics, the containment activities, rhythmic synchronicities and thermal contact, are essential supports to primary organization of the psyche. When these processes are inadequate, they can cause problems of individuation and affirmation of identity, linked to absences or deficiencies in the primary relationship between mother and baby. This perspective leads us to equate the importance of corporeality in the early processes of communication when they are mediated primarily by tonic-emotional processes of communication, imbued with affections, desires and emotions. These processes are essential to the organization of the internal processes that make up this pre-linguistic phase, based on the organization of body schema, ensuring a sense of identity and the possibility of individuation and differentiation from the maternal object. When there are disruptions in this evolutionary dynamics, psychomotor therapy is a privileged resource, providing a safe and container space in which through spontaneous and symbolic play, children learn to transform the feelings, acts and affections in thoughts, projects and words. A desired relationship, allows to experience new forms of expression and conflict resolution, improving emotional and behavioural regulation, and promoting mentoring capacity and executive functions (such as attention, working memory, planning and inhibition of impulses.

  17. Molecular dynamics studies of simple membrane-water interfaces: Structure and functions in the beginnings of cellular life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations of the structure and functions of a simple membrane are performed in order to examine whether membranes provide an environment capable of promoting protobiological evolution. Our model membrane is composed of glycerol 1-monooleate. It is found that the bilayer surface fluctuates in time and space, occasionally creating thinning defects in the membrane. These defects are essential for passive transport of simple ions across membranes because they reduce the Born barrier to this process by approximately 40%. Negative ions are transferred across the bilayer more readily than positive ions due to favorable interactions with the electric field at the membrane-water interface. Passive transport of neutral molecules is, in general, more complex than predicted by the solubility-diffusion model. In particular, molecules which exhibit sufficient hydrophilicity and lipophilicity concentrate near membrane surfaces and experience 'interfacial resistance' to transport. The membrane-water interface forms an environment suitable for heterogeneous catalysis. Several possible mechanisms leading to an increase of reaction rates at the interface are discussed. We conclude that vesicles have many properties that make them very good candidates for earliest protocells. Some potentially fruitful directions of experimental and theoretical research on this subject are proposed.

  18. The Beginning of a New Life Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury- Patient’s Experiences One Month Post-Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Bodil Bjørnshave; Bjerrum, Merete; Angel, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    -discharge period is complicated by lack of timing in establishing training possibilities and providing equipment needed. This has consequences for the individual in terms of setbacks, and it imposes a burden on the patient, partner and close family. Hope of further progress was dominant, while delays threaten...... this hope for progress. In order to promote a smooth and safe return to home timing seems of crucial importance....

  19. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  20. How Health Humanities Will Save the Life of the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig M

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, the humanities have been shrinking in number of students, percent of faculty, and in number of degrees awarded. Humanities students also earn lower salaries than their STEM-prepared peers. At the same time, the health humanities have been in ascendance over the last fifteen years. The number of majors, minors and certificates has increased 266% in that time frame, attracting large numbers of students and preparing future patients, lay caregivers, and health care providers to interact with a complicated and dehumanized medical system. In 1982, British philosopher and educator Stephen Toulmin declared that medicine saved philosophy from irrelevance and possibly extinction. I propose that the health humanities can serve a similar function to stave off the decline of the broader humanities. The health humanities can (1) model an applied approach for the broader humanities to attract student interest; (2) develop students' capacity for critical reading, writing and reflection about health and medicine in society, practice, and their own lives and (3) inoculate all students against the influence of medicine, whether through preparing pre-health students to navigate the hidden medical curriculum or preparing future patients to navigate the health care system.

  1. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J.; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime. PMID:27149330

  2. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  3. Quality of life philosophy II: what is a human being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Kromann, Maximilian; Merrick, Joav

    2003-12-01

    The human being is a complex matter and many believe that just trying to understand life and what it means to be human is a futile undertaking. We believe that we have to try to understand life and get a grip on the many faces of life, because it can be of great value to us to learn to recognize the fundamental principles of how life is lived to the fullest. Learning to recognize the good and evil forces of life helps us to make use of the good ones. To be human is to balance between hundreds of extremes. Sometimes we have to avoid these extremes, but at other times it seems we should pursue them, to better understand life. With our roots in medicine, we believe in the importance of love for better health. The secret of the heart is when reason and feelings meet and we become whole. Where reason is balanced perfectly by feelings and where mind and body come together in perfect unity, a whole new quality emerges, a quality that is neither feeling nor reason, but something deeper and more complete. In this paper, we outline only enough biology to clarify what the fundamental inner conflicts are about. The insight into these conflicts gives us the key to a great deal of the problems of life. To imagine pleasures greater than sensual pleasures seems impossible to most people. What could such a joy possibly be? But somewhere deep in life exists the finest sweetness, the greatest quality in life, the pure joy of being alive that emerges when we are fully present and life is in balance. This deep joy of life is what we call experiencing the meaning of life.

  4. Quality of Life Philosophy II: What is a Human Being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The human being is a complex matter and many believe that just trying to understand life and what it means to be human is a futile undertaking. We believe that we have to try to understand life and get a grip on the many faces of life, because it can be of great value to us to learn to recognize the fundamental principles of how life is lived to the fullest. Learning to recognize the good and evil forces of life helps us to make use of the good ones.To be human is to balance between hundreds of extremes. Sometimes we have to avoid these extremes, but at other times it seems we should pursue them, to better understand life. With our roots in medicine, we believe in the importance of love for better health. The secret of the heart is when reason and feelings meet and we become whole. Where reason is balanced perfectly by feelings and where mind and body come together in perfect unity, a whole new quality emerges, a quality that is neither feeling nor reason, but something deeper and more complete.In this paper, we outline only enough biology to clarify what the fundamental inner conflicts are about. The insight into these conflicts gives us the key to a great deal of the problems of life. To imagine pleasures greater than sensual pleasures seems impossible to most people. What could such a joy possibly be? But somewhere deep in life exists the finest sweetness, the greatest quality in life, the pure joy of being alive that emerges when we are fully present and life is in balance. This deep joy of life is what we call experiencing the meaning of life.

  5. The Role of Human in Relation between Urban Life & Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qodratullah Qorbani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical documents show that urban life and urbanization is the first manifestation of complete form of human life, and it seems that most of human thoughts, like philosophies, were shaped in the cities and urbanizations. It means that the urban life is a society which has many social factors like: social classes and groups, economy, political power, organizations, family, cultures and geographical and environmental circumstances, that they cause to form many thoughts like human philosophies, then we see that most of past philosophers were in the cities in where urbanization was formed and thinkers could think by using of elements which are grown in such urbanizations. So, the being of urban life is necessary for making philosophical thoughts, because there are such social factors of urban living, can effect human's thinking and shape his/her worldview. But we can see the role of humankinds as a free existent who has divine position, intellect and freedom, then, he/she can manage, control and change the impacts of urban factors on philosophical thought. It means that effects of urbanizations and cultures as clear manifestation of urban life on philosophies is possible only by using of human‘s will and thinking as the central factor of the urban life and philosophy, while he/she can control and change these impacts. In fact, although human is under the impact of social and urban factors, he/she is not determined absolutely, but has freedom and intellect to control and change them. So, there is no place for absolute determinism due to social forces of urban life, but it seems there is a kind of intermediate state between absolute determinism and libertarianism. In this paper, it is tries to analysis the role of social and urban factors as the most important elements of the urban life on philosophy and philosophical thinking, and to argue that how human can manage this process.

  6. Beginning LCA. A guide into environmental life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, N.W. [ed.; Huppes, G. [Centre of Environmental Science CLM, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Dutilh, C.E. [Unilever, Van den Bergh Netherlands, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-02-01

    The main goal of this document is to provide practical guidance for those who want to start with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The document has been set up in the form of modules. Module 1 provides arguments to decide whether or not LCA is the right tool to use in a particular case. In this module other ways to study interactions with the environment will be mentioned as well. Module 2 explains the process of formulating the purpose and scope of the study. The results will give a general picture of the characteristics of the LCA. The next step, which is called the inventory analysis, represents the largest amount of work and is split up into four parts, i.e. Modules 3,4,5, and 6. Module 3 gives guidelines and detailed examples on how to construct a flowchart of the study. Module 5 describes how to collect the required data and Module 4 how to define the system boundaries. Finally, the processing of data is described in Module 6. The result of the inventory is a list of emissions and extractions for all processes involved in manufacturing and required for the functioning of a product, service or activity during the entire life cycle. Sometimes results are so clear that you may decide to stop after the inventory stage. Usually however, it is useful to carry out the impact assessment, which is split up into two parts (Modules 7 and 8). Instructions are given on how to translate the list of environmental interventions of the entire life cycle of the product into a table with scores on environmental themes: the classification/characterization. A basic substance list that might be used is added (Module 7). Also a description showing how to evaluate the results of the classification/characterization is given, so that conclusions may be drawn on the information that has been generated (Module 8). Module 9, the last module, describes how to complete the LCA. It provides suggestions on how to present the results and indications about the improvement analysis.

  7. Ethical considerations with regard to the sanctity of human life

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    believe that it is ethical to perform abortion or euthanasia, whatever the circumstances. The problem inherent in discussing these core beliefs is that almost all debate is based on the premise that the sanctity of human life is paramount, and that to kill a human being, whether by abortion or euthanasia, is ethically wrong.

  8. [Vulnerations of Human Dignity At The End of Life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Zurriaráin, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Death is constitutive of human nature and therefore it must happen naturally. But there are mainly two ways that falsify it: euthanasia and therapeutic obstinacy. Two wrong choices that do not accept the human reality of death (the first, anticipates death and the second, delays it). From the philosophical and ethical point of view, both options are rejected, because they are against human dignity at the end of life. Aside from these, this article also rejects the different names which are given to refer to euthanasia, that also go against human nature at the end of life. On the other hand, do not confuse euthanasia with sedation. Both have a common goal to prevent the patient from feeling pain and suffering. To achieve this goal, both options administer ″drugs″ to the patient. But in the administration of drugs in euthanasia involves ending patient's life. The administration of drugs in sedation aims for the patient's death to occur naturally. Finally, we briefly discuss the basic care necessary in these situations. The absence of basic care cannot become a covert euthanasia. The patient must die from his/her illness, never from a lack of care. All human actions (euthanasia, sedation, therapeutic obstinacy and basic care) should be an expression and manifestation of what human dignity demands. Such dignity is expressed in the actions performed by human beings.

  9. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  10. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Cadell

    2014-01-01

    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

  11. Natural goodness and the political form of human life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical Naturalism attempts to explain the objective normativity effective in human practices by reference to the relation between a living individual and the life-form it exhibits. This explanation falls short in the case of human beings (1 - not merely because of their essential rationality, but because the idea of normativity implicit in practice is dependent on the form of normativity’s being made explicit (2. I argue that this explicit form of normativity’s force and claim - the law in general - implies a tension between an explicit norm’s claim to absoluteness and the particularity of the situational case it is applied to. This tension may seem to produce an inherent violence corrupting the very idea of objective normativity inherent in the human form of life (3; in fact, it shows that the human form of life is essentially political. That the human form of life is essentially political does not contradict the idea of objective normativity - provided that this objectivity is not derived from a conception of “natural goodness”, but rather from the actuality of human practice and its principle, justice (4.

  12. On the Psychometric Study of Human Life History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Sanning, Blair K; Lai, Mark H C; Copping, Lee T; Hardesty, Patrick H; Kruger, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS), provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a) use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b) confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c) establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested-there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.

  13. On the Psychometric Study of Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS, provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested—there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.

  14. Nietzsche and Human Enhancement. On the Concept of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina García-Granero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes the dialogue between Nietzsche and the Darwinian school, highlighting the contrast between two different concepts of «life»: the Darwinian struggle for life or life as will to power. In opposition to the natural selection, which according to nietzsche doesn’t favor the strong and powerful but the mediocre and the many, the German philosopher conceives a breeding (Züchtung, a formation that is physiological as well as moral, and aspires to a true elevation of the human being, through the overcoming of nihilism and the transvaluation of all values from a vitalist perspective.

  15. PHENOMENOLOGY OF LIFE IN UNDERSTANDING THE COSMOPOLITAN HUMANNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COZMA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant directions of the world-wide contemporary philosophy, phenomenology of life of Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka represents a major path of thinking and acting for the promotion of what does mean the universal valuable in human beingness by disclosing and unfolding an essential modality of understanding and shaping some paradigms of world culture. We face an original author and a reputed activist doing exceptional work to foster a culture of dialogue in the world. The impressive Tymienieckan philosophical work has imposed itself as a great contribution to the heralding of a “New Enlightenment” encompassing humanity in the endeavour of creating, maintaining and developing the wellbeing and the common good of mankind, in securing the human common destiny. Putting in act a holistic and dynamic philosophy upon life and human condition, phenomenology of life offers a viable pattern of communication between different cultures, of overcoming any kind of contradictions in dealing with the fundamental issues of living together and sharing-in-life. We can find elements for tackling and comprehending in a better way our cosmopolitan humanness, due to the opening of a creative approach of identity and otherness, by admitting differentiation and also by working for harmony in the play of life. Throughout new concepts and a very own complex vision of the respect for life, the philosophy-in-act of AnnaTeresa Tymieniecka manifests valences of an integrator enterprise in interpreting the cosmopolitan status of the philosopher in nowadays, in affirming the role of a responsible citizen of the world.

  16. [Health, human development, and governance in Latin America and the Caribbean at the beginning of the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The issue of the reciprocal relationship between health and development has recently taken on greater importance in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), given the persistence of extreme poverty and the political and social difficulties due to macroeconomic imbalances and crises of governance. This piece reviews concepts of sustainable human development, social determinants of health in general and of health inequities in particular (gender, ethnic group, income level), and the relationship between health and economic growth in the medium term and the long term. An analysis is made of how persistent poverty in countries of LAC relates to disparities in health conditions, access to health services, and health care financing, as well as to such health determinants as nutrition and environmental sanitation. Health inequities most strongly affect the most excluded and vulnerable sectors of the population. In the face of this situation, the author stresses that putting a priority on health inequities is vital to safeguarding the governability and the social and political stability of countries in LAC in the next decade.

  17. Language and life history: a new perspective on the development and evolution of human language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L; Bogin, Barry

    2006-06-01

    It has long been claimed that Homo sapiens is the only species that has language, but only recently has it been recognized that humans also have an unusual pattern of growth and development. Social mammals have two stages of pre-adult development: infancy and juvenility. Humans have two additional prolonged and pronounced life history stages: childhood, an interval of four years extending between infancy and the juvenile period that follows, and adolescence, a stage of about eight years that stretches from juvenility to adulthood. We begin by reviewing the primary biological and linguistic changes occurring in each of the four pre-adult ontogenetic stages in human life history. Then we attempt to trace the evolution of childhood and juvenility in our hominin ancestors. We propose that several different forms of selection applied in infancy and childhood; and that, in adolescence, elaborated vocal behaviors played a role in courtship and intrasexual competition, enhancing fitness and ultimately integrating performative and pragmatic skills with linguistic knowledge in a broad faculty of language. A theoretical consequence of our proposal is that fossil evidence of the uniquely human stages may be used, with other findings, to date the emergence of language. If important aspects of language cannot appear until sexual maturity, as we propose, then a second consequence is that the development of language requires the whole of modern human ontogeny. Our life history model thus offers new ways of investigating, and thinking about, the evolution, development, and ultimately the nature of human language.

  18. Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    present a consistent framework for characterizing human toxicological impacts associated with pesticides applied to agricultural crops in the frame of life cycle impact assessment based on state-of-the-art data and methods. Methods We combine a dynamic multicrop plant uptake model designed for evaluating......-crop combinations of 10 orders of magnitude. Conclusions Our framework is operational for use in current life cycle impact assessment models, is made available for USEtox, and closes an important gap in the assessment of human exposure to pesticides. For ready use in life cycle assessment studies, we present...... pesticide-crop combination-specific characterization factors normalized to pesticide mass applied and provide default data for application times and loss due to post-harvest food processing. When using our data, we emphasize the need to consult current pesticide regulation, since each pesticide...

  19. The Universe Adventure - The Beginnings of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Universe Adventure [ next ] [ home ] Go The Beginnings of Cosmology Since the beginning of of stars? What do the stars tell us about the future? Where did the Universe come from? Cosmology is will introduce you to Cosmology and the study of the structure, history, and fate of the Universe. In

  20. Changing concerns of beginning Dutch university teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the concerns of beginning university teachers about learning to teach in the context of an induction programme. Design/methodology/approach: The author asked 162 beginning teachers at Dutch universities of applied sciences to express their concerns

  1. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days. The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow. Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Art=life? Deleuze, badiou and ontology of the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Andrija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the relation between art and life as becoming-life of art is a consequence of specific modern developments ranging from the Enlightenment to capitalism. This assemblage of thought and practice is present in one of the most dominant art forms today, and the task of this paper is to reassess the current state of affairs in art considering that the current state of affairs in art is a symptom of the global society of control. In order to be emancipatory art, on the one hand, Art presupposes de-substantialization and deessentialization of the biopolitically formed life and the category of Man, while on the other hand it also presupposes a new „generic in-humanum“ (in Badiou, that is, a people to come (in Deleuze as the basis of politicity. Hence, emancipatory art needs to break away with the human in order to reach that which is beyond the current democratic materialism.

  4. Reading backwards from the beginning: My life with the Psalter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NL de Claiss�-Walford

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Psalter is more than the sum of its individual parts. The book is indeed the collected hymns of ancient Israel and its designation as �the hymnbook of second temple period� is appropriate. But, in addition, the Psalter is a narrative within a poetic text. Contem-porary interest in the Psalter includes the desire to flesh out, give breath to, and stir the nephesh (�the inmost being� of the text of the book of Psalms. But are scholars making any progress? In this article the author answers positively and is intended to provide a summary of this same learning experience.�

  5. Historical aspects and causes of the synergy beginning as a science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimtsov V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the historical aspects of the beginning and development of a new popular science – synergy, as a means of interdisciplinary communication among scholars. Using methodological apparatus of synergy here were considered the basics of studies. Historical aspects of the origin, beginning and formation of synergy as a science and its application in all aspects of human life were analyzed. Current research areas within synergy and nonlinear dynamics were presented. Was presented a question of order and organization of global issues (energetic, environmental, social and economic and systems, that were developed by human using synergy. The conclusion was made on the need for a synergistic approach to all aspects of human life and especially to the economy – it is undeniable in the science of human development in society and especially within the manufacturing process.

  6. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  7. Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af dobbelt-cd'en Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music, der dokumenterer de tidligste år af dansk elektronisk musiks historie fra 1960-1978. Udgivelsesdato: 29.10......Anmeldelse af dobbelt-cd'en Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music, der dokumenterer de tidligste år af dansk elektronisk musiks historie fra 1960-1978. Udgivelsesdato: 29.10...

  8. Answering the Questions of Beginning Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Research reports that despite new or beginning teachers being well received by the education profession, their first year experience is often traumatic and difficult nature. This is not a new phenomenon and is a problem shared by many new teachers nationwide and in the western world. Consequently, the retention rate for new teachers is decreasing at an alarming rate and is currently reported that 33% of beginning teachers in New South Wales do not expect to be teaching in public schools withi...

  9. Modelling the beginning and end of a planktonic life stage — the distribution of cod eggs and settled juveniles in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Munk, Peter

    2012-01-01

    distribution of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus), and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Findings indicated that in the egg stage, the environment is more important for the probability of occurrence, while abundance is more under the control of spatial dependency. Modelling......The North Sea cod stock is close to the southern limit of the species’ range. Therefore, it might be vulnerable to future climate change. Direct as well as indirect effects of climate forcing may have the greatest effects on early life stages. Here we present a study on the distribution of cod...

  10. Galen and the beginnings of Western physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2014-07-15

    Galen (129-c. 216 AD) was a key figure in the early development of Western physiology. His teachings incorporated much of the ancient Greek traditions including the work of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Galen himself was a well-educated Greco-Roman physician and physiologist who at one time was a physician to the gladiators in Pergamon. Later he moved to Rome, where he was associated with the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. The Galenical school was responsible for voluminous writings, many of which are still extant. One emphasis was on the humors of the body, which were believed to be important in disease. Another was the cardiopulmonary system, including the belief that part of the blood from the right ventricle could enter the left through the interventricular septum. An extraordinary feature of these teachings is that they dominated thinking for some 1,300 years and became accepted as dogma by both the State and Church. One of the first anatomists to challenge the Galenical teachings was Andreas Vesalius, who produced a magnificent atlas of human anatomy in 1543. At about the same time Michael Servetus described the pulmonary transit of blood, but he was burned at the stake for heresy. Finally, with William Harvey and others in the first part of the 17th century, the beginnings of modern physiology emerged with an emphasis on hypotheses and experimental data. Nevertheless, vestiges of Galen's teaching survived into the 19th century. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Examining Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Workplace Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Alison; Deaney, Rosemary; Wilson, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper, taking a participatory perspective of learning, seeks to look at the interaction between individuals and their workplace, focusing on the perceptions of workplaces and self by beginning teachers in terms of support for their learning. Design/methodology/approach: The study presents an analysis of 37 interviews from 17…

  12. Human Life History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kristine J; Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Grant, DeMond M; Sng, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Human life history (LH) strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity-mortality). Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i) direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii) calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health), which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime), health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety), modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  13. Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J. Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  14. An African Thought on the Ethics of Human Foetal Life | Ebeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an African thought on the ethics of human foetal life and this can be discussed against the backdrop of the African concept of life, person and community. In the process, it examines the fact of humanity and personhood of the human foetus and the role of the community in the determinant of humanity and ...

  15. Patterns of Analogical Reasoning among Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Wood, Clare; Canobi, Katherine H.; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence that analogy skills are available to beginning readers, few studies have actually explored the possibility of identifying individual differences in young children's analogy skills in early reading. The present study examined individual differences in children's use of orthographic and phonological relations between…

  16. Perceptions of Beginning Public School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes a study to determine principal's perceptions of their competency in primary responsibility areas and their greatest challenges and frustrations. Beginning principals are challenged by delegating responsibilities and becoming familiar with the principal's role, the local school, and school operations. Their major frustrations are role…

  17. The life and times of religion and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de; Salih, Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    Seen from a human perspective and as communal protection of human dignity, human rights are universal challenges to which all major traditions of the human family have subscribed. However, ways and means as to the realisation of this universal human ideal have been subject to controversy because of

  18. From the beginning of radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1986-01-01

    The revival of the radon therapy in several countries since the end of the Second World War was the occasion for a review to the beginnings of this special form of radiotherapy. Initially the early history of radioactivity research is described which among others led to the detection of the emanation as a daughter product of radium. After this followed the evidence of the emanation as a constituent of the natural atmosphere. The establishment of its presence in spring-waters led to the knowledge that there are more than average concentrations of emanation in several mineral springs. In the second part of the article the therapeutic use of the natural radon springs initiated by this is described in its development and importance for Austria (Badgastein, St. Joachimsthal) and Germany (Bad Brambach) up to the beginning of the First World War. (author)

  19. Patterns, Entropy, and Predictability of Human Mobility and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shao-Meng; Verkasalo, Hannu; Mohtaschemi, Mikael; Hartonen, Tuomo; Alava, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Cellular phones are now offering an ubiquitous means for scientists to observe life: how people act, move and respond to external influences. They can be utilized as measurement devices of individual persons and for groups of people of the social context and the related interactions. The picture of human life that emerges shows complexity, which is manifested in such data in properties of the spatiotemporal tracks of individuals. We extract from smartphone-based data for a set of persons important locations such as “home”, “work” and so forth over fixed length time-slots covering the days in the data-set (see also [1], [2]). This set of typical places is heavy-tailed, a power-law distribution with an exponent close to −1.7. To analyze the regularities and stochastic features present, the days are classified for each person into regular, personal patterns. To this are superimposed fluctuations for each day. This randomness is measured by “life” entropy, computed both before and after finding the clustering so as to subtract the contribution of a number of patterns. The main issue that we then address is how predictable individuals are in their mobility. The patterns and entropy are reflected in the predictability of the mobility of the life both individually and on average. We explore the simple approaches to guess the location from the typical behavior, and of exploiting the transition probabilities with time from location or activity A to B. The patterns allow an enhanced predictability, at least up to a few hours into the future from the current location. Such fixed habits are most clearly visible in the working-day length. PMID:23300542

  20. SNEV overexpression extends the life span of human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voglauer, Regina; Chang, Martina Wei-Fen; Dampier, Brigitta; Wieser, Matthias; Baumann, Kristin; Sterovsky, Thomas; Schreiber, Martin; Katinger, Hermann; Grillari, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    In a recent screening for genes downregulated in replicatively senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we have isolated the novel protein SNEV. Since then SNEV has proven as a multifaceted protein playing a role in pre-mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin/proteosome system. Here, we report that SNEV mRNA decreases in various cell types during replicative senescence, and that it is increased in various immortalized cell lines, as well as in breast tumors, where SNEV transcript levels also correlate with the survival of breast cancer patients. Since these mRNA profiles suggested a role of SNEV in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effect of its overexpression was tested. Thereby, a significant extension of the cellular life span was observed, which was not caused by altered telomerase activity or telomere dynamics but rather by enhanced stress resistance. When SNEV overexpressing cells were treated with bleomycin or bleomycin combined with BSO, inducing DNA damage as well as reactive oxygen species, a significantly lower fraction of apoptotic cells was found in comparison to vector control cells. These data suggest that high levels of SNEV might extend the cellular life span by increasing the resistance to stress or by improving the DNA repair capacity of the cells

  1. THE BEGINNING OF THE WORLD BELOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CELESTINE MIHAELA MORARU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available No doubt, if one comes to search for the truth, he/she will find it. It is a journey to the inner self translated as simple yet complex developments of narrative symbols and myths. We are transported into a magical world of subtle senses and meanings where one has to learn the different traces of history that we are transuded into. There are two sides of this mirroring that we find in those two tales. The first one takes us, metaphorically, in front of the tree of life, the source of knowledge that is accessible only by the pure hearted. The connectionthrough the person of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu Omikami can only point out where the light does deviate all of us. The second one is an imperative message, as a meditation, the moment that we disconnect from our minds. Those two parts can feed us with the knowledge of the human beings, in order to fill the love core connected with the feeling coming out from the experience of these two tales. You can take a magical tour into the world of the mirrors that we are revealed here and try to gaze into the future, searching for meanings that perhaps you have never thought about. Either way it is a positive approach towards knowing who we really are.

  2. Politics drives human functioning, dignity, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; McNeely, Clea; Page, Paul D; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu

    2014-12-01

    Too little is known about human functioning amidst chronic adversity. We addressed that need by studying adult Palestinians in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), a population that has experienced longstanding economic and political hardships. Fourteen group interviews were conducted in February, 2010 in Arabic by local fieldworkers with 68 participants representing the main stratifications of Palestinian society: gender, region, refugee status, and political affiliation. Interview tasks included each participant: describing someone doing well and not well, free listing domains of functioning, and prioritizing domains to the three most important. Thematic analyses highlighted the dominating role of the political domain of functioning (e.g., political structures, constraints, effects, identity, and activism) and the degree to which political conditions impacted all other realms of functioning (economic, education, family, psychological, etc.). The discussion links the findings to relevant theory and empirical work that has called attention to the need to include the political in frameworks of quality of life. It also emphasized that values, such as justice, rights, dignity and self-determination, that underlie political structures and policies, are key elements of human functioning. This is the case not only in the oPt, but in any society where power imbalances marginalize segments of the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Beginning phase of career manager for non-formal education

    OpenAIRE

    Kostková, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the beginning phase of career manager for organization non- formal education. The work examines the process that precedes the onset school manager to executive positions primarily in terms of motivation, expectations and subsequent reality. It describes the initial phase of his work in a new role in life from the perspective of the management of school facilities and other activities associated with this process . The work is mapped to what extent the entrance to the Di...

  4. The life cycle of the Book of the Dead as a Digital Humanities resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Henny

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution tracks and analyzes the life cycle of the Book of the Dead as a digital project and a rather complex research resource. It gives an account of how the digital archive “Das altägyptische Totenbuch – Ein digitales Textzeugenarchiv” was constructed in the context of the digitization efforts of the Academy for Science of North Rhine-Westphalia. From the beginning, the design of the archive has factored in a life of the digital archive beyond its funding period and has sighted to create a sustainable information resource. The main issues to be discussed here are what experiences have been made with sustainability, use and reuse of the Book of the Dead archive since the official end of the project in December 2012, with a focus on conceptual, technical and organizational aspects. The lessons learned can be of interest for future undertakings in the creation of XML and web-based digital platforms in Digital Classics and beyond. In a nutshell, they are: (a the importance of wary technological choices in an initial phase cannot be underestimated, (b the application and presentation layers of a digital resource, if present, are an essential part of it, (c a certain degree of commitment from the research community and funding bodies alike is indispensable for maintaining a web-based complex Digital Humanities resource.

  5. Behaviorism and the beginnings of close reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Many of close reading's most enduring assumptions and techniques have their origins in psychological behaviorism. Beginning with I. A. Richards's critical work from the 1920s, this article demonstrates the central place of behaviorist ideas in New Critical theories of poetry. Despite explicitly disparaging Richards's behavioristic poetics, Brooks's Well Wrought Urn and Wimsatt and Beardsley's "intentional fallacy" perpetuated behaviorism's influence on literary criticism. This article traces how the New Critics translated behavioristic psychology into poetic formalism and discusses the implications of this for contemporary critical practice.

  6. Influence of sports on human mental and physical development in various stages of life

    OpenAIRE

    SLÁDKOVÁ, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the impact of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental development in various developmental stages of life. It contains a brief description of the stages of life and presents the possibilities, nature and influence of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental state.

  7. Difficulties encountered at the beginning of professional life: results of a 2003 pilot survey among undergraduate students in Paris Rene Descartes University (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbelaïd, R; Dot, D; Levy, G; Eid, N

    2006-11-01

    In addition to dental hospital clinical activity, dental students at Paris Rene Descartes University have the opportunity in their final year of study to practise clinically in a dental office, as associates. This paper outlines a pilot, experimental study designed to assess student reaction to this Vocational Clinical Activity (VCA) in order to identify relevant weaknesses of the undergraduate programme. Using questionnaires, data were collected for each of the following clinical or management skills: clinical difficulty, therapeutic decision-making, patient/practitioner relationship, time management, administrative matters and technical problems. Students were asked to rank each item in order of difficulty (1, high level to 6, low level). A high response rate was observed (90%) among the 50 undergraduate VCA students. The results pointed out three main difficulties encountered by undergraduate students during the VCA: time management (90% of the students), administrative matters (85% of the students) and clinical decision-making (80% of the students). These preliminary results need further investigation. However, they give us the incentive to carry on with this type of assessment and to extend it to young, qualified colleagues' perceptions and to other French Universities.

  8. Wherever We Find Friends there Begins a New Life: Tagore and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rošker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tagore made a deep impression upon the Chinese culture and society. In 1923, the Jiangxue she 講學社 (Beijing Lecture Association invited Rabindranath Tagore to deliver a series of talks. The Jiangxue she Association was established in September 1920 and represented one of the many institutions that came to life in China during the May Fourth Movement. Since then, almost all of his works in English have been translated into Chinese. He came to China just when the latter was beginning her Renaissance and his visit certainly gave a great impetus to this new movement. His poems of Stray Birds and The Crescent Moon have created new styles of prosody in the new Chinese poetry. A Crescent Moon Society (for poetry and a Crescent Moon magazine were started immediately after this event by Hu Shi 胡适 (Hu 2002: 90. During his visit, Tagore raised two basic questions, one about the relation between tradition and modernity, and the other about the usual identification of modernisation with Westernisation. Since the May Fourth Movement, China has also been concerned with these questions and Chinese intellectuals have come out with different answers. These questions, however, were important not only for China but for India as well. Such debates and the revaluation of various answers represented the most important condition for a consolidation of new ideologies, which formed a political basis for the changing societies of both countries.

  9. The Beginnings of Australian Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    The early stages of Australian radio astronomy, especially the first decade after World War II, are described in detail. These include the transition of the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory, under the leadership of Joseph Pawsey and Taffy Bowen, from a wartime laboratory in 1945 to, by 1950, the largest and one of the two most important radio astronomy groups in the world (with the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University). The initial solar investigations are described, including discovery of the hot corona and development of the sea-cliff interferometer. During this same period painstaking `radio star' observations by John Bolton and colleagues led to the first suggested optical identifications of Taurus-A (the Crab Nebula), Centaurus-A (NGC 5128), and Virgo-A (M87). The factors that led to the extraordinary early success of the Radiophysics Laboratory are analyzed in detail, followed by discussion of how the situation changed significantly in the second decade of 1955-1965. Finally, the development of major Australian instruments, from the Parkes Radio Telescope (1961) to the Australia Telescope (1988), is briefly presented. This chapter is a direct reprint of the following research paper: Sullivan, W., 2005. The beginnings of Australian radio astronomy. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 8, 11-32.

  10. A journey of a thousand miles begins with one small step - human agency, hydrological processes and time in socio-hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, M. W.; Murphy, J. T.; Purdue, L. E.; Zhu, T.

    2014-04-01

    When simulating social action in modeling efforts, as in socio-hydrology, an issue of obvious importance is how to ensure that social action by human agents is well-represented in the analysis and the model. Generally, human decision-making is either modeled on a yearly basis or lumped together as collective social structures. Both responses are problematic, as human decision-making is more complex and organizations are the result of human agency and cannot be used as explanatory forces. A way out of the dilemma of how to include human agency is to go to the largest societal and environmental clustering possible: society itself and climate, with time steps of years or decades. In the paper, another way out is developed: to face human agency squarely, and direct the modeling approach to the agency of individuals and couple this with the lowest appropriate hydrological level and time step. This approach is supported theoretically by the work of Bruno Latour, the French sociologist and philosopher. We discuss irrigation archaeology, as it is in this discipline that the issues of scale and explanatory force are well discussed. The issue is not just what scale to use: it is what scale matters. We argue that understanding the arrangements that permitted the management of irrigation over centuries requires modeling and understanding the small-scale, day-to-day operations and personal interactions upon which they were built. This effort, however, must be informed by the longer-term dynamics, as these provide the context within which human agency is acted out.

  11. JSC Human Life Sciences Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication includes articles entitled: (1) E029 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Exposure to Microgravity; (2) E030 - Extended Studies of Pulmonary Function in Weightlessness; (3) E074 - Direct Measurement of the Initial Bone Response to Spaceflight in Humans; (4) E401 - The Effects of Microgravity on Skeletal Muscle Contractile Properties; (5) E407 - Effects of Microgravity on the Biochemical and Bioenergetic Characteristics of Human Skeletal Muscle; (6) E410 - Torso Rotation Experiment; (7) E920 - Effect of Weightlessness on Human Single Muscle Fiber Function; (8) E948 - Human Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Performance in Space; (9) E963 - Microgravity Effects on Standardized Cognitive Performance Measures; and (10) E971 - Measurement of Energy Expenditures During Spaceflight Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL Measures: There are Still Many Unanswered Questions about Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayowa Ojo Owolabi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL measures are used to assess the multifaceted impact of disease, and determine the utility and associated disability. In addition, the impact of medical interventions must be assessed by psychometrically robust HRQOL measures based on a comprehensive and dynamic model. To develop such a model, the concepts of life, its quality, domains, essence, and purpose must be properly and clearly understood. The correct understanding of these entities is specifically important for patient-centered medicine and has universal implications for all fields of human endeavor. Therefore, in order to explore questions about life and quality of life adequately, every necessary field of knowledge should be employed. A multilinguistic and etymological appraisal reveals that life is related to medicine, freedom, being, soul, and spirit, all of which must therefore be considered in its conceptualization.

  13. [The beginning of the Cuban demographic revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Castellon, R

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Cuban demographic revolution associated with the main economic, political, and social changes in the country are analyzed. The authors begin with a brief historical outline of the political-economic situation in the country in the middle of the 19th century. There is emphasis on the dependency of the Cuban economy and its monoproducer nature (with sugar being the major export). This was due to the Spanish colonization and to the subsequent American neocolonization. The discovery of the cause for yellow fever by a Cuban physician and the sanitation campaign conducted by the Americans contributed to a diminishing of mortality. A great migratory flow occurred due to the price of sugar in the world market. This must have influenced Cuban demographic patterns which are a major factor linked to the demographic revolution. The influence on proliferation of urbanization and educational trends is emphasized. The low participation in economic activities of women during the early part of the century did affect fertility levels. The trends in mortality throughout the period 1907-43 are pointed out. It was found that 1 major aspect which had a bearing on Cuban demographic patterns was the 2 large migratory flows. An analysis of growth rates in the population--which also confirms the demographic changes in Cuba--is presented. It is concluded that the 4th decade of this century witnessed Cuba's entry in a new stage of the demographic revolution, a stage in which decreased fertility and mortality go together to create a new period. (author's)

  14. First Contact: Expectations of Beginning Astronomy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, T. L.; Slater, T. F.

    1999-05-01

    Three hundred seven undergraduate students enrolled in Introductory Astronomy were surveyed at the beginning of class to determine their expectations for course content. The course serves as a survey of astronomy for non-science majors and is a distribution course for general education core requirements. The course has no prerequisites, meets three times each week for 50 minutes, and represents three semester credit hours. The university catalog describes the course with the title "PHYSICS 101 - Mysteries of the Sky" and the official course description is: a survey of the struggle to understand the Universe and our place therein. The structure, growth, methods, and limitations of science will be illustrated using the development of astronomy as a vehicle. Present day views of the Universe are presented. Two questions were asked as open response items: What made you decide to take this course? and What do you expect to learn in this course? The reasons that students cited to take the course, in order of frequency, were: interested in astronomy, interesting or fun sounding course, required general education fulfillment, recommendation by peer. Secondary reasons cited were required for major or minor, general interest in science, and was available in the schedule. Tertiary reasons listed were recommendation by advisor or orientation leader, inflate grade point average, and heard good things about the teacher. The students' expectations about what they would learn in the course were numerous. The most common objects listed, in order of frequency, were: stars, constellations, planets, galaxies, black holes, solar system, comets, galaxies, asteroids, moon, and Sun. More interesting were the aspects not specifically related to astronomy. These were weather, atmosphere, UFOs and the unexplained, generally things in the sky. A mid-course survey suggests that students expected to learn more constellations and that the topics would be less in-depth.

  15. CREATIVITY – PREQUISITE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY OF HUMAN LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ядвіга Дашиновська

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of life quality has been observed in numerous fields of science including pedagogy. This discipline perceives human life in the light of continuous changes that are accompanied by the transformations of the man himself and the creation of various ways of interactions and balance between them and the surrounding world. Their direction depends on human vision of life and the role man accepts to play in it as well as the value that is ascribed by man to his life – here appears the question concerning the quality of life. From pedagogical point of view quality of life is indicated by satisfaction with good life achieved throughout the realization of the values that constitute the basis for any human pursuit and objectives. Nevertheless, in order to influence one’s own life quality man must fulfil a necessary condition that is to be a creator not just a reproducer. In the paper herein there has undertaken an attempt to answer the question concerning the role of creative activity in the development of man and the quality of human life. It turns out that conscious application of one’s own potential and creative activity enables the man to become self-realized and favours the satisfaction with life.

  16. CRIMEA – THE BEGINNING OF THE END

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Ioana Cozianu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present approach studies the probability of the decomposition of the current international geopolitical system in the context of the EU’s socio-economical and political stagnation. We do not intend to say that European Union represents the determinant factor for the system’s decomposition, since we have not found EU as a major player on the International Relations arena, but we are more pointing out that EU’s dream to recover a lost greatness will not so soon fulfil. We also intend to refer to those elements that actually connect EU to a changing world: competitive human resources engaged in the market economy, and hardly its values, like the promotion of the human rights and democracy. So, is it possible to play by the rules and be regarded as a powerful player on the same time?! International Relations system diversity makes it almost impossible. (NeoLiberal concepts like “democratic peace” or “international institutions”, the promotion of the human rights and of democracy get pale in the face of a reality dominated by an emerging Russian Federation that plays by the (Neo Realism power commandments. And so we get to deal with the Ukrainian situation where to each Western sanction, The Russian Federation opposes a “tank”.

  17. Octopus senescence: the beginning of the end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roland C; Wood, James B; Byrne, Ruth A

    2002-01-01

    Senescence is a normal stage of an octopus's life cycle that often occurs before death. Some of the following symptoms typify it: lack of feeding, retraction of skin around the eyes, uncoordinated movement, increased undirected activity, and white unhealing lesions on the body. There is inter- and intraspecific variability. Senescence is not a disease or a result of disease, although diseases can also be a symptom of it. Both males and females go through a senescent stage before dying-the males after mating, the females while brooding eggs and after the eggs hatch. There are many aspects of octopus senescence that have not yet been studied. This study discusses the ecological implications of senescence.

  18. Vegetal paleoenvironment in the human settlements found in Payre Cave at the end of the Middle Pleistocene and the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene (Ardeche, Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalai, Chafika

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Paleolithic site named Payre is located in the south-east of France, in the Middle Rhone Valley, in the Mediterranean world. Since 1990, the excavations have yielded a sequence dated from the isotopic stages 7 to 5. The palynological study based on settlement levels from the isotopic stages 6 and 5 has provided us with information about the vegetal environment of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene. When men came, the landscape was semi-forest and the climate was temperate with Mediterranean influences.

    [es] El emplazamiento arqueológico del Paleolítico Medio de Payre se sitúa al sureste de Francia, en el valle del Ródano, en el contexto mediterráneo actual. Las excavaciones que vienen llevándose a cabo desde 1990 presentan una secuencia fechada en los estadios isotópicos 7 al 5. El estudio palinológico de los niveles de ocupación de los estadios isotópicos 6 y 5 nos informan sobre el contexto vegetal del final del Pleistoceno Medio y de principios del Pleistoceno Superior. Los diferentes periodos climáticos se caracterizan por la predominancia de los taxones arbóreos como Quercus t. ilex y Buxus. El paisaje es a lo largo del diagrama, globalmente semi-abierto y el clima de tipo templado presenta influencias mediterráneas. [fr] Le gisement paléolithique moyen de Payre est situé dans le sud-est de la France, dans la moyenne vallée du Rhône en contexte méditerranéen. Les fouilles, qui s'y déroulent depuis 1990, livrent une séquence datée des stades isotopiques 7 à 5. L'étude palynologique des niveaux d'occupation des stades isotopiques 6 et 5 nous informe sur le contexte végétal de la fin du Pléistocène moyen et du début du Pléistocène supérieur. Le paysage est, lors des diverses occupations humaines, globalement semi-ouvert et le climat de type tempéré sous influence méditerranéenne.

  19. 3 CFR 8339 - Proclamation 8339 of January 15, 2009. National Sanctity of Human Life Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., which allows authorities to charge a person who causes death or injury to a child in the womb with a... life and dignity of every human being. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifteenth...

  20. The Contemplative Life and the Teaching of the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Meditation nowadays plays a part in mind/body medicine and in some branches of educational psychology. In ancient and medieval times, these functions formed a part of the humanities curriculum as it was taught in philosophical schools, monastic communities, and universities. This article claims that it is by returning to a holistic view of the…

  1. Euthanasia and ethical dillemas: Human dignity against sanctity of life

    OpenAIRE

    Simović, Darko Z.; Simeunović-Patić, Biljana J.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses ethical dilemmas and conflicting issues tied to euthanasia and the institutionalization of the right to a dignified death, viewed through a prism of arguments in favour of and against euthanasia, solutions of comparative law and the practice of the European Council and The European Court of Human Rights in this field, as well as the existing practices of physicians with respect to the implementation of various modalities of euthanasia. At the national lavel, the topic is be...

  2. Beyond Humanism : The Flourishing of Life. Self and Other.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2012-01-01

    This book seeks to set humanism on a new footing. No longer Enlightenment intuitions of an autonomous, disconnected, and rational self but a philosophy oriented towards the relationship between self and other. With this, it seeks to provide an escape from present egotism and narcissism in society.

  3. [Beginning Knowledge of Transfusion in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazda, Toshio; Shimizu, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Blood components and plasma derivatives are two of the most useful tools in modern medicine. When the Portuguese opened the maritime routes to the Far East in the 16th century. Western medicine traveled to Japan on the trading vessels that carried physicians and barber-surgeons to care for the body and Christian missionaries to care for the soul. Skilled interpreters such as Kōgyū Yoshio translated and studied Dutch editions of early medical books, like Lorenz Heister's "Chirurgie" (Nürnberg, 1719), that illustrate the concept of transfusion. The oldest description of transfusion originating in Japan is a handwritten manuscript entitled "Bansui Sensi Chojutsu Shomoku" by Masamichi Nishijima, a student of Bansui Otsuki. It is a list of Otsuki's translated works. He described book names and chapter names in the manuscript, and when he finished translation of a chapter, he marked a circle on the chapter name. The transfusion chapter had a circle. That dates the earliest writing on transfusion in Japanese to 1804, shortly after the death of Kōgyū. Unfortunately, the manuscript translation no longer exists. In 1814, Shunzō Yoshio, grandson of Kōgyū, and in 1820, Tokki Koshimura, translated the figure legends of "Chirurgie." Soon afterwards, after the first report of transfusion from human-to-human by James Blundell in London in 1818, Western medical books published on the subject began to arrive. The works of Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, Georg Friedrich Most and Carl Canstatt all mentioning transfusion, albeit without details, were translated by Kōan Ogata and Shinryō Tsuboi. During the Edo period, Japan was a closed country; only open to the Dutch through a tiny island in Nagasaki. But Japanese doctors in the Edo period learned about blood transfusion through Dutch-translated versions of Western medical Books. Transfusion began being practiced in Japan in 1919, almost exactly 100 years after the concept was introduced

  4. The assessment of ionising radiation impact on the cooling pond freshwater ecosystem non-human biota from the Ignalina NPP operation beginning to shut down and initial decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeika, J; Marciulioniene, D; Nedveckaite, T; Jefanova, O

    2016-01-01

    The radiological doses to non-human biota of freshwater ecosystem in the Ignalina NPP cooling pond - Lake Druksiai were evaluated for several cases including the plant's operation period and initial decommissioning activities, using the ERICA 1.2 code with IAEA SRS-19 models integrated approach and tool. Among the Lake Druksiai freshwater ecosystem reference organisms investigated the highest exposure dose rate was determined for bottom fauna - benthic organisms (mollusc-bivalves, crustaceans, mollusc-gastropods, insect larvae), and among the other reference organisms - for vascular plants. The mean and maximum total dose rate values due to anthropogenic radionuclide ionising radiation impact in all investigated cases were lower than the ERICA screening dose rate value of 10 μGy/h. The main exposure of reference organisms as a result of Ignalina NPP former effluent to Lake Druksiai is due to ionizing radiation of radionuclides (60)Co and (137)Cs, of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai during initial decommissioning period - due to radionuclides (60)Co, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and as a result of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai from low- and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste disposal site in 30-100 year period - due to radionuclides (99)Tc and (3)H. The risk quotient expected values in all investigated cases were <1, and therefore the risk to non-human biota can be considered negligible with the exception of a conservative risk quotient for insect larvae. Radiological protection of non-human biota in Lake Druksiai, the Ignalina NPP cooling pond, is both feasible and acceptable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Towards an universal biolaw? Biolaw in action and funcionalization of human life's value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the question of the universal biolaw from the point of view of the biojuridical praxis. The main problems concerning life's protection are found in the process of interpretation and re-creation of the norms (not in their literal texts) regulating the right to life and new rights, as personal autonomy. But it is also at this sphere where the possibilities of an universal biolaw founded on the funcionalization of the human life value are to be found.

  6. Prehistoric ceremonial warfare: beginning of institutionalized violence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2017), s. 535-548 ISSN 1555-8622 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human aggression * ceremonial warfare * archery symbolism * Neolithic * Chalcolithic * Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  7. Frontiers of Life Sciences: The Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Regina M.; Pellis, Neal R.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid development of the productive processes after World War II extended human settlements into new ecological niches. Advances in Life Sciences played a decisive role supporting the establishment of human presence in areas of the planet where human life could have not existed otherwise. The evolution of life support systems, and the fabrication of new materials and technologies has enabled humans to inhabit Polar Regions, ocean surfaces and depths; and to leave Earth and occupy Low Earth Orbit. By the end of the 20 th Century, stations in the Antarctic and Arctic, off shore oil platforms, submarines, and space stations had become the ultimate demonstration of human ability to engineer habitats at Earth extreme environments and outer space. As we enter the 21st Century, the next development of human settlements will occur through the exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The major risks of space exploration derive from long exposure of humans and other life systems to radiation, microgravity, isolation and confinement, dependence on artificial life support systems, and unknown effects (e.g., altered magnetic fields, ultrahigh vacuum on bacteria, fungi, etc.). Countermeasures will require a complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes. To sustain life in transit and on the surface of the Moon and Mars will require a balance of spacecraft, cargo, astronaut crews, and the use of in situ resources. Limitations on the number of crewmembers, payloads, and the barrenness of the terrain require a novel design for the capabilities needed in transit and at exploration outpost sites. The planned destinations have resources that may be accessed to produce materials, food, shelter, power, and to provide an environment compatible with successful occupation of longterm exploration sites. Once more, the advancements of Life Sciences will be essential for the design of interplanetary voyages and planetary surface operations. This

  8. Cross-cultural Comparison of Learning in Human Hunting : Implications for Life History Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Katharine

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a cross-cultural examination of the development of hunting skills and the implications for the debate on the role of learning in the evolution of human life history patterns. While life history theory has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the evolution of the human life course, other schools, such as cultural transmission and social learning theory, also provide theoretical insights. These disparate theories are reviewed, and alternative and exclusive predictions are identified. This study of cross-cultural regularities in how children learn hunting skills, based on the ethnographic literature on traditional hunters, complements existing empirical work and highlights future areas for investigation.

  9. Influence of quality of life on the state and development of human capital in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Tsaurkubule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.

  10. When does personhood begin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P

    1983-01-01

    Participants at the Human Life Symposium: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Concept of Person, held in Houston in March, 1982, considered the question of when life and personhood begin. Previously all such discussions have been held in the political arena and in right to life publications. In 1973 the Supreme Court had refused to resolve the question. In 1981 Senator Helms Human Life Amendment (2038) to debt ceiling legislation stated that life begins at conception and the fetus was entitled to protection under the law. This would have created severe abortion funding restrictions and has not yet been passed. From the scientific point of view it was concluded that biology alone is not able to determine the point at which personhood is established. Several scientists expressed their view on personhood covering such areas as subjective awareness including personality, a sense of self and consciousness, social status rights and obligations. Reasons for not defining the fetus as a person included the negative impact on providing medical services to the mother and the fetus, and ethical issues in fetal surgery. The legal impact of bestowing personhood on the fetus would not resolve the abortion issue, and historically the law has treated the fetus differently for different purposes. If a fetus were legally defined as a person, additional areas of conflict in consitutional law, tax law and others would arise. A final area discussed was whether any of the criteria which define death could help define life; results were inconclusive. The participants agreed that while further explorations of the question are necessary, legislative action seems inappropriate at this time.

  11. BEGININGS OF NEUROSURGERY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theatre nurse coped adequately and contributed greatly to ... B. FAILURE. A deeper look into this report leads inevitably into an enquiry of ... neurosurgical emergencies and the care of the acute patient at .... retinal venous thrombosis. 1.

  12. Beginning of time and end of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.

    1992-01-01

    Under this title, two texts are gathered. The first text ( I s the End in Sight for Theoretical Physics ? ) is the inaugural lesson presented by Stephen Hawking in April 1980 at Cambridge when he took the Lucasian chair of Mathematics. The second text ( T he Edge of Space Time ) was published in 1989. Both deal with the origins and of the inevitable laws describing the universe. Can we - and how - succeed to a theory of universe from the most fundamental level, micro-physics, and can we applied this theory to the whole universe, to the macrocosm ? (A.B.)

  13. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  14. Sense of Efficacy among Beginning Teachers in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshidi, Rahmah; Konting, Mohd Majid; Elias, Habibah; Fooi, Foo Say

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the level of teachers' sense of efficacy among beginning teachers in Sarawak, Malaysia. It also sought to investigate whether there is any difference in beginning teachers' sense of efficacy in relation to gender, race and types of teacher preparation program. The study was conducted by using the teacher sense of efficacy…

  15. Beginning Teachers' Perception of Their Induction into the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Lynda; Brown, Natalie; Fitzallen, Noleine

    2015-01-01

    Beginning teachers' induction into the teaching profession needs to be personally and professionally fulfilling, which is often not the case. The main objective of this mixed method study was to gain a deeper understanding of beginning teachers' experiences and the perceptions of their induction into the teaching profession and the support they…

  16. The Beginnings of Danish Speech Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerbye, Torkil

    , in the light of the rich and complex Danish sound system. The first two studies report on native adults’ perception of Danish speech sounds in quiet and noise. The third study examined the development of language-specific perception in native Danish infants at 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The book points......Little is known about the perception of speech sounds by native Danish listeners. However, the Danish sound system differs in several interesting ways from the sound systems of other languages. For instance, Danish is characterized, among other features, by a rich vowel inventory and by different...... reductions of speech sounds evident in the pronunciation of the language. This book (originally a PhD thesis) consists of three studies based on the results of two experiments. The experiments were designed to provide knowledge of the perception of Danish speech sounds by Danish adults and infants...

  17. Retrospective - the beginnings of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a historical perspective of the uranium industry, from the discovery of uranium in 1789 to the discovery of fission in 1939. It is the first in a series of articles. In this part of the series, the initial discovery of uranium is mentioned. Early ore discoveries, especially in the USA, are also noted, and the market conditions at the end of the 19th century are reviewed. Shortly after the discovery of radium in 1898 and natural radioactivity, the connection between uranium and radium was noted, and this is outlined in the article. Due to the intimate relationship between the two elements, radium product and radium markets are also reviewed

  18. Construction of 'Monju' to begin this year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In March, 1980, the Atomic Energy Commission, Japan, modified its basic policy on fast breeder reactors, which is the first modification in twelve years. It postponed the target time of commercializing FBRs by ten years, in accordance with the present level of the development, from the original target of 1985. But the construction of the prototype FBR ''Monju'' will be started this year in Fukui Prefecture as the successor to the experimental FBR ''Joyo'' of 75 MWt. The attainment of criticality is expected around 1987. The percentage of the construction cost to be borne by the electric utilities and manufacturers was decided at 20% by the AEC as it increased to some 400 billion yen do to inflation. In the budget for FY 1980, the government has set aside 15.6 billion yen for the construction of ''Monju''. The environmental assessment concerning the planned construction of ''Monju'' in Tsuruga City, submitted by the PNC, was approved by the Fukui Prefectural Council for the Preservation of Natural Environment. The construction will be approved by the end of 1980 by the governor of Fukui. ''Monju'' is a sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor of loop type with 300 MWe output. Its design has been continued from 1968 to 1976. The outline of ''Monju'', its core and fuel, the equipment for the cooling system, the steam generators, the treatment of radioactive wastes and buildings are described. (Kako, I.)

  19. MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATIVE IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND HUMAN CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Usmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the chosen subject is caused by the current state and problems of development of a human capital and potential. The existing changes of the current legislation and a tendency of development of a human capital in Russia in developed countries allow to subject to doubt efficiency of planning of economic and social programs in the country. Also relevance of article is caused by the fact that in the conditions of a transitional economy and integration of economy into the world economy many countries create quality of life of the population according to standards and there is a need of revaluation of values regarding development of a human capital in Russia within the world device.In the first part of article the overview of historical aspects of planning of a human capital and the analysis of high budget revenues becomes. In article it is shown that expenses aren't effectively distributed on regional equalization and on social needs, that is on development of a welfare and a human capital and potential in the country.The second part of article describes one of manifestations of the quality level of life, that is the Minimum Wage (MW which is the main indicator for charge of temporary disability benefits, pension accrual, unemployment benefits, etc.The third part of article reflects the directions of development of innovative management: improvement of quality of life and a human capital where emphasis on need of preparation intellectual the oriented specialists is placed.The purpose/goal .The purpose of article is disclosure, comparison of features, and also determinations of criteria of management of innovative development of quality of life and a human capital in the Russian Federation.Methodology. The methodology of the solution of objectives is based on use of a method of a dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situation and system analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data

  20. Comparative Human Health Impact Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Framework of Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransman, Wouter; Buist, Harrie; Kuijpers, Eelco; Walser, Tobias; Meyer, David; Zondervan-van den Beuken, Esther; Westerhout, Joost; Klein Entink, Rinke H; Brouwer, Derk H

    2017-07-01

    For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO 2 ). The intent is to enhance typical LCA with elements of regulatory risk assessment, including its more detailed measure of uncertainty. The proof-of-principle demonstration of the framework highlighted the lack of available data for both the workplace emissions and human health effects of ENMs that is needed to calculate generalizable characterization factors using common human health impact assessment practices in LCA. The alternative approach of using intake fractions derived from workplace air concentration measurements and effect factors based on best-available toxicity data supported the current case-by-case approach for assessing the human health life cycle impacts of ENMs. Ultimately, the proposed framework and calculations demonstrate the potential utility of integrating elements of risk assessment with LCA for ENMs once the data are available. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system. Here we see the transport vehicle alongside the magnet supports. Visible in the background is the first magnet in place.

  2. The modest beginnings of one genome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, David B

    2013-06-01

    One of the top things on a geneticist's wish list has to be a set of mutants for every gene in their particular organism. Such a set was produced for the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae near the end of the 20th century by a consortium of yeast geneticists. However, the functional genomic analysis of one chromosome, its smallest, had already begun more than 25 years earlier as a project that was designed to define most or all of that chromosome's essential genes by temperature-sensitive lethal mutations. When far fewer than expected genes were uncovered, the relatively new field of molecular cloning enabled us and indeed, the entire community of yeast researchers to approach this problem more definitively. These studies ultimately led to cloning, genomic sequencing, and the production and phenotypic analysis of the entire set of knockout mutations for this model organism as well as a better concept of what defines an essential function, a wish fulfilled that enables this model eukaryote to continue at the forefront of research in modern biology.

  3. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrofani, E. Robert, Ed.

    These teacher-developed materials are designed to help educators integrate economic concepts into the teaching of history. The materials include readings on the Industrial Revolution in England and a series of activities that require students to analyze the impact of industrialization first on English peasant farmers, and then on workers in early…

  4. The Beginning and End of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmology is the scientific study of how the Universe began more than 13 billion years ago, how its properties have changed from that time to the present, and what its eventual fate might be. Observational cosmology uses telescopes like the Hubble to reach back in time to find the faint echoes of the Big Bang. In this lecture, I will give an overview of cosmology, highlighting the very rapid progress this field has made in the last decade, and the role that NASA space telescopes have played and will continue to play in the years to come. I will then focus on two of the most intriguing of those recent discoveries: inflation and dark energy. Our universe began in an extremely rapid accelerated expansion, called inflation, which removed all traces anything that may have existed before, flattened the geometry of space-time, and turned microscopic quantum fluctuations into the largest structures in the universe. At the present time, more than 70% of the mass-energy in the Universe consists of a mysterious substance called dark energy. The dark energy causes the expansion of the Universe to accelerate, and he will discuss the ways that we might be able to measure that acceleration more accurately, revealing the nature of the dark energy and learning the eventual fate of the Universe.

  5. Hydrogen energy - the end of the beginning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, A. K.

    1997-01-01

    Financial barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen energy were the principal messages contained in this banquet address. These barriers include the cost for the hydrogen, cost for the supply infrastructure and the cost of developing and building the special vehicles and appliances to use hydrogen. Some hopeful signs that hydrogen energy is emerging include Ballard's buses, early fuel cell private vehicle refueling station and remote energy systems which will be commercialized within the next ten years. The optimism is based on the effects of deregulation of the electric utility industry in the US now spreading to Canada and other countries, the appearance of effective direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under strong industrial sponsorship, and the near-term availability of electrolysis for hydrogen production at a fraction of present capital cost. Each of these reasons for optimism were elaborated in some detail. However, the main force behind the hydrogen solution for transportation is the environmental benefit, i.e. the potential of some one billion automobiles around the world running on an environmentally benign fuel, and the potential effect of that fact on global warming. The likely effects of continuing as before is no longer considered a viable option even by the greatest of skeptics of greenhouse gas emissions, a fact that will make the demand for 'clean' vehicles progressively more pressing with the passage of time. By increasing the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio in upgrading heavy hydrocarbons, the petroleum industry itself is showing the way to factor global warming issues into process choices. By going one step further and obtaining the hydrogen from non-fossil sources, the environmental benefits will be multiplied several fold

  6. The factor harmful to the quality of human life--shift-work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzemecka, Joanna; Pencuła, Marcin; Owoc, Alfred; Szot, Wojciech; Strzemecka, Ewa; Jabłoński, Mirosław; Bojar, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    The system of human activity, which is established by genetics and regulated by outer and inner factors, is associated with many characteristics which maintain the body in the best condition and ensure appropriate life quality. To evaluate of life quality among male shift-workers. Research based on a self-devised questionnaire, conducted among 700 shift-workers, followed by statistical analysis of the results. Nearly a half of respondents (43.00%) reported that shift-work influences the quality of their family life. Remarkably, such an opinion was often stated by people with children (46.01%) pwork negatively influence their sexual life (31.14%). It was shown that shift-work negatively influences the respondents' life quality in the form of deterioration of the quality of family life; the respondents, regardless of marital status, age and having children, most often complained about the lack of contact with the family and irregular eating with them; negative influence on sexual life, which was the case in one-third of respondents. In order to encourage healthy behaviour and increase the quality of life of people performing shift-work, training and programmes should be introduced. These would help shift- workers to adjust their work time to their family and social life.

  7. [The beginning of western medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C D

    1992-01-01

    Our country had quite an advanced system of medical education during the era of the Koryo Kingdom, and during the Choson Dynasty, the Kyong Guk Dae Jon, in which a systematized medical education was clearly described, was compiled in the era of King Sejong. However, the educational system was not for Western medicine. Western medicine was first introduced to our country in the 9th year of King Injo (1631) when Chong Du Won, Yi Yong Jun, etc. returned from Yon Gyong (Beiuin) with Chik Bang Oe Gi. Knowledge of Western medicine was disseminated by Shil Hak (practical learning) scholars who read a translation in Chinese characters, of Chik Bang Oe Gi. Yi Ik (Song Ho), Yi Gyu Gyong (O ju), Choe Han Gi (Hye Gang), Chong Yak Yong (Ta San), etc., read books of Western medicine and introduced in writing the excellent theory of Western medicine. In addition, Yu Hyong Won (Pan Gye), Pak Ji Won (Yon Am), Pak Je Ga (Cho Jong), etc., showed much interest in Western medicine, but no writings by them about western medicine can be found. With the establishment of a treaty of amity with Japan in the 13th year of King Kojong (1876), followed by the succession of amity treaties with Western powers, foreigners including medical doctors were permitted to flow into this country. At that time, doctors Horace N. Allen, W. B. Scranton, John W. Heron, Rosetta Sherwood (Rosetta S. Hall), etc., came to Korea and inaugurated hospitals, where they taught Western medicine to Korean students. Dr. Horace N. Allen, with the permission of king Kojong, established Che Jung Won in April 1885, and in March 1886, he began at the hospital to provide education of Western medicine to Korean students who were recrutied by the Korean Government. However, the education was not conduted on a regular basis, only training them for work as assistants. This is considered to be the pioneer case of Western medical education in this country. Before that time, Japanese medical doctors came to Korea, but there are no

  8. Begin your partnership: the process of engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Forge, Nell; Moini, Moraya; Jones, Felica; Terry, Chrystene; Norris, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Community Partnered-Participatory Research (CPPR) is based on and utilizes community engagement as its central method and principle. In this chapter, we explain the key differences between engaging the community vs merely involving the community. The chapter also reviews the plan-do-action cycle of work that is used in each stage of CPPR. We define five key values of CPPR: respect for diversity, openness, equality, redirected power (empowerment), and an asset-based approach. In addition, we present 12 operational principles, which guide work throughout every stage of all CPPR initiatives.

  9. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel.Pho...

  10. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system.Photo 01: Pictured with the newly installed magnet and transport system in the transfer line tunnel are (left to right) Volker Mertens, responsible for the LHC injection and transfer lines; personnel involved in tr...

  11. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system.Photos 01, 02: Pictured with the newly installed magnet and transport system in the transfer line tunnel are LHC project leader Lyn Evans (second left, white helmet); Volker Mertens, responsible for the LHC injecti...

  12. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel. Th...

  13. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel. We...

  14. The Beginnings of X-ray Crystallography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    significant change in his career came in 1904 when he gave a talk at Dunedin on ... In his personal reminiscences, W L Bragg talks about his school days in Australia. ... two Braggs on the occasion of the International Year of Crystallography .

  15. The history of radioiodine therapy beginnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Olegovich Rumiantsev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This report contains historical review of radioiodine therapy invention and clinical implementation for the treatment of patients with diffuse toxic goiter and differentiated thyroid cancer. In 1923 Henry Plummer has strongly recommended to prescribe stable iodine in patients with Grave’s diseases after surgery in order to prevent thyrotoxic storm. Radioactive isotopes of iodine for the first time were obtained by Enrico Fermi in 1934 in laboratory. Clinical implementation of radioiodine was started in 40th years of past century. In 1940 experimentally have been shown that thyroid gland with Grave’s disease accumulated as much as 80% of radioiodine administered activity. Saul Hertz was the first physician who used radioactive iodine in January, 1941 with purpose to treat diffuse toxic goiter patients. Samuel Seidlin was first who used radioiodine in March, 1943 to treat patient with functioned differentiated thyroid cancer metastases. In Russia radioiodine treatment of patients started since 1982 in Medical Radiological Research Centre (former Institute of Medical Radiology, Obninsk.

  16. Higgs: the beginning of the exploration

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Even in the most specialized circles, the new particle discovered in July is not called the “Higgs boson” yet. Physicists still hesitate to give it this name because they want to be sure that its properties fit with those predicted by the Higgs theory. This week, at the HCP conference in Kyoto, CMS and ATLAS presented their latest results: a more refined data analysis has produced a more accurate value of the mass of the particle and has started to show decay channels never before observed.   Since July, both ATLAS and CMS have been working on extending the capabilities of their data analysis. The large teams of physicists have studied in even greater detail all the signals and the information that can be extracted from the data. Following this collective effort, both collaborations have recently presented an update on the mass of the new particle, together with several new measurements which are starting to unveil its properties. ATLAS has analysed a large sample of 13 fb-1 ...

  17. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 19 February, the very first magnet was installed in one of the two tunnels that will house the transfer lines leading to the LHC. This magnet, recycled from a previous facility, was transported and positioned using a novel system designed for conveying large objects through narrow tunnels.

  18. Dynamics and stabilization of the human gut microbiome during the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik; Roswall, Josefine; Peng, Yangqing

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first...... of the microbiome. Our findings establish a framework for understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and the human body in early life....... year of life and assessed the impact of mode of delivery and feeding on its establishment. In contrast to vaginally delivered infants, the gut microbiota of infants delivered by C-section showed significantly less resemblance to their mothers. Nutrition had a major impact on early microbiota...

  19. Human health impacts in the life cycle of future European electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treyer, Karin; Bauer, Christian; Simons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based quantification of the potential human health impacts (HHI) of base-load power generation technologies for the year 2030. Cumulative Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced are shown in order to provide the basis for comparison with existing literature. Minimising negative impacts on human health is one of the key elements of policy making towards sustainable development: besides their direct impacts on quality of life, HHI also trigger other impacts, e.g. external costs in the health care system. These HHI are measured using the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods “ReCiPe” with its three different perspectives and “IMPACT2002+”. Total HHI as well as the shares of the contributing damage categories vary largely between these perspectives and methods. Impacts due to climate change, human toxicity, and particulate matter formation are the main contributors to total HHI. Independently of the perspective chosen, the overall impacts on human health from nuclear power and renewables are substantially lower than those caused by coal power, while natural gas can have lower HHI than nuclear and some renewables. Fossil fuel combustion as well as coal, uranium and metal mining are the life cycle stages generating the highest HHI. - Highlights: • Life cycle human health impacts (HHI) due to electricity production are analysed. • Results are shown for the three ReCiPe perspectives and IMPACT2002+LCIA method. • Total HHI of nuclear and renewables are much below those of fossil technologies. • Climate change and human toxicity contribute most to total HHI. • Fossil fuel combustion and coal mining are the most polluting life cycle stages

  20. Radiation: Basic life for human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Basically, radiation is sources for everything in this world. From radiation, many reactions and activities can be done by organisms. The tree can do photosynthesis and at the same time can give oxygen to human and others. In Quran, radiation was mentioned almost 41 times and from that, 12 are preferred to sun, moon, and stars. Radiation can be classified into two groups, mechanical and electromagnetic. Mechanical radiations are produced from vibration process. For example, when we are talking, sound radiation will be produced from vibration of sounds box. The guitar will sounded when we pluck it. Generally, mechanical radiation needs medium for its propagation and the velocity of wave can change and it cannot propagate in vacuum states. Meanwhile, electromagnetic radiations are energy that emitted in wave produced by propagation of electrical charges. This will produce magnetic fields and then if these fields changed, electrical fields will produce. There are two types of radiation in human life, natural radiation and artificially radiation. Radiation can be applied in medical and defend sector. Radiation also can be misuse by some people that want it for other purpose in intention to do something wrong, such as in making bomb and others weapons. In Malaysia, there are one act to control the imports, exports, licensing, transferring and application of ionizing radiation but not for non-ionizing radiation. In future, laser radiations have their own potential to become one of the most important radiations in renewable energy sector, medical and defend.

  1. EFFECTS OF HIGH ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL BRANCHES ON HUMAN LIFE QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doguş Deniz Özarslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance of industrialization which has a role in determination of the civilization levels of societies is increasing everyday due to meet rapidly increasing demands. However this process has led up to environmental problems with time and thus effects on quality of human life also brought along. In this study, three sectors were selected among different branches of industry according to their economical importance in Turkey. These sectors are paper, metal and construction chemicals industry. Production processes of selected sectors were examined and effects of production stages on the environment and human health as well as their contribution to sustainable development were investigated. Well known Turkish companies from each industrial branch were evaluated in detail. These industrial sectors having economic importance are compared to each other according to their effects on quality of human life and environment and the results are evaluated accordingly.

  2. A Symbiosis of Islamic Principles and Basic Human Values on Work and Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokis Rohaiza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some basic issues on work and life based on Islamic and non-religious principles. Work and life are inseparable facets of and for human existence. Work derives from the demands of life, and thus it becomes a responsibility for every individual person. The article attempts to relate some highlighted Qur’anic verses and Hadith with basic occupational values such as honesty, modesty and innovativeness, among others, at workplaces. In the end, it makes an effort to understand the working of the subconscious mind on work to make life worthwhile. The plan for this article is to lay emphasis that the presence of human beings, which includes their mind, energy and whatever they can offer in the forms of work, benefits all. In such a case, not only those humans may be seen as successful in fulfilling the work-needs, but also victorious in completing the life-demands as human beings. “Virtuous workplace” is the most ideal platform for such purpose.

  3. Influence of indoor hygrothermal conditions on human quality of life in social housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modern societies spend most of their time indoors, namely at home, and the indoor environment quality turns out to be a crucial factor to health, quality of life and well-being of the residents. The present study aims to understand how indoor environment relates with quality of life and how improving housing conditions impacts on individuals’ health. Design and Methods: This study case will rely on the following assessments in both rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated social housing: i field measurements, in social dwellings (namely temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, air velocity, air change rate, level of mould spores and energy consumption; ii residents’ questionnaires on social, demogaphic, behavioural, health characteristics and quality of life. Also, iii qualitative interviews performed with social housing residents from the rehabilitated houses, addressing the self-perception of living conditions and their influence in health status and quality of life. All the collected information will be combined and analysed in order to achieve the main objective. Expected impact: It is expected to define a Predicted Human Life Quality (PHLQ index, that combines physical parameters describing the indoor environment measured through engineering techniques with residents’ and neighbourhood quality of life characteristics assessed by health questionnaires. Improvement in social housing should be related with better health indicators and the new index might be an important tool contributing to enhance quality of life of the residents.

  4. EDUCATION IN THE FIELD safety of human life AND THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kartavykh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication purpose - pedagogical design of education of bachelors in the field safety of human life in the context of ideas of a sustainable development as one of the modern and perspective directions of the higher education. Philosophical and methodological, scientific and technical and pedagogical aspects of provisions of the concept of a sustainable development are opened. It is shown that the greatest potential for realization of ideas of a sustainable development the invariant subject matter the " Safety of human life " studied by future bachelors irrespective of the direction and a profile of preparation possesses. The fundamental principles of education in the field safety of human life of future bachelors are formulated. Key functions of education of bachelors in the field of health and safety are defined: valuable and orientation, teoretiko-world outlook, it is constructive - activity, it is reflexive - estimated. The methodical tasks approaching the project to specific sociocultural and pedagogical conditions are opened: definition of target reference points, modular structuring content of education, development of procedural and technological features of creation of educational activity; diagnostics of results. The idea of a didactic cycle at development of the content of education in the field safety of human life is proved and opened. The educations of future bachelors got in the course of approbation results in the field safety of human life in the context of ideology of sustainable (safe development allow to speak about efficiency of the chosen scientific and methodological and organizational and technological bases and to project new models of practical experience in conditions of providing optimum ways of productive pedagogical interaction.

  5. Search begins for missing radiation sources in Republic of Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    An international team assembled by the IAEA will begin a search today for two abandoned Strontium 90 generators in a ca. 550 sq. km area of Western Georgia. About 80 people will take part in the two-week search beginning on Monday, 10 June. Radiation experts for the IAEA, India, France, Turkey and the U.S. are also part of the team, which will set out on horseback, foot and by car. The second phase - an aerial and road survey covering different territory - is scheduled to begin in early September. The objective is to locate and recover other known or suspected orphaned radioactive sources in the country

  6. Influence of physical activity in length of life of the human population in the context of changes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmetović Zlatko; Romanov Romana; Dimitrić Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Since the middle of the last century, the human population has increased exponentially. This trend is evident today. Human population has, for more than half a century been undergoing the period of its intensive development, increasing in number and the average length of life, creating the impression of a better life standard. Looking at the man as a bio-psycho-social being and the interactions it ones through the human population growth is brought in connection with its impact on the environ...

  7. Influence of Indoor Hygrothermal Conditions on Human Quality of Life in Social Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sara; Fraga, Silvia; Delgado, Joao M P Q; Ramos, Nuno M M

    2015-11-17

    Modern societies spend most of their time indoors, namely at home, and the indoor environment quality turns out to be a crucial factor to health, quality of life and well-being of the residents. The present study aims to understand how indoor environment relates with quality of life and how improving housing conditions impacts on individuals' health. This study case will rely on the following assessments in both rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated social housing: i) field measurements, in social dwellings (namely temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, air velocity, air change rate, level of mould spores and energy consumption); ii) residents' questionnaires on social, demogaphic, behavioural, health characteristics and quality of life. Also, iii) qualitative interviews performed with social housing residents from the rehabilitated houses, addressing the self-perception of living conditions and their influence in health status and quality of life. All the collected information will be combined and analysed in order to achieve the main objective. It is expected to define a Predicted Human Life Quality (PHLQ) index, that combines physical parameters describing the indoor environment measured through engineering techniques with residents' and neighbourhood quality of life characteristics assessed by health questionnaires. Improvement in social housing should be related with better health indicators and the new index might be an important tool contributing to enhance quality of life of the residents. Significance for public healthThis study will contribute to understand how indoor environment relates with quality of life and how improving housing conditions impacts on individuals' health, in social housing neighbourhoods. As so, it is important to share the undertaken methodology carried out by a multidisciplinary team, in order to allow other researchers following comparable studies to adopt a similar approach. The case study results will allow

  8. The Ethics of Human Life Extension: The Second Argument from Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris

    2015-12-01

    One argument that is sometimes made against pursuing radical forms of human life extension is that such interventions will make the species less evolvable, which would be morally undesirable. In this article, I discuss the empirical and evaluative claims of this argument. I argue that radical increases in life expectancy could, in principle, reduce the evolutionary potential of human populations through both biological and cultural mechanisms. I further argue that if life extension did reduce the evolvability of the species, this will be undesirable for three reasons: (1) it may increase the species' susceptibility to extinction risks, (2) it may adversely affect institutions and practices that promote well-being, and (3) it may impede moral progress. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Enfoque bioético del inicio y fin de la vida en 2 obras plásticas de Juan Emilio Hernández Giro Bioethical approach of the beginning and end of life in 2 plastic pieces of Juan Emilio Hernández Giro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Guerra Felíu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como punto de partida la obra del artista santiaguero Juan Emilio Hernández Giro y, en específico, el inicio y fin de la vida expresados mediante la pintura, surgió la motivación para efectuar este artículo, en el cual se caracterizan el tratamiento de ambos momentos trascendentales del ser humano en 2 de las obras del citado autor -- conservadas como patrimonio en el Museo Provincial Emilio Bacardí Moreau de Santiago de Cuba -- y la forma en que se reflejan a través de la luz y el color, los estados de alegría y dolor, además de otros elementos que esta exposición del arte aporta como producto comunicativo.From the work of Juan Emilio Hernández Giro, an artist belonging to Santiago, specifically, the beginning and end of life expressed by means of painting, the motivation to make this investigation arose, in which the treatment of both extraordinary moments of the human being in 2 of the mentioned author's works are characterized --which are preserved as heritage in "Emilio Bacardí Moreau" Provincial Museum in Santiago de Cuba--and the way in which, the states of happiness and pain are reflected through light and color, besides other elements that this art exhibition gives as a communicative product.

  10. The beginnings of Christianity in Cyprus. Religious and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Burkiewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of Christianity in Cyprus has a long and beautiful tradition, whose beginnings are connected with four important figures: Saint Lazarus and apostles Paul, Barnabas and Mark. The apostles came to Cyprus in the first half of the 1st century, when the island was under the Roman rule. According to tradition, by preaching God’s Word they became the founders of the Cypriot Church. Their mission was not an easy one, and the pressure of the indignant Jewish community led to the capture of Paul in Paphos and his consequent whipping at the whipping post. The post can still be seen today among the ruins of the church of Agia Kyriaki Chrysopolitissa. Barnabas sacrificed his life for his faith: he was captured in Salamis, and then burnt at the stake by a Jewish mob. Roman Proconsul Quintus Sergius Paulus became the first important Roman official who converted to Christianity, and Cyprus became the first Roman province which adopted Christianity. Tradition also links Saint Lazarus with the island: allegedly, after being miraculously resurrected by Jesus in Bethany, he came to Cyprus, where he became a bishop and where he preached God’s Word and converted pagans into Christianity for the next 30 years.

  11. Blood Lifestyle: Externalizing the Cost of Human Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, David

    2012-01-01

    To build postsecondary institutions that educate responsible citizens as well as competent employees and consumers, it is important that people must teach and learn themselves about the context--domestic and global--in which work is to be done, and the purposes which economic and technological development serve. One aspect of that context is the…

  12. The cooperative economy of food: Implications for human life history and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L

    2018-04-06

    The human diet has undergone substantial modifications since the emergence of modern humans and varies considerably in today's traditional societies. Despite these changes and cross-cultural differences, the human diet can be characterized by several common elements. These include diverse, high quality foods, technological complexity to acquire and process food, and the establishment of home bases for storage, processing and consumption. Together these aspects of the human diet challenge any one individual to independently meet all of his or her daily caloric needs. Humans solve this challenge through food sharing, labor exchange and the division of labor. The cooperative nature of the human diet is associated with many downstream effects on our life history and physiology. This paper overviews the constellation of traits that likely led to a cooperative economy of food, and draws on ethnographic examples to illustrate its effects on human life history and physiology. Two detailed examples using body composition, time allocation and food acquisition data show how cooperation among Savanna Pumé hunter-gatherers affects activity levels, sexual dimorphism in body fat, maturational pace and age at first birth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A Detection Device for the Signs of Human Life in Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Ruilan, Zhang; Jian, Liu; Ruirui, Cheng; Yuhong, Diao

    2017-12-01

    A detection device for the signs of human life in accidents is a device used in emergency situations, such as the crash site. the scene of natural disasters, the battlefield ruins. it designed to detect the life signs of the distress under the injured ambulance vital signs devices. The device can on human vital signs, including pulse, respiration physiological signals to make rapid and accurate response. After some calculations, and after contrast to normal human physiological parameters given warning signals, in order for them to make timely ambulance judgment. In this case the device is required to do gymnastics convenience, ease of movement, power and detection of small flexible easy realization. This device has the maximum protection of the wounded safety significance.

  14. The Body as a Substrate of Differentiation. Shifting the Focus from Race Science to Life Scientists' Research on Human Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipphardt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article suggests to focus on the history of human variation instead of focussing on the history of race science. It views the latter as a subset of the former, hence views race science as embedded into the larger field of life scientists' investigations into human variation. This paper explores why human variation is such an attractive and productive object particularly for the life sciences. It proposes that knowledge about human variation is incomplete in a promising way, and ...

  15. EFFECTS OF HIGH ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL BRANCHES ON HUMAN LIFE QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Özarslan, Doguş Deniz; Cumbul Altay, Melek; Arabaci, Aliye; Altay, H. Fatih; Sivri, Nüket

    2012-01-01

    Importance of industrialization which has a role in determination of the civilization levels of societies is increasing everyday due to meet rapidly increasing demands. However this process has led up to environmental problems with time and thus effects on quality of human life also brought along. In this study, three sectors were selected among different branches of industry according to their economical importance in Turkey. These sectors are paper, metal and construction chemicals industry...

  16. On the development of life prediction methodologies for the failure of human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, R.K.; Imbeni, V.; Kinney, J.H.; Marshall, S.J.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2002-09-18

    Human dentin is known to be susceptible to failure under cyclic loading. Surprisingly, there are few reports that quantify the effect of such loading, considering the fact that a typical tooth experiences a million or so loading cycles annually. In the present study, a systematic investigation is described of the effects of prolonged cyclic loading on human dentin in a simulated physiological environment. In vitro stress-life (S/N) data are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of fatigue damage and failure.

  17. Quantification of the Intracellular Life Time of Water Molecules to Measure Transport Rates of Human Aquaglyceroporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Madelene; Hernebring, Malin; Eriksson, Stefanie; Elbing, Karin; Geijer, Cecilia; Lasič, Samo; Dahl, Peter; Hansen, Jesper S; Topgaard, Daniel; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2017-12-01

    Orthodox aquaporins are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid diffusion of water, while aquaglyceroporins facilitate the diffusion of small uncharged molecules such as glycerol and arsenic trioxide. Aquaglyceroporins play important roles in human physiology, in particular for glycerol metabolism and arsenic detoxification. We have developed a unique system applying the strain of the yeast Pichia pastoris, where the endogenous aquaporins/aquaglyceroporins have been removed and human aquaglyceroporins AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9 are recombinantly expressed enabling comparative permeability measurements between the expressed proteins. Using a newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance approach based on measurement of the intracellular life time of water, we propose that human aquaglyceroporins are poor facilitators of water and that the water transport efficiency is similar to that of passive diffusion across native cell membranes. This is distinctly different from glycerol and arsenic trioxide, where high glycerol transport efficiency was recorded.

  18. [Between sancticity and value of human life: in perspective of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyk, W

    2001-01-01

    The more we know, the more duties and greater responsibility we have. The dynamic development of biology carries a lot of hope for the freeing of mankind from genetic diseases. But the introduction of scientific thought necessarily has to be bound with the development of technology. It is wrong when technology dictates science a direction of development; when technique comes before ethics; and when technology does not respect the essence of a human being. The uncritical introduction of eugenics, especially cloning of people and rejecting all moral arguments, recalls inglorious acts of science when the ideology of progress determined the range of problems that researchers focused on. The same ideology of progress, although originating from other sources, pushes science toward a second extreme, into utilitarianism. In the article the author wishes to substantiate the necessity for researchers to respect ethical norms. Recognition of natural laws alone does not provide science with full development if the rights of conscience are violated.

  19. Establishing 'quality of life' parameters using behavioural guidelines for humane euthanasia of captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Sp; Schapiro, Sj; Bernacky, Bj; Wilkerson, Gk

    2013-09-01

    Chronic pain and distress are universally accepted conditions that may adversely affect an animal's quality of life (QOL) and lead to the humane euthanasia of an animal. At most research institutions and zoological parks in the USA, a veterinarian, who has physically examined the animal and reviewed the clinical records, ultimately decides when an animal has reached a humane endpoint. To aid in the difficult process of interpreting pain and distress, we have developed specific behavioural guidelines, in addition to standard clinical information, to help define unique characteristics and traits of primates to assess and promote discussion of an individual primate's QOL, and thereby, to assist in the decision-making process regarding euthanasia. These guidelines advocate the creation of a QOL team when the animal is diagnosed with a life-threatening or debilitating chronic condition, or at the time the animal is entered into a terminal study. The team compiles a list of characteristics unique to that individual animal by utilising a questionnaire and a behavioural ethogram. This list enables the team to quantitatively assess any deviations from the established normal behavioural repertoire of that individual. Concurrently, the QOL team determines the number of behavioural deviations that are needed to trigger an immediate discussion of the necessity for humane euthanasia of the animal. The team remains intact once created, and revisits the animal's condition as frequently as deemed necessary. This process improves animal welfare by continuing the quest to optimally define QOL for captive primates, and potentially for all captive animals.

  20. The Effect of Bad Human Activities on Marine Life as Portrayed in Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage

    OpenAIRE

    LATHIFAH, ISNA NUR

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: ecocriticism, bad humans activities, marine life, Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage movie. The balance of marine life is often damaged by irresponsible humans who do not care about their environment. This problem has inspired some works to criticize humans' reckless behavior toward environment, especially ocean. Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage is one of the examples that have been created to criticize the bad human activities in the ocean. This research applies ecocritici...

  1. Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitara, Shingo; Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo; Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Tomizuka, Kazuma

    2008-01-01

    Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-β-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells

  2. Alteration of a human intestinal microbiota under extreme life environment in the Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Touyama, Mutsumi; Yamada, Shin; Yamazaki, Takashi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota (HIM) settles from birth and continues to change phenotype by some factors (e.g. host's diet) throughout life. However, the effect of extreme life environment on human HIM composition is not well known. To understand HIM fluctuation under extreme life environment in humans, fecal samples were collected from six Japanese men on a long Antarctic expedition. They explored Antarctica for 3 months and collected their fecal samples at once-monthly intervals. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, the composition of HIM in six subjects was investigated. Three subjects presented restoration of HIM after the expedition compared versus before and during the expedition. Two thirds samples collected during the expedition belonged to the same cluster in dendrogram. However, all through the expedition, T-RFLP patterns showed interindividual variability. Especially, Bifidobacterium spp. showed a tendency to decrease during and restore after the expedition. A reduction of Bifidobacterium spp. was observed in five subjects the first 1 month of the expedition. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which is thought to proliferate during emotional stress, significantly decreased in one subject, indicating that other factors in addition to emotional stress may affect the composition of HIM in this study. These findings could be helpful to understand the effect of extreme life environment on HIM.

  3. The Human Proteome Project: Unlocking the Mysteries of Human Life and Unleashing Its Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ system failure, leading 11 causes of death among trauma patients . As an example, scientists at the...greater impact on humanity. In the year 2011, only the tip of the biological iceberg has revealed itself. The coming decades will usher in a biological...course of disease, identify patients at risk for diseases with a genetic link, better tailor treatment modalities and accelerate the drug development

  4. Favorable ecological circumstances promote life expectancy in chimpanzees similar to that of human hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian M; Watts, David P; Mitani, John C; Langergraber, Kevin E

    2017-04-01

    Demographic data on wild chimpanzees are crucial for understanding the evolution of chimpanzee and hominin life histories, but most data come from populations affected by disease outbreaks and anthropogenic disturbance. We present survivorship data from a relatively undisturbed and exceptionally large community of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. We monitored births, deaths, immigrations, and emigrations in the community between 1995 and 2016. Using known and estimated ages, we calculated survivorship curves for the whole community, for males and females separately, and for individuals ≤2 years old when identified. We used a novel method to address age estimation error by calculating stochastic survivorship curves. We compared Ngogo life expectancy, survivorship, and mortality rates to those from other chimpanzee communities and human hunter-gatherers. Life expectancy at birth for both sexes combined was 32.8 years, far exceeding estimates of chimpanzee life expectancy in other communities, and falling within the range of human hunter-gatherers (i.e., 27-37 years). Overall, the pattern of survivorship at Ngogo was more similar to that of human hunter-gatherers than to other chimpanzee communities. Maximum lifespan for the Ngogo chimpanzees, however, was similar to that reported at other chimpanzee research sites and was less than that of human-hunter gatherers. The absence of predation by large carnivores may contribute to some of the higher survivorship at Ngogo, but this cannot explain the much higher survivorship at Ngogo than at Kanyawara, another chimpanzee community in the same forest, which also lacks large carnivores. Higher survivorship at Ngogo appears to be an adaptive response to a food supply that is more abundant and varies less than that of Kanyawara. Future analyses of hominin life history evolution should take these results into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. How, when and where Life will begin on another planet after Earth by Duky’s Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deol, Satveer; Singh Nafria, Amritpal

    2017-01-01

    Our Sun is a Red Giant Star and in distant future it will engulf Mercury, Venus and probably Earth and Mars. This paper shows that in distant future due to increasing size & luminosity of the Sun life will begin on one of the planet after 1 duky’s Unit. 1 duky's Unit is the time from now to the time when Mercury would get merged in Sun. At that time Venus would be first planet & due to closeness to Sun, its upper atmosphere would get heated up by solar wind. In a continuous process the clouds of sulfuric acid would escape its gravity. Eventually it would get drifted off into space and it become Mercury twin. On Earth after few million years moisture in air would become very good to trap infra red radiation. As it will warms up, oceans would evaporate even more & in few million years it would get covered with blanket of water vapours. Due to increasing temperature & pressure, volcanoes on Earth would become active then volcanic eruption would blast billions of tons of sulfur high into atmosphere there sulfur would mix with water vapors & form conc. Sulfuric acids. In a continuous process of few more million years whole Earth would get covered with sulphuric acids cloud. As Earth’s moon is receding away from Earth, so before 1 DU, Moon will have been gone away from Earth. As a result it would get started slow down one spin about 1 million year. These would lead to massive outpouring of CO2 & other greenhouse gasses. At that Earth would become Venus Twin. Now it's Mars turn, according to scientists after 50 millions years from now phobo will crash onto the surface of Mars. When that would happen, Mars would have one moon like Earth. This collision would be so hard & strong that phobo would get totally immersed in the surface of Mars as a results it's possible that Mars would get tilted at about 23.5 degree. Due to collision molten lava would come out. When temperature & pressure would rise then water ice would become water. When water would get enriched with

  6. Ethics and policies in the face of research into extending human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    If the prediction of some scientists comes true, then we are only few years away from the appearance of the first generation of human beings who will be able to add one year to each remaining year of life expectancy. Faced with this possibility, it seems appropriate to give thought to the public policies that should be adopted. It is better to anticipate the various future scenarios than react to a reality which is a fait accompli. To date, the debate has mainly focused on the ethical question: is it good or bad for us humans to achieve immortal life? Until now, neither legal guidelines at State level nor those of international organisations which deal with bioethical issues have concerned themselves with this matter. But before discussing policies, two other matters should be addressed: first, to show how the prolongation of human life can be as much the unwanted outcome of legitimate efforts in search of healthy aging, as one of the aims of the post-humanist project; second, to present the most consistent and shared ethical reasons for rejecting the human immortality project.

  7. IVF culture medium affects post-natal weight in humans during the first 2 years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijkers, Sander H. M.; van Montfoort, Aafke P. A.; Smits, Luc J. M.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Nelissen, Ewka C. M.; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G.; Bastings, Lobke; Schreurs, Inge E. L.; Evers, Johannes L. H.; Dumoulin, John C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Is post-natal growth during the first 2 years of life in IVF singletons affected by type of medium used for culturing human embryos during an IVF treatment? The in vitro culture of human embryos in medium from Cook resulted in singletons with a lower weight during the first 2 years of life compared

  8. Connections between Ethical Values, the Meaning of Human Life, and Human Communities, according to Vasile Goldiș

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovan Marţian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the views held by Vasile Goldiș – Transylvanian scholar, politician, and one of the masterminds of the Great Union of 1 December 1918 – regarding the role of universal human values in guiding individuals and human communities. Together with other Christian values, ethics guides individuals, communities, political and administrative elites, churches, and academia. This results in greater justice, community solidarity and cohesion, and a greater ability for society to shape and promote its internal moral order. Considering the diversity of moral profiles found among various nations, ethnicities and political elites, Goldiș highlights their common grounds – which facilitates a new moral order in inter-human, inter-community and international relations. The ethical testament promoted by Goldiș in his writings and throughout his life is still relevant today, and it also holds true for the next generations.

  9. Mathematical Content of Curricula and Beginning Salaries of Graduating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. Brian; Lee, Jungsun

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined an association between mathematical content in college-level curricula and beginning salaries of graduating students on the basis of data collected from a public university in the southern region of the United States. The authors classified the mathematical content requirements of the curricula into the following 5 groups…

  10. Animatio: a history of ideas on the beginning of personhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2018-05-24

    The onset of individual human life has fascinated thinkers of all cultures and epochs, and the history of their ideas may enlighten an unsettled debate. Aristotle attributed three different souls to the subsequent developmental stages. The last, the rational soul, was associated with the formed fetus, and entailed fetal movements. With some modifications, the concept of delayed ensoulment - at 30, 42, 60, or 90 days after conception - was adopted by several Christian Church Fathers and remained valid throughout the Middle Ages. The concept of immediate ensoulment at fertilization originated in the 15th century and became Catholic dogma in 1869. During the Enlightenment, philosophers began to replace the rational soul with the term personhood, basing the latter on self-consciousness. Biological reality suggests that personhood accrues slowly, not at a specific date during gestation. Requirements for personhood are present in the embryo, but not in the preembryo before implantation: anatomic substrate; no more totipotent cells; decreased rate of spontaneous loss. However, biological facts alone cannot determine the embryo's moral status. Societies must negotiate and decide the degree of protection of unborn humans. In the 21st century, fertilization, implantation, extrauterine viability and birth have become the most widely accepted landmarks of change in ontological status.

  11. The influence of the level of physical activity and human development in the quality of life in survivors of stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Aidar, Felipe J; de Oliveira, Ricardo J; Silva, Ant?nio J; de Matos, Dihogo G; Carneiro, Andr? L; Garrido, Nuno; Hickner, Robert C; Reis, Victor M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The association between physical activity and quality of life in stroke survivors has not been analyzed within a framework related to the human development index. This study aimed to identify differences in physical activity level and in the quality of life of stroke survivors in two cities differing in economic aspects of the human development index. Methods Two groups of subjects who had suffered a stroke at least a year prior to testing and showed hemiplegia or hemipare...

  12. Assessment of Human Bio-Behavior During Gait Process Using LifeMOD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rogozea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a set of observations concerning the
    analysis and assessment of human bio-behavior during gait process. In the first part of the paper the fundamental and theoretical considerations of the gait process are approached and aspects connected to malfunctions are expressed. In the second part of the paper we present the modeling methodology using
    the LifeMOD software, while in the third part the results and conclusions are presented.

  13. The beginnings of soccer in Ðakovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelić, Borislav

    2008-01-01

    We do not know much about the beginnings of soccer in Ðakovo. Based on modest and not always representative historical sources, as well as memories of the first soccer activists, I feel that we are today nevertheless able to offer a sufficiently coherent genesis of football in Ðakovo from its beginnings till the outbreak of World War I. Soccer first began to be played in an organized fashion within the Section of the sport society “Hrvatski sokol” that was established in 1908, and afterwards ...

  14. Beginning teachers’ challenges in their pursuit of effective teaching practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Confait

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the context and experiences of three beginning teachers in their effort to improve their teaching and to implement and align themselves with their schools’ expectations of effective teaching practices. Research findings emerging from a sociocultural-ethnographic framework revealed that participants challenged their own beliefs about effective teaching practices in aligning themselves with their schools’ expectations. In complying with routine expectations, they embraced predominantly teacher-centred practices, rather than a student-centred approach. Given the ongoing effort to augment the quality of education in the Seychelles, beginning teachers’ implementation of and access to evidenced-based practices could be recognised as part of this endeavour.

  15. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  16. Half-life of each dioxin and PCB congener in the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Isamura [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that dioxin and PCB congeners accumulate in the human body. For assessing their toxicological risk, it is important to know the half-life of each congener in the human body. This study summarizes the overall half-lives of congeners in humans as reported in the literature, and compares them with the half-lives due to fecal and sebum excretions, as estimated by data on the concentrations of congeners in feces and sebum in the literature. In addition, the overall half-lives of congeners for the general Japanese population were estimated from the data on dietary intakes and concentrations in the human body reported by the municipalities.

  17. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gawlik, Remigiusz; Jacobsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis , two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a se...

  18. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  19. What do we mean by Human-Centered Design of Life-Critical Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    Human-centered design is not a new approach to design. Aerospace is a good example of a life-critical systems domain where participatory design was fully integrated, involving experimental test pilots and design engineers as well as many other actors of the aerospace engineering community. This paper provides six topics that are currently part of the requirements of the Ph.D. Program in Human-Centered Design of the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT.) This Human-Centered Design program offers principles, methods and tools that support human-centered sustainable products such as mission or process control environments, cockpits and hospital operating rooms. It supports education and training of design thinkers who are natural leaders, and understand complex relationships among technology, organizations and people. We all need to understand what we want to do with technology, how we should organize ourselves to a better life and finally find out whom we are and have become. Human-centered design is being developed for all these reasons and issues.

  20. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  1. Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya M; Tafforeau, Paul; Reid, Donald J; Grün, Rainer; Eggins, Stephen; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-04-10

    Recent developmental studies demonstrate that early fossil hominins possessed shorter growth periods than living humans, implying disparate life histories. Analyses of incremental features in teeth provide an accurate means of assessing the age at death of developing dentitions, facilitating direct comparisons with fossil and modern humans. It is currently unknown when and where the prolonged modern human developmental condition originated. Here, an application of x-ray synchrotron microtomography reveals that an early Homo sapiens juvenile from Morocco dated at 160,000 years before present displays an equivalent degree of tooth development to modern European children at the same age. Crown formation times in the juvenile's macrodont dentition are higher than modern human mean values, whereas root development is accelerated relative to modern humans but is less than living apes and some fossil hominins. The juvenile from Jebel Irhoud is currently the oldest-known member of Homo with a developmental pattern (degree of eruption, developmental stage, and crown formation time) that is more similar to modern H. sapiens than to earlier members of Homo. This study also underscores the continuing importance of North Africa for understanding the origins of human anatomical and behavioral modernity. Corresponding biological and cultural changes may have appeared relatively late in the course of human evolution.

  2. Memories of a Fledgling Teacher: A Beginning Teacher's Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottland, Helg

    2004-01-01

    By evoking the concept of memory pictures, the author recalls her early years as a teacher. Rather than calling herself a beginning teacher, she characterizes herself as a fledgling teacher to capture the insecurity associated with the first years of teaching. This experience is narrated through five memory pictures: (1) the new school's many…

  3. Beginning science teachers' performances: Assessment in times of reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinsky, Fie K.

    2000-10-01

    The current reform in science education and the research on effective teaching and student learning have reinforced the importance of teacher competency. To better measure performances in the teaching of science, performance assessment has been added to Connecticut's licensure process for beginning science teachers. Teaching portfolios are used to document teaching and learning over time. Portfolios, however, are not without problems. One of the major concerns with the portfolio assessment process is its subjectivity. Assessors may not have opportunities to ask clarifying or follow-up questions to enhance the interpretation of a teacher's performance. In addition, portfolios often contain components based on self-documentation, which are subjective. Furthermore, the use of portfolios raises test equity issues. These concerns present challenges for persons in charge of establishing the validity of a portfolio-based licensure process. In high-stakes decision processes, such as teaching licensure, the validity of the assessment instruments must be studied. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the criterion-related validity of the Connecticut State Department of Education's Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio by comparing the interpretations of performances from science teaching portfolios to those derived from another assessment method, the Expert Science Teaching Educational and Evaluation Model, (ESTEEM). The analysis of correlations between the Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM instrument scores was the primary method for establishing support for validity. The results indicated moderate correlations between all Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM category and total variables. Multiple regression was used to examine whether differences existed in beginning science teachers' performances based on gender, poverty group, school level, and science discipline taught. None of these variables significantly contributed to the

  4. Development of PBPK models for PFOA and PFOS for human pregnancy and lactation life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loccisano, Anne E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Campbell, Jerry L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAA) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA and PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also were used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include (1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multiyear half-lives of these compounds in humans, (2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and (3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages.

  5. Facets of a life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakharov, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book is physicist's tribute to Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov. This out-standing person - a talented physicist and citizen of the world - has played an extremely important role in the deep-going changes occurring in our country. His name belongs to history. Accounts of people who met him and are capable of assessing his scientific work and public activism are just beginning to pour in. In our view, this collection of reminiscences is only a small but essential, contribution to the restoration of A.D. Sakharov's image. Most of the authors, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists from many countries, knew him as a colleague. To a varying extent, they were a part of his difficult life. This is what this collection is about. Both professional and humanistic facets of his life are described. The book begins with the texts published when he ran for a post of a people's deputy of the USSR and the biographical note printed in the Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk journal after his death. They are mutually complementary for the former contains a short description of his biography and human rights activism, and the latter emphasizes Sakharov's scientific work. The authors' index contains basic data about them. The Annexes contain some previously unpublished Sakharov's documents. Among them there is 'The Letter to Soviet Scientists' with an appeal which, unfortunately, did not get the support it deserved

  6. Human milk reduces outpatient upper respiratory symptoms in premature infants during their first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaymore Bier, Jo-Ann; Oliver, Tanya; Ferguson, Anne; Vohr, Betty R

    2002-01-01

    To determine if ingestion of human milk after discharge reduces symptoms of infections in premature infants. Follow-up of 39 infants with birth weights milk and 15 of whom received only formula after discharge, was carried out. Mothers were given a calendar on which they recorded any signs of infections and feeding and day-care information. Data were collected at 1 month after discharge and at 3, 7, and 12 months corrected age. Results show no differences between groups in birth weight, gestation, gender, maternal age, parental tobacco use, number of siblings, and day-care attendance. Socioeconomic status score was higher in the human milk group. Infants who received human milk had fewer days of upper respiratory symptoms at 1 month after discharge (pmilk post discharge is associated with a reduction of upper respiratory symptoms in premature infants during their first year of life.

  7. The Role of Hand Dominance in Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the role of "hand dominance" in beginning braille readers. "Hand dominance" refers to whether an individual is "right handed" or "left handed." The data for these analyses were taken from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study). The ABC Braille Study was a five-year nonrandomized…

  8. Early Integration of Tutorial Support in Beginning Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copus, Colleen; McKinney, Betsy

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal observations reveal that most students with strong arithmetic skills will succeed in the Beginning Algebra course even if they have no previous experience with algebra. In trying to quantify this with an initial teacher-created survey of arithmetic skills, it was observed, for three consecutive semesters, that students who scored in the…

  9. Multidisciplinary perspectives on the history of human interactions with life in the ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDiarmid, Alison; MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn

    2016-01-01

    -term changes of affected species and define appropriate and realistic management targets. Second, increased multi-and trans-disciplinary effort is required to better understand the relative importance of different human demographic, technological, economic, and cultural drivers on the patterns, intensities......There is an essentially circular interaction between the human social system and the marine ecosystem. The Oceans Past V Conference "Multidisciplinary perspectives on the history of human interactions with life in the ocean" held in Tallinn, Estonia, in May 2015 was an opportunity...... for the presentation and discussion of papers on a diverse array of topics that examined this socio-ecological system from a historical perspective. Here we provide background to the disciplines participating in the conference and to the conference itself. We summarize the conference papers that appear in this special...

  10. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Life Mission Theory VI. A Theory for the Human Character: Healing with Holistic Medicine Through Recovery of Character and Purpose of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The human character can be understood as an extension of the life mission or purpose of life, and explained as the primary tool of a person to impact others and express the purpose of life. Repression of the human character makes it impossible for a person to realize his personal mission in life and, therefore, is one of the primary causes of self-repression resulting in poor quality of life, health, and ability. From Hippocrates to Hahnemann, repression of physical, mental, and spiritual character can be seen as the prime cause of disease, while recovery of character has been the primary intention of the treatment. In this paper, human character is explained as an intersubjective aspect of consciousness with the ability to influence the consciousness of another person directly. To understand consciousness, we reintroduce the seven-ray theory of consciousness explaining consciousness in accordance with a fractal ontology with a bifurcation number of seven (the numbers four to ten work almost as well. A case report on a female, aged 35 years, with severe hormonal disturbances, diagnosed with extremely early menopause, is presented and treated according to the theory of holistic existential healing (the holistic process theory of healing. After recovery of her character and purpose of life, her quality of life dramatically improved and hormonal status normalized. We believe that the recovery of human character and purpose of life was the central intention of Hippocrates and thus the original essence of western medicine. Interestingly, there are strong parallels to the peyote medicine of the Native Americans, the African Sangomas, the Australian Aboriginal healers, and the old Nordic medicine. The recovery of human character was also the intention of Hahnemann's homeopathy. We believe that we are at the core of consciousness-based medicine, as recovery of purpose of life and human character has been practiced as medicine in most human cultures

  12. Virtual Habitat -a dynamic simulation of closed life support systems -human model status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus Czupalla, M. Sc.; Zhukov, Anton; Hwang, Su-Au; Schnaitmann, Jonas

    In order to optimize Life Support Systems on a system level, stability questions must be in-vestigated. To do so the exploration group of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) is developing the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB) dynamic LSS simulation software. V-HAB shall provide the possibility to conduct dynamic simulations of entire mission scenarios for any given LSS configuration. The Virtual Habitat simulation tool consists of four main modules: • Closed Environment Module (CEM) -monitoring of compounds in a closed environment • Crew Module (CM) -dynamic human simulation • P/C Systems Module (PCSM) -dynamic P/C subsystems • Plant Module (PM) -dynamic plant simulation The core module of the simulation is the dynamic and environment sensitive human module. Introduced in its basic version in 2008, the human module has been significantly updated since, increasing its capabilities and maturity significantly. In this paper three newly added human model subsystems (thermal regulation, digestion and schedule controller) are introduced touching also on the human stress subsystem which is cur-rently under development. Upon the introduction of these new subsystems, the integration of these into the overall V-HAB human model is discussed, highlighting the impact on the most important I/F. The overall human model capabilities shall further be summarized and presented based on meaningful test cases. In addition to the presentation of the results, the correlation strategy for the Virtual Habitat human model shall be introduced assessing the models current confidence level and giving an outlook on the future correlation strategy. Last but not least, the remaining V-HAB mod-ules shall be introduced shortly showing how the human model is integrated into the overall simulation.

  13. The imbalanced surfing-life of humanity to survival in the global changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    We have written many times about the imbalance of Nature as the cause of the global change. Here, we offer some method for the humanity survival in the face of global change of the imbalanced anisotropic real Nature. There are two logics of understanding the real Nature: the traditional balanced, and the new imbalanced. The balanced logic presupposes that Nature is balanced, isotropic, etc. The imbalanced logic presupposes opposite that Nature is imbalanced, anisotropic, etc. Respectively can be two styles of the people life: balanced and imbalanced. The image of the flat earth corresponds well with the balanced lifestyle of people. On the balanced life people spend activities to achieve the balance by reducing the change, stabilization, leveling any level changes, etc. If there is a mountain on the road, it must be align the track or make the tunnel. If there is a ravine on the road, then it need backfilled or to build a bridge. If someone is in restless, it must be calm, etc. As example of the happiness in the balanced life is the stability, balance, and therefore the global changes of Nature are perceived as a catastrophe. In the balanced lifestyle people can easily decide to use force, especially if there is not enough knowledge. But Nature has power which in billions times greater than the forces of humanity. Therefore, humanity will beaten in struggle with Nature and disappear. The imbalanced lifestyle is the fundamentally different. The imbalanced lifestyle complies with the surface of the ocean, which always changes, but sometimes can be and flat. But the flat calm ocean surface is inconvenient for the imbalanced life. You need to pull boat yourself because is no wind in the sails. The anisotropic imbalanced Nature has gradients in all parameters. At a certain level of knowledge and experience, people can use this multi-dimensional gradient essence of the real Nature for human's discretion. The imbalanced life is like a surfing. If properly understood

  14. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  15. Legal guardians understand how children with the human immunodeficiency virus perceive quality of life and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydström, Lise-Lott; Wiklander, Maria; Ygge, Britt-Marie; Navér, Lars; Eriksson, Lars E

    2015-09-01

    This aim of this study was to describe how legal guardians assessed health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma in children with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compared to the children's own ratings. A cross-sectional nationwide study was performed to compare how 37 children aged from eight to 16 years of age with perinatal HIV, and their legal guardians, assessed the children's health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. Data were collected using the 37-item DISABKIDS Chronic Generic Module and a short eight-item version of the HIV stigma scale. Intraclass correlations indicated concordance between the legal guardians' ratings and the children's own ratings of the child's health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. There were no statistically significant differences between the ratings of the two groups and gender did not have any impact on the results. Both groups indicated that the children had concerns about being open about their HIV status. The results of this study indicated that legal guardians understood how their children perceived their health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. The results also indicated the need for interventions to support both the children and legal guardians when it came to disclosing the child's HIV status. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Substantial Goodness and Nascent Human Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Shawn

    2015-09-01

    Many believe that moral value is--at least to some extent--dependent on the developmental states necessary for supporting rational activity. My paper rejects this view, but does not aim simply to register objections to it. Rather, my essay aims to answer the following question: if a human being's developmental state and occurrent capacities do not bequeath moral standing, what does? The question is intended to prompt careful consideration of what makes human beings objects of moral value, dignity, or (to employ my preferred term) goodness. Not only do I think we can answer this question, I think we can show that nascent human life possesses goodness of precisely this sort. I appeal to Aquinas's metaethics to establish the conclusion that the goodness of a human being--even if that being is an embryo or fetus--resides at the substratum of her existence. If she possesses goodness, it is because human existence is good.

  17. The value of human life and the attitude towards abortion A christian and bioethic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI Gabriela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abortion, the cruel reality of the contemporary mankind, bites with no mercy our life and lacerates the humanity face, relativizing life’s ultimate value. We fight for the animal’s lives and rights, but we kill our children in womb. We are confused and living up to the rules imposed by us, and we fail, because we do not see the „Light of the world” (John 8,12 - Jesus Christ, losing sight of the reference frame – the divinity. We have declared God dead [1], the fountain of life , and we put ourselves in His place. We lost indiscriminatingly the values of “as Gods” ( Genesis 3,5 and “as God’s image” (Genesis 1, 27 drifting on the gradient of big fails, as big as God we have chased but never listened. So, that, from the survival outlook and lacking of love in our life, the fight for survival targets against the somebody ‘s else life, and no illustration is more eloquent and tragic as the mothers, families and society’s fight against the procreation generally, and particularly against the unborn child.

  18. USING STATISTICAL METHODS FOR ESTIMATING STUDENTS’ OPINION ON THE PURPOSE OF HUMAN LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aivaz M. KAMER AINUR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, two anthropological models are dominant in Romania. The first is the atheistic-evolutionary model and the second is the Christian model. The purpose of this article is to assess the students’ opinion on the two anthropological models and, in particular, on the purpose of human life. To that effect, there have been used the coefficients of association between the main aspects of the two models. Starting from the two outlined approaches, this paper aims to investigate the opinions of the students from two different specializations within Ovidius University of Constanta – the Faculty of Economics and the Faculty of Theology – on the issues mentioned above

  19. Home Is Where Art Begins: The Works of Clyde Connell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Students can be inspired as they examine the art and life of Clyde Connell (1901-1998). Connell was a woman who lived almost her whole life within a 50-mile radius of Shreveport, Louisiana, but traveled to New York City regularly for years. Connell was nearly 60 years old before she focused full attention on making art, and her most creative years…

  20. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  1. Influence of physical activity in length of life of the human population in the context of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmetović Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the last century, the human population has increased exponentially. This trend is evident today. Human population has, for more than half a century been undergoing the period of its intensive development, increasing in number and the average length of life, creating the impression of a better life standard. Looking at the man as a bio-psycho-social being and the interactions it ones through the human population growth is brought in connection with its impact on the environment. In such an environment, one does not only face infectious diseases, but also the misery and poverty in developing countries and massive noninfectious diseases, in developed countries. These facts introduce evidence about the possible effects of physical activity as to prevent the consequences of mass noninfectious diseases, as well as to strengthen the competence of people in general. Therefore, in a holistic, synergic concept of interpretation of human life, it is significant to include biological indicators that have an impact on the growth of the world population and may be associated with the kinesiology. Quantitative indicators of the trend of human development on this planet are the basic research unit observed in this paper. At the same time, the subjects of observation are also other indicators that can be causally linked to the development of the human population and are especially valuable evidence of the contribution of physical activity to the human development. The data that is associated with the theoretical considerations and the results of various statistics are presented based on the rules of ex-post-facto analysis. It is concluded that the value of physical activity has long had to have the equal status with one's chances of being better prepared for life on this planet ontogenetically and phylogenetically, and for the life conditions that will become even more extreme and that increasing older humans will face.

  2. Phenological models for the beginning of apple blossom in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, Frank M.; Bluemel, Klaus; Henniges, Yvonne [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Agricultural Climatology; Blanke, Michael [Univ. of Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Horticultural Science; Weber, Roland W.S. [Fruit Growing Research Institute Jork (Germany); Zoth, Michael [Competence Centre Fruit Growing Bodensee, Ravensburg-Bavendorf (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Five phenological models (M1-M5) were examined with respect to their suitability to calculate the beginning of apple blossom in Germany, the most important fruit crop in Western Europe. Blossoming is the most sensitive period, e.g.to frost, and determines the fruit set of the apple trees. Phenological observations and temperature data from the German Weather Service in the period 1961-2005 were used to fit these five models. For the calculations data from, 5,630 phenological and 523 temperature stations were attributed to a 10 km x 10 km grid using second order universal kriging. Model parameters were optimised on 3,672 grid points for the nationwide approach for Germany and on 148 points for 11 fruit growing regions. Root mean square errors (RMSE) between modelled and observed apple blossom data varied from 4.2 to 5.0 days for the internal and from 4.6 to 5.6 days for the external verification on the basis of phenological records from three fruit growing research centres. The very simple statistical model approach M5 had the advantage of causing the least effort to calculate the bloom date, but it never performed better than any of the best mechanistic models M1-M4. Also, the 'thermal time model' M1 and the sequential model M2 were both easy to handle which makes them a preferable choice for predictions and management decisions in apple orchards. These two models M1 and M2 are also suitable to be implemented in yield models and water budget models in order to replace the use of fixed developmental stages by dynamical calculations. The two combined chilling/forcing models M2 - a sequential model - and M3 - a parallel model - exhibited the lowest average RMSE. Both models (M2 and M3) could preferably be used to project the impact of climate change on the beginning of apple blossom, since these models can compensate a possible lack of chilling by a higher demand for forcing. The present study showed that a) all five models were able to calculate the

  3. Fruit Seeds of the Rosaceae Family: A Waste, New Life, or a Danger to Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senica, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2017-12-06

    In fruit production seeds are mostly regarded as waste, but for plants they represent a beginning of new life. Seeds accumulate toxic or health-beneficial compounds, and the elucidation of their metabolic profile is especially important to people who consume the entire fruit, including the seeds. The present research quantifies the levels of bioactive compounds (phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides (CGG)) in fruit seeds of 35 cultivars belonging to 6 different fruit species. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrophotometry were used to detect and identify the studied compounds. Significant differences in the content of individual bioactive compounds as well as their groups were recorded (p < 0.05). For the first time neoamygdalin and prunasin were detected in a number of fruit cultivars. All fruit seeds, except pears, accumulated from 2- to 46-fold higher levels of CGG than phenolics. On average, seeds contained from 75.46 to 1648.14 μg/g phenolics and from 46.39 to 4374.31 μg/g CGG. The study also clarifies the new lethal dose for cyanogenic glycosides.

  4. Begin at the Beginning: Reflections on the Career of Arthur Cropley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslany, George

    2015-01-01

    Arthur Cropley's academic career began in the early 1960s and, more than 50 years later, shows few signs of abating. Over this lengthy period, he has made important contributions not only to creativity research, but to a range of related areas of psychology. Arthur Cropley has also been an influential figure in the careers of several generations…

  5. Self-perception of when old age begins for Cambodian elders living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubus, Nicole M

    2014-06-01

    To deepen the understanding of the life course of refugees this study explores the question: when do Cambodian elders perceive the beginning of old age? In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 Cambodians, age range 53-82, who attended an elder day center in an urban setting in Massachusetts. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. The analysis revealed that the participants primarily reported two determinants to defining when old age begins: 1) the body "has too many illnesses" due to harsh working conditions; and 2) social role transition into grandparent. This study extends research on cultural differences in aging, specifically identifying the cultural difference in the definition of when "old age" begins. Age is culturally derived and creates expectations for social roles, health, self-identity, and behavior. Understanding how refugees experience the cultural discrepancies in their expectations of aging can inform providers who serve this population.

  6. Begin at the beginning: A BAC-end view of the passion fruit (Passiflora) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anselmo Azevedo; Penha, Helen Alves; Bellec, Arnaud; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Bergès, Hélène; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2014-09-26

    The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a tropical crop of economic importance both for juice production and consumption as fresh fruit. The juice is also used in concentrate blends that are consumed worldwide. However, very little is known about the genome of the species. Therefore, improving our understanding of passion fruit genomics is essential and to some degree a pre-requisite if its genetic resources are to be used more efficiently. In this study, we have constructed a large-insert BAC library and provided the first view on the structure and content of the passion fruit genome, using BAC-end sequence (BES) data as a major resource. The library consisted of 82,944 clones and its levels of organellar DNA were very low. The library represents six haploid genome equivalents, and the average insert size was 108 kb. To check its utility for gene isolation, successful macroarray screening experiments were carried out with probes complementary to eight Passiflora gene sequences available in public databases. BACs harbouring those genes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridizations and unique signals were detected for four BACs in three chromosomes (n=9). Then, we explored 10,000 BES and we identified reads likely to contain repetitive mobile elements (19.6% of all BES), simple sequence repeats and putative proteins, and to estimate the GC content (~42%) of the reads. Around 9.6% of all BES were found to have high levels of similarity to plant genes and ontological terms were assigned to more than half of the sequences analysed (940). The vast majority of the top-hits made by our sequences were to Populus trichocarpa (24.8% of the total occurrences), Theobroma cacao (21.6%), Ricinus communis (14.3%), Vitis vinifera (6.5%) and Prunus persica (3.8%). We generated the first large-insert library for a member of Passifloraceae. This BAC library provides a new resource for genetic and genomic studies, as well as it represents a valuable tool for future whole genome

  7. A life among atoms, or how it was all beginning, here and elsewhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simane, C.

    2005-01-01

    Personal recollections giving a plastic picture of the history of nuclear research and nuclear energy in Czechoslovakia during the post-war period till the 1960s, highlighting all the milestones of that pioneering era. (P.A.)

  8. A Conceptual Model for Teaching the Relationship of Daily Life and Human Environmental Impact to Ecological Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    In the general activity of daily life, it is easy to miss our dependency on the Earth's ecology. At the same time that people are living apparently separate from the environment, our impact on the Earth is increasing. This study seeks to understand how teachers can bridge this persistent disconnect of daily life from ecology and human impact.…

  9. Biospheric Life Support - integrating biological regeneration into protection of humans in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mauricio; Iha, Koshun

    2016-07-01

    retirement (2016). The extension will allow partner agencies to deploy new experiments there, resuming basic research focusing more forward-looking goals. For deep-space, since consumables logistics becomes more difficult- and habitability an issue, with diminishing Earth's view, further research has been recommended. Four major areas have been identified for human protection: (1) radiation mitigation; (2) highly recyclable bio-regenerative (BR) LSS; (3) micro-gravity countermeasures- including artificial gravity (AG), and (4) psychological safety. To contribute to the efforts to address these issues, a basic lab/virtual iterative research has been proposed, assuming (in a worst case scenario) that: I) It won't be possible to send people to long deep space missions, safely, with the current (low quality of life) support technology (ISS micro-gravity 'up-gradings'); II) The alternative to implant a Mars surface human supportive biosphere would also not be possible, due to environmental/ evolutionary restraints (life could adapt and survive, but not necessarily to favor humans). From the above considerations arises the question: Would an average approach be possible where, by applying the artificial gravity concept to S/Cs, a fragment of Earth bio-regenerative environment could be integrated inside reusable manned vehicles- thus enhancing its habitability/autonomy in long deep space missions? For this research question a provisory answer/hypothesis has been provided. And to test it, a small AG+BR bench simulator (plus computer methods) has been devised.

  10. Black-hole Binaries: Life Begins at 40 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Tomaso M.; Motta, Sara

    2009-05-01

    In the study of black-hole transients, an important problem that still needs to be answered is how the high-energy part of the spectrum evolves from the low-hard to the high-soft state, given that they have very different properties. Recent results obtained with RXTE and INTEGRAL have given inconsistent results. With RXTE, we have found that the high-energy cutoff in GX 339-4 during the transition first decreases (during the low-hard state), then increases again across the Hard-Intermediate state, to become unmeasurable in the soft states (possibly because of statistical limitations). We show Simbol-X will be able to determine the spectral shape with superb accuracy. As the high-energy part of the spectrum is relatively less known than the one below 20 keV, Simbol-X will provide important results that will help out understanding of the extreme physical conditions in the vicinity of a stellar-mass black hole.

  11. Patterns of Early-Life Gut Microbial Colonization during Human Immune Development: An Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease. Although the ecological patterns of microbial succession in the first year of life have been partly defined in specific human cohorts, the taxonomic and functional features, and diversity thresholds that characterize these microbial alterations are, for the most part, unknown. In this review, we summarize the most important links between the temporal mosaics of gut microbial colonization and the age-dependent immune functions that rely on them. We also highlight the importance of applying ecology theory to design studies that explore the interactions between this complex ecosystem and the host immune system. Focusing research efforts on understanding the importance of temporally structured patterns of diversity, keystone groups, and inter-kingdom microbial interactions for ecosystem functions has great potential to enable the development of biologically sound interventions aimed at maintaining and/or improving immune system development and preventing disease.

  12. Dissociable Changes of Frontal and Parietal Cortices in Inherent Functional Flexibility across the Human Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dazhi; Liu, Wenjing; Zeljic, Kristina; Wang, Zhiwei; Lv, Qian; Fan, Mingxia; Cheng, Wenhong; Wang, Zheng

    2016-09-28

    Extensive evidence suggests that frontoparietal regions can dynamically update their pattern of functional connectivity, supporting cognitive control and adaptive implementation of task demands. However, it is largely unknown whether this flexibly functional reconfiguration is intrinsic and occurs even in the absence of overt tasks. Based on recent advances in dynamics of resting-state functional resonance imaging (fMRI), we propose a probabilistic framework in which dynamic reconfiguration of intrinsic functional connectivity between each brain region and others can be represented as a probability distribution. A complexity measurement (i.e., entropy) was used to quantify functional flexibility, which characterizes heterogeneous connectivity between a particular region and others over time. Following this framework, we identified both functionally flexible and specialized regions over the human life span (112 healthy subjects from 13 to 76 years old). Across brainwide regions, we found regions showing high flexibility mainly in the higher-order association cortex, such as the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), lateral parietal cortex, and lateral temporal lobules. In contrast, visual, auditory, and sensory areas exhibited low flexibility. Furthermore, we observed that flexibility of the right LPFC improved during maturation and reduced due to normal aging, with the opposite occurring for the left lateral parietal cortex. Our findings reveal dissociable changes of frontal and parietal cortices over the life span in terms of inherent functional flexibility. This study not only provides a new framework to quantify the spatiotemporal behavior of spontaneous brain activity, but also sheds light on the organizational principle behind changes in brain function across the human life span. Recent neuroscientific research has demonstrated that the human capability of adaptive task control is primarily the result of the flexible operation of frontal brain networks. However

  13. Stochastic variation in telomere shortening rate causes heterogeneity of human fibroblast replicative life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Saretzki, Gabriele; Petrie, Joanne; Ladhoff, Juliane; Jeyapalan, Jessie; Wei, Wenyi; Sedivy, John; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2004-04-23

    The replicative life span of human fibroblasts is heterogeneous, with a fraction of cells senescing at every population doubling. To find out whether this heterogeneity is due to premature senescence, i.e. driven by a nontelomeric mechanism, fibroblasts with a senescent phenotype were isolated from growing cultures and clones by flow cytometry. These senescent cells had shorter telomeres than their cycling counterparts at all population doubling levels and both in mass cultures and in individual subclones, indicating heterogeneity in the rate of telomere shortening. Ectopic expression of telomerase stabilized telomere length in the majority of cells and rescued them from early senescence, suggesting a causal role of telomere shortening. Under standard cell culture conditions, there was a minor fraction of cells that showed a senescent phenotype and short telomeres despite active telomerase. This fraction increased under chronic mild oxidative stress, which is known to accelerate telomere shortening. It is possible that even high telomerase activity cannot fully compensate for telomere shortening in all cells. The data show that heterogeneity of the human fibroblast replicative life span can be caused by significant stochastic cell-to-cell variation in telomere shortening.

  14. Criterion of damage beginning: experimental identification for laminate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiebaud, F.; Perreux, D.; Varchon, D.; Lebras, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a criterion of damage beginning for laminate composite. The materials is a glass-epoxy laminate [+55 deg.,-55 deg.[ n performed by winding filament process. First of all a description of the damage is performed and allows to define a damage variable. Thanks to the potential of free energy, an associated variable is defined. The damage criterion is written by using this last one. The parameter of the criterion is identified using mechanical and acoustical methods. The result is compared and exhibit a good agreement. (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs

  15. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ITS IMPACT ON WORK LIFE BALANCE OF EMPLOYEES OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN PUNE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Ramamurthi; Mr. Lambodar Saha

    2017-01-01

    Various strategic practices have already been established to promote the value of Human Resource Management in organizations. The Human Resource Management function is now considered as a strategic tool in the formulation and implementation of organizational strategies to attain its objectives. Automobile Industries are chosen as subjects for this study with specific aspects relating to various strategic human resource management practices and its impact on work-life balance and to determine ...

  16. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris with human urine in multibiological life support system experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei

    The Integrative Experimental System (IES) was established as a tool to evaluate the rela-tionship of the subsystems in Bioregenerative Life Support System, and Multibiological Life Support System Experiments (MLSSE) have been conducted in the IES. The IES consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a plate photo bioreactor (PPB) which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), respectively. In MLSSE, four volunteers took turns breathing the system air through a tube connected with the animal chamber periodically. According to the CO2 concentration in the IES, the automotive control system of the PPB changed the light intensity regulating the photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels. Chlorella vulgaris grew with human urine by carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with synthetic urine replenished into the system, and O2 was regenerated, at the same time human urine was purified. Results showed that this IES worked stably and Chlorella vulgaris grew well; The culture of Chlorella vulgaris could be used to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 , and the change of light intensity could control the gas composition in the IES; Microalgae culture could be used in emergency in the system, the culture of Chlorella vulgaris could recover to original state in 5 days; 15.6 ml of condensation water was obtained every day by the culture of Chlorella vulgaris; The removal efficiencies of N, P in human urine could reach to 98.2% and 99.5%.

  17. Human milk adiponectin affects infant weight trajectory during the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Guo, Fukun; Martin, Lisa J; Davidson, Barbara S; Ortega, Hilda; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2012-04-01

    Serum adiponectin (APN) is associated with lower childhood obesity, and APN concentration in human milk is associated with slower growth during active breast-feeding. We examined infant weight gain in the second year of life after exposure to high or low levels of mother's milk APN. Breast-feeding mother-infant pairs were recruited in Mexico City and studied for 2 years; 192 infants with at least 12 months' follow-up were analyzed. Monthly milk samples were assayed for APN; mothers were classified as producing high or low levels of milk APN. Infant and maternal serum APN were assessed during year 1. Infant anthropometry was measured monthly (year 1) or bimonthly (year 2), and World Health Organization z scores were calculated. Longitudinal adjusted models assessed weight-for-age and weight-for-length z score trajectories from 1 to 2 years. Maternal serum APN modestly correlated with milk APN (r=0.37, Pmilk APN experienced increasing weight-for-age and weight-for-length z scores between age 1 and 2 years in contrast to low milk APN exposure (P for group × time=0.02 and 0.054, respectively), adjusting for growth in the first 6 months and other covariates. In contrast, infant serum APN in year 1 was not associated with the rate of weight gain in year 2. High human milk APN exposure was associated with accelerated weight trajectory during the second year of life, suggesting its role in catch-up growth after slower weight gain during the first year of life.

  18. The Beginning of Variable star astronomy in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsoldos, Endre

    Variable star astronomy began in Hungary as elsewhere: new objects have been recognized in the sky. Comets appeared in 16th - 17th century chronicles. The first mention of the new star of 1572 seems to be the "Prognosticon" of Wilhelm Misocacus, printed in 1578. New stars were discussed in the 17th century by Jesuits as well as Protestants. The work of Jacob Schnitzler is especially interesting from this point. The Cartesians dealt with new stars with less enthusiasm, they hardly mentioned them. The beginning of the 19th century saw the development of science in Hungarian, variable stars, however, were left out. The birth of variable star astronomy might be linked to the Ógyalla Observatory, originally a private observatory of Miklós Konkoly Thege. The 1885 supernova in the Andromeda Nebula were observed there, as well as the spectra of a few interesting variable stars. Theoretical astrophysics also has its beginnings in Ógyalla through the work of Radó Kövesligethy. Professional variable star astronomy started here in the early 20th century through the work of Antal Tass

  19. A landslide on a mudslide? Natural hazards and the right to life under the European Convention of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Rytter, Jens Elo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the protection of individuals’ lives against natural hazards under the European Convention on Human Rights. In 2008, the European Court of Human Rights decided to include natural hazards in a well-established doctrine developed to protect individuals from life-threatening ...

  20. What Are You Worth? The Value of a Human Life and Its Impact on Personnel Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    examination of value of life discussions in fields such as bioethics and actuarial science . The study then explores the impact of value of life on three...discussions in fields such as bioethics and actuarial science . The study then explores the impact of value of life on three key decisions: the...the Spirit of Biocapital,” (Daedalus, Winter 2008, 36-48), 36. 51 Robert Haston, How An Actuarial Scientist Might Look At Life, Death, and Dollars in

  1. [Richard Freiherr v. Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freud--discourse on the "normality" and "perversion" of human sexuality at the close of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality has been defined a central feature of personal identity since the epoch of enlightenment and has gradually become a decisive issue also in societal and political terms. A major transfer from religion and religious institutions to medicine and medical experts and later on to neuropsychiatrists has to be underlined in the primary position to assess "normal" and "deviant" manifestations of sexuality. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freund play an eminent role in this "discourse on sexuality" (M. Foucault) during the nineteenth and beginning twentieth century on the way to modern sexology. Within this overarching context Krafft-Ebing's and Freud's theoretical conceptualizations of sexuality and perversion will be sketched and basic clinical and societal implications there out will be discussed.

  2. The Era of International Space Station Utilization Begins: Research Strategy, International Collaboration, and Realized Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Jean, Sabbagh

    2010-01-01

    With the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) nearing completion and the support of a full-time crew of six, a new era of utilization for research is beginning. For more than 15 years, the ISS international partnership has weathered financial, technical and political challenges proving that nations can work together to complete assembly of the largest space vehicle in history. And while the ISS partners can be proud of having completed one of the most ambitious engineering projects ever conceived, the challenge of successfully using the platform remains. During the ISS assembly phase, the potential benefits of space-based research and development were demonstrated; including the advancement of scientific knowledge based on experiments conducted in space, development and testing of new technologies, and derivation of Earth applications from new understanding. The configurability and human-tended capabilities of the ISS provide a unique platform. The international utilization strategy is based on research ranging from physical sciences, biology, medicine, psychology, to Earth observation, human exploration preparation and technology demonstration. The ability to complete follow-on investigations in a period of months allows researchers to make rapid advances based on new knowledge gained from ISS activities. During the utilization phase, the ISS partners are working together to track the objectives, accomplishments, and the applications of the new knowledge gained. This presentation will summarize the consolidated international results of these tracking activities and approaches. Areas of current research on ISS with strong international cooperation will be highlighted including cardiovascular studies, cell and plant biology studies, radiation, physics of matter, and advanced alloys. Scientific knowledge and new technologies derived from research on the ISS will be realized through improving quality of life on Earth and future spaceflight endeavours

  3. "Dark Victory" (prognosis negative): The beginnings of neurology on screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-04-12

    In "Dark Victory," released in theaters in 1939, the diagnosis and management of a progressive brain tumor was a central part of the screenplay, and this film marked the beginnings of the depiction of neurologic disease in cinema. Bette Davis' cinematic portrayal of a young woman dying from a brain tumor is close to the reality of denial, bargaining, a hope for a cure, and final acceptance. "Dark Victory" includes part of a neurologic examination (funduscopy, testing of strength, testing of stereognosis, and tendon reflexes). The film also alludes to decisions on what to tell the patient (better say nothing) and shows an implausible clinical course (an abrupt peaceful ending). The film is unusual in depicting the presentation of a brain tumor, but the cinematic portrayal of the vicissitudes of living with a brain tumor is often close to reality. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Preliminary assessment of the gender aspects of disaster vulnerability and loss of human life in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tandlich, Roman; Chirenda, Tatenda G; Srinivas, Chandra S S

    2013-01-01

    South Africa has reached a medium level of human development and has a heterogeneous situation with respect to disaster risk management. In this article, a preliminary assessment of the gender aspects of disaster vulnerability and fatalities is presented. The United Nations, the Health Systems Trust and Statistics South Africa were used as data sources for the following gender-segregated values: the life expectancy at birth, unemployment rates, the human development index values, the maternal...

  5. The beginnings of piezoelectricity a study in mundane physics

    CERN Document Server

    Katzir, Shaul; Gavroglu, Kostas

    2006-01-01

    Involving electricity, elasticity, thermodynamics and crystallography, several scientific traditions and approaches and leading physicists, the history of piezoelectricity provides an advantageous perspective on late nineteenth century physics and its development. The beginnings of piezoelectricity, the first history of the subject, exhaustively examines how these diverse influences led to the discovery of the phenomenon in 1880, and how they shaped its subsequent research until the consolidation of an empirical and theoretical knowledge of the field circa 1895. It studies a particular subdiscipline representative of many similar "mundane" branches of physics that did not bear revolutionary consequences beyond their field. Although most research is of this kind, such branches have rarely been studied by historians of science. Shaul Katzir's historical account shows that this mundane science was an intriguing intellectual and practical enterprise, which involved, among other things, originality, surprises and ...

  6. Can observations look back to the beginning of inflation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2016-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background can measure the inflaton potential only if inflation lasts sufficiently long before the time of horizon crossing of observable fluctuations, such that non-linear effects in the time evolution of Green's functions lead to a loss of memory of initial conditions for the ultraviolet tail of the spectrum. Within a derivative expansion of the quantum effective action for an interacting scalar field we discuss the most general solution for the correlation function, including arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states. In this approximation no loss of memory occurs – cosmic microwave observations see the initial spectrum at the beginning of inflation, processed only mildly by the scale-violating effects at horizon crossing induced by the inflaton potential.

  7. Can observations look back to the beginning of inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cosmic microwave background can measure the inflaton potential only if inflation lasts sufficiently long before the time of horizon crossing of observable fluctuations, such that non-linear effects in the time evolution of Green's functions lead to a loss of memory of initial conditions for the ultraviolet tail of the spectrum. Within a derivative expansion of the quantum effective action for an interacting scalar field we discuss the most general solution for the correlation function, including arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states. In this approximation no loss of memory occurs – cosmic microwave observations see the initial spectrum at the beginning of inflation, processed only mildly by the scale-violating effects at horizon crossing induced by the inflaton potential.

  8. Alterations of the cytoskeleton in human cells in space proved by life-cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corydon, Thomas J.; Kopp, Sascha; Wehland, Markus; Braun, Markus; Schütte, Andreas; Mayer, Tobias; Hülsing, Thomas; Oltmann, Hergen; Schmitz, Burkhard; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity induces changes in the cytoskeleton. This might have an impact on cells and organs of humans in space. Unfortunately, studies of cytoskeletal changes in microgravity reported so far are obligatorily based on the analysis of fixed cells exposed to microgravity during a parabolic flight campaign (PFC). This study focuses on the development of a compact fluorescence microscope (FLUMIAS) for fast live-cell imaging under real microgravity. It demonstrates the application of the instrument for on-board analysis of cytoskeletal changes in FTC-133 cancer cells expressing the Lifeact-GFP marker protein for the visualization of F-actin during the 24th DLR PFC and TEXUS 52 rocket mission. Although vibration is an inevitable part of parabolic flight maneuvers, we successfully for the first time report life-cell cytoskeleton imaging during microgravity, and gene expression analysis after the 31st parabola showing a clear up-regulation of cytoskeletal genes. Notably, during the rocket flight the FLUMIAS microscope reveals significant alterations of the cytoskeleton related to microgravity. Our findings clearly demonstrate the applicability of the FLUMIAS microscope for life-cell imaging during microgravity, rendering it an important technological advance in live-cell imaging when dissecting protein localization. PMID:26818711

  9. Discoveries that guided the beginning of perpendicular magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, S.

    2001-01-01

    The speculations and discoveries that guided the beginning of perpendicular magnetic recording, which have never been systematically discussed before, are described in this paper. Especially, four important discoveries of perpendicular magnetization, Co-Cr film, effect of double layered medium, and complementarity law are described in detail. The studies on thin film media and recording mechanisms at short wavelengths aiming at the advancement of longitudinal magnetic recording in the 1960's lead to the realization of the new perpendicular magnetic recording through these discoveries. None of these works was on any list of research targets in the 1960's. The study of perpendicular magnetic recording has taught us that research should proceed systematically with definite targets and that it is important to have an attitude not to neglect phenomena that are different from the common sense at the time

  10. IL-2 Enhances Gut Homing Potential of Human Naive Regulatory T Cells Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter S; Lai, Catherine L; Hu, Mingjing; Santner-Nanan, Brigitte; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Lee, Cheng Hiang; Ajmal, Ayesha; Bullman, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Gacis, Lou; Nambiar, Reta; Williams, Andrew; Wong, Melanie; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph

    2018-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant β7 integrin + Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA + ) Treg cells later in life. β7 integrin + Treg cells were predominantly naive, suggesting acquisition of Treg cell gut tropism early in development. In vitro, IL-7 enhanced gut homing but reduced skin homing molecule expression in conventional T cells, whereas IL-2 induced a similar effect only in Treg cells. This effect was more pronounced in cord compared with adult blood. Our results suggest that early in life, naive Treg cells may be driven for gut tropism by their increased sensitivity to IL-2-induced β7 integrin upregulation, implicating a potential role of IL-2 in gut immune tolerance during this critical period of development. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Mining: The beginning and the end of the nuclear cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, J.

    1991-01-01

    Mining is one of the world's oldest industries, with a rich history that has evolved into modern times. A new chapter in that history is currently being written in southeastern New Mexico at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The beginning phase of the nuclear industry occurred when uranium was mined from the underground and processed to develop the first fuel source for the nuclear history. The WIPP may well be the final chapter in closing out the nuclear cycle, by the disposal of nuclear waste 2150 feet in the underground repository. At the WIPP, traditional procedures for underground mining activities have been significantly altered in order to ensure underground safety and project adherence to numerous regulatory requirements. Innovative techniques have been developed for the WIPP underground procedures, mining equipment, and operating environments. The mining emphasis is upon quality of the excavation, not, as in conventional mines, in the production of ore

  12. Beginning C

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Ivor

    2013-01-01

    Beginning C, 5th Edition teaches you how to program using the widely-available C language. You'll begin from first-principles and progress through step-by-step examples to become a competent, C-language programmer. All you need are this book and any of the widely available free or commercial C or C++ compilers, and you'll soon be writing real C programs. C is a foundational language that every programmer ought to know. C is the basis for C# used in Microsoft .NET programming. It is the basis for Objective-C used in programming for the iPhone, the iPad, and other Apple devices. It is the basis

  13. Shelf-life evaluation of bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Tai Seet

    Full Text Available Skin plays an important role in defense against infection and other harmful biological agents. Due to its fragile structure, skin can be easily damaged by heat, chemicals, traumatic injuries and diseases. An autologous bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™, was engineered to provide a living skin substitute to treat critical skin loss. However, one of the disadvantages of living skin substitute is its short shelf-life, hence limiting its distribution worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of MyDerm™ through assessment of cell morphology, cell viability, population doubling time and functional gene expression levels before transplantation. Skin samples were digested with 0.6% Collagenase Type I followed by epithelial cells dissociation with TrypLE Select. Dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were culture-expanded to obtain sufficient cells for MyDerm™ construction. MyDerm™ was constructed with plasma-fibrin as temporary biomaterial and evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after storage at 4°C for its shelf-life determination. The morphology of skin cells derived from MyDerm™ remained unchanged across storage times. Cells harvested from MyDerm™ after storage appeared in good viability (90.5%±2.7% to 94.9%±1.6% and had short population doubling time (58.4±8.7 to 76.9±19 hours. The modest drop in cell viability and increased in population doubling time at longer storage duration did not demonstrate a significant difference. Gene expression for CK10, CK14 and COL III were also comparable between different storage times. In conclusion, MyDerm™ can be stored in basal medium at 4°C for at least 72 hours before transplantation without compromising its functionality.

  14. Shelf-life evaluation of bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Wan Tai; Manira, Maarof; Maarof, Manira; Khairul Anuar, Khairoji; Chua, Kien-Hui; Ahmad Irfan, Abdul Wahab; Ng, Min Hwei; Aminuddin, Bin Saim; Ruszymah, Bt Hj Idrus

    2012-01-01

    Skin plays an important role in defense against infection and other harmful biological agents. Due to its fragile structure, skin can be easily damaged by heat, chemicals, traumatic injuries and diseases. An autologous bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™, was engineered to provide a living skin substitute to treat critical skin loss. However, one of the disadvantages of living skin substitute is its short shelf-life, hence limiting its distribution worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of MyDerm™ through assessment of cell morphology, cell viability, population doubling time and functional gene expression levels before transplantation. Skin samples were digested with 0.6% Collagenase Type I followed by epithelial cells dissociation with TrypLE Select. Dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were culture-expanded to obtain sufficient cells for MyDerm™ construction. MyDerm™ was constructed with plasma-fibrin as temporary biomaterial and evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after storage at 4°C for its shelf-life determination. The morphology of skin cells derived from MyDerm™ remained unchanged across storage times. Cells harvested from MyDerm™ after storage appeared in good viability (90.5%±2.7% to 94.9%±1.6%) and had short population doubling time (58.4±8.7 to 76.9±19 hours). The modest drop in cell viability and increased in population doubling time at longer storage duration did not demonstrate a significant difference. Gene expression for CK10, CK14 and COL III were also comparable between different storage times. In conclusion, MyDerm™ can be stored in basal medium at 4°C for at least 72 hours before transplantation without compromising its functionality.

  15. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  16. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Induction of Spontaneous Remission of Cancer by Recovery of the Human Character and the Purpose of Life (the Life Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of the human character and purpose of life with consciousness-based medicine seems to be able to induce spontaneous remissions in several diseases. On two different occasions, we observed breast tumors reduced to less than half their original diameters (clinically judged during a holistic session, when working with the patients in accordance with the holistic process theory of healing, the life mission theory, and the theory of human character. One tumor was histologically diagnosed as malign breast cancer prior to the session, while the other was under examination. As both patients had the affected regions of the breast surgically removed immediately after the session, we are unable to determine if they were actually healed by the holistic treatment. We find it extremely interesting that the size of a tumor can be reduced dramatically within a few hours of holistic treatment, when the patient is highly motivated for personal development. The reduction of tumor size is in accordance with the holistic view that many types of cancer are caused by emotional and existential disturbances. From a holistic perspective, cancer can be understood as a simple disturbance of the cells, arising from the tissue holding on to a trauma with strong emotional content. This is called “a blockage”, where the function of the cells is changed from their original function in the tissue to a function of holding emotions. The reduction of the tumor in the two cases happened when old painful emotions were identified in the tissues, in and around the tumor, and processed into understanding; when the patients finally did let go of negative beliefs and attitudes that had kept the feeling(s repressed to that part of the body, the tumor first softened and then disappeared, presumably by apoptosis. We believe that the consciousness-based/holistic medical toolbox has a serious additional offer to cancer patients, and we will therefore strongly encourage the

  17. Beginning at the ends: telomeres and human disease [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Savage

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of rare and common illnesses have led to remarkable progress in the understanding of the role of telomeres (nucleoprotein complexes at chromosome ends essential for chromosomal integrity in human disease. Telomere biology disorders encompass a growing spectrum of conditions caused by rare pathogenic germline variants in genes encoding essential aspects of telomere function. Dyskeratosis congenita, a disorder at the severe end of this spectrum, typically presents in childhood with the classic triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and oral leukoplakia, accompanied by a very high risk of bone marrow failure, cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, and other medical problems. In contrast, the less severe end of the telomere biology disorder spectrum consists of middle-age or older adults with just one feature typically seen in dyskeratosis congenita, such as pulmonary fibrosis or bone marrow failure. In the common disease realm, large-scale molecular epidemiology studies have discovered novel associations between illnesses, such as cancer, heart disease, and mental health, and both telomere length and common genetic variants in telomere biology genes. This review highlights recent findings of telomere biology in human disease from both the rare and common disease perspectives. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between clinicians, basic scientists, and epidemiologist are essential as we seek to incorporate new telomere biology discoveries to improve health outcomes.

  18. Uses of the cost of human life in protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Dupuis-Ligieza, E.

    1998-01-01

    Management of radiation protection is based on the assumption that there is no safe level of exposure. Rathier, the risk (e.g. probability of induction of fatal cancers) is assumed to decrease in a linear way with the dose (measured by the effective dose in Sievert: Sv). Therefore, regulations state that all doses must be kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) ranges among the methods that allow identification of an 'optimum' protection level, balancing the risk reduction against the costs. That can be derived from exposure, expressed as a 'collective dose', with the help of the dose exposure relationship (100 Person-Sievert leads to 5 lethal cancers plus 2.2' equivalent lethal cancers 'due to non fatal cancers and heredity effect). Thus the 'Value of the Collective Dose', the usual parameter in decision making, is assigned a monetary value, and it is linked to the 'Value of Human Life'. Nevertheless, Cost Benefit Analysis is not the only possible method and pricing the Person-Sievert is therefore not necessary. Traditional pragmatic approaches and engineering judgement can be used. At present there is a development within Europe of CBA in radiation protection and 'Value of Person-Sievert' is put forward. A study was conducted in order better to understand what figures are cited, in which conditions those figures are really used, and what perspectives may be offered. (authors)

  19. Ars Longa, Vita Brevis. The Importance Of Art In Human Life. A Proustian Interpretation Of Honigmann’s Forever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noortwijk, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to present an exploration of the theme of art’s power within human life in Heddy Honigmann’s documentary film Forever (2006), which exemplifies her obsession with this topic. The film’s contemplation of art is a self-reflexive one, as it uses the medium of film to explore

  20. Life-long endurance exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Couppé, C; Karlsen, A

    2013-01-01

    Human aging is associated with a loss of skeletal muscle and an increase in circulating inflammatory markers. It is unknown whether endurance training (Tr) can prevent these changes. Therefore we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young.......05). Most importantly, life-long endurance exercise was associated with a lower level of the inflammatory markers CRP and IL-6 (p... physical endurance activity may play a role in reducing some markers of systemic inflammation, even within the normal range, and in maintaining muscle mass with aging....

  1. The Fundamental Human Right to Marry and to Family Life and their Protection in the Legal Framework of the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Albana Metaj-Stojanova

    2017-01-01

    The right to family life is a fundamental human right, recognized by a series of international and European acts, which not only define and ensure its protection, but also emphasize the social importance of the family unit and the institution of marriage. The right to family life has evolved rapidly, since it was first introduced as an international human right by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The family structure and the concept of family life have changed dramatically ov...

  2. Beginning topology

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Sue E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning Topology is designed to give undergraduate students a broad notion of the scope of topology in areas of point-set, geometric, combinatorial, differential, and algebraic topology, including an introduction to knot theory. A primary goal is to expose students to some recent research and to get them actively involved in learning. Exercises and open-ended projects are placed throughout the text, making it adaptable to seminar-style classes. The book starts with a chapter introducing the basic concepts of point-set topology, with examples chosen to captivate students' imaginations while i

  3. Dismantling of JPDR begins: to demonstrate advanced technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    The first dismantling of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR, BWR, 90 MWt, 12.5 MWe) began on December 4, 1986, claiming the attention of nuclear interests in Japan and overseas. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute undertook the project as the second phase of the six year program for dismantling the JPDR at the Tokai Research Establishment. It is the demonstration of the technology developed in the first phase of the program from 1981 to 1986, aiming at establishing a total system for dismantling commercial nuclear power plants in the furture. At the ceremony for the beginning of dismantling held on December 4 at the site, a special switch was operated to fire a gas burner, and cutting of the upper head of the reactor pressure vessel on the service floor of the reactor building began. The long term program on the development and utilization of nuclear energy in 1982 decided the basic policy on reactor decommissioning. Under this policy, in July, 1984, the nuclear subcommittee of the Advisory Committee for Energy set up the guideline for standardized decommissioning suitable to the actual situation in Japan. The schedule of the program, the development of eight fundamental techniques, disassembling techniques, decontamination, measurement and robotics are described. (Kako, I.).

  4. Aeons the search for the beginning of time

    CERN Document Server

    Gorst, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The story of man's attempt to discover the moment that time began, from James Ussher's confident assertion in 1650 that the world was 5654 years old to the Hubble Space telescope's images of a world 13 billion years old, with a starry cast of eccentrics, mystics, scientists and visonaries. The moment of the beginning of time is one of science's Holy Grails, pursued by devotees and obsessives across the ages. Few were more committed than Bishop James Ussher who lost his sight in his 50-year quest, laboriously outlined in his 2000 Latin pages of Annals - a chronology of all known history - that is now famous only for one spectacularly inaccurate date: 4004BC, the creation of the world. Theology failed Ussher, just as it thwarted Theophilus of Antioch and many others before him. Geology was next to fail the test of time: the Comte de Buffon, working out the rate at which the Earth was supposed to have cooled, came up with age of 74,832 years, even though he suspected this was far too little. Biology had a go in ...

  5. Beginning F#

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Functional programming is perhaps the next big wave in application development. As experienced developers know, functional programming makes its mark by allowing application builders to develop solutions to complicated programming situations cleanly and efficiently. A rich history of functional languages, including Erlang and OCaml, leads the way to F#, Microsoft's effort to bring the elegance and focus of functional programming into the world of managed code and .NET. With Beginning F#, you have a companion that that will help you explore F# and functional programming in a .NET environment. T

  6. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  7. Beginning Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Poe, Curtis 'Ovid'

    2012-01-01

    Everything beginners need to start programming with Perl Perl is the ever-popular, flexible, open source programming language that has been called the programmers’ Swiss army knife. This book introduces Perl to both new programmers and experienced ones who are looking to learn a new language. In the tradition of the popular Wrox Beginning guides, it presents step-by-step guidance in getting started, a host of try-it-out exercises, real-world examples, and everything necessary for a Perl novice to start programming with confidence. Introduces Perl to both new programmers and experienced o

  8. Radiocarbon Dating of the Human Eye Lens Crystallines Reveal Proteins without Carbon Turnover throughout Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen; Jacobsen, Christina; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule) completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its 14C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The 14C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of 14C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon dating is made possible by comparing the 14C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric 14C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close relationship may be further expressed as a mathematical model, which takes into account the timing of the crystalline formation. Conclusions/Significance Such a life-long permanence of human tissue has hitherto only been described for dental enamel. In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the 14C content of various tissues may be used to assess turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA). Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre-senile degradation, as well as other highly

  9. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lynnerup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon dating is made possible by comparing the (14C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric (14C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close relationship may be further expressed as a mathematical model, which takes into account the timing of the crystalline formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such a life-long permanence of human tissue has hitherto only been described for dental enamel. In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the (14C content of various tissues may be used to assess turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA. Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre

  10. Mining: The beginning and the end of the nuclear cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, J.

    1991-01-01

    Mining is one of the world's oldest industries, with a rich history that has evolved into modern times. A new chapter in that history is currently being written in southeastern New Mexico at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The beginning phase of the nuclear industry occurred when uranium was mined from the underground and processed to develop the first fuel source for the nuclear industry. The WIPP may well be the final chapter in closing out the nuclear cycle by the disposal of nuclear waste 2,150 ft into the underground repository. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy project located ∼ 30 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico, where the nation's first underground engineered nuclear repository is being constructed. The WIPP site was selected because of its location amidst a 2,000-ft-thick bed that provides a remarkably stable rock formation for the permanent storage of nuclear waste. The WIPP has taken an industry that is steeped in the tradition of mining hard rock with brute force to yield the highest quantity and has married it to a concept that demands superior safety and has a conservative approach to produce the highest quality. The process has been refined and has produced cultural shock in the local attitude toward mining

  11. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Linwood, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Hibernate, Second Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open source, lightweight Hibernate-the de facto object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework. This book packs in brand-new information about the latest release of the Hibernate 3.5 persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you

  12. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Minter, Dave; Ottinger, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Beginning Hibernate, Third Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open-source, lightweight Hibernate, a leading object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework.This book packs in information about the release of the Hibernate 4.x persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you'll be able to immediately star

  13. Effects of low dose rate irradiation on life span prolongation of human premature-aging syndrome model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaharu

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that Type II diabetes model mice prolonged of their life span by life long low dose rate irradiation. We also found that antioxidant function in variety tissues of some strain of mice were enhancement after low dose/low dose rate irradiation. The prolongation of life span might depend on certain damaged level of reactive oxygen species. We thought the effect of the prolongation was due to the enhancement of the antioxidant activities after irradiation. We investigated whether the enhancement of antioxidant activities after low dose rate irradiation had an effect on life span prolongation. Four-week-old female human premature-aging syndrome model mice, kl/kl (klotho) mice, which the life span of this model mouse is about 65 days, were irradiated with gamma rays at 0.35, 0.70 or 1.2 mGy/hr. The 0.70 mGy/hr-irradiated group remarkably effected on the prolongation of their life span. Some mice of the group were extremely survived for about and more 100 days. Antioxidant activities in the irradiated groups were enhancement by low dose rate irradiation, however the dependence of the dose rates were not clearly difference. These results suggest that the antioxidant activities in this model mouse were enhanced by the low dose rate irradiation, and may make it possible to prolong the life span of this mouse. (author)

  14. Robots, Disability, and Good Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carnevale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I want to show the role that emerging robotic technologies could play in the future in daily life of disabled people. When I talk about disability, I mean any temporary or permanent limitation due to a chronic disease and deficit, as well as, socially disadvantaged conditions, which imply functional and emotional restrictions experienced at any age. All these limitations can be characterized by a specific mental and physical impairment or, more often, by a cluster of medical impairments and social barriers. To this end, the academic literature has generally differentiated between two disability models: 'medical' versus 'social'. The main attempt of this paper consists into showing how the development of robotic technologies — particularly in assistive and healthcare fields — could allow us to go beyond this outdated dichotomy, contributing to create new philosophical premises to rethink the universality of the human condition, that is, the sense of what we intend for 'good human life'.

  15. A personal history of the human exploration initiative with commentary on the pivotal role for life support research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell

    1990-01-01

    The author relates the history of the human exploration initiative from a personal perspective from the 1961 J. F. Kennedy initiative to land a man on the moon up to 1986 when a memo was circulated from NASA Headquarters to its employees which stated as a major goal the expansion of the human presence beyond Earth into the solar system. The pivotal role of life support research is woven into this personalized history.

  16. Playing Sport In The Stormy Sea Of Street Life | Human | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there are many street children in South Africa (SA). They have been robbed from the safe harbour of family life and on a daily basis experience the stormy sea of street life. Society has an obligation to intervene in the lives of these street children through, for example, quality education, basic health services and ...

  17. Application of duckweed for human urine treatment in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    The object of the study was the common duckweed Lemna minor L. Thanks to the ability to assimilate mineral and organic substances, duckweed is used to purify water in sewage lagoons. In addition, duckweed biomass is known to be a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. The aim of the study was to estimate an application of duckweed in a two-stage treatment of human urine in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). At the first stage, the urine’s organic matter is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Diluted solution of oxidized urine is used for cultivation of duckweed. The appointment of duckweed is the assimilation of mineralized substances of urine. Part of the duckweed biomass yield directly or after composting could be embedded in the soil-like substrate as organic fertilizer to compensate the carry-over in consequence of plant growing. The rest duckweed biomass could be used as a feed for animals in BLSS. Then, the residual culture liquid is concentrated and used as a source of dietary salt. It takes 10-15 m2 of duckweed culture per crewmember to treat oxidized urine. The BLSS configuration including two-component subsystem of urine treatment is presented.

  18. The deeper life bible church and the issues of human rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such rights include; right to life, right to educate and be educated, right to own property, right to marry and be married, etcetera. These rights are guaranteed by the United Nations Organization (UNO) and constitutions of various countries of the world. These rights, as being practiced in the Deeper Life Bible Church, are the ...

  19. Virtual classroom design for Blended Learning: Human Development and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Morales Intriago

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The explosive development in all areas of knowledge has evolved the scenarios of generation and transfer of knowledge, in terms of media, channels and supports, parallel to this appear new resources that optimize the processes of vocational training, whether formal, non-formal and informal. The EVA or Virtual Learning Environments evolve the traditional way of teaching a Blended environment, which is, combining classroom education with online training processes. The present work designs a training process set in Blended Learning for the subject Human Development and Quality of Life, summarizing in 8 steps the construction of the virtual and face-to-face environment, where starting from the common to the specific, the system is described systemically. The methodology applied in the present work was of Bibliographic and documentary type. To achieve the proposed objective, a systemic design was designed that divided the research into two stages: the exploration stage and the design stage. In the exploration stage, a large bibliographical collection was revised and in the design stage the virtual classroom model of the subject was constructed. Product of the investigation is a guide that guides step by step in the construction of virtual environments set in the Blended Learning.

  20. Extending the half-life of a fab fragment through generation of a humanized anti-human serum albumin Fv domain: An investigation into the correlation between affinity and serum half-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ralph; Griffin, Laura; Compson, Joanne E; Jairaj, Mark; Baker, Terry; Ceska, Tom; West, Shauna; Zaccheo, Oliver; Davé, Emma; Lawson, Alastair Dg; Humphreys, David P; Heywood, Sam

    2016-10-01

    We generated an anti-albumin antibody, CA645, to link its Fv domain to an antigen-binding fragment (Fab), thereby extending the serum half-life of the Fab. CA645 was demonstrated to bind human, cynomolgus, and mouse serum albumin with similar affinity (1-7 nM), and to bind human serum albumin (HSA) when it is in complex with common known ligands. Importantly for half-life extension, CA645 binds HSA with similar affinity within the physiologically relevant range of pH 5.0 - pH 7.4, and does not have a deleterious effect on the binding of HSA to neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). A crystal structure of humanized CA645 Fab in complex with HSA was solved and showed that CA645 Fab binds to domain II of HSA. Superimposition with the crystal structure of FcRn bound to HSA confirmed that CA645 does not block HSA binding to FcRn. In mice, the serum half-life of humanized CA645 Fab is 84.2 h. This is a significant extension in comparison with Fab variant. The Fab-HSA structure was used to design a series of mutants with reduced affinity to investigate the correlation between the affinity for albumin and serum half-life. Reduction in the affinity for MSA by 144-fold from 2.2 nM to 316 nM had no effect on serum half-life. Strikingly, despite a reduction in affinity to 62 µM, an extension in serum half-life of 26.4 h was still obtained. CA645 Fab and the CA645 Fab-HSA complex have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with accession codes, 5FUZ and 5FUO, respectively.

  1. Sustainable Wearables: Wearable Technology for Enhancing the Quality of Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to elicit insights about sustainable wearables by investigating recent advancements in wearable technology and their applications. Wearable technology has advanced considerably from a technical perspective, but it has stagnated due to barriers without penetrating wider society despite early positive expectations. This situation is the motivation behind the focus on studies by many research groups in recent years into wearable applications that can provide the best value from a human-oriented perspective. The expectation is that a new means to resolve the issue can be found from a viewpoint of sustainability; this is the main point of this paper. This paper first focuses on the trend of wearable technology like bodily status monitoring, multi-wearable device control, and smart networking between wearable sensors. Second, the development intention of such technology is investigated. Finally, this paper discusses about the applications of current wearable technology from the sustainable perspective, rather than detailed description of the component technologies employed in wearables. In this paper, the definition of sustainable wearables is discussed in the context of improving the quality of individual life, social impact, and social public interest; those wearable applications include the areas of wellness, healthcare, assistance for the visually impaired, disaster relief, and public safety. In the future, wearables will not be simple data trackers or fun accessories but will gain extended objectives and meanings that play a valuable role for individuals and societies. Successful and sustainable wearables will lead to positive changes for both individuals and societies overall.

  2. Human and ecological life cycle tools for the integrated assessment of systems (HELIAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guinée, Jeroen B.; Heijungs, Reinout; Kleijn, René; Van Der Voet, Ester; De Koning, Arjan; Van Oers, Lauran; Elshkaki, Ayman; Huele, Ruben; Huppes, Gjalt; Suh, Sangwon; Sleeswijk, Anneke Wegener

    Goal, Scope and Background. CML has contributed to the development of life cycle decision support tools, particularly Substance/Material Flow Analysis (SFA respectively MFA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Ever since these tools emerged there have been discussions on how these tools relate to each

  3. [Sexuality of our seniors: happy end or new beginning?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degauquier, C; Absil, A S; Meuris, S; Psalti, I; Jurysta, F

    2012-01-01

    Comparing surveys from successive periods demonstrates that elderly people now enjoy a better and more varied sexual life than previous generations. The proportion of older people who remain sexually active has significantly increased, and the practices of masturbation or oral sex have spread considerably. The generation effect has an incidence upon sexual behaviour: older people's repertoire of sexual practices differs from that of younger people, in the sense that it focuses less on sexual intercourse and oral sex. Women and men, beyond the common trends towards sexuality characterised by a more open repertoire of sexual practices, differ in terms of sexual interest and subjective sexual wellbeing. The cessation of sexual activity by individuals who had previously been sexually active is often the result of a cascade of reactions, such as the occurrence of a sexual dysfunction in one or both partners, anticipation of failure, increased anxiety, lack of adaptation of sexuality and/or avoidance behaviour.

  4. The Fundamental Principle of Human Dignity and the Right to Life : Collision Any of These Fundamental Principles The Perspective of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika do Amaral Véras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This legal article works the theme of the collision of the fundamental principles, especially the principle of human dignity and the right to life, abortion perspective. First, we discuss of fundamental rights, bringing its definition, observed the distinction between human rights and fundamental rights. Then the super principle of human dignity is covered and, soon after, the right to life is highlighted through its relevant elements. Finally, talks on a possible collision beween the fundamental right to life and the principle of human dignity, with a special focus on the issue of abortion.

  5. Early-life experiences and the development of adult diseases with a focus on mental illness: The Human Birth Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Stefania; Polese, Daniela; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Amici, Tiziana; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Fagioli, Francesca

    2017-02-07

    In mammals, early adverse experiences, including mother-pup interactions, shape the response of an individual to chronic stress or to stress-related diseases during adult life. This has led to the elaboration of the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease, in particular adult diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In addition, in humans, as stated by Massimo Fagioli's Human Birth Theory, birth is healthy and equal for all individuals, so that mental illness develop exclusively in the postnatal period because of the quality of the relationship in the first year of life. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of programming during the early developmental period on the manifestation of adult diseases in both animal models and humans. Considering the obvious differences between animals and humans we cannot systematically move from animal models to humans. Consequently, in the first part of this review, we will discuss how animal models can be used to dissect the influence of adverse events occurring during the prenatal and postnatal periods on the developmental trajectories of the offspring, and in the second part, we will discuss the role of postnatal critical periods on the development of mental diseases in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms that cause reversible modifications in gene expression, driving the development of a pathological phenotype in response to a negative early postnatal environment, may lie at the core of this programming, thereby providing potential new therapeutic targets. The concept of the Human Birth Theory leads to a comprehension of the mental illness as a pathology of the human relationship immediately after birth and during the first year of life. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The possibility of aromorphosis in further development of closed human life support systems using genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef

    Creation of closed systems that would be able to support human life outside the biosphere for extended periods of time (CES) was started after humans went into outer space. The last fifty years have seen the construction of experimental variants of the CES in Russia, USA, and Japan. The "MELISSA" project of the European Space Agency is being prepared to be launched. Much success has been achieved in closing material loops in the CES. An obstacle to constructing a fully closed ecosystem is significant imbalance in material exchange between the producing components and the decomposing ones in the CES. The spectrum of metabolites released by humans does not fully correspond to the requirements of the main producer of the CES -plants. However, this imbalance can be corrected by rather simple physicochemical processes that can be used in the CES without unclosing the system. The major disagreement that prevents further improvement of human life support systems (LSS) is that the spectrum of products of photosynthesis in the CES does not correspond to human food requirements qual-itatively, quantitatively, or in terms of diversity. In the normal, physiologically sound, human diet, this discrepancy is resolved by adding animal products. However, there are technical, technological, and hygienic obstacles to including animals in the closed human life support systems, and if higher animals are considered, there are also ethical arguments. If between the photoautotrophic link, plants, and the heterotrophic link, the human, there were one more heterotrophic link, farm animals, the energy requirements of the system would be increased by nearly an order of magnitude, decreasing its efficiency and making it heavier and bulkier. Is there another way to close loops in human life support systems? In biology, such "findings" of evolution, which open up new perspectives and offer ample opportunities for possible adapta-tions, are termed aromorphoses (Schmalhausen, 1948). In further

  7. Impact of Gender Binarism on Hijras' Life Course and Their Access to Fundamental Human Rights in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizai, Aurangzaib; Doneys, Philippe; Doane, Donna L

    2017-01-01

    This study adds to the growing body of knowledge on gender nonconformity aspects of heteronormativity by examining its impact on the life course of hijras and their access to fundamental human rights in Pakistan. Drawing on 50 semistructured interviews conducted in two sites, the findings suggest that the participants' lived experiences associated with gender nonconformity significantly influenced the direction of their life course and their ability to have access to human rights. These experiences spanned from childhood to elderhood across a wide range of settings, such as family, school, guru dera (residence headed by a hijra guru), workplace, and interactions with authorities. The participants' human rights were not recognized, resulting in abuse, social stigma, discrimination against them, and their exclusion from mainstream society. Finally, implications are drawn for public policy and future research on third gender concerns in Pakistan and elsewhere.

  8. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-19

    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose-response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age.

  9. [Marjorie Brierley and the beginnings of the London Middle Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppke, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to the life and work of Marjory Brierley (1893-1984) who, but for her paper on affects published in 1936, is nowadays relatively unknown. A member of the British Psychoanalytical Society since 1927, she withdrew from active work around 1950. In the 30s, she developed her psychoanalytic and scientific approach, centered on metapsychological issues. In the early 40s she played an important role in the Controversial Discussions between the groups around Melanie Klein and Anna Freud. She remained independent, refusing any idealization, bound only by her obligation to her scientific principles. With this attitude, she can be regarded as a typical pioneer of the later Middle Group or the Independents. After the controversy, Brierley elaborated her metapsychological and ethical ideas in four major papers.

  10. Red palm oil: nutritional, physiological and therapeutic roles in improving human wellbeing and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntibeju, O O; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J

    2009-01-01

    The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease has created a growing interest in dietary red palm oil research. Also, the link between nutrition and health, oxidative stress and the severity or progression of disease has stimulated further interest in the potential role of red palm oil (a natural antioxidant product) to improve oxidative status by reducing oxidative stress in patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic diseases. In spite of its level of saturated fatty acid content (50%), red palm oil has not been found to promote atherosclerosis and/or arterial thrombosis. This is probably due to the ratio of its saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid content and its high concentration of antioxidants such as beta-carotene, tocotrienols, tocopherols and vitamin E. It has also been reported that the consumption of red palm oil reduces the level of endogenous cholesterol, and this seems to be due to the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar isomeric position of its fatty acids. The benefits of red palm oil to health include a reduction in the risk of arterial thrombosis and/or atherosclerosis, inhibition of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, a reduction in oxidative stress and a reduction in blood pressure. It has also been shown that dietary red palm oil, taken in moderation in animals and humans, promotes the efficient utilisation of nutrients, activates hepatic drug metabolising enzymes, facilitates the haemoglobinisation of red blood cells and improves immune function. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the nutritional, physiological and biochemical roles of red palm oil in improving wellbeing and quality of life.

  11. Climate and Life: A Human Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    A renaissance scientist, Cesare Emiliani was also interested in climate change and its influence on human origins, ancient cultures, and our future. Climate shapes life across a range of time and space scales - seasons pace the cycle of death and renewal, and the diversity of all life is bounded by latitude. Each of the "big five" mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic is linked to environmental crisis. Has climate change also shaped us? Analytical advances, new sediment archives, and heroic international collaborations have brought new light to this question. Gone is the dated view of our ancestors emerging from some ancient dark forest to assert dominion over the grassy plains. In its place is new evidence for rapid and large orbital-scale climate cycles that shifted, stepwise after 2.8 and then again after 1.8 million years ago to establish the African savannah we know today. These climate events are coincident with clusters of hominin speciation, extinction, and behavioral innovation milestones that came to define us as human. The African Humid Period is one of the best and oldest examples of human cultural responses to climate change. Between 15,000-5,000 years ago the Saharan desert supported grassy, wooded plains, large lakes, and clusters of human settlements due to orbital increases in monsoonal rainfall. While there is an ongoing debate whether the end of this wet phase was fast (centuries) or slow (millennia), the rich archeological record shows that this region was depopulated and, within centuries, the first settlements appear along the Nile River near 5 ka BP. Many "firsts" are associated with these predynastic cultures of the Naqada III Period including the first named kings, pyramids, and hieroglyphs, resulting in political unification and Dynastic rule along the Nile. As these diverse lines of evidence come together, it appears as if an answer to the age-old question "How did I get here?" is no longer beyond our reach. Climate has played an important

  12. Radon in the human life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Radon causes the utmost but controllable radiation exposure of the population. This is now clear, nearly hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity. Remediate and preventive activities have been stated with a complex approach using building engineering, geological sciences, physics and medicine. Despite of long experience in radon problems all these approaches need further development. (J.K.).

  13. Radon in the human life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1995-01-01

    Radon causes the utmost but controllable radiation exposure of the population. This is now clear, nearly hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity. Remediate and preventive activities have been stated with a complex approach using building engineering, geological sciences, physics and medicine. Despite of long experience in radon problems all these approaches need further development. (J.K.)

  14. [People, the environment and health: the "Oneness" of human health from the perspective of universal life presented in "Changes"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke-Ping

    2008-12-01

    This paper aimed to expand the paradigm of nursing and expand the essential factors of nursing theories beyond "environment" to encompass universal life. While individuals live between the sky and earth, we are an inseparable part of the universe. "Health" is derived from a oneness that embraces the body, mind and spirit. The human body contains the wisdom of the universe, known in Chinese philosophy as the wisdom of "Changes". The body has its own consciousness and possesses great powers of self-healing. Healthiness is the original condition of life. Modern medicine assumes sickness to be a natural phenomenon, with the essential nature of "Changes" neglected as a universal law for maintaining health. Dr. Sun, a renowned physician from the Tang Dynasty, was quoted as saying "Knowing Changes is the prerequisite of knowing medicine." Another saying holds that, "Every word and every sentence in the Book of Changes is an indicator of medicine." Much emphasis has been placed on the relationship between "Changes" and "medicine" in the past. This paper elaborates the relationship between nature and human health in order to provide a clear understanding of the nature of true health, described from the perspectives of medicine and "Changes", an evaluation of modern medical science and the oneness of body-mind-spirit, which is the reality of health. The human body is thus a reflection of the mind and spirit, while the mind and spirit is the "inner body". The body is a highly intelligent organism that truly reflects our inner world. Our inner world is also displayed through physical symptoms. As human suffering is caused by separation from our inner life, the only path to enjoying a healthy and joyful life is to achieve a oneness between our body-mind-spirit. Such is a universal law, which is called "Changes" or "Oneness".

  15. Quality of life, socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitude toward sexuality from the perspectives of individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiry Fernanda Pinto Okuno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the quality of life of "patients" with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and relate it to their socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality. Method: crosssectional and analytical study with 201 individuals who are 50 years old or older. The Targeted Quality of Life and Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scales were applied during interviews. Multiple Linear Regression was used in data analysis. Results: dimensions of quality of life more strongly compromised were disclosure worries (39.0, sexual function (45.9, and financial worries (55.6. Scores concerning knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality were 31.7 and 14.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between attitudes and the domains of overall function, health worries, medication worries, and HIV mastery. Conclusion: guidance concerning how the disease is transmitted, treated and how it progresses, in addition to providing social and psychological support, could minimize the negative effects of the disease on the quality of life of patients living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

  16. The Map of My Life

    CERN Document Server

    Shimura, Goro

    2008-01-01

    Tells about the author's life, beginning with his earliest childhood days. This book describes his survival of American bombing raids when he was a teenager in Japan, his emergence as a researcher in a post-war university system that was seriously deficient, and his life as a mathematician in Princeton and in the international academic community.

  17. Rehabilitation of Schizophrenia: At the End or in the Beginning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadai

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Majority of the long stay psychiatric patients who are in need of rehabilitation suffer from schizophrenia. Most of them enter the old age with this illness, and besides the consequences of schizophrenia, they are facing the deprivation and misery due to the old age. In contrast to the previous decades in which there was no effective treatment for schizophrenia, today with the immediate diagnosis of schizophrenia and its treatment with effective medications, we can prevent chronicity and resistance to the treatment. By these means, we can improve the prognosis and the quality of life of patients and their care givers. Sine last decade, the unfair discrimination of schizophrenic patients to chronic and non-chronic has lost its validity. It is widely recommended that instead of constructing the special and isolated hospitals for the mentally ill, psychiatric wards in the general hospitals be established. By all these efforts, the schizophrenics can have a better treatment and rehabilitation, and can be saved from the social and psychological consequences of staying in the isolated mental hospitals.

  18. Placing Human Behavior at the Center of the Fight to Eradicate Polio: Lessons Learned and Their Application to Other Life-Saving Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Sherine; Obregon, Rafael; Coleman, Michael; Hickler, Benjamin; SteelFisher, Gillian

    2017-07-01

    Today, acceptance of oral polio vaccine is the highest ever. Reaching this level of acceptance has depended on decades of engaging with communities, building trust amid extraordinary social contexts, and responding to the complex variables that trigger behavioral and social change. Drawing on both the successes and setbacks in the 28 years of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), this article articulates what happened when the GPEI began to pay more attention to the dynamics of human and social behavior change. Three particular lessons for other health and immunization programs can be drawn from the experience of GPEI: change begins from within (ie, success needs institutional recognition of the importance of human behavior), good data are not enough for good decision-making, and health workers are important agents of behavior change. These lessons should be harnessed and put into practice to build demand and trust for the last stages of polio eradication, as well as for other life-saving health interventions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Impacts of “metals” on human health: uncertainties in using different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Christensen, Per; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    This study looks into the uncertainties in determining the impact of “metals” emissions to human health, in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Metals are diverse substances, with different proprieties and characteristics, considered important in LCIA because of their toxicity to humans or ecosy......This study looks into the uncertainties in determining the impact of “metals” emissions to human health, in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Metals are diverse substances, with different proprieties and characteristics, considered important in LCIA because of their toxicity to humans...... be considered in an impact assessment focused on human health, and defined a list of 14 metals. We performed a contribution analysis in order to compare methods in relative terms; an approach successfully used in other studies. Various processes have been analyzed with 8 different LCIA methods in order...... to assess both how much each metal contributes to the total impact on human health, when only metal emissions are present, and how much metals in total contribute when also other toxic substances are included in the inventory of emissions. Differences between the methods are great and due...

  20. The value of human life in contemporary society. The global biography project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nary, G

    1997-12-01

    The closing address at the 1997 First International Conference on Healthcare Resource Allocation for HIV/AIDS and Other Life-Threatening Illnesses is presented. The address discusses the extrinsic value of life and the three forms of material value: spiritual, economic, and political, placed on life by an outside source. It is argued that if spiritual currency, rather than economic or political currency, drove public policy there would be greater progress in reducing the global rate of HIV and more options for care. Further, lack of identity of those afflicted with HIV reduces them to mere statistics, thus decreasing their economic and political clout. Giving identities to people who are sick not only increases empathy but also increases their survivability. The establishment of the Global Biography Project seeks to reestablish spiritual currency as the international currency that underlies every nation's healthcare policies.

  1. Leaching potential of nanomaterials during different human contact scenarios and end-of-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Mackevica, Aiga; Heggelund, Laura Roverskov

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand how much, when and by which mechanisms nanomaterials are released during the life cycle of a given application, we have experimentally investigated the release of nanoparticles (NP) from a wide range of products. These include silver and titanium dioxide NP released from food...... storage containers, titanium dioxide released from coated ceramic tiles, iron (III) oxide NP from polyethylene granulates and silver NP released from toothbrushes. In our investigation, we focused specifically on release during the consumer use phase and the waste handling phase as these two aspects...... of the life cycle seem to be especially important and not well understood. In order to get an estimation of the overall release potential of nanomaterials during the consumer use phase and the waste phase, we also mapped consumer products on the EU marked claiming to be nano-enabledand commercially available...

  2. The influence of life history and sexual dimorphism on entheseal changes in modern humans and African great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Milella

    Full Text Available Entheseal changes have been widely studied with regard to their correlation to biomechanical stress and their usefulness for biocultural reconstructions. However, anthropological and medical studies have demonstrated the marked influence of both age and sex on the development of these features. Studies of entheseal changes are mostly aimed in testing functional hypotheses and are mostly focused on modern humans, with few data available for non-human primates. The lack of comparative studies on the effect of age and sex on entheseal changes represent a gap in our understanding of the evolutionary basis of both development and degeneration of the human musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present work is to compare age trajectories and patterns of sexual dimorphism in entheseal changes between modern humans and African great apes. To this end we analyzed 23 postcranial entheses in a human contemporary identified skeletal collection (N = 484 and compared the results with those obtained from the analysis of Pan (N = 50 and Gorilla (N = 47 skeletal specimens. Results highlight taxon-specific age trajectories possibly linked to differences in life history schedules and phyletic relationships. Robusticity trajectories separate Pan and modern humans from Gorilla, whereas enthesopathic patterns are unique in modern humans and possibly linked to their extended potential lifespan. Comparisons between sexes evidence a decreasing dimorphism in robusticity from Gorilla, to modern humans to Pan, which is likely linked to the role played by size, lifespan and physical activity on robusticity development. The present study confirms previous hypotheses on the possible relevance of EC in the study of life history, pointing moreover to their usefulness in evolutionary studies.

  3. Evolution of life history and behavior in Hominidae: towards phylogenetic reconstruction of the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Pavel; Zrzavý, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The origin of the fundamental behavioral differences between humans and our closest living relatives is one of the central issues of evolutionary anthropology. The prominent, chimpanzee-based referential model of early hominin behavior has recently been challenged on the basis of broad multispecies comparisons and newly discovered fossil evidence. Here, we argue that while behavioral data on extant great apes are extremely relevant for reconstruction of ancestral behaviors, these behaviors should be reconstructed trait by trait using formal phylogenetic methods. Using the widely accepted hominoid phylogenetic tree, we perform a series of character optimization analyses using 65 selected life-history and behavioral characters for all extant hominid species. This analysis allows us to reconstruct the character states of the last common ancestors of Hominoidea, Hominidae, and the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor. Our analyses demonstrate that many fundamental behavioral and life-history attributes of hominids (including humans) are evidently ancient and likely inherited from the common ancestor of all hominids. However, numerous behaviors present in extant great apes represent their own terminal autapomorphies (both uniquely derived and homoplastic). Any evolutionary model that uses a single extant species to explain behavioral evolution of early hominins is therefore of limited use. In contrast, phylogenetic reconstruction of ancestral states is able to provide a detailed suite of behavioral, ecological and life-history characters for each hypothetical ancestor. The living great apes therefore play an important role for the confident identification of the traits found in the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor, some of which are likely to represent behaviors of the fossil hominins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Human factor observations of the Biosphere 2, 1991-1993, closed life support human experiment and its application to a long-term manned mission to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alling, Abigail; Nelson, Mark; Silverstone, Sally; Van Thillo, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Human factors are a key component to the success of long-term space missions such as those necessitated by the human exploration of Mars and the development of bioregenerative and eventually self-sufficient life support systems for permanent space outposts. Observations by participants living inside the 1991-1993 Biosphere 2 closed system experiment provide the following insights. (1) Crew members should be involved in the design and construction of their life support systems to gain maximum knowledge about the systems. (2) Individuals living in closed life support systems should expect a process of physiological and psychological adaptation to their new environment. (3) Far from simply being a workplace, the participants in such extended missions will discover the importance of creating a cohesive and satisfying life style. (4) The crew will be dependent on the use of varied crops to create satisfying cuisine, a social life with sufficient outlets of expression such as art and music, and to have down-time from purely task-driven work. (5) The success of the Biosphere 2 first 2-year mission suggests that crews with high cultural diversity, high commitment to task, and work democracy principles for individual responsibility may increase the probability of both mission success and personal satisfaction. (6) Remaining challenges are many, including the need for far more comprehensive real-time modeling and information systems (a "cybersphere") operating to provide real-time data necessary for decision-making in a complex life support system. (7) And, the aim will be to create a noosphere, or sphere of intelligence, where the people and their living systems are in sustainable balance.

  5. Towards a Pedagogy of Listening: Teaching and Learning from Life Stories of Human Rights Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Bronwen E.; Sonntag, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    In response to the task of designing curriculum that helps youth engage thoughtfully with digital stories of human rights violations, the authors articulate the central tenets of a pedagogy of listening that draws upon elements of oral history, concepts of witnessing and testimony, the work on listening of Dewey, Freire and Rinaldi and the…

  6. The right to life and criminal-law protection of the human person in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etlon Peppo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle for which a democratic governance stands, are expressed in the “Declaration of Independence of the United States of America with the words of Thomas Jefferson: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” The government of a democratic state does not exist to recognize the basic human rights, but to respect and guarantee the protection of these rights that any person possesses and benefits due to his existence starting from the most important right: The right to life, which is faced against the duty of the state for the protection of the human person’s life! In this sense this article analyzes the criminal-law protection of life in the Western Balkans.

  7. Role of stable isotope analyses in reconstructing past life-histories and the provenancing human skeletal remains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrawat Jagmahender Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present scenario of use of stable isotopes (mainly δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, 87Sr to trace past life behaviours like breast feeding and weaning practices, the geographic origin, migration history, paleodiet and subsistence patterns of past populations from the chemical signatures of isotopes imprinted in human skeletal remains. This approach is based on the state that food-web isotopic signatures are seen in the human bones and teeth and such signatures can change parallely with a variety of biogeochemical processes. By measuring δ13C and δ15N isotopic values of subadult tissues of different ages, the level of breast milk ingestion at particular ages and the components of the complementary foods can be assessed. Strontium and oxygen isotopic analyses have been used for determining the geographic origins and reconstructing the way of life of past populations as these isotopes can map the isotopic outline of the area from where the person acquired water and food during initial lifetime. The isotopic values of strontium and oxygen values are considered specific to geographical areas and serve as reliable chemical signatures of migration history of past human populations (local or non-local to the site. Previous isotopic studies show that the subsistence patterns of the past human populations underwent extensive changes from nomadic to complete agricultural dependence strategies. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of local fauna of any archaeological site can be used to elucidate the prominence of freshwater resources in the diet of the past human populations found near the site. More extensive research covering isotopic descriptions of various prehistoric, historic and modern populations is needed to explore the role of stable isotope analysis for provenancing human skeletal remains and assessing human migration patterns/routes, geographic origins, paleodiet and subsistence practices of past populations.

  8. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...... such as No Observed Effect Levels (NOEL). NOELs, and similar data, are determined in laboratory studies using rodents and are then extrapolated to more relevant human measures. Many examples also exist of measures and methods beyond potency-based indicators that attempt to account for differences in expected severity...

  9. Development of Human Resources Using New Technologies in Long-Life Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micu Bogdan Ghilic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT offer new opportunities to reinvent the education and to make people and makes learning more fun and contemporary but poses many problems to educational institutions. Implementation of ICT determines major structural changes in the organizations and mental switch from bureaucratic mentality to customer-oriented one. In this paper I try to evaluate methods of developing the lifelong learning programs, impact to human resources training and development and the impact of this process on educational institutions. E-learning usage in training the human resources can make a new step in development of the education institutions, human resources and companies.

  10. Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrally, M R; Cochran, A J; Crews, D J; Hurdzan, M J; Price, R J; Snow, J T; Thomas, P R

    2003-09-01

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are 30,000 golf courses and 55 million people who play golf worldwide. In the USA alone, the value of golf club memberships sold in the 1990s was US dollar 3.2 billion. Underpinning this significant human activity is a wide variety of people researching and applying science to sustain and develop the game. The 11 golf science disciplines recognized by the World Scientific Congress of Golf have reported 311 papers at four world congresses since 1990. Additionally, scientific papers have been published in discipline-specific peer-reviewed journals, research has been sponsored by the two governing bodies of golf, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association, and confidential research is undertaken by commercial companies, especially equipment manufacturers. This paper reviews much of this human endeavour and points the way forward for future research into golf.

  11. Human factors experts beginning to focus on organizational factors in safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrum, R

    1996-10-01

    The role of organizational culture in aviation safety is explored. Information flow is used to demonstrate three ranges of climate within an organization. Organizations may be pathological in which information is hidden, bureaucratic in which information is ignored, or generative in which information is actively sought. The effects of organizational change on personnel are explored with emphasis on mergers between air carriers. The relationship between safety measures and economic pressures is discussed.

  12. A life course perspective on migration and mental health among Asian immigrants: the role of human agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fang; Xu, Jun; Fujishiro, Kaori; Takeuchi, David T

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between human agency and health is an important yet under-researched topic. This study uses a life course perspective to examine how human agency (measured by voluntariness, migratory reasons, and planning) and timing (measured by age at immigration) affect mental health outcomes among Asian immigrants in the United States. Data from the National Latino and Asian American Study showed that Asian immigrants (n=1491) with multiple strong reasons to migrate were less likely to suffer from mental health problems (i.e., psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in the past 12 months) than those without clear goals. Moreover, Asian immigrants with adequate migratory planning had lower levels of distress and lower rates of 12-month psychiatric disorders than those with poorly planned migration. Compared with migrants of the youngest age category (six or younger), those who migrated during preteen and adolescent years without clear goals had higher levels of psychological distress, and those who migrated during adulthood (25 years or older) were less likely to suffer from recent depressive disorders (with the exception of those migrating for life-improving goals). Furthermore, we found that well-planned migration lowered acculturative stress, and multiple strong reasons for migration buffered the negative effect of acculturative stress upon mental health. Findings from this study advance research on immigrant health from the life course perspective by highlighting the effects of exercising human agency during the pre-migration stage upon post-migration mental health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of life technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wac, Katarzyna; Fiordelli, M.; Gustarini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Inevitably, as basic human needs are assured in any developed society, differentiating factors for quality of life (QoL) relate to a greater capacity to make informed decisions across daily life activities, especially those related to health. The availability of powerful, personalized, and wearable...

  14. Imposition of a delay prior to beginning radiotherapy: impact on mood states for cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Waiting lists for radiotherapy are a recent phenomenon in highly populated areas and, coupled with the public's awareness of the nature of cancer and the need for immediate treatment, a psychological dilemma has emerged. Since virtually all patients are now assigned to the radiotherapy waiting list, a random sample of patients who would begin radiotherapy immediately following their initial consultation was created. Quality of life, in terms of self-reported mood indices, was assessed at five points in time for each patient using the Profile of Mood States. Approximately 25% of the delayed patients chose to leave the waiting list and seek treatment elsewhere. The most striking finding was that patients who began radiotherapy immediately experienced improved quality of life during the course of treatment as per Forester, et al., (1985). In contrast, the patients who spent time (1-8 weeks) on a treatment waiting list experienced a decrease in quality of life over their course of radiotherapy and even more so at a month following the end of treatment

  15. The influence of the level of physical activity and human development in the quality of life in survivors of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidar, Felipe J; de Oliveira, Ricardo J; Silva, António J; de Matos, Dihogo G; Carneiro, André L; Garrido, Nuno; Hickner, Robert C; Reis, Victor M

    2011-10-13

    The association between physical activity and quality of life in stroke survivors has not been analyzed within a framework related to the human development index. This study aimed to identify differences in physical activity level and in the quality of life of stroke survivors in two cities differing in economic aspects of the human development index. Two groups of subjects who had suffered a stroke at least a year prior to testing and showed hemiplegia or hemiparesis were studied: a group from Belo Horizonte (BH) with 48 people (51.5 ± 8.7 years) and one from Montes Claros (MC) with 29 subjects (55.4 ± 8.1 years). Subsequently, regardless of location, the groups were divided into Active and Insufficiently Active so their difference in terms of quality of life could be analyzed. There were no significant differences between BH and MCG when it came to four dimensions of physical health that were evaluated (physical functioning, physical aspect, pain and health status) or in the following four dimensions of mental health status (vitality, social aspect, emotional aspect and mental health). However, significantly higher mean values were found in Active when compared with Insufficiently Active individuals in various measures of physical health (physical functioning 56.2 ± 4.4 vs. 47.4 ± 6.9; physical aspect 66.5 ± 6.5 vs. 59.1 ± 6.7; pain 55.9 ± 6.2 vs. 47.7 ± 6.0; health status 67.2 ± 4.2 vs. 56.6 ± 7.8) (arbitrary units), and mental health (vitality 60.9 ± 6.8 vs. 54.1 ± 7.2; social aspect 60.4 ± 7.1 vs. 54.2 ± 7.4; emotional aspect 64.0 ± 5.5 vs. 58.1 ± 6.9; mental health status 66.2 ± 5.5 vs. 58.4 ± 7.5) (arbitrary units). Despite the difference between the cities concerning HDI values, no significant differences in quality of life were found between BH and MCG. However, the Active group showed significantly better results, confirming the importance of active lifestyle to enhance quality of life in stroke survivors.

  16. The influence of the level of physical activity and human development in the quality of life in survivors of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickner Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between physical activity and quality of life in stroke survivors has not been analyzed within a framework related to the human development index. This study aimed to identify differences in physical activity level and in the quality of life of stroke survivors in two cities differing in economic aspects of the human development index. Methods Two groups of subjects who had suffered a stroke at least a year prior to testing and showed hemiplegia or hemiparesis were studied: a group from Belo Horizonte (BH with 48 people (51.5 ± 8.7 years and one from Montes Claros (MC with 29 subjects (55.4 ± 8.1 years. Subsequently, regardless of location, the groups were divided into Active and Insufficiently Active so their difference in terms of quality of life could be analyzed. Results There were no significant differences between BH and MCG when it came to four dimensions of physical health that were evaluated (physical functioning, physical aspect, pain and health status or in the following four dimensions of mental health status (vitality, social aspect, emotional aspect and mental health. However, significantly higher mean values were found in Active when compared with Insufficiently Active individuals in various measures of physical health (physical functioning 56.2 ± 4.4 vs. 47.4 ± 6.9; physical aspect 66.5 ± 6.5 vs. 59.1 ± 6.7; pain 55.9 ± 6.2 vs. 47.7 ± 6.0; health status 67.2 ± 4.2 vs. 56.6 ± 7.8 (arbitrary units, and mental health (vitality 60.9 ± 6.8 vs. 54.1 ± 7.2; social aspect 60.4 ± 7.1 vs. 54.2 ± 7.4; emotional aspect 64.0 ± 5.5 vs. 58.1 ± 6.9; mental health status 66.2 ± 5.5 vs. 58.4 ± 7.5 (arbitrary units. Conclusions Despite the difference between the cities concerning HDI values, no significant differences in quality of life were found between BH and MCG. However, the Active group showed significantly better results, confirming the importance of active lifestyle to enhance quality of

  17. In the beginning was information

    CERN Document Server

    Gitt, Werner, Dr

    2006-01-01

    Information is the cornerstone of life, yet it is something people don't often think about. In his fascinating new book, In the Beginning Was Information, Dr. Werner Gitt helps the reader see how the very presence of information reveals a Designer.

  18. Männerbund: Theory and reality in Germany at the beginning of 20.Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnar Aleksandar I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author is dealing with the connection between the renaissance of the unions of men (Männerbünde and rise of scientific interest in such forms of social life in the early 20th Century Germany. Although new forms of Männerbünde were not entirely adequate to the old forms, there is no doubt that all main features of militant Männerbünde were present at the beginning of Weimar republic: the cult of youth, ecstatic experiences, elitist conciseness, as well as tendency towards open and rough violence. Author‘s intention is to stress the importance of the role that Männerbünde played in the early phase of German revolution - especially in provoking civil war, spreading hatred towards modern (i.e. "Western" civilization, reviving old militant German traditions, fighting democracy and undermining the fragile foundations of Weimar republic.

  19. Scattered Families : Transnational family life of Afghan refugees in the Netherlands in the light of the human rights based protection of the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, P.H.A.M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165624647

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on family life of Afghan refugees in the Netherlands, within and across borders. While family life constitutes a foundation in the lives of human beings, the disruption of the family through external causes has a huge impact on the people involved. In the case of refugees, many of

  20. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Andrew

    2008-06-01

    chimpanzees, and other research fields presently deprived of funding, but would also increase the compliance of US animal researchers with internationally-accepted animal welfare and bioethical standards. It could even result in the first global moratorium on invasive research, for any non-human species, unless conducted in the best interests of the individual or species.

  1. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    fields presently deprived of funding, but would also increase the compliance of US animal researchers with internationally-accepted animal welfare and bioethical standards. It could even result in the first global moratorium on invasive research, for any non-human species, unless conducted in the best interests of the individual or species. PMID:18518999

  2. 76 FR 9327 - Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Notice of Intent To Begin Restoration Scoping and Prepare a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... to compensate the public and the environment for loss of natural resources and services from the... Florida, as well as human uses of these resources. Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) is the... Restoration Planning; Notice of Intent To Begin Restoration Scoping and Prepare a Programmatic Environmental...

  3. Teaching Beginning Trombone Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Todd L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of introducing the trombone to beginning students and addresses the issue of warming-up. Provides resources for beginning trombone methods, band methods, and daily warm-up studies. Includes resources for scale studies and etudes for beginning to intermediate trombone players. (CMK)

  4. Categorial Ontology of Complex Systems, Meta-Systems and Levels: The Emergence of Life, Human Consciousness and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Glazebrook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Relational structures of organisms and the human mind are naturally represented in terms of novel variable topology concepts, non-Abelian categories and Higher Dimensional Algebra{ relatively new concepts that would be defined in
    this tutorial paper. A unifying theme of local-to-global approaches to organismic development, evolution and human consciousness leads to novel patterns of relations that emerge in super- and ultra- complex systems in terms of compositions of local procedures [1]. The claim is defended in this paper that human consciousness is unique and should be viewed as an ultra-complex, global process of processes, at a meta-level not sub{summed by, but compatible with, human brain dynamics [2]-[5]. The emergence of consciousness and its existence
    are considered to be dependent upon an extremely complex structural and functional unit with an asymmetric network topology and connectivities{the human brain. However, the appearance of human consciousness is shown to be critically dependent upon societal co-evolution, elaborate language-symbolic communication and `virtual', higher dimensional, non{commutative processes involving separate space and time perceptions. Theories of the mind are approached from the theory of levels and ultra-complexity viewpoints that throw
    new light on previous semantic models in cognitive science. Anticipatory systems and complex causality at the top levels of reality are discussed in the context of psychology, sociology and ecology. A paradigm shift towards non-commutative, or more generally, non-Abelian theories of highly complex dynamics [6] is suggested to unfold now in physics, mathematics, life and cognitive sciences, thus leading to the realizations of higher dimensional algebras in neurosciences and psychology, as well as in human genomics, bioinformatics and interactomics. The presence of strange attractors in modern society dynamics gives rise to very serious concerns for the future

  5. Human life support for advanced space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  6. INFRINGEMENT IN ONE’S RIGHT TO NAME, INTRUSION IN PRIVATE LIFE OR FAMILY LIFE? THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Nicoleta Retea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The name is important both to the individual and to the society. Therefore, it is important to understand its role in both shaping the private sense of self and identity and in reflecting and sustaining the social institutions such as the state, family. The aim of this article is to contribute to the better understanding of the scope of Article 8 from the European Convention of Human Rights in what concerns the right to bear a name. The great variety of issues that have been covered by this article has generated a huge literature in which Article 8 was treated as one of the most open -ended provisions of the ECHR. In this context, it was underlined the inclusion of the right to name into the domain of this article, while tracing the connotation given by the Court in the attempt to establish an infringement of the right to privacy and famil y. Moreover, the case law presented reveals that there are fluctuations in the approach of the Court, showing also the cases in which it was not found a violation of Article 8. However, the infringement of one's right to name could reveal different ways of intrusion in the private life or family life, but in any situation, it is engaged liability for the damage caused.

  7. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  8. A Review of Standards of Practice for Beginning Teaching. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Kleinhenz, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical review and comparison of the following sets of standards of practice for teachers: (1) The Victorian Interim Teacher Class Standards (ITCS), especially Interim Teacher Class Standards for Beginning Teachers; (2) Professional Standards for Teachers; (3) The National Competencies for Beginning Teaching; (4) The…

  9. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    , there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14)C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14)C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14)C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon...

  10. Human population intake fractions and environmental fate factors of toxic pollutants in life cycle impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Struijs, Jaap; Goedkoop, Mark; Heijungs, Reinout; Jan Hendriks, A.; Van De Meent, Dik

    2005-01-01

    The present paper outlines an update of the fate and exposure part of the fate, exposure and effects model USES-LCA. The new fate and exposure module of USES-LCA was applied to calculate human population intake fractions and fate factors of the freshwater, marine and terrestrial environment for 3393

  11. The Application of Human Rights Law to Everyday Life under Rebel Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin, K.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws upon social science literature to offer a new assessment of the normative value of human rights law vis-à-vis international humanitarian law in territory under armed groups’ control. In particular, the article considers how the two bodies of law can be applied in a complementary

  12. Beginning Scala

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, David

    2009-01-01

    The open source Scala language is a Java--based dynamic scripting, functional programming language. Moreover, this highly scalable scripting language lends itself well to building Cloud--based/deliverable Software as a Service (SaaS) online applications. Written by Lift Scala web framework founder and lead Dave Pollak, Beginning Scala takes a down--to--earth approach to teaching Scala that leads you through simple examples that can be combined to build complex, scalable systems and applications. This book introduces you to the Scala programming language and then guides you through Scala constr

  13. The Beginnings of the History of Philosophy in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacija J. Fridl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many contemporary researchers into the ancient history of philosophy and into encyclopedic Hellenistic works (Mejer, Schoefield, Runia, Maasfeld ..., the author observes that a great deal of research into ancient doxography and Diogenes Laertius has focused on evaluation. Her own paper, on the other hand, turns to the question: What can Laertius’ attention to philosophers’ biographies in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers tell us about the Ancient Greek view of the philosophical thought from the past?  As noted by the author, the term ‘doxography’ itself, which bears the connotation of a less reliable source and is applied today to almost every ancient explanation of any philosophical doctrine, was established by Hermann Diels as late as the 19th century. Yet this view of earlier thought was in fact already developed by Aristotle. His treatise On the Soul defines the philosophical tenets of his precursors as ‘opinions’, which are then critically examined and rejected. This attitude to earlier philosophy informs all Aristotle’s writings and his methodology of philosophy in general, for his prima philosophia as a ‘science which considers the truth’ is founded precisely on the critique of earlier thought. He critically evaluates even the tenets of his teacher Plato, in order to surpass him with his own philosophy. Thus he lays the foundations of evolutionary historiography, which perceives history as a spiritual progress and has lasted through Hegel, Marx, and – with a negative historical connotation – Heidegger – to this day. Plato, by contrast, envisages, through the very form of the dialogue, the relation to earlier philosophy as a conversation, a constant interweaving and fertilisation of one’s own thought with the wisdom of one’s precursors. This perception is further reinforced by his doctrine of knowledge as a process of remembering, that is, of philosophy as a road to wisdom leading back

  14. On the beginnings of the Constantinopolitan School of embroidery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papastavrou Elena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Greek-Orthodox ecclesiastical embroidery in Ottoman Constantinople after 1453 until the emergence of the Constantinopolitan School of embroidery. We are well informed about the artistic production that flourished between the last decades of the seventeenth century and midnineteenth century via preserved artifacts and inscriptions bearing the embroiderers’ signature. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the production between the fall of Byzantium and the last decades of the seventeenth century is lacking. In this paper, our aim is to evaluate whether the Byzantine artistic tradition continued to live in the Greek Constantinopolitan production. The iconographical and technical analysis of different artifacts will give the answer to this question revealing at the same time the foundation basis of the embroidery of that School.

  15. Sex differences in the hypothalamus in the different stages of human life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, Dick F.; Chung, Wilson C. J.; Kruijver, Frank P. M.; Hofman, Michel A.; Hestiantoro, Andon

    2003-01-01

    Quite a number of structural and functional sex differences have been reported in the human hypothalamus and adjacent structures that may be related to not only reproduction, sexual orientation and gender identity, but also to the often pronounced sex differences in prevalence of psychiatric and

  16. N-glycosylation increases the circulatory half-life of human growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flintegaard, Thomas V; Thygesen, Peter; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic use of recombinant GH typically involves daily sc injections. We examined the possibilities for prolonging the in vivo circulation of GH by introducing N-glycans. Human GH variants with a single potential N-glycosylation site (N-X-S/T) introduced by site-directed mutagenesis were expr...

  17. The beginning of a seed: regulatory mechanisms of double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckmann, Andrea; Alter, Svenja; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    THE LAUNCH OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN FLOWERING PLANTS (ANGIOSPERMS) IS INITIATED BY THE PROCESS OF DOUBLE FERTILIZATION: two male gametes (sperm cells) fuse with two female gametes (egg and central cell) to form the precursor cells of the two major seed components, the embryo and endosperm, respectively. The immobile sperm cells are delivered by the pollen tube toward the ovule harboring the female gametophyte by species-specific pollen tube guidance and attraction mechanisms. After pollen tube burst inside the female gametophyte, the two sperm cells fuse with the egg and central cell initiating seed development. The fertilized central cell forms the endosperm while the fertilized egg cell, the zygote, will form the actual embryo and suspensor. The latter structure connects the embryo with the sporophytic maternal tissues of the developing seed. The underlying mechanisms of double fertilization are tightly regulated to ensure delivery of functional sperm cells and the formation of both, a functional zygote and endosperm. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge about the processes of directed pollen tube growth and its communication with the synergid cells resulting in pollen tube burst, the interaction of the four gametes leading to cell fusion and finally discuss mechanisms how flowering plants prevent multiple sperm cell entry (polyspermy) to maximize their reproductive success.

  18. Palliative Care and the Humanities: Centralizing the Patient at the End of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Palliative care is a quickly growing facet of modern medicine. While scientific advancements have broken new ground for the possibilities of end-of-life care, sensitive treatment of the patient as an individual has lagged behind and has frequently led to an unsatisfactory experience for patients, families, and the medical community at large. This essay argues that centralizing patients during the terminal phases of treatment by using humanistic perspectives has the potential to bring new meaning and improved effectiveness to patients and physicians alike.

  19. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  20. Disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy. Effect on psychosocial support requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehlen, S.; Hollenhorst, H.; Schymura, B.; Firsching, M.; Duehmke, E.; Herschbach, P.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy brings a tumor patient into a special life situation in which different variables play a role of often unknown importance. The goal of this study was to investigate disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy with established psychodiagnostic questionnaires and to evaluate the effect on psychosocial support requirement in order to reduce stress and to improve quality of life and compliance during radiotherapeutical treatment. Patients and Methods: 732 patients were screened, of whom 446 (60.9%) fulfilled the criteria for inclusion (refusals 21.0%, low Karnofsky performance status 6.6%, management problems 3.4%, language barriers 3.0%, cognitive restrictions 2.6%, death 2.5%). Disease specific aspects of stress in the questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Belastung von Krebspatienten, FBK), life situation (LS) and self-defined care requirements (BB) were self-rated by patients with different tumor types before radiotherapy. Medical and sociodemographic data were also documented. We investigated 446 patients (262 male, 184 female; median age 60.0 years) with different diagnoses. Results: Stress was observed mainly due to reduction of efficiency, anxiety and pain on the subscales. Women had a significant higher stress on subscales of pain (p=0.016) and anxiety (p=0.009), patients younger than 45 years in the subscale information (p=0.002) and patients older than 45 and younger than 60 years in the subscale anxiety (p=0.002) and the total score (p=0.003). Patients with mamma carcinoma had the highest stress. The maximum percentages of patients under high stress were found for the subscales of efficiency (43%) and anxiety (40%). The support requirement was characterized by the need of more medical information and dialogue with the doctor. We saw a significant correlation of high stress and high care requirement. Conclusions: Psychosocial support should be founded on psychosocial stress diagnostic and self-defined care

  1. Environmental and human health assessment of life cycle of nanoTiO2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Martina; Bondioli, Federica; Montecchi, Rita; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria

    2017-01-15

    Recently, there has been a rise in the interest in nanotechnology due to its enormous potential for the development of new products and applications with higher performance and new functionalities. However, while nanotechnology might revolutionize a number of industrial and consumer sectors, there are uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding toxicological effects of this emerging science. The goal of this research concerns the implementation into Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of preliminary frameworks developed to evaluate human toxicity and exposure factors related to the potential nanoparticle releases that could occur during the life cycle steps of a functionalized building material. The present LCA case study examines the ecodesign of nanoTiO 2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile production. The aim of this investigation is to manufacture new eco-friendly products in order to protect human health and ecosystem quality and to offer the market, materials with higher technological properties obtained by the addition of specific nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Opportunities for New Insights on the Life-Course Risks and Outcomes of Cognitive Decline in the Kavli HUMAN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, Kenneth M; Cutler, David

    2015-09-01

    The Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP) will provide groundbreaking insights into how biological, medical, and social factors interact and impact the risks for cognitive decline from birth through older age. It will richly measure the effect of cognitive decline on the ability to perform key activities of daily living. In addition, due to its family focus, the KHP will measure the impact on family members, including the amount of time that family members spend providing care to older adults with dementia. It will also clarify the division of caregiving duties among family members and the effects on caregivers' work, family life, and balance thereof. At the same time, for care that the family cannot provide, it will clarify the extent to which cognitive decline impacts healthcare utilization and end-of-life decision making.

  3. Aesthetics of the Human Image in Life and Iconography of the Ancient Philosophers in Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic and visual understanding of man is a hotly debated issue in contemporary culture. I found it important therefore to look at certain historical, cultural, aesthetical, philosophical and anthropological peculiarities of human image in Antiquity as reflected in the arts. The following aspects deserve special attention: the visualization of sense and values; the interaction of “ethos” (character and “soma” (body; the influence of the plastic images on the narrative ones; a normative typology of man; the significance of visual and acoustic perception. In this context, I studied ancient physiognomic; Aristotelian understanding of the acoustic and plastic arts; genesis, evolution and significance of the sculptural portrait image of man and the image of philosopher in Antiquity. I also pay attention to some methodological aspects of the study. As a result, there emerges an integral image of philosopher, which allows looking at the Greek culture from a fresh angle.

  4. Home-based telecommuting and quality of life: further evidence on an employee-oriented human resource practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Severin; Glaser, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    Building on previous research, further evidence for the potential of home-based telecommuting as an employee-oriented human resource practice is provided from a study in the German public administration. Survey data from 1,008 public employees were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Mean age of the sample was 43.6 yr. (SD = 8.8 yr.), and 27.5% (277) of the participants were women. Analysis supported the roles of higher Autonomy and lower Work-Family Conflict as psychological mediators between Telecommunication Intensity and both Job Satisfaction and Quality of Life. Implications for the design of flexible working arrangements are discussed.

  5. Synonymous Mutations at the Beginning of the Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Gene Impact Experimental Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Aneth S; Venev, Sergey V; Whitfield, Troy W; Caffrey, Daniel R; Marasco, Wayne A; Schiffer, Celia A; Kowalik, Timothy F; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Finberg, Robert W; Zeldovich, Konstantin B; Wang, Jennifer P; Bolon, Daniel N A

    2018-04-13

    The fitness effects of synonymous mutations can provide insights into biological and evolutionary mechanisms. We analyzed the experimental fitness effects of all single-nucleotide mutations, including synonymous substitutions, at the beginning of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Many synonymous substitutions were deleterious both in bulk competition and for individually isolated clones. Investigating protein and RNA levels of a subset of individually expressed HA variants revealed that multiple biochemical properties contribute to the observed experimental fitness effects. Our results indicate that a structural element in the HA segment viral RNA may influence fitness. Examination of naturally evolved sequences in human hosts indicates a preference for the unfolded state of this structural element compared to that found in swine hosts. Our overall results reveal that synonymous mutations may have greater fitness consequences than indicated by simple models of sequence conservation, and we discuss the implications of this finding for commonly used evolutionary tests and analyses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Closest to the Heart--The Life of Emerson Hynes: A Biographical Study of Human Goodness with a Focus on the College Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofell, Jeanne Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined human goodness as lived through the life of Emerson Hynes with a focus on the college years. Emerson Hynes was an ethics and sociology professor at St. John's University during the 1940s and 50s before he became legislative assistant to Senator Eugene McCarthy. He cared deeply about ethics and was a leader in family life,…

  7. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  8. Stories from the Classroom: The Developing Beliefs and Practices of Beginning Primary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the developing beliefs and practices of six beginning primary teachers. Their accounts reveal practices indicative of contemporary approaches to teaching and learning in mathematics. Additionally, a consistency appears to exist between the beliefs and practices of the beginning teachers, and the ideals for mathematics teaching…

  9. Entering the Field: Beginning Teachers' Positioning Experiences of the Staffroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Erin; Rossi, Tony; lisahunter; Tinning, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about beginning teachers' political positioning experiences of the staffroom. This paper employs Bourdieu's conceptual tools of field, habitus and capital to explore beginning health and physical education teachers' positioning experiences and learning in staffrooms, the place in which teachers spend the majority of their…

  10. Beginning Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Stress and the Supposed Effects of Induction Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Slof, Bert; Vermue, Carlien E.; Canrinus, Esther T.

    2012-01-01

    Induction arrangements are implemented in schools all over the world to support beginning teachers (BTs) (novices) in gradually growing into their profession. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into two key psychological processes involved in the work of a qualified beginning teacher, namely perceived stress and self-efficacy. This…

  11. Beginning teachers' self-efficacy and stress and the supposed effects of induction arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Slof, Bert; Vermue, Carlien E.; Canrinus, Esther. T.

    2012-01-01

    Induction arrangements are implemented in schools all over the world to support beginning teachers (BTs) (novices) in gradually growing into their profession. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into two key psychological processes involved in the work of a qualified beginning teacher,

  12. Energetics of feeding, social behavior, and life history in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery Thompson, Melissa

    2017-05-01

    Energy is a variable of key importance to a wide range of research in primate behavioral ecology, life history, and conservation. However, obtaining detailed data on variation in energetic condition, and its biological consequences, has been a considerable challenge. In the past 20years, tremendous strides have been made towards non-invasive methods for monitoring the physiology of animals in their natural environment. These methods provide detailed, individualized data about energetic condition, as well as energy allocations to growth, reproduction, and somatic health. In doing so, they add much-needed resolution by which to move beyond correlative studies to research programs that can discriminate causes from effects and disaggregate multiple correlated features of the social and physical environment. In this review, I describe the conceptual and methodological approaches for studying primate energetics. I then discuss the core questions about primate feeding ecology, social behavior, and life history that can benefit from physiological studies, highlighting the ways in which recent research has done so. Among these are studies that test, and often refute, common assumptions about how feeding ecology shapes primate biology, and those that reveal proximate associations between energetics and reproductive strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental evaluation of a system for human life detection under debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joju, Reshma; Konica, Pimplapure Ramya T.; Alex, Zachariah C.

    2017-11-01

    It is difficult to for the human beings to be found under debris or behind the walls in case of military applications. Due to which several rescue techniques such as robotic systems, optical devices, and acoustic devices were used. But if victim was unconscious then these rescue system failed. We conducted an experimental analysis on whether the microwaves could detect heart beat and breathing signals of human beings trapped under collapsed debris. For our analysis we used RADAR based on by Doppler shift effect. We calculated the minimum speed that the RADAR could detect. We checked the frequency variation by placing the RADAR at a fixed position and placing the object in motion at different distances. We checked the frequency variation by using objects of different materials as debris behind which the motion was made. The graphs of different analysis were plotted.

  14. Human practice in the life cycle of complex systems. Challenges and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuutinen, M.; Luoma, J.

    2005-12-01

    This book describes the current and near future challenges in work and traffic environments in light of the rapid technology development. It focuses on the following domains: road and vessel traffic, nuclear power production, automatic mining, steel factory and the pulp and paper industry. Each example concerns complex technical systems where human practice and behaviour has an important role for the safety, efficiency and productivity of the system. The articles illustrate the enormous field of human-related research when considering the design, validation, implementation, operation and maintenance of complex sociotechnical systems. Nevertheless, these 14 chapters are only examples of the range of questions related to the issue. The authors of the book are VTT experts in work or traffic psychology and research, system usability, risk and safety analysis, virtual environments and they have experience in studying different domains. This book is an attempt to open up the complex world of human-technology interaction for readers facing practical problems with complex systems. It is aimed to help a technical or organisational designer, a policy-maker, an expert or 'a user', the one who works or lives within the technology. (orig.)

  15. Ge-Si single crystal growth when the begining of an ingot prepared by a new method is used as the begining of the feeding alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahirov, V.I.; Quliyev, A.F.; Hasanov, Z.Y.; Qahramanov, N.F.

    2008-01-01

    Ge-Si system is used to describe binary solid solution single crystal growth when the beginning of the ingot prepared by a new method is used as the beginning of the feeding alloy. At first the feeding ingot is prepared by Bridgman method, then it is exposed to the zone melting. Content distribution of the feeding alloy and the grown crystal is determined by solving the continuity equation. The crystals grown by this method can be used for construction of the vary-zone structures

  16. Displacement effects of heavy human use on coral reef predators within the Molokini Marine Life Conservation District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filous, Alexander; Friedlander, Alan M; Koike, Haruko; Lammers, Marc; Wong, Adam; Stone, Kristy; Sparks, Russell T

    2017-08-15

    The impact of marine ecotourism on reef predators is poorly understood and there is growing concern that overcrowding in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) may disturb the species that these areas were established to protect. To improve our understanding of this issue, we used acoustic telemetry to examine the relationship between human activity at the Molokini Marine Life Conservation District (MLCD) and the habitat use of five reef-associated predators (Caranx melampygus, Caranx ignobilis, Triaenodon obesus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, and Aprion virscens). During peak hours of human use, there was a negative relationship (R 2 =0.77, P<0.001) between the presence of bluefin trevally (Caranx melampygus) and vessels in subzone A. No other species showed strong evidence of this relationship. However, our results suggest that during this time, the natural ecosystem function that the reserve was established to protect may be compromised and overcrowding should be considered when managing MPAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beginning Teachers' Job Satisfaction: The Impact of School-Based Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Bick-har; Yan, Hoi-fai

    2011-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the job satisfaction and career development of beginning teachers are explored in the present study. Beginning teachers were initially interviewed after graduation from the teacher training programme and then after gaining a two-year teaching experience. The results are presented in a fourfold typology in which the…

  18. The Importance of the Beginning Teachers' Psychological Contract: A Pathway toward Flourishing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollansky, Tracy D.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the profession with notions about what their school organization will provide for them and what they will give their organization, in exchange. Psychological contracts, as defined by Schein exist between beginning teachers and their organization. I contend, with the use of a conceptual framework, that if the implicit terms…

  19. A Model for Online Support in Classroom Management: Perceptions of Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Credence; Gentry, James; Larmer, William

    2016-01-01

    Classroom management is a challenge for beginning teachers. To address this challenge, a model to provide support for beginning teachers was developed, consisting of a one-day workshop on classroom management, followed with online support extending over eight weeks. Specific classroom management strategies included (a) developing a foundation…

  20. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  1. A model to predict the beginning of the pollen season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    1991-01-01

    for fruit trees are generally applicable, and give a reasonable description of the growth processes of other trees. This type of model can therefore be of value in predicting the start of the pollen season. The predicted dates were generally within 3-5 days of the observed. Finally the possibility of frost...

  2. Remarks on the ''beginning'' and the ''end'' of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppert, W.

    1980-11-01

    The concept of time is discussed. If time is defined with physical objects, one is led to the contradiction of eternity with finite duration. It is possible to avoid this contradiction by the introduction of different types of time. The concepts of superspace and ''many-fingered time'' are expressions for the variety of times, and not for the breakdown of the concept of time. With the aid of the distinctions of different well-defined notions of time, knowledge about the time-dependent laws of Nature increases

  3. Dogs' (Canis familiaris) attention to human perception: Influence of breed groups and life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Marianne T E; Turner, Dennis C; Manser, Marta B

    2017-02-01

    Attending to the perception of others may help individuals gaining information from conspecifics, or help in competitive situations. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are attentive to humans' signals and their attentional state. We investigated whether dogs of different breed groups differ in their ability to pay attention to human's perception, first according to the genetic relatedness between dog breeds, and second according to working style differences. Once dogs had learned to leave forbidden food on the floor, they were confronted with 2 food items to which only they had unrestricted visual access. The owners saw either none or 1 food item through a transparent barrier. Our results showed that dogs pay attention to the perception of humans, whereby differences between breed groups became obvious. Within different genetic groups, ancient and hunting type dogs performed similarly, they were more attentive to their owners' perception than shepherd and the mastiff type dogs. When comparing dogs classified according to their working style, independent workers and family dogs were attentive to the owner's perception, while cooperative workers seemed not. The dogs' choice could not be explained by a general or training induced preference for eating behind an opaque screen, or by an influence of the owner's possible intention to prevent the dog from taking the food item he could see. Our study confirms that dogs are attentive/sensitive to human's perception, but genetic and working style differences among the breeds, as well as dog sport experiences explain part of the variation seen in their performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Local innovation systems in Poland - the beginning of the road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziemianowicz Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local innovation systems (LIS constitute a relatively new term as usually the discussion about the systemic approach to innovation has focused on the level of countries, and most of all - regions. In this article an attempt was made to assess Polish municipalities from the perspective of their potential for development of local innovative systems. The performed factor analysis allowed characterization of five types of institution networks which may impact creation and development of LIS. The study was completed with case studies in selected voivodeship cities as centres of the highest concentration of institutions usually building local innovation systems, three of which were capitals of the poorest regions in Poland.

  5. The beginning of African biblical interpretation: The bible among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to the translation of the Bible in Africa, Africans were already engaging with the Bible, initially as an iconic object of power and then as an aural object. In the first section of this article I attempt to detect elements of the early reception of the Bible among the BaTlhaping people. The second section of the article then ...

  6. Tacit Beginnings towards a Model of Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Rory J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an examination of the role tacit knowledge plays in understanding, and to provide a model to make such knowledge identifiable. To do this I first consider the needs of society, the ubiquity of information in our world and the future demands of the science classroom. I propose the use of more implicit or…

  7. BEGINNING TAGALOG, A COURSE FOR SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOWEN, J. DONALD; AND OTHERS

    THE TWO MAJOR GOALS OF THIS COMPREHENSIVE COURSE ARE--FIRST, AN ORAL CONTROL OF TAGALOG AND SUFFICIENT MASTERY OF ITS STRUCTURE TO CONTINUE INDEPENDENT STUDY, AND SECOND, PRESENTATION OF UP-TO-DATE INFORMATION ABOUT THE SOCIAL CUSTOMS, STANDARDS, VALUES, AND ASPIRATIONS OF THE FILIPINO PEOPLE SO THAT THE LANGUAGE LEARNER MAY PARTICIPATE FULLY IN…

  8. Hilbert's Nullstellensatz and the Beginning of Algebraic Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The objects of study in algebraic geometry are the loci, or zero sets of polynomials. ... of polynomials in n-variables with real coefficients, indexed by some (finite or ... complex, can defined by only finitely many polynomials.) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ...

  9. Joint assessment of specific sites for ITER begins at Clarington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Clarington, Ontario, Canada was the subject of the first official stage of the Joint Assessment of Specific Sites (JASS) for the ITER Project. The Assessment is part of the Negotiations process and is being conducted by an ad-hoc group of the Negotiators with representatives from Canada, the European Union, Japan and Russian Federation, supported by the ITER international team. The evaluation was conducted over four days through a series of visits to the site itself, a review of materials included in Canada's submission to host ITER, presentations from group leading Canada's offer and experts on specific aspects of the offer

  10. An unexpected beginning of year on the international petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum market seems to enter a durable easing phase in 1998. Most of price projections are between 16 and 18 U.S. Dollar per barrel of Brent, which represents a 1 to 2 U.S. Dollar reduction with respect to the same projections realized in December 1997. This paper analyzes the reasons of this situation and the possible duration of their effects: increase of the OPEC's production quotas in the end of November, the renewal of the resolution 986 of the United Nations concerning Iraq exports, and a mild winter and the Asian crisis which reduces the worldwide demand. (J.S.)

  11. China at the beginning of 3rd millennium: geopolitical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pintescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and briefly examines the main geohistorical, geoeconomic and geostrategic advantages of China, related to this attempt to become a regional hegemonic power and, in special circumstances, a worldwide superpower. First, is presented a historical background of the country, a source of self-confidence and rise of the so-called “Chinese mentality”, different of Western mentality. Further is shown the essence of the Chinese contemporary naval strategy (Haijun Zhanlue, currently an essential element of geostrategy of this country. Policies and economic resources of the country – the fundamental elements of its geopolitics – are more detailed presented. The final part of the article reviews and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of strategic policy towards Central Asia and China’s fundamental goal – gaining of the regional hegemonic power status.In conclusion, the authors consider that in order to become the first superpower of the world in the next 2-3 decades, China needs a mixture of brilliant leadership, economic growth, modernization (not Westernization!, Chinese mentality and “Chinese way of life” (last two based on Tao. If a single element of this combination will not work properly, this “Chinese dream” will not be achieved.

  12. [The and beginnings of Chilean endocrinology in the 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Delgado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Rejuvenation was a chapter of critical importance for the worldwide development of endocrinology in the 1920s. This work explores the acceptance of these techniques in Chile. Starting in the late 19th century, the Chilean Medical Journal (Revista Médica de Chile) incorporated references to experiments with endocrine gland preparations that were being conducted in Europe at the time. An appropriation of the experiments by the Austrian Eugen Steinach began in 1920, with prominent figures such as the Italian professor Juan Noe Crevani and the young Chilean student Ottmar Wilhelm. Between 1922 and 1924, Wilhelm developed a series of experiments on dogs, bulls, pigs, rats and Welfare Board patients through the so-called Steinach operation, which consisted of the sectioning of the efferent channel in one of the testicles. Professor Noe's scientific patronage policy and Wilhelm's strategy of succession in the field led the latter to hold a chair in the new School of Medicine of Universidad de Concepci6n at the age of 25. From this position, the. figure of Wilhelm was fundamental for the development of a line of endocrinological research that was able to position Universidad de Concepci6n as a scientific development centre, which was strengthened by the arrival of another disciple of Steinach in Chile, the Latvian professor Alejandro Lipschütz.

  13. The Beginnings of Resilience: A View Across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A close read of studies of children's development says that remarkably large numbers of children mature successfully despite exposure to poverty, war, violence, family dislocation, cultural genocide, sexual abuse, physical injury, mental illness, loss of a parent, loneliness, hunger, neglect and the numerous other crimes one commits against…

  14. Spongelike Acquisition of Sight Vocabulary in Beginning Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Morag; Masterson, Jackie; Dixon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relation between phonological awareness, sound-to-letter mapping knowledge, and printed word learning in novice five-year-old readers. Explores effects of visual memory and of teaching methods. Finds mental representations of printed words are more easily formed by beginners who are able to match at least some of the phonological…

  15. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B

    2015-04-01

    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Counterexamples from elementary calculus to the beginnings of analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bourchtein, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionCommentsOn the structure of this bookOn mathematical language and notationBackground (elements of theory)SetsFunctionsFUNCTIONS OF ONE REAL VARIABLEElementary properties of functionsElements of theoryFunction definitionBoundednessPeriodicityEven/odd functionsMonotonicityExtremaExercisesLimitsElements of theoryConceptsElementary properties (arithmetic and comparative)ExercisesContinuityElements of theoryLocal propertiesGlobal properties: general resultsGlobal properties: the famous theorems Mapping setsWeierstrass theoremsIntermediate Value theoremUniform continuityExercisesDifferentiationElements of theoryConceptsLocal propertiesGlobal propertiesApplicationsTangent lineMonotonicity and local extremaConvexity and inflectionAsymptotesL'Hospital's ruleExercisesIntegralsElements of theoryIndefinite integralDefinite (Riemann) integralImproper integralsApplicationsExercisesSequences and seriesElements of theoryNumerical sequencesNumerical series: convergence and elementary propertiesNumerical series: co...

  17. Complex numbers, quantum mechanics and the beginning of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Pohle, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    A basic problem in quantizing a field in curved space is the decomposition of the classical modes in positive and negative frequency. The decomposition is equivalent to a choice of a complex structure in the space of classical solutions. In our construction the real tunneling geometries provide the link between this complex structure and analytic properties of the classical solutions in a riemannian section of space. This is related to the Osterwalder-Schrader approach to euclidean field theory. (orig.)

  18. [Foundational questions in the beginning of clinical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Glauco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes an initial survey on the origins of American clinical psychology between the nineteenth and twentieth century, against a backdrop of historiographical interpretation that hypothesizes a "plurality of matrices" of clinical psychology, linked to different theoretical perspectives and different socio-cultural contexts. Particular attention is focused upon the main foundational issues of the discipline, drawing from some of the writings of Lightner Witmer, to whom we owe the founding of the first "clinical psychology" for subjects in childhood characterized by "retardation or physical defects interfering with school progress"; and of a lesser-known scholar, John E.W. Wallin. Both authors, indeed, worry themselves anxious to define clinical psychology, differentiating it from other medical and psychological branches; to establish which is the field of competence of the clinical psychologist; and to outline their training and specify the aims and contents of their intervention. Attention is then addressed to the relationship psychologists-psychiatrists at the time of its emergence, making specific reference to a document of the New York Psychiatrical Society--which represents one of the first attempts to exclude clinical psychologists from the field of mental health--and reporting also on the response to this position signed by Shepherd Franz. After an allusion to the Italian situation from the 1950s to today, the article concludes by emphasizing that at least some of the basic questions that clinical psychology had to deal with at its birth are still present, though filtered through the intense debate that has taken place over the years, and consequently supporting the importance of a historical component in the training of contemporary clinical psychologists.

  19. The electrification of the world begins at Labastide-Murat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matly, M.

    2001-01-01

    There is a basic historical contradiction in France being the leader in public electrification while at the same time the French state has never assumed the associated financial or business risks. The electrification of the country has been built virtually entirely around decentralized initiatives and the national company has only completed, modernized and managed the existing system though doubtless with a great deal of professionalism and success. It is probably this very professionalism and success which have given electrical producers an the Third World, (seeking a role model in the developed world), a false image of the future of this sector, presenting it as that of a large company moving from the centre outwards, from the town to the rural world. Beyond the ideologies of public versus private which have left their mark on the history of electricity for several decades, the French experience gives the image of an electrification programme which is being built up by the will of the people, where a centralized and highly legislative State has succeeded in both stimulating a large number of private entrepreneurs, large and small alike, and mobilizing tens of thousands of districts sharing this ambition, as shown by the example of Labastide Murat, a small village in the South West of France. (author)

  20. The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Panosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of writing as a system for communication, since its origins, in terms of its uses and socio-cultural context. We shall also look to review and comment on the way in which it has evolved in time and space and its primordial domains for expression. Likewise, we shall look at the current state of affairs with respect to graphic communication, which includes the alphabet, logographic systems and symbols. From a more global point of view, the relationship between the concept of writing and the concept of civilisation is studied and two dimensions are set out: the oral culture and the written culture.

  1. Tacit Beginnings Towards a Model of Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Rory J.

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an examination of the role tacit knowledge plays in understanding, and to provide a model to make such knowledge identifiable. To do this I first consider the needs of society, the ubiquity of information in our world and the future demands of the science classroom. I propose the use of more implicit or tacit understandings as foundational elements for the development of student knowledge. To justify this proposition I consider a wide range of philosophical and psychological perspectives on knowledge. Then develop a Model of Scientific Knowledge, based in large part on a similar model created by Paul Ernest (Social constructivism as a philosophy of mathematics, SUNY Press, Albany, NY, 1998a; Situated cognition and the learning of mathematics, University of Oxford Department of Educational Studies, Oxford, 1998b). Finally, I consider the work that has been done by those in fields beyond education and the ways in which tacit knowledge can be used as a starting point for knowledge building.

  2. 1986 POLICY: BEGINNING OF NEO-LIBERAL AGENDA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics... VIOLATED THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES OF. EQUALITY & SOCIAL JUSTICE.. INTRODUCED A SOCIO-POLITICAL FAULT FOR NEO-LIBERAL FORCES TO PROMOTE PRINCIPLE OF PARALLEL STREAMS.

  3. The beginning of time observed in quantum jumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Arno [CCQS, Physics Department, University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Bryant, Peter W. [IBM Research, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Uncu, Haydar [Department of Physics, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin (Turkey); Wickramasekara, Sujeev [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA (United States); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Hagler Institute for Advanced Study, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Texas A and M AgriLife, Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The phenomenon of quantum jumps observed in a single ion stored in a trap brings to light intimate connections between three different concepts of quantum physics: (i) quantum state trajectories, (ii) Gamow states, and (iii) the arrow of time. In particular, it allows us to identify the starting time of the semigroup time evolution. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Evidence of "Implemented Anticipation" in Mathematising by Beginning Modellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill P.

    2014-01-01

    Data from open modelling sessions for year 10 and 11 students at an extracurricular modelling event and from a year 9 class participating in a programme of structured modelling of real situations were analysed for evidence of Niss's theoretical construct, "implemented anticipation," during mathematisation. Evidence was found for all…

  5. The Job Realities of Beginning and Experienced Assistant Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Shoho, Alan R.; Oleszewski, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of a cross section of new and experienced assistant principals regarding the realities of their jobs. Findings indicated that their challenges pertain to workload and task management, conflicts with adults and students, and curriculum and instruction issues. Novice and experienced assistant principals' responses…

  6. Lexical Orthographic Knowledge Develops from the Beginning of Literacy Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Catherine; Valdois, Sylviane; Fayol, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study reports two experiments assessing the spelling performance of French first graders after 3 months and after 9 months of literacy instruction. The participants were asked to spell high and low frequency irregular words (Experiment 1) and pseudowords, some of which had lexical neighbours (Experiment 2). The lexical database which children…

  7. Beyond the Cut Hunter: A Historical Epidemiology of HIV Beginnings in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Stephanie; Ambata, Philippe; Narat, Victor; Giles-Vernick, Tamara

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of direct evidence, an imagined "cut hunter" stands in for the index patient of pandemic HIV/AIDS. During the early years of colonial rule, this explanation goes, a hunter was cut or injured from hunting or butchering a chimpanzee infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, resulting in the first sustained human infection with the virus that would emerge as HIV-1M. We argue here that the "cut hunter" relies on a historical misunderstanding and ecological oversimplification of human-chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes troglodytes) interactions that facilitated pathogenic transmission. This initial host shift cannot explain the beginnings of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Instead, we must understand the processes by which the virus became transmissible, possibly between Sangha basin inhabitants and ultimately reached Kinshasa. A historical epidemiology of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, provides a much-needed corrective to the major shortcomings of the cut hunter. Based on 62 oral historical interviews conducted in southeastern Cameroon and archival research, we show that HIV emerged from ecological, economic, and socio-political transformations of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The gradual imposition of colonial rule built on and reoriented ecologies and economies, and altered older patterns of mobility and sociality. Certain changes may have contributed to the initial viral host shift, but more importantly, facilitated the adaptation of HIV-1M to human-to-human transmission. Our evidence suggests that the most critical changes occurred after 1920. This argument has important implications for public health policy, underscoring recent work emphasizing alternative pathways for zoonotic spillovers into human beings.

  8. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar neutrino physics on the beginning of 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani Francesko

    2017-01-01

    This writeup is a review of current hot topics on solar neutrinos. It is based on a talk at the conference ''Neutrinos: the quest for a new physics scale'', held at the CERN on March 2017, where the Organizers entrusted me with a discussion of the provocative question ''whether solar neutrino physics is over''. Rather than providing a straight (negative) answer, in view of an audience consisting mostly of colleagues working in theoretical particle physics, I deemed it more useful providing a description of what is the current activity of the physicists working in solar neutrinos, leaving the listener free of forming his/her own opinion apropos.

  10. John Ambrose Fleming and the Beginning of Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Dylla; Steve Corneliussen

    2004-11-01

    2004 was the centenary of John Ambrose Fleming's momentous patent on the thermionic diode that can be called the birth of electronics. The ''Edison effect'' was discovered in 1882; this was later shown to be the result of thermionic emission of electrons from a heated filament into a vacuum. Edison did not make any significant devices based on this discovery, and the effect was ignored for more than 8 years. In 1890 Fleming explained the effect and showed that the thermionic diode could be used as a rectifier. Fourteen years later Fleming filed his 1904 patent on the thermionic diode. It was the first public announcement of the electron tube; this revolutionized the development of radio and led to the invention of the thermionic triode by Lee de Forest in 1906. The background to these events will be described.

  11. Solar neutrino physics on the beginning of 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Vissani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This writeup is a review of current hot topics on solar neutrinos. It is based on a talk at the conference “Neutrinos: the quest for a new physics scale”, held at the CERN on March 2017, where the Organizers entrusted me with a discussion of the provocative question “whether solar neutrino physics is over”. Rather than providing a straight (negative answer, in view of an audience consisting mostly of colleagues working in theoretical particle physics, I deemed it more useful providing a description of what is the current activity of the physicists working in solar neutrinos, leaving the listener free of forming his/her own opinion apropos.

  12. Minimalism as civilization paradigmat the beginning of the 21. century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The term minimalism is currently used descriptively to refer to a style marked by a certain asceticism in the art, architecture and design. It has begun from American Minimal Art of the 1960s in the fields of painting and sculpture and has filtered into other sectors of society. It is now found in fashion, music, literature and interior decoration, as well as architecture. Minimalisms has come to define the result of the use of simple geometric forms, pure and simple lines, the modular principle, surfaces with a smooth industrial appearance that negate any character of handmade individuality. As far as architecture is concerned, minimalism is characterized by the emphasis on essential elements - like light and the way it falls on the volumes and masses that make up buildings and shape space and structure. Linear structures and essential geometric forms define identity but despite the apparent simplicity of these works the effect they make is extremely complex.

  13. Marginalia as the beginning of written culture: The Glosas Emilianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šabec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Glosas emilianenses are notes in Latin and in a Romance language dating from the eleventh century, written by an anonymous monk between the lines and in the margins of a Latin manuscript known as Codex Aemilianensis 60 to explicate syntactic, morphological, and semantic difficulties in understanding the original. The document was named after its place of origin, a monastery in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, known as “the cradle of Castilian.” The non-Latin Romance glosses are believed to be the first written accounts of the language that later evolved into present-day Castilian or Spanish; they are therefore invaluable historical, linguistic, literary, and cultural material. The place and time of the origin of the glosses are not a coincidence, but a consequence of particular historical circumstances in the Iberian Peninsula. The Moorish invasion in 711 AD destroyed the Visigothic Kingdom and constrained the development of Christian culture, confining it to two independent cores in the north. The ninth century therefore saw the establishment of the County of Castile emerging from the two cores as the predecessor of the Kingdom of Castile (1065. Due to turbulent historical events, the place was populated by people from various adjacent and rather distant countries, thus making the spoken language a mixture of several varieties of Vulgar Latin, Mozarabic, and Navarrian (Basque elements. All of these features are reflected in the glosses in the San Millán manuscript. Therefore, it is difficult for linguists to name the variant of the Romance language the glosses were written in: “the Riojan dialect,” “a vernacular Castilian-Riojan dialect of the second half of the eleventh century displaying tendencies towards learned Latin,” or “a Riojan dialect with elements more common to neighboring dialects (Aragon, Navarrian, Léon, and Mozarabic than to Castilian.” However, because the San Millán glosses also include elements

  14. The biopuces: the begining of a real medical revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The biopuces of DNA analysis is an ambitious project. In ten years, the biopuces will be the main tools for medicine, especially in diagnosis. The DNA hybridization consists to combine DNA sequences of a sample with specific synthesized complementary DNA sequences, called DNA probes, which are easily detectable. It permits to have information about the presence of the selected DNA sequence in the Sample. On a biopuce, this operation is achieved by grafting the corresponding probes to a common support (F.M.)

  15. Humble beginnings: Current trends, state perspectives, and hallmarks of humility

    OpenAIRE

    Chancellor, J; Lyubomirsky, S

    2013-01-01

    After decades of neglect, research in humility is finally turning a corner. Within the past few years, investigators have articulated two promising strategies to overcome methodological concerns - namely, using personality judgments and designing humility "stress tests" to elicit humility-relevant behavior. We also highlight an alternative perspective of humility that has not yet gained much attention: the investigation of humility as a state, which helps to understand what humility actually ...

  16. LHC Report: perhaps the end of the beginning

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 6.5 TeV proton run will end on the morning of 4 November as we approach the close of an interesting but somewhat challenging year. Following machine development time and a technical stop, the LHC will restart operation with a proton-proton configuration at 2.51 TeV in the middle of November. Data from this special run will be used by the experiments as a reference point for the proton-lead and lead-lead collisions.     The rate of UFOs per hour has dropped since the first high-intensity runs. Here it is seen after the first scrubbing run (SR1), through the second technical stop (TS2) until now (right end of the abscissae). As of the end of October, the LHC is delivering luminosity in the order of 4.8x1033 cm-2s-1 to ATLAS and CMS, 3x1032 cm-2s-1 to LHCb and 5x1030 cm-2s-1 to ALICE, with an integrated luminosity of around 3.5 fb-1 for both ATLAS and CMS. Looking back, the year’s operations can be roughly divided into four main phases, interspersed with technica...

  17. Life Written in Bytes . The Superinformacional and New Technologies Company : Will the End of Privacy and Human Dignity ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Aparecida Gomes Rodrigues Fermentão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent technologies have changed the way media of the human being, which shall establish direct contact with many people anywhere in the world. Allied to this fact, there is a virtualization increasing the human person, culminating in an immersion in the virtual world, which ultimately creates an increasing dependence on technology in order to exist socially. This transformation in the world of concepts makes the virtual pass to have direct impact in the real world. Attracted by the glitter and glamor of virtual network, the person finds no limits to their self-promotion. The private life is increasingly exposed to an undetermined number of people. So the person who is exposed in the virtual media in search of acceptance, forgets that it is not only stripping of his clothes or his privacy, but mainly is stripped of his dignity. The frantic search for some "tanned" finds no limit on common sense, coisificando the person and transforming it into mere virtual profile. The human person is in this state, the total lack of dignity, without realizing it, it becomes an object on display. The internet is a stage conducive to the spectacle of the self virtual, making it fertile ground for the indignity. The history of civilization dating back to fighting and winning the dignity of the human person, however, the time in which we live watch a reverse movement. Contemporaneously it is no longer the state or private to be constant threat to human dignity. Those who, seduced by the possibility of becoming the personality of the time, voluntarily abdicate their dignity in a process whose reversibility is questionable. The legislation can not keep up the speed of the transformations occurred in the virtual world and this mismatch can leave unprotected person especially in relation to their rights to intimacy, privacy and human dignity itself.

  18. The Infant Monitor of Vocal Production: Simple Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robyn Cantle

    2014-01-01

    The Infant Monitor of vocal Production (IMP) was conceived as an educational strategy to help parents understand the nature and pace of their baby's vocal development following neonatal diagnosis and amplification for hearing loss. The potential for other clinical applications emerged with use. The instrument presents as a series of…

  19. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Family Background of Beginning Education Students: Implications for Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Roger A.; Coll, Kenneth M.; Osguthorpe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education has not historically focused on the social and emotional development of teachers even though there is evidence that such variables influence student success (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). We believe such a focus is important and we explored variables in teacher education students' families of origin that underpin social and…

  1. Beginnings of remote handling at the RAL Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, D.J.; Hirst, J.

    1985-01-01

    Expenditure of funds and resources for remote maintenance systems traditionally are delayed until late in an accelerator's development. However, simple remote-surveillance equipment can be included early in facility planning to set the stage for future remote-handling needs and to identify appropriate personnel. Some basic equipment developed in the UK at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) that serves this function and that has been used to monitor beam loss during commissioning is described. A photograph of this equipment, positioned over the extractor septum magnet, is shown. This method can serve as a pattern approach to the problem of initiating remote-handling activities in other facilities

  2. The Tree of Life Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…

  3. Since the beginning of the century, the country has undertaken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peninah

    commonly used are static ponds and raceway systems. ... efficient and cost effective ways of food production, especially in sub-Saharan Africa ... in Kenya is estimated at around 24,000 metric tonnes, accounting ... Historical Background.

  4. The beginning of gamma-ray astronomy with Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paneque, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Fermi observatory is designed to perform gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range 20 MeV to 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 10 keV to 30 MeV. Fermi was successfully launched on June 11 (2008) from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral. The main instrument of Fermi is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), which provides break-through high-energy measurements using techniques typically used in particle detectors for collider experiments. The LAT consists of 16 identical towers in a four-by-four grid, each one containing a pair conversion tracker and a hodoscopic crystal calorimeter, all covered by a segmented plastic scintillator anti-coincidence shield. The LAT is currently monitoring the GeV gamma-ray sky with rather uniform exposure (covering 20% of the sky at any instant and the entire sky on a timescale of a few hours) and a sensitivity ∼ 30 times better than its predecessor, EGRET. The large performance improvement of LAT opens a new and important window on a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena, as well as potential to discover/study non-conventional physics. In the talk I will report the instrument performance, the mission status and science opportunities and will present some results derived from the first months of operation, which includes astronomical telegrams on AGN flares, 2 GCN circulars on LAT-detected GRBs and the monitoring of some selected sources (22 blazars and 1 high mass X-ray Binary). (author)

  5. Some Competition Programming Problems as the Beginning of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Boris MELNIKOV; Elena MELNIKOVA

    2007-01-01

    We consider in this paper some programming competition problems (which are near to some problems of ACM competitions) of the following subjects: we can make their solution using both Prolog and a classical procedure-oriented language. Moreover, the considered problems are selected that their solution in Prolog and in a classical procedure-oriented language are similar - i.e., in other words, they use the same working mechanism, the same approach to constructing recursive functions etc. Howeve...

  6. The Beginning of the End for Digital Forensic Recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Baxter Bell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-AU X-NONE X-NONE Digital evidence is increasingly relied upon in computer forensic examinations and legal proceedings in the modern courtroom. The primary storage technology used for digital information has remained constant over the last two decades, in the form of the magnetic disc. Consequently, investigative, forensic, and judicial procedures are well-established for magnetic disc storage devices (Carrier, 2005. However, a paradigm shift has taken place in technology storage and complex, transistor-based devices for primary storage are now increasingly common. Most people are aware of the transition from portable magnetic floppy discs to portable USB transistor flash devices, yet the transition from magnetic hard drives to solid-state drives inside modern computers has so far attracted very little attention from the research community.Here we show that it is imprudent and potentially reckless to rely on existing evidence collection processes and procedures, and we demonstrate that conventional assumptions about the behaviour of storage media are no longer valid. In particular we demonstrate that modern storage devices can operate under their own volition in the absence of computer instructions. Such operations are highly destructive of traditionally recoverable data. This can contaminate evidence; can obfuscate and make validation of digital evidence reports difficult; can complicate the process of live and dead analysis recovery; and can complicate and frustrate the post recovery forensic analysis. Our experimental findings demonstrate that solid-state drives (SSDs have the capacity to destroy evidence catastrophically under their own volition, in the absence of specific instructions to do so from a computer.

  7. The beginnings of dermatopathology and dermatologic microbiology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, E

    2014-03-01

    Crisóstomo Martínez from Valencia was a pioneering microscopist in 17th-century Europe. The first microscopic representations of skin in Spain appeared in an 18th-century work by Martín Martínez. Microbiology and histopathology progressed considerably in the late 19th century thanks to anatomists like Maestre de San Juan and surgeons like Federico Rubio Galí. The first Spanish pathologist to specialize in dermatology was Antonio Mendoza, a colleague of José Eugenio de Olavide at the Hospital San Juan de Dios in Madrid. Claudio Sala and Juan de Azúa also made significant contributions, including the description of pseudoepithelioma. Several disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Jorge FranciscoTello, such as Lorenzo Ruiz de Arcaute and Guillermo de la Rosa King, consolidated the dermatology laboratory, but the Civil War sent many into exile or deprived them of their professional status. Juan Rubió in Barcelona and Julio Rodríguez Puchol in Madrid were the immediate predecessors of today's dermatopathologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Before we begin. The importance of antenatal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Mary

    2012-04-01

    A review of the impact of universal antenatal education found that group based programmes which promote the transition to parenthood by focusing on relationships (between the couple and with the baby), and which are participative and build social support, are most likely to be effective (McMillan et al 2009). An Expert Reference Group convened by the Department of Health has designed a Preparation for Birth and Beyond programme to incorporate the evidence about what works and which draws on neurology, sociology and psychology including theories about fetal programming, social capital, self-efficacy, adult learning and health promotion. Learning from the Family Nurse Partnership, the PBB programme builds on parents' strengths and their intrinsic motivation to be the best parents they can for their children.

  9. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors a review of the beginnings

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with µW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm2, retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at > 10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities > 10 cm-2. The noise in a channel was ~100 e- r.m.s. and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level 30 Mrad, respectively.

  10. A letter signed: the very beginnings of Dalton's atomic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Herbert T

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores the provenance and content of a previously unknown personal letter by John Dalton (1766-1844), which is dated 12 April 1803. It relates to a startling breakthrough in Dalton's research, which pre-dates by five months the earliest date in his laboratory notebook, namely, 6 September 1803. The author acquired the letter about thirty years ago, and now offers it to the public. He makes no attempt to explain how it contributes to--or even changes--our understanding of Dalton, but leaves that privilege to Dalton scholars.

  11. Teaching Identity Matching of Braille Characters to Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Karen A.; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2017-01-01

    We taught three children with visual impairments to make tactile discriminations of the braille alphabet within a matching-to-sample format. That is, we presented participants with a braille character as a sample stimulus, and they selected the matching stimulus from a three-comparison array. In order to minimize participant errors, we initially…

  12. Regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms at the beginning of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... 95% air at 37°C in medium DMEM/F12 'GIBCO' which contains ... Equal volume of Buffer 3 (0.32 M Sucrose, 10 mM Tris- ..... Nucleic Acids Res. ... Invest. 122 2519–2530. Vasiliev GV, Merkulov VM, Kobzev VF, Merkulova TI,.

  13. The international year of pulses was just the beginning | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... Pulses require 20 times less water than animal products to grow; and ... women, who are mainly involved in their production and marketing. ... In Uganda and Kenya, one project funded by IDRC and the Australian Centre for International ... (the process of integrating other foods and liquids along with breast ...

  14. The End of Public Schools? Or a New Beginning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, David; Martina, Camille Anne

    2016-01-01

    Public education is becoming increasingly privatized as private philanthropic organizations, such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and corporations, such as Pearson, dominate the policy-making process, and more students enroll in publicly funded but privately administered charter schools. The privatization of education results from the…

  15. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors: a review of the beginnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, E.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with μW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm 2 , retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at >10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities >10 cm -2 . The noise in a channel was ∼100e - rms and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level -8 . Rectangular pixels from 75 μmx500 μm down to 34 μmx125 μm have been used by different teams. In binary mode a tracking precision from 6 to 14 μm was obtained, and using analog interpolation one came close to 1 μm. Earlier work, still based on charge integrating imaging circuits, provided a starting point. Two systems each with more than 1 million sensor + readout channels have been built, for WA97-NA57 and for the Delphi very forward tracker. The use of 0.5 μm and 0.25 μm CMOS and enclosed geometry for the transistors in the pixel readout chips resulted in radiation hardness of ∼2 Mrad, respectively, >30 Mrad

  16. (DeHumanizing Humor: The Anthill of Life and Politics in the Theatre of Sabina Berman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Meléndez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines several theatrical works of this Mexican dramatist by means of ironic humor as a powerful resource to examine the nature of human communication, and to expose the serious and devastating social and political aspects of contemporary culture: machismo, political corruption, sexual violence, sexism, exploitation, historical manipulation, and hopelessness. In a tense environment where humor might not seem appropriate, Berman masterfully uses and critically examines it as a means to understand humor’s serious implications and its comic imperfections, as she subtly recurs to but also parodies some of the most recognized theories of humor. Berman’s use of incongruity highlights the tension in her theatrical production, in which even the most sordid acts are counterbalanced by irony, which produces not only surprise or pain in the face of the unexpected, but also pleasure. Perhaps that is why she incorporates the image of the anthill in her reflections about society, politics, history, sexuality, gender identity, and art, where the artist, with her double perspective, like the queen of the “Formicas exsectoides,” is able to interpret the world from both the inside and the outside.

  17. The valuation of nursing begins with identifying value drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2010-03-01

    Adequate investment in a profession links to its ability to define and document its value. This requires identifying those elements or value drivers that demonstrate its worth. To completely identify nursing's value drivers requires meshing the economic, technical, and caring aspects of its profession. Nursing's valuation includes assessing nursing's tangible and intangible assets and documenting these assets. This information communicates nursing's worth and ensures adequate economic investment in its services.

  18. Jacopo da Firenze and the Beginning of Italian Vernacular Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In 1307, one Jacobus de Florentia located at that moment in Montpellier wrote a Tractatus algorismi containing a chapter on algebra. This earliest extant algebra in a European vernacular is noteworthy in several respects: 1.For decades, every writing on algebra in Italy or Montpellier which we know...... but mediated through a Romance-speaking area. The obvious guess (supported by supplementary evidence) is that this area was Catalonia, even though the Catalan-Provencal tradition is only known to us from considerably later sources. Further inspection of Jacopo's algebra and other slightly later Italian...

  19. The beginning of a new era - OTC's satellite business services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Erik

    OTC has developed a new range of digital services which will provide business organizations in Australia with high quality private international telecommunications. This range will be known as Satnet and the paper deals with Satnet 2 which is the service offerings using medium-size earth stations (nominally 5- and 7-meter antenna apertures), installed at customers' premises. These services will rely on the Intelsat 6/4 GHz space segment. Operation will be totally digital and will be integrated with no distinction between individual applications such as voice, data, video, etc. Carrier capacities between 64 kb/s and 8.448 Mb/s can be provided and ISDN performance requirements can be supported. The paper describes key service features, systems design and transmission analysis. Consideration is also given to operation, installation and frequency coordination aspects.

  20. On the status of Ukrainian SSR before the beginning of perestroika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Омарова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies legal status of Ukrainian SSR before the beginning of Perestroika. Constitutional acts, laws and other regulatory acts are analyzed which fixed the status of Ukrainian SSR within USSR. On the basis of study of regulatory sources and monographs we came to conclusion that a contradiction existed between legally fixed and actual status of Ukrainian SSR within USSR before the beginning of Perestroika.

  1. Redetection of human papillomavirus type 16 infections of the cervix in mid-adult life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Ermel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess whether HPV 16 originally detected in adolescent women can be redetected in adulthood. Methods: A convenience sample of 27 adult women with known HPV 16 detection during adolescence was assessed for HPV 16 redetection. A comparison of the long control region (LCR DNA sequences was performed on some of the original and redetected HPV 16 isolates. Results: Median age at reenrollment was 27.5 years (interquartile range of 26.7–29.6. Reenrollment occurred six years on average after the original HPV 16 detection. Eleven of 27 women had HPV 16 redetected. Some of these HPV 16 infections had apparently cleared during adolescence. LCR sequencing was successful in paired isolates from 6 women; in 5 of 6 cases the redetected HPV 16 isolates were identical to those detected during adolescence, Conclusions: HPV 16 may be episodically detected in young women, even over long time periods. HPV 16 redetection with identical LCR sequences suggests low-level persistent infection rather than true clearance, although newly acquired infection with an identical HPV 16 isolate cannot be excluded. However, this study suggests that a new HPV 16-positive test in a clinical setting may not indicate a new infection. Keywords: Human papillomavirus (HPV, Redetection, Latency, Long control region, Sequencing

  2. Bonding Ideas About Inquiry: Exploring Knowledge and Practices of Metacognition in Beginning Secondary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero Arias, Ana Margarita

    Metacognition, identified generally as "thinking about thinking", plays a fundamental role in science education. It enhances the understanding of science as a way to generate new knowledge using scientific concepts and practices. Moreover, metacognition supports the development of students' life-long problem solving, collaboration, and critical thinking skills. When teachers use metacognition with intention, it can promote students' agency and responsibility for their own learning. However, despite all of its benefits, metacognition is rarely seen in secondary science classrooms. Thus, it is important to understand what beginning teachers know and how they use metacognition during their first years in order to find ways to prepare and support them in incorporating metacognitive practices into their science teaching. The purpose of this multimethod study was to describe the metacognitive knowledge and experiences of beginning science teachers. For the quantitative research strand, I surveyed 36 secondary science teachers about their awareness of metacognition and used classroom observations coded from a larger research study to identify how often teachers were using metacognition to teach science. For the qualitative strand, I interviewed 15 participants about their knowledge and experiences of metacognition (including reflective practices) and spent two weeks observing two of the teachers who described exemplary metacognitive teaching practices. I found that participants had a solid awareness of metacognition, but considered the term complicated to enact, difficult for students, and less important to focus on during their first years of teaching than other elements such as content. Additionally, teaching experience seemed to have an effect on teachers' knowledge and experiences of metacognition. However, participants who were using metacognitive practices had recognized their importance since the beginning of their teaching. Reflective practices can help improve

  3. Preliminary assessment of the gender aspects of disaster vulnerability and loss of human life in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tandlich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has reached a medium level of human development and has a heterogeneous situation with respect to disaster risk management. In this article, a preliminary assessment of the gender aspects of disaster vulnerability and fatalities is presented. The United Nations, the Health Systems Trust and Statistics South Africa were used as data sources for the following gender-segregated values: the life expectancy at birth, unemployment rates, the human development index values, the maternal mortality rates and the number of deaths from unnatural and non-natural causes. The relevant inequality indices were then calculated and used to draw conclusions regarding the gender aspects of disaster risk management in South Africa. Results of the calculations indicate that between 1980 and 2011 men were 10% more vulnerable with respect to their health status. However, the gender differences have been decreasing in recent years. Access of women to healthcare is decreasing with time, potentially decreasing the recovery potential of whole families. Women are more economically vulnerable than men in South Africa, as they are 16.3% – 33% more likely to be unemployed than men. Educational status of both genders in South Africa is comparable based on literacy and enrolment rates at primary and secondary level. On the other hand, men are five times more likely to suffer fatal injuries during disasters.

  4. Human practice in the life cycle of complex systems. Challenges and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuutinen, M. (ed.) [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland); Luoma, J. (ed.) [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    This book describes the current and near future challenges in work and traffic environments in light of the rapid technology development. It focuses on the following domains: road and vessel traffic, nuclear power production, automatic mining, steel factory and the pulp and paper industry. Each example concerns complex technical systems where human practice and behaviour has an important role for the safety, efficiency and productivity of the system. The articles illustrate the enormous field of humanrelated research when considering the design, validation, implementation, operation and maintenance of complex sociotechnical systems. Nevertheless, these 14 chapters are only examples of the range of questions related to the issue. The authors of the book are VTT experts in work or traffic psychology and research, system usability, risk and safety analysis, virtual environments and they have experience in studying different domains. This book is an attempt to open up the complex world of human-technology interaction for readers facing practical problems with complex systems. It is aimed to help a technical or organisational designer, a policy- maker, an expert or a user, the one who works or lives within the technology. (orig.)

  5. Water Quality Criteria for Human Health and Aquatic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative effort with the Office of Water to provide science in support of the development and implementation of new or revised ambient water quality criteria for microbial and chemical contaminants for human health and aquatic life. The research also addresses implementation...

  6. Efficacy of a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine in Indian children in the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bavdekar, Ashish; John, Jacob; Antony, Kalpana; Taneja, Sunita; Goyal, Nidhi; Kawade, Anand; Kang, Gagandeep; Rathore, Sudeep Singh; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Arya, Alok; Shaikh, Hanif; Abraham, Vinod; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Proschan, Michael; Kohberger, Robert; Thiry, Georges; Glass, Roger; Greenberg, Harry B; Curlin, George; Mohan, Krishna; Harshavardhan, G V J A; Prasad, Sai; Rao, T S; Boslego, John; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan

    2014-08-11

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in Indian children less than 2 years of age. The 116E rotavirus strain was developed as part of the Indo-US Vaccine Action Program and has undergone efficacy trials. This paper reports the efficacy and additional safety data in children up to 2 years of age. In a double-blind placebo controlled multicenter trial, 6799 infants aged 6-7 weeks were randomized to receive three doses of an oral human-bovine natural reassortant vaccine (116E) or placebo at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks. The primary outcome was severe (≥11 on the Vesikari scale) rotavirus gastroenteritis. Efficacy outcomes and adverse events were ascertained through active surveillance. We randomly assigned 4532 and 2267 subjects to receive vaccine and placebo, respectively, with over 96% subjects receiving all three doses of the vaccine or placebo. The per protocol analyses included 4354 subjects in the vaccine and 2187 subjects in the placebo group. The overall incidence of severe RVGE per 100 person years was 1.3 in the vaccine group and 2.9 in the placebo recipients. Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children up to 2 years of age was 55.1% (95% CI 39.9 to 66.4; pvaccine efficacy in the second year of life of 48.9% (95% CI 17.4 to 68.4; p=0.0056) was only marginally less than in the first year of life [56.3% (95% CI 36.7 to 69.9; pvaccine dose and all were reported only after the third dose. The sustained efficacy of the 116E in the second year of life is reassuring. The trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (# CTRI/2010/091/000102) and Clinicaltrials.gov (# NCT01305109). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Aversive Life Events Enhance Human Freezing Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band

  8. Aversive life events enhance human freezing responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band

  9. Human Resources: Solving Work and Life Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Sharon Jeffcoat

    2003-01-01

    Work-life issues are those problems employees have that impact their ability to perform their work and may lead to increasing levels of stress. Stress over time can lead to low employee morale, lower productivity, decreased job satisfaction and eventually to sickness and absenteeism. In extreme cases, stress can result in substance abuse or…

  10. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  11. Hudson River Unionids and Zebra Mussels: The Beginning of the End or the End of the Beginning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, D. L.; Malcom, H. M.

    2005-05-01

    The invasion of the Hudson River estuary by zebra mussels was followed by steep declines (77 to >99.7%) in populations of all species of native bivalves between 1992 and 1999. Body condition of all unionids, and growth and recruitment of young unionids also declined significantly. Declines in population size and body condition were correlated primarily with the filtration rate of the zebra mussel population, not with fouling of native bivalves by zebra mussels. Samples taken since 2000, however, have shown that populations of all 4 common native bivalves have stabilized or even recovered, although the zebra mussel population has not declined. The mechanisms underlying this apparent reversal of fortune are not clear: recruitment and growth of young mussels have showed limited recovery, but body condition of adults has not. We found no evidence that spatial refuges contributed to this reversal of population declines. Simple statistical models project now that native bivalves may persist at population densities about an order of magnitude below their pre-invasion densities.

  12. Exoplanets, Exo-Solar Life, and Human Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    With the recent detection of over 500 extrasolar planets, the existence of "other worlds", perhaps even other Earths, is no longer in the realm of science fiction. The study of exoplanets rapidly moved from an activity on the fringe of astronomy to one of the highest priorities of the world's astronomical programs. Actual images of extrasolar planets were revealed over the past two years for the first time. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is already characterizing the atmospheres of Jupiter-like planets, in other systems. And the recent launch of the NASA Kepler space telescope is enabling the first statistical assessment of how common solar systems like our own really are. As we begin to characterize these "other worlds" and assess their habitability, the question of the significance and uniqueness of life on Earth will impact our society as never before. I will provide a comprehensive overview of the techniques and status of exoplanet detection, followed by reflections as to the societal impact of finding out that Earths are common, or rare. Will finding other potentially habitable planets create another "Copernican Revolution"? Will perceptions of the significance of life on Earth change when we find other Earth-like planets? I will discuss the plans of the scientific community for future telescopes that will be abe to survey our solar neighborhood for Earth-like planets, study their atmospheres, and search for biological signs of life.

  13. IVF culture medium affects post-natal weight in humans during the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Roseboom, Tessa J; Nelissen, Ewka C M; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Bastings, Lobke; Schreurs, Inge E L; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M

    2014-04-01

    Is post-natal growth during the first 2 years of life in IVF singletons affected by type of medium used for culturing human embryos during an IVF treatment? The in vitro culture of human embryos in medium from Cook resulted in singletons with a lower weight during the first 2 years of life compared with singletons born after embryo culture in medium from Vitrolife. In a previous study, we reported that type of medium used for culturing human IVF embryos during the first few days after fertilization until fresh embryo transfer significantly affects fetal growth and consequently birthweight of the resulting singletons. From July 2003 to December 2006, a total of 1432 IVF treatment cycles with fresh embryo transfer were randomly allocated to have all embryos cultured in medium from Vitrolife AB (n = 715) or from Cook (n = 717). Two years after delivery, questionnaires were sent to the parents of all children requesting data about weight, height and head circumference around 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7.5, 9, 11, 14, 18 and 24 months of age. These measurements were collected as part of the children's health programme at municipal infant welfare centres in the Netherlands by health professionals unaware of this study. Patients requiring donor oocytes or applying for PGD were excluded from the study. From the 294 live born singletons that fulfilled our inclusion criteria, 29 were lost to follow-up. The remaining 265 singletons (Cook group: 117, Vitrolife group: 148) were included in the analysis. Data analysis included linear regression, to compare cross-sectionally weight standard deviation score (SDS), height SDS and head circumference, and the first order Berkey-Reed model for a longitudinal analysis of the growth data. Singletons in the Vitrolife group were heavier during the first 2 years of life compared with singletons in the Cook group. Cross-sectional analyses showed that adjusted weight SDS differed between groups at 1 (0.35 ± 0.14, P = 0.010), 2 (0.39 ± 0.14, P = 0

  14. The Effect of ACP₁-ADA₁ Genetic Interaction on Human Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Nazzareno; Napolioni, Valerio; Magrini, Andrea; Gloria, Fulvia

    2012-12-01

    Acid phosphatase (ACP₁) is a polymorphic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of flavin-mononucleotide (FMN) to riboflavin and regulates the cellular concentration of flavin-adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and, consequently, energy metabolism. Its activity is modulated by adenosine deaminase locus 1 (ADA₁) genotype. The aim of our work is to verify whether individuals with a high proportion of ACP₁ f-isozyme and carrying the ADA₁*2 allele, displaying the highest phosphatase activity, may have a higher life expectancy. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 569 females and 509 males (18 to 106 years of age) randomly recruited from Central Italy. These samples were subdivided into three sex-specific age groups (the ages of women are in square bracket): Class 1: age 88 [>91]. ACP₁and ADA₁ singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) methods and statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 14.0. The results showed a larger proportion of Class 3 individuals displaying high ACP₁ f-isozyme concentration and carrying the ADA₁*2 allele than those individuals of Class 2 and Class 2 plus Class 1. Thus, we postulate that in Class 3 individuals the high phosphatase activity, resulting from the combined presence of high ACP₁ f-isozyme concentration and the ADA₁*2 allele, lowers the rate of glycolysis that may reduce the amount of metabolic calories and, in turn, activate Sirtuin genes that protect cells against age-related diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  15. The Fundamental Human Right to Marry and to Family Life and their Protection in the Legal Framework of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Albana Metaj-Stojanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to family life is a fundamental human right, recognized by a series of international and European acts, which not only define and ensure its protection, but also emphasize the social importance of the family unit and the institution of marriage. The right to family life has evolved rapidly, since it was first introduced as an international human right by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR. The family structure and the concept of family life have changed dramatically over the last few decades, influenced by the everchanging social reality of our time and the decline of the institution of marriage. Aside from the traditional European nuclear family composed of two married persons of opposite sex and their marital children, new forms of family structures have arisen. LGTB families are at the centre of the ongoing debate on re-defining marriage and the concept of family life. The aim of this paper is to analyse the degree of protection accorded to family life and to the right to marry, which has long been recognized as one of the vital personal rights essential to the pursuit of happiness by free men by both, international acts ratified by the Republic of Macedonia and the legal system of the country. The methodology applied is qualitative research and use of the analytical, historical and comparative methods. The paper concludes that in general Republic of Macedonia has a solid legal framework, in compliance with the international law, that protects and promotes the right to family life.

  16. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Preiss, Philipp; van Goethem, Thomas; Van Dingenen, Rita; Huijbregts, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We developed regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for human health damage from particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and for damage to vegetation from ozone, at the global scale. These factors can be used in the impact assessment phase of an environmental life cycle assessment. CFs express the overall damage of a certain pollutant per unit of emission of a precursor, i.e. primary PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The global chemical transport model TM5 was used to calculate intake fractions of PM2.5 and ozone for 56 world regions covering the whole globe. Furthermore, region-specific effect and damage factors were derived, using mortality rates, background concentrations and years of life lost. The emission-weighted world average CF for primary PM2.5 emissions is 629 yr kton-1, varying up to 3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Larger CFs were obtained for emissions in central Asia and Europe, and smaller factors in Australia and South America. The world average CFs for PM2.5 from secondary aerosols, i.e. NOx, NH3, and SO2, is 67.2 to 183.4 yr kton-1. We found that the CFs for ozone human health damage are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower compared to the CFs for damage due to primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. Human health damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.7·10-2 yr capita-1 worldwide in year 2010, with primary PM2.5 emissions as the main contributor (62%). The emission-weighted world average CF for ecosystem damage due to ozone was 2.5 km2 yr kton-1 for NMVOCs and 8.7 m2 yr kg-1 for NOx emissions, varying 2-3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Ecosystem damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.6·10-4 km2 capita-1 worldwide in 2010, with NOx as the main contributor (72%). The spatial range in CFs stresses the importance of including spatial variation in life cycle impact assessment of

  17. Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

  18. Selection on alleles affecting human longevity and late-life disease: the example of apolipoprotein E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Drenos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that genes affecting health in old age, such as cardiovascular and Alzheimer diseases, are beyond the reach of natural selection. We show in a simulation study based on known genetic (apolipoprotein E and non-genetic risk factors (gender, diet, smoking, alcohol, exercise that, because there is a statistical distribution of ages at which these genes exert their influence on morbidity and mortality, the effects of selection are in fact non-negligible. A gradual increase with each generation of the epsilon2 and epsilon3 alleles of the gene at the expense of the epsilon4 allele was predicted from the model. The epsilon2 allele frequency was found to increase slightly more rapidly than that for epsilon3, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two. Our result may explain the recent evolutionary history of the epsilon 2, 3 and 4 alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene and has wider relevance for genes affecting human longevity.

  19. Systemic Perspectives on Beginning Teacher Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Whitford, Betty Lou

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the importance of basing beginning teacher programs in schools where roles are structured to support induction and provide exemplary education for students. Addresses structural and political issues, human resource development, and symbolism. (RJC)

  20. Colonization and Succession within the Human Gut Microbiome by Archaea, Bacteria, and Microeukaryotes during the First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wilmes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations to the colonization process of the human gastrointestinal tract have been suggested to result in adverse health effects later in life. Although much research has been performed on bacterial colonization and succession, much less is known about the other two domains of life, archaea, and eukaryotes. Here we describe colonization and succession by bacteria, archaea and microeukaryotes during the first year of life (samples collected around days 1, 3, 5, 28, 150, and 365 within the gastrointestinal tract of infants delivered either vaginally or by cesarean section and using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR as well as 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Sequences from organisms belonging to all three domains of life were detectable in all of the collected meconium samples. The microeukaryotic community composition fluctuated strongly over time and early diversification was delayed in infants receiving formula milk. Cesarean section-delivered (CSD infants experienced a delay in colonization and succession, which was observed for all three domains of life. Shifts in prokaryotic succession in CSD infants compared to vaginally delivered (VD infants were apparent as early as days 3 and 5, which were characterized by increased relative abundances of the genera Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, and a decrease in relative abundance for the genera Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides. Generally, a depletion in Bacteroidetes was detected as early as day 5 postpartum in CSD infants, causing a significantly increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between days 5 and 150 when compared to VD infants. Although the delivery mode appeared to have the strongest influence on differences between the infants, other factors such as a younger gestational age or maternal antibiotics intake likely contributed to the observed patterns as well. Our findings complement previous observations of a delay in colonization and succession of CSD infants

  1. Bacteriophages in the human gut: Our fellow travelers throughout life and potential biomarkers of heath or disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshinejad, Babak; Ghiasvand, Saeedeh

    2017-08-15

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is populated by a huge variety of viruses. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) constitute the largest and the most unrecognized part of virome. The total bacteriophage community of the human gut is called phageome. Phages colonize the gut from the earliest moments of life and become our fellow travelers throughout life. Phageome seems to be unique to each individual and shows a high degree of interpersonal variation. In the healthy gut, a vast majority of phages have a lysogenic lifestyle. These prophages serve as a major respository of mobile genetic elements in the gut and play key roles in the exchange of genetic material between bacterial species via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). But, imbalance in the gut microbial community during dysbiosis, caused by diseases or environmental stresses such as antibiotics, is accompanied by induction of prophages leading to a decreased ratio of symbionts to pathobionts. Based on this, a diseased gut is transformed from an environment predominantly occupied by prophages to an ecosystem mostly inhabited by lytic phages. A growing body of evidence has provided support for the notion that phageome structure and composition change dependent on the physiological or pathological status of the body. This has been demonstrated by pronounced quantitative and qualitative differences between the phageome of healthy individuals and patients. Although many aspects of the contribution made by phages to human biology remain to be understood, recent findings favor the suggestion that phageome might represent potential to serve as a biomarker of health or disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of a Collaborative Mentoring Program on Beginning Science Teachers' Inquiry-based Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeonghee; Seung, Eulsun; Go, MunSuk

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated how a collaborative mentoring program influenced beginning science teachers' inquiry-based teaching and their reflection on practice. The one-year program consisted of five one-on-one mentoring meetings, weekly science education seminars, weekly mentoring group discussions, and self-evaluation activities. The participants were three beginning science teachers and three mentors at the middle school level (7-9th grades) in an urban area of South Korea. For each beginning teacher, five lessons were evaluated in terms of lesson design/implementation, procedural knowledge, and classroom culture by using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol. Five aspects of the beginning teachers' reflections were identified. This study showed that a collaborative mentoring program focusing on inquiry-based science teaching encouraged the beginning teachers to reflect on their own perceptions and teaching practice in terms of inquiry-based science teaching, which led to changes in their teaching practice. This study also highlighted the importance of collaborative interactions between the mentors and the beginning teachers during the mentoring process.

  3. The probability of extraterrestrial life; La probabilidad de vida extraterrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A

    1991-06-15

    Since beginning of times, human beings need to live in the company of other humans, beings developing what we now know as human societies. According to this idea there has been speculation, specially in the present century, about the possibility that human society has company of the other thinking creatures living in other planets somewhere in our galaxy. In this talk we will only use reliable data from scientific observers in order to establish a probability. We will explain the analysis on the physico-chemical principles which allow the evolution of organic molecules in our planet and establish these as the forerunners of life in our planet. On the other hand, the physical process governing stars, their characteristics and their effects on planets will also be explained as well as the amount of energy that a planet receives, its mass, atmosphere and kind of orbit. Finally, considering all this information, a probability of life from outer space will be given. (Author)

  4. Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Management of Patients After Cardiac Arrest: Now the Real Work Begins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Varinder K; Grunau, Brian E; Debicki, Derek B; Zhou, Jian; Hegazy, Ahmed F; McPherson, Terry; Nagpal, A Dave

    2018-02-01

    Survival with a good quality of life after cardiac arrest continues to be abysmal. Coordinated resuscitative care does not end with the effective return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC)-in fact, quite the contrary is true. Along with identifying and appropriately treating the precipitating cause, various components of the post-cardiac arrest syndrome also require diligent observation and management, including post-cardiac arrest neurologic injury and myocardial dysfunction, systemic ischemia-reperfusion phenomenon with potential consequent multiorgan failure, and the various sequelae of critical illness. There is growing evidence that an early invasive approach to coronary reperfusion with percutaneous coronary intervention, together with active targeted temperature management and optimization of hemodynamic, ventilator, and metabolic parameters, may improve survival and neurologic outcomes in cardiac arrest survivors. Neuroprognostication is complex, as are survivorship issues and long-term rehabilitation. Our paramedics, emergency physicians, and resuscitation specialists are all to be congratulated for ever-increasing success with ROSC… but now the real work begins. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of life and its determinants in people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mahalakshmy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With anti-retroviral therapy (ART for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV coming into picture, quality of life (QOL has gained importance. Knowledge on the factors affecting QOL would be helpful in making important policy decisions and health care interventions. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life of people living with HIV (PLWH and to identify the factors influencing their QOL. Materials and Methods: The study was done among 200 PLWH attending a tertiary care hospital, and three Non Governmental Organizations at Puducherry, India, from November 2005 to May 2007. QOL was assessed using HIV specific World Health Organization Quality Of Life scale (WHOQOL-HIV - BREF questionnaire which has six domains (physical, psychological, level of independence, social relationships, environment and spirituality/religiousness/personal belief. Social support and stigma were measured using "Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support" and "HIV Stigma Scale," respectively, using Likert Scale. Factors influencing QOL were identified using backward stepwise multiple linear regression with the six domain scores as the dependent variables. Results: Male: Female ratio was 1:1 and 58% were in early stage of the disease (stage I/II. Psychological and SRPB (Spirituality Religiousness and Personal Beliefs domains were the most affected domains. All the regression models were statistically significant (P<0.05. The determination coefficient was highest for the social relationship domain (57% followed by the psychological domain (51%. Disease stage and perceived social support significantly influenced all the domains of WHOQOL. Younger age, female gender, rural background, shorter duration of HIV, non-intake of ART and greater HIV related stigma were the high risk factors of poor QOL. Conclusion: Interventions such as ART, family, vocational and peer counseling would address these modifiable factors influencing QOL, thereby

  6. From Beginning to End: How Engineering Students Think and Talk about Sustainability across the Life Cycle. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Deborah; Jocuns, Andrew; Yasuhara, Ken; Atman, Cynthia J.

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Pathways Study (APS) is a multi-institution, mixed-methods, longitudinal study which examines engineering students' learning and development as they move into, through, and beyond their undergraduate institutions (Atman et al., 2008; Sheppard et al., 2004). It is part of the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education…

  7. Methodologically Sound: Evaluating the Psychometric Approach to the Assessment of Human Life History [Reply to Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Black, Candace Jasmine; García, Rafael Antonio; Fernandes, Heitor Barcellos Ferreira; Wolf, Pedro Sofio Abril; Woodley of Menie, Michael Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Copping, Campbell, and Muncer (2014) have recently published an article critical of the psychometric approach to the assessment of life history (LH) strategy. Their purported goal was testing for the convergent validation and examining the psychometric structure of the High-K Strategy Scale (HKSS). As much of the literature on the psychometrics of human LH during the past decade or so has emanated from our research laboratory and those of close collaborators, we have prepared this detailed response. Our response is organized into four main sections: (1) A review of psychometric methods for the assessment of human LH strategy, expounding upon the essence of our approach; (2) our theoretical/conceptual concerns regarding the critique, addressing the broader issues raised by the critique regarding the latent and hierarchical structure of LH strategy; (3) our statistical/methodological concerns regarding the critique, examining the validity and persuasiveness of the empirical case made specifically against the HKSS; and (4) our recommendations for future research that we think might be helpful in closing the gap between the psychometric and biometric approaches to measurement in this area. Clearly stating our theoretical positions, describing our existing body of work, and acknowledgintheir limitations should assist future researchers in planning and implementing more informed and prudent empirical research that will synthesize the psychometric approach to the assessment of LH strategy with complementary methods. PMID:25844774

  8. Methodologically Sound: Evaluating the Psychometric Approach to the Assessment of Human Life History [Reply to Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio José Figueredo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Copping, Campbell, and Muncer (2014 have recently published an article critical of the psychometric approach to the assessment of life history (LH strategy. Their purported goal was testing for the convergent validation and examining the psychometric structure of the High-K Strategy Scale (HKSS. As much of the literature on the psychometrics of human LH during the past decade or so has emanated from our research laboratory and those of close collaborators, we have prepared this detailed response. Our response is organized into four main sections: (1 A review of psychometric methods for the assessment of human LH strategy, expounding upon the essence of our approach; (2 our theoretical/conceptual concerns regarding the critique, addressing the broader issues raised by the critique regarding the latent and hierarchical structure of LH strategy; (3 our statistical/methodological concerns regarding the critique, examining the validity and persuasiveness of the empirical case made specifically against the HKSS; and (4 our recommendations for future research that we think might be helpful in closing the gap between the psychometric and biometric approaches to measurement in this area. Clearly stating our theoretical positions, describing our existing body of work, and acknowledging their limitations should assist future researchers in planning and implementing more informed and prudent empirical research that will synthesize the psychometric approach to the assessment of LH strategy with complementary methods.

  9. Life sentence penalty and extradition under article 3 of the ECHR: A leading case of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Life sentence penalty covers a diverse range of practices, from the most severe form of life imprisonment without parole, in which a person is sentenced to die in prison so long as their sentence stands, to more indeterminate sentences in which at the time of sentencing it is not clear how long the sentenced person will spend in prison. Dealing with the question whether the extradition of a person to a foreign state where is accused of a crime for which a sentence of life imprisonment can be imposed can potentially violate article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights. What all these sentences have in common, however, is that at the time the sentence is passed, a person is liable to be detained for the rest of his or her natural life. We all know “The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules” and relevant international instruments on the rehabilitation of imprisonment, but at the moment more than 73 States in the world retain life imprisonment as a penalty for offences committed while under the age of 18. General perspective of criminal justice reform in Latin America should take into a right account the meaning of life - imprisonment penalty under article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which prohibits torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

  10. The beginnings of our research on the laser cooling of atomic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuzhu

    2011-01-01

    Reminiscences of the beginning of our research on the laser cooling of atomic gases are recounted, describing what motivated us to progress from atomic clocks to laser cooling. At the beginning, we pondered upon the mechanism of laser cooling, such as the cooling of atoms in red shifted diffuse light in an integrating sphere and using light frequency shifting (the A.C. Stark effect). A description of the atomic beam experimental equipment in our lab, which was used in laser cooling, is given, and some experimental results that we obtained are displayed. Finally, we summarize our experiences and lessons learnt. In looking back on our arduous beginnings, we cherish the present, and look forward to a bright future. (authors)

  11. Being Prepared: The Application of Character Building and the Beginning of the Boy Scouts of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Richard

    The beginnings of the Boy Scouts are traced, with particular emphasis on ideological foundation, social reform objectives of the founders (Sir Robert Baden-Powell, Daniel Carter Beard, and Ernest Thompson) and its relationship to other reform movements of the Progressive Era. The philosophical base of scouting is characterized as: 1) a…

  12. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    The bacteria that colonize the human body, our microbiota, can influence our health, both positively and negatively. The importance and functions of the microbiota in our intestinal tract have been the focus of several research projects and are widely published. However, there are great gaps in our...... knowledge concerning microbiota composition, development and function in other areas of human body. Lack of knowledge about the microbiota development in the airways is an example of such a deficiency. The work presented in this PhD thesis is based on the vast sample collection of the COPSAC2010 cohort......, with 700 mother-infant pairs. The objectives were to perform a detailed examination of the mothers’ vaginal microbiota, describe the early composition and development of the microbiota in the airways of their infants, and determine whether the infants’ microbiota are affected by that of their mothers...

  13. Inhibitory effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Koushi; Honda, Mitsuo; Ikigai, Hajime; Hara, Yukihiko; Shimamura, Tadakatsu

    2002-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), the major tea catechin, is known as a potent anti-bacterial agent. In addition, anti-tumor promoting, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antiviral activities have been reported. In the present study, we investigated possible anti-human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) activity of EGCg and its mechanisms of action in the viral life cycle. EGCg impinges on each step of the HIV life cycle. Thus, destruction of the viral particles, viral attachment to cells, post-adsorption entry into cells, reverse transcription (RT), viral production from chronically-infected cells, and the level of expression of viral mRNA, were analyzed using T-lymphoid (H9) and monocytoid (THP-1) cell systems, and antiviral protease activity was measured using a cell-free assay. Inhibitory effects of EGCg on specific binding of the virions to the cellular surfaces and changes in the steady state viral regulation (mRNA expression) due to EGCg were not observed. However, EGCg had a destructive effect on the viral particles, and post-adsorption entry and RT in acutely infected monocytoid cells were significantly inhibited at concentrations of EGCg greater than 1 microM, and protease kinetics were suppressed at a concentration higher than 10 microM in the cell-free study. Viral production by THP-1 cells chronically-infected with HIV-1 was also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory effect was enhanced by liposome modification of EGCg. As expected, increased viral mRNA production was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated chronically HIV-1-infected cells. This production was significantly inhibited by EGCg treatment of THP-1 cells. In contrast, production of HIV-1 viral mRNA in unstimulated or LPS-stimulated T-lymphoid cells (H9) was not inhibited by EGCg. Anti-HIV viral activity of EGCg may thus result from an interaction with several steps in the HIV-1 life cycle.

  14. A curated transcriptome dataset collection to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbuba; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Cugno, Chiara; Chaussabel, Damien; Marr, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Compendia of large-scale datasets made available in public repositories provide an opportunity to identify and fill gaps in biomedical knowledge. But first, these data need to be made readily accessible to research investigators for interpretation. Here we make available a collection of transcriptome datasets to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life. Thirty two datasets were retrieved from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and loaded in a custom web application called the Gene Expression Browser (GXB), which was designed for interactive query and visualization of integrated large-scale data. Quality control checks were performed. Multiple sample groupings and gene rank lists were created allowing users to reveal age-related differences in transcriptome profiles, changes in the gene expression of neonatal hematopoietic cells to a variety of immune stimulators and modulators, as well as during cell differentiation. Available demographic, clinical, and cell phenotypic information can be overlaid with the gene expression data and used to sort samples. Web links to customized graphical views can be generated and subsequently inserted in manuscripts to report novel findings. GXB also enables browsing of a single gene across projects, thereby providing new perspectives on age- and developmental stage-specific expression of a given gene across the human hematopoietic system. This dataset collection is available at: http://developmentalimmunology.gxbsidra.org/dm3/geneBrowser/list.

  15. Associations between human milk oligosaccharides and infant body composition in the first 6 mo of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Autran, Chloe; Brekke, Benjamin E; Knight, Rob; Bode, Lars; Goran, Michael I; Fields, David A

    2015-12-01

    Evidence linking breastfeeding to reduced risk of developing childhood obesity is inconclusive, yet previous studies have not considered variation in specific components of breast milk that may affect early development. We examined whether differences in the composition of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) correlate with infant growth and body composition at 1 and 6 mo of age. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads were recruited from the University Hospital at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Infants were breastfed for 6 mo. Breast-milk and infant measures were obtained at 1 and 6 mo of infant age. HMO composition was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and infant growth (length and weight) and body composition (percentage fat, total fat, lean mass) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relations between HMOs and infant growth and body composition were examined by using multiple linear regression. A priori covariates included maternal prepregnancy body mass index, pregnancy weight gain, and infant age and sex. Higher HMO diversity and evenness at 1 mo were associated with lower total and percentage fat mass at 1 mo. At 1 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I was associated with a 0.40-kg lower infant weight (P = 0.03). At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in LNFPI was associated with a 1.11-kg lower weight (P = 0.03) and a 0.85-g lower lean mass (P = 0.01). At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in LNFPI was associated with a 0.79-g lower fat mass (P = 0.02), whereas disialyl-lacto-N-tetraose and LNFPII were associated with a 1.92-g (P = 0.02) and 0.42-g (P = 0.02) greater fat mass, respectively. At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in fucosyl-disialyl-lacto-N-hexaose and lacto-N-neotetraose was associated with 0.04% higher (P = 0.03) and 0.03% lower (P milk are associated with infant growth and body composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02535637. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. The beginnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the radioastronomy of the Sun, from the earliest World War II observations, mainly in the U.K. and Australia, to the end of 1959. The review covers the areas of most interest, namely the Solar Corona, plasma oscillations, radio bursts, sunspots, and the radio techniques developed to study these phenomena, e.g. interferometers, radio spectrographs, and polarimeters. (U.K.)

  17. Beginning Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    A thorough introduction that lessens the learning curve to Drupal development. Drupal is a free, open source modular framework and content management system written in the programming language PHP that carries with it a reputation of a steep learning curve. This guide to Drupal methodically demystifies Drupal and even aims shorten the learning curve. Author Jacob Redding is deeply embedded in the Drupal community, and walks first-time Drupal developers through the installation and configuration of a Drupal system. In-depth information on key areas of Drupal explore the Drupal hook system, Drup

  18. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers' transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by

  19. [The Problem of Beginning of the Personal Being In the Anthropology of V. E. Frankl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellés Dauder, Juan Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we review the V. E. Frankl' conception of the 'person', which he understands as the superior part in man. This study consists of three parts: a) In the first we study 10 thesis that the father of logotherapy offers on the person, namely: 1st) the person is an individual; 2nd) whitaut possibility of sum; 3rd) is a new being; 4th) is spiritual; 5th) is existential; 6th) is the 'I' or the 'ego'; 7th) provides unity and wholeness; 8th) is dynamic; 9th) is able to transcend and to face herself; 10th) He is not understood by itself but from the point of view of transcendence. b) In the second part are studied 7 synonyms that the founder of the third Viennese school of psychology offers on the person: 1st) individual; 2nd) I; 3rd) personality; 4th) existence; 5th) spirit; 6th) heart; 7th) becoming. c) The third part we review the franklian hypothesis defending that the human person appears after the birth of human biological life. Although it is the third part that gives the the title of this work, it can only be understood, and also reviewed, after having founded in the preceding two parties what specifically understand V.E. Frankl for person.

  20. Use of Human Modeling Simulation Software in the Task Analysis of the Environmental Control and Life Support System Component Installation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation applications are becoming widespread in human task analysis. These programs have many benefits for the Human Factors Engineering field. Not only do creating and using virtual environments for human engineering analyses save money and time, this approach also promotes user experimentation and provides increased quality of analyses. This paper explains the human engineering task analysis performed on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) space station rack and its Distillation Assembly (DA) subsystem using EAI's human modeling simulation software, Jack. When installed on the International Space Station (ISS), ECLSS will provide the life and environment support needed to adequately sustain crew life. The DA is an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) that provides means of wastewater (primarily urine from flight crew and experimental animals) reclamation. Jack was used to create a model of the weightless environment of the ISS Node 3, where the ECLSS is housed. Computer aided drawings of the ECLSS rack and DA system were also brought into the environment. Anthropometric models of a 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female were used to examine the human interfaces encountered during various ECLSS and DA tasks. The results of the task analyses were used in suggesting modifications to hardware and crew task procedures to improve accessibility, conserve crew time, and add convenience for the crew. This paper will address some of those suggested modifications and the method of presenting final analyses for requirements verification.

  1. The Impact of Professional Development on Beginning Teachers’ Practices in One Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Hinds

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study was conducted in 2004-2005 on the professional development experiences of beginning teachers (1-5 years of experience in an Ontario, Canada secondary school (Grades 7-12 and the impact of those experiences in improving their practices. For comparative purposes, the study included the perspectives of administrators from the same school on the impact of professional development on these teachers. The findings revealed that the literacy training program was successfully implemented at the school and positively affected beginning teachers’ knowledge, instructional strategies, and planning practices. Other findings indicated that beginning teachers needed subject content and instructional strategies, ongoing mentoring, and skills in both classroom management and mapping the curriculum. Based on the findings of the study, a new framework for professional development is suggested. A number of recommendations propose ways of connecting research, policy and practice that could ultimately improve the effectiveness of professional development programs for beginning teachers.   Key words: teacher professional development, beginning teacher, adult learning, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, supervision, organizational policies and culture

  2. Molecular genetics of aging in the fly: is this the end of the beginning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Stephen L; Rogina, Blanka

    2003-02-01

    How we age and what we can do about it have been uppermost in human thought since antiquity. The many false starts have frustrated experimentalists and theoretical arguments pronouncing the inevitability of the process have created a nihilistic climate among scientists and the public. The identification of single gene alterations that substantially extend life span in nematodes and flies however, have begun to reinvigorate the field. Drosophila's long history of contributions to aging research, rich storehouse of genetic information, and powerful molecular techniques make it an excellent system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of aging. In recent years, Drosophila has been used to test current theories on aging and explore new directions of potential importance to the biology of aging. One such example is the surprising finding that, as opposed to the commonly held assumption that adult life is a period of random passive decline in which all things are thought to fall apart, the molecular life of the adult fly appears to be a state of dynamic well-regulated change. In the fly, the level of expression of many different genes changes in an invariant, often age-dependent, manner. These as well as other molecular genetic studies and demographic analyses using the fly have begun to challenge widely held ideas about aging providing evidence that aging may be a much more dynamic and malleable process than anticipated. With the enormous success that Drosophila molecular genetics has demonstrated in helping understand complex biological phenomena such as development there is much optimism that similar approaches can be adapted to assist in understanding the process of aging. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The beginnings of the reception of Ludwik Fleck’s ideas in Polish (1936-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Jarnicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the beginnings of the reception of Ludwik Fleck’s theory of thought styles and thought collectives in Polish, from his first polemics with Izydora Dąmbska in 1936 to the first edition of the Polish translation of Entstehung und Entwicklung

  4. Moralization y Work and Education at the beginnings of the assistentialpolicy in the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene PALACIO LIS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coinciding with the growth of poverty at the beginning of the XIX century, we see how the State gradually begins to assume control over social affairs. The private and eclesiastic charity of the Old Regime begins to transform in public charity although marginal society still receives the same treatment, which basically intends their moralization. Basic elements of this moralization were work and education, that are the main points of this article, which in particular refers to charity establishments. Work and education for the poors were requirements that were reiterated in the writings of philantropists, politicians and moralists, following the tradition of the preceding centuries, and which were written into the legislation of the XIX century, the same as in the statutes of the poor houses. An always basic education and with a strong practical character, that intended basically to neutralize the risks of social dangers, transmitting the values of the dominant society.

  5. Evolution, human-microbe interactions, and life history plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Graham; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Levin, Bruce R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; McLean, Angela R

    2017-07-29

    A bacterium was once a component of the ancestor of all eukaryotic cells, and much of the human genome originated in microorganisms. Today, all vertebrates harbour large communities of microorganisms (microbiota), particularly in the gut, and at least 20% of the small molecules in human blood are products of the microbiota. Changing human lifestyles and medical practices are disturbing the content and diversity of the microbiota, while simultaneously reducing our exposures to the so-called old infections and to organisms from the natural environment with which human beings co-evolved. Meanwhile, population growth is increasing the exposure of human beings to novel pathogens, particularly the crowd infections that were not part of our evolutionary history. Thus some microbes have co-evolved with human beings and play crucial roles in our physiology and metabolism, whereas others are entirely intrusive. Human metabolism is therefore a tug-of-war between managing beneficial microbes, excluding detrimental ones, and channelling as much energy as is available into other essential functions (eg, growth, maintenance, reproduction). This tug-of-war shapes the passage of each individual through life history decision nodes (eg, how fast to grow, when to mature, and how long to live). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enumeration of Mars years and seasons since the beginning of telescopic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueux, Sylvain; Byrne, Shane; Titus, Timothy N.; Hansen, Candice J.; Kieffer, Hugh H.

    2015-01-01

    A clarification for the enumeration of Mars Years prior to 1955 is presented, along with a table providing the Julian dates associated with Ls = 0° for Mars Years -183 (beginning of the telescopic study of Mars) to 100. A practical algorithm for computing Ls as a function of the Julian Date is provided. No new science results are presented

  7. The Development of Teacher Perspectives: Social Strategies and Institutional Control in the Socialization of Beginning Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1985-01-01

    The findings from a two-year longitudinal study of the development of teaching perspectives by four beginning teachers are reviewed. Individual responses of these teachers to the environment in which they worked and the extent to which these teachers abandoned or maintained perspectives they began with are examined. (Author/DF)

  8. Effects of Conducting Instruction on the Musical Performance of Beginning Band Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven N.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of conducting instruction on beginning band students' individual rhythmic performance, group rhythmic performance, group performance of legato and staccato, and group performance of phrasing and dynamics. The students represented diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Concludes the conducting instruction is a useful tool…

  9. A conception of modern Life as “the Awakening of the Human Spirit, revisited”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Steen

    2016-01-01

    By reference to Stanley Cavell´s characterization of the later Wittgenstein´s writings as expressing a “philosophy of culture”, it is argued that this characterization also might cast a light on Wittgenstein´s early remarks on Frazer In relation to this I show that three aspects in conjunction...

  10. The Life Cycle of Centrioles

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, E.; Stearns, T.

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles organize the centrosome and nucleate the ciliary axoneme, and the centriole life cycle has many parallels to the chromosome cycle. The centriole cycle in animals begins at fertilization with the contribution of two centrioles by the male gamete. In the ensuing cell cycles, the duplication of centrioles is controlled temporally, spatially, and numerically. As a consequence of the duplication mechanism, the two centrioles in a typical interphase cell are of different ages and have di...

  11. A Pilot Study of Problems and Practices in the Induction of Beginning Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, John B.; Hull, Ronald E.

    A pilot study was designed to test the practicality of gathering data through interviews and to provide tentative information on induction problems and practices encountered by beginning teachers in the Cattaraugus-Chautauqua County area of New York. Fifty-three elementary self-contained classroom teachers and secondary academic subject-matter…

  12. Differential effects of the extracellular microenvironment on human embryonic stem cell differentiation into keratinocytes and their subsequent replicative life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi; Kidwai, Fahad Karim; Zou, Yu; Tong, Huei Jinn; Liu, Xiaochen; Islam, Intekhab; Toh, Wei Seong; Raghunath, Michael; Cao, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Culture microenvironment plays a critical role in the propagation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their differentiated progenies. Although high efficiency of hESC differentiation to keratinocytes (hESC-Kert) has been achieved, little is known regarding the effects of early culture microenvironment and pertinent extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions during epidermal commitment on subsequent proliferative capacity of hESC-Kert. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the different ECM microenvironments during hESC differentiation on subsequent replicative life span of hESC-Kert. In doing so, H1-hESCs were differentiated to keratinocytes (H1-Kert) in two differentiation systems. The first system employed autologous fibroblast feeder support, in which keratinocytes (H1-Kert(ACC)) were derived by coculture of hESCs with hESC-derived fibroblasts (H1-ebFs). The second system employed a novel decellularized matrix from H1-ebFs to create a dermoepidermal junction-like (DEJ) matrix. H1-Kert(AFF) were derived by differentiation of hESCs on the feeder-free system employing the DEJ matrix. Our study indicated that the feeder-free system with the use of DEJ matrix was more efficient in differentiation of hESCs toward epidermal progenitors. However, the feeder-free system was not sufficient to support the subsequent replicative capacity of differentiated keratinocytes. Of note, H1-Kert(AFF) showed limited replicative capacity with reduced telomere length and early cellular senescence. We further showed that the lack of cell-cell interactions during epidermal commitment led to heightened production of TGF-β1 by hESC-Kert during extended culture, which in turn was responsible for resulting in the limited replicative life span with cellular senescence of hESC-Kert derived under the feeder-free culture system. This study highlights for the first time the importance of the culture microenvironment and cell-ECM interactions during

  13. An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

  14. TOURISM AS A WAY TO EXPAND THE HUMAN LIFE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martseniuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work is to substantiate the development of railway tourism in the context of human needs in accordance with the theory of individual life space. Methodology. Theoretical and methodological basis of the study is the provisions of the economic theory, management theory, corporate governance. The rational activity of travel agencies is based on the principles of economic equilibrium; Ukrainian population demand for railway tourism was determined with the help of market research and anonymous survey; to explore the real balance between the demand for tourist rail transport and the potential of the required volume of services the paper suggests the balance method. Since any travel company is an open system and is completely dependent on environmental factors, we proposed a method for estimating the factors of internal and external environment. Originality. The element of originality is compilation of existing concepts to the definition of the individual as a subject of life property, for the understanding of human relationships and its external environment. The paper developed the issue of the ability to influence the value of human life space with the help of tourist services. Conclusions. Market research conducted by the author has shown that in Ukraine there is a certain demand for tourist transport by rail, because it is more reliable, safer and more comfortable than the road transport. It is proved that the development of a new innovative project is very timely, as it will allow: to develop tourist infrastructure of Ukraine and bring it to the domestic and foreign tourists; replenish the state and local budgets by tourists; create new jobs for the population and improve their living level; partially reduce the loss-making passenger sector by increasing the volume of rail transport; expand life space for the people of Ukraine that will allow raising the intellectual level of the individual.

  15. Impact of economic development on quality of life and human happiness: a study on urban socio economic classes of suburban Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Banerjee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes that for a nation to revitalize in terms of development, not only does it need to evaluate in terms of GDP growth rate, but also has to consider the Quality of Life of its citizen and their human happiness. There is strong correlation between macro-economic development parameters like health, education, GDP growth rate and Quality of Life Index, expressed through HDI. It also has correlation with subjective quality of life based on the perception of urban socio economic classes, as measured in this study. The subjective quality of life is studied through five parameters like Quality of house, education, health care, transportation and recreation facilities. Human happiness is evaluated through the perception of respondents towards change in their financial conditions and consumption expenditure influencing their quality of life. This empirical research through spearman’s rank correlation tried to establish the relationship between macro-economic indicators with the quality of life parameters as perceived by people. The study was conducted in Mumbai, and its suburban areas .with a sample of 850 respondents taken through structured questionnaire, during 2012-13. It was observed from A. T. Kearney’s GRDI report that India was ranking between first five positions, consistently in terms of Modern Trade Retail Business since 2000. The managerial implication of the study highlights the association of quantitative economic development with larger aspect of human development, for the policy makers to understand the various areas which needs to be taken care to cater towards revitalizing the development of the nation

  16. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS UPON PRODUCT END-OF-LIFE OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARSAN Lucian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some considerations about the necessity of evaluating the environmental impact of a product during its entire life. The present situation (economic, social and ecologic imposes solutions to reduce this impact as a result of an analysis performed during all stages of the life cycle. This paper focuses on design solutions with consequences in the last stage, the end-of-life. Reusing products, with, or without remanufacturing and recycling the materials from products that cannot be reused represent some options analysed in this paper. The end-of-life options should be known even from the beginning of the design process and should be included as design objectives or, at least as constrictions. Considering them as human needs would naturally include them in the requirements list.

  17. The Role of Genre in Reflective Practice: Tracing the Development of a Beginning Teacher's Journaling Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi; Adam, Amy Rousselo

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a teacher educator and a first-year teacher identify the role that genre, in a rhetorical sense, plays in reflective practice. As reflection in teacher education has been criticized for its potential to reinforce prior attitudes and dispositions within pre-service and beginning teachers, we see how meta-knowledge of genre is…

  18. Longitudinal effects of induction on teaching skills and attrition rates of beginning teacher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Wim; Maulana, Ridwan

    The teaching profession faces a shortage as well as a decline of teaching skills. A possible way to mitigate this is to implement evidence-based induction arrangements. Seventy-one schools with 338 beginning secondary education teachers were randomly allocated to an experimental or a control group.

  19. The Dutch famine of 1944-45 as a human laboratory: changes in the early life environment and adult health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumey, L.H.; van Poppel, F.W.A.; Lumey, L.H.; Vaiserman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of men and women exposed to the Dutch famine of 1944-1945 (also known as the Dutch ‘Hunger winter’) during different periods of life are important because they provide an opportunity to look at long-term effects of disturbances in the early life environment. For ethical and practical

  20. Implementation of humanistic ideas in philosophy of Education in the beginning of XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrsyjanova R.K.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the XX century European school-teaching practice needs radical changes, the traditional school of study has been heavily criticized, needed reforms. Philosophy of education of that time provided in this article by the creative work of prominent reformers – humanists had actual implementation in teaching practice in the form of school coomunity of John Dewey and Summerhill-school of Alexander Neill.

  1. Humanized HLA-DR4.RagKO.IL2RγcKO.NOD (DRAG) mice sustain the complex vertebrate life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayalath, Wathsala; Majji, Sai; Villasante, Eileen F; Brumeanu, Teodor D; Richie, Thomas L; Casares, Sofia

    2014-09-30

    Malaria is a deadly infectious disease affecting millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Among the five species of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans, Plasmodium falciparum accounts for the highest morbidity and mortality associated with malaria. Since humans are the only natural hosts for P. falciparum, the lack of convenient animal models has hindered the understanding of disease pathogenesis and prompted the need of testing anti-malarial drugs and vaccines directly in human trials. Humanized mice hosting human cells represent new pre-clinical models for infectious diseases that affect only humans. In this study, the ability of human-immune-system humanized HLA-DR4.RagKO.IL2RγcKO.NOD (DRAG) mice to sustain infection with P. falciparum was explored. Four week-old DRAG mice were infused with HLA-matched human haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and examined for reconstitution of human liver cells and erythrocytes. Upon challenge with infectious P. falciparum sporozoites (NF54 strain) humanized DRAG mice were examined for liver stage infection, blood stage infection, and transmission to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Humanized DRAG mice reconstituted human hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, liver endothelial cells, and erythrocytes. Upon intravenous challenge with P. falciparum sporozoites, DRAG mice sustained liver to blood stage infection (average 3-5 parasites/microlitre blood) and allowed transmission to An. stephensi mosquitoes. Infected DRAG mice elicited antibody and cellular responses to the blood stage parasites and self-cured the infection by day 45 post-challenge. DRAG mice represent the first human-immune-system humanized mouse model that sustains the complex vertebrate life cycle of P. falciparum without the need of exogenous injection of human hepatocytes/erythrocytes or P. falciparum parasite adaptation. The ability of DRAG mice to elicit specific human immune responses to P. falciparum parasites may help deciphering immune correlates

  2. Determination of Partition coefficients for a Mixture of Volatile Organic Compounds in Rats and Humans at Different Life Stages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, Deidre A; Gearhart, Jeffrey M; Godfrey, Richard J; Mattie, David R; Cook, Robert S; Grisby, Claude C

    2004-01-01

    .... Partition coefficients (PCs) are an integral component of pharmacokinetic models and determining differences in tissue partitioning of volatile organic chemicals across life stages can help reduce the uncertainty in risk assessment...

  3. Some general considerations of a human-based medicine's palliative approach to the vulnerability of the multiply disabled child before the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallard, M L

    2014-03-01

    Specificities of situation of individuals with multiple disabilities and pediatric neurological pathologies call for specialized and multi-field competences that are commonly allowed and disallowed in contemporary clinical contexts. However what must be questioned in this matter is not only the meaning of the clinical, social, and human approach that is implemented, but also its spirit. The aim of medicine is double: to offer a technoscientific capacity (to cure as much as it is possible and always relieve suffering) and guarantee the meaning and value of the child's human and social capacities. We suggest the importance of a medicine always as care-giving whose aim(s) can be either curative or palliative, or even both at the same time with possibilities for moving back and forth between each one, is easily understandable by all professional groups and patients. It is not at the time of the death, at the last moments, that we will be able to introduce what could have given meaning, spirit and comfort in life. It is very early in the life, in the approach of care, to precisely preserve a meaning of life and to take adapted and shared care as a precious tool that we will propose to the patients, to the parents, and to the professionals. Palliative medicine can support a caring and human approach that takes account of the handicapped child's vulnerabilities not only at the end of his life, but throughout his/her life. The palliative approach and reasoning approach requires a specific, adapted training and the development of shared knowledge. Without giving up the indisputable contributions of the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), it is necessary to develop, in a scientific way, what we could call Human-Based Medicine (HBM).

  4. The specificity of female deviance in Tsaritsyn the end of XIX - beginning of XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Avstrijskov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work there were analyzed the nature and specifics of female deviance in Tsaritsyn at the end of XIX - beginning of XX centuries, and also there was described the main socio-economic factors contributing to the development of anomie in this historical period in the society. There was investigated the motivational complex, structure and form of the women’s deviant behavior, and there were presented trends of the development of female deviance.

  5. The Very Beginnings of Togetherness in Shared Play among Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayna, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    Presents three examples of the beginnings of togetherness among young peers, ages 1-3 years. Considers psychological processes underlying their activities and the characteristics of the settings in which these activities occur. Discusses these examples in the context of a definition of the social interactive dimension of learning, and the…

  6. From the Beginning: The "Journal of Chemical Education" and Secondary School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The people, events, and issues that were involved in the beginning and the evolution of the "Journal of Chemical Education" and the Division of Chemical Education (DivCHED) are traced and discussed. The constitution of the American Chemical Society incorporates the roots of chemical education as an area of interest to the Society. Both…

  7. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 2. Quantitative comparison of pathogen risk to other impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-08-19

    Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential.

  8. Tracing a Beginning Elementary Teacher’s Development of Identity for Science Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine a beginning elementary teacher’s development of identity for science teaching from her first year at university, her field experience, and through her first year of teaching. Several kinds of data were collected over a period of 5 years through different

  9. Evaluation of TV Series "Beginning Sewing" Albany Area, New York Cooperative Extension. Special Report No. 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Martha A.; And Others

    A knowledge test covering subject matter of the Beginning Sewing TV series was sent to 344 registrants following the series, to measure the program effectiveness. Although the response was small (38%), characteristics of the viewers were identified: median age of 44.1 years; married for 21.3 years, family size of 3.8, completion of an average of…

  10. Human life: genetic or social construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Boris

    2005-01-01

    I am going to discuss some present-day tendencies in the development of the very old debate on nature vs nurture. There is a widespread position describing the history of this debate as a pendulum-like process. Some three decades ago there was a time of overwhelming prevalence of the position stressing social factors in determining human character and behavior; now the pendulum has come to the opposite side and those who stress the role of biology, of genes are in favor. Yet in my view rather acute opposition of both positions still exists. Its existence depends not so much on new scientific discoveries as on some social and cultural factors which are more conservative than the development of science. More than that, we can even talk about competition of these two positions.

  11. First year effects of induction arrangements on beginning teachers' psychological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Slof, Bert; van de Grift, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the (1) effects of a supportive program (i.e., induction arrangement) on beginning teachers' (BTs') psychological processes after a period of 1 year and (2) psychological paths of influence of the arrangement. Participants (56 Dutch secondary schools with 143 BTs) were randomly

  12. Stress, needs, and quality of life of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chu Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS is a manageable infectious disease by the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS-related stigma and conflict may create distress and deteriorate quality of life (QoL of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study using structural questionnaires aimed to explore the stress, needs, QoL, and associated factors of PLWHA in Taiwan. A total of 200 PLWHA participating in this study needed most on treatment of HIV and prevention of AIDS, and health maintenance. They had worse QoL in physical, psychological, and social domains (all p < 0.001 than the general population. Stress was the most significant predictor (β = −0.25 to −0.54, p < 0.01 for all four domains of QoL. Needs was not significantly associated with QoL. The QoL of PLWHA can be explained by demographics, self-perception on health, needs, and stress for 25.3–40.7% of variances. No association existed between CD4+ counts and QoL in Taiwanese PLWHA. It is important to recognize the perception of PLWHA on their health status, which is significantly associated with their QoL, besides monitoring their physical indicators of health (CD4+ counts. To recognize the stress and needs that PLWHA experience and to develop intervention programs targeting strategies on HIV disclosure, prevention and health maintenance are crucial for PLWHA's QoL.

  13. [Stress, Needs, and Quality of Life of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in North East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Chu; Lu, Po-Liang; Wu, Shiau-Jiun; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2017-04-01

    HIV/AIDS has become a chronic disease since anti-retroviral therapy has reduced the related rates of morbidity and mortality and maintained the immunity of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus / AIDS (PLWHA). PLWHA have psychological needs and many hope to improve their quality of life (QoL) over the long course of their treatment. Despite the large number of AIDS cases, there are limited reports addressing the issue of QoL among PLWHA in China. The present study aims to explore the stress, needs, QoL, and related factors among PLWHA in China. This cross-sectional, descriptive study used a structural questionnaire to assess the stress, needs, and QoL of 100 PLWHA in Shenyang, China. The most stressful issues faced by the participants were admitting HIV/AIDS status publicly and explaining their illness to others. Their needs were mainly related to receiving adequate information about HIV-related medical services, examination, and treatment and learning how to prevent disease progression. Among the four domains of QoL, the score in the physical domain was the lowest. The stress, needs, and QoL of the participants were significantly inter-correlated. However, only stress was found to predict QoL (β = -.25 to -.60, p stress, meet the needs, and improve the QoL of PLWHA, healthcare providers should work to lower the risk of divulgence, provide adequate healthcare information, and work to reduce the stigma and discrimination that is associated with having HIV/AIDS.

  14. 41 CFR 101-39.101 - Notice of intention to begin a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.101 Notice of intention to begin a study. The Administrator, GSA... develop data and justification as to the feasibility of establishing a fleet management system. The...

  15. 41 CFR 109-39.101 - Notice of intention to begin a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 109-39.101 Notice of intention to begin a study. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of intention to...

  16. Assessing Minimum Competencies of Beginning Teachers: Instrumentation, Measurement Issues, Legal Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Chad D.

    An overview is presented of a performance-based assessment system, Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments (TPAI), developed by the Teacher Assessment Project at the University of Georgia to measure competencies of beginning teachers for initial professional certification. To clearly separate the preparation and certification functions within…

  17. Micropolitical Staffroom Stories: Beginning Health and Physical Education Teachers' Experiences of the Staffroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Within the burgeoning literature concerning beginning teacher transition, professional development and learning several studies have unpacked the micropolitical context of the school. However, little is known about the micropolitical context of the staffroom, the place in which teachers spend the majority of their non-teaching school time. This…

  18. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of In-School and In-Profession Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Bradley C.; Torres, Robert M.; Burris, Scott; Kitchel, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two different formal mentoring relationships based on the perceptions of beginning teachers regarding their dyadic interactions. Kram's mentor role theory and Byrne's similarity-attraction paradigm served as the theoretical foundation for the study. The specific variables of interest included psychosocial…

  19. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne

    2013-01-01

    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  20. Does Teaching Experience Matter? The Beliefs and Practices of Beginning and Experienced Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Cho, Young Hoan

    2018-01-01

    This study utilized multiple data sources to examine the beliefs about learning and teaching physics and the instructional practices of five beginning teachers and seven experienced teachers from Singapore. Our study was implemented in the unique context of teachers teaching the topic of electricity to students grouped according to academic…