Sample records for beginning of human life

  1. The beginning of human life under time-laps Cinematography


    Mio, Yasuyuki


    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to follow and record the early stages of development of a human embryo using time-lapse cinematography, and to discuss the beginning of human life. Materials and Methods: Human ova were incubated in thermo-stabilized and pH controlled chambers and observed using an inverted microscope fitted with a CCD digital camera. Images were taken at 2-minute intervals for 5–6 days. A total of 30 consecutive images, corresponding to an hour of incubat...

  2. The ethical concept of the fetus as a patient and the beginning of human life


    Kurjak, Asim; MARIA CARRERA, JOSE; McCullough, Laurence B.; Chervenak, Frank A.


    »When does human life begin?« is not one question, but three. The first question is, »When does human biological life begin?,« and is a scientific question. A brief review of embryology is provided to answer this question. The second question is, »When do obligations to protect human life begin?,« and is a question of general theological and philosophical ethics. A brief review of major world religions and philosophy is provided to answer this question has no settled answer and therefore invo...

  3. Structure and dynamics of human communication at the beginning of life. (United States)

    Papousek, H; Papousek, M


    Although the beginning of postpartum social integration and communication has been long viewed as relevant to psychiatric theories, early parent-infant communication has become a matter of scientific investigation only recently. The present survey explains the significance of an approach based upon the general systems theory and explores to what extent the early parent-infant interaction can function as a didactic system to support the development of thought and speech. Evidence of this function has been found in those forms of parental behavior that escape the parent's conscious awareness and control, as exemplified in the vocal communication with presyllabic infants. Parents unknowingly adjust the structure and dynamics of speech to the constraints of infant capacities, detach prosodic musicality from lexical structure, and use it in particularly expressive forms for the delivery of the first prototypical messages. In this and other similar ways, parents offer an abundance of learning situations in which infants can try out various integrative operations. A biological rather than cultural provenience of the support of communicative development indicates a potential relevance for the interpretation of speech evolution. In addition to qualities of the vocal tract and to complex symbolic capacities in humans, the early intuitive support of communicative development and its playful character are suggested as species-specific determinants of speech evolution. Implications for clinical research are suggested.

  4. The Needs of Humans: A Beginning (United States)

    Scott, Marie


    This article focuses on a teaching method developed by Maria Montessori, starting with activities in the primary classroom, which are continued through the elementary years. The author discusses a few child-centered techniques in preparing children for their work within a larger community--the whole human family. In the Montessori environment, the…

  5. The origin of life. II: How did it begin? (United States)

    Davies, P


    The problem of how a mixture of chemicals can spontaneously transform themselves into even a simple living organism remains one of the great outstanding challenges to science. Various primordial soup theories have been proposed in which chemical self-organization brings about the required level of complexity. Major conceptual obstacles remain, however, such as the emergence of the genetic code, and the "chicken-and-egg" problem concerning which came first: nucleic acids or proteins. Currently fashionable is the so-called RNA world theory, which casts RNA in the role of both chicken and egg. Other theories assume that protein chemistry and even clay crystal life came before nucleic acids. To be fully successful, a theory of biogenesis has to explain not merely the emergence of molecular replication and chemical complexity, but the crucial information content and information processing capabilities of the living cell.

  6. Mediation Approaches at the Beginning or End of Life. (United States)

    Howe, Edmund G


    The approaches used in mediation may help ethics consultants, especially in difficult cases. In this piece, I primarily discuss these techniques. I also discuss how clinicians may be of the most help to parents of infants with severe genetic conditions, to research participants, and to patients who may be at risk for Alzheimer's disease and their surrogate decision makers.

  7. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.


    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in t

  8. New Clues to Beginnings of Life on Earth (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974


    Describes current experiments that help to explain chemical processes which probably existed prior to the first living cells. Some experiments suggest that a significant portion of a major metabolic pathway, the Krebs cycle, may have developed in the earth's primitive atmosphere to be later incorporated into living organisms. (JR)

  9. Where/when/how did life begin? A philosophical key for systematizing theories on the origin of life (United States)

    Świeżyński, Adam


    The question of the origin of life interested people for centuries. All existing views on this subject can be classified into different areas of human knowledge about the world: natural sciences, philosophy, and theology (religion). It is interesting to look at them closer and to classify all the typical groups of the theories about the origins of life. We can then see links existing between them and relationships that indicate their own nature. Nowadays, driving forces of prebiological chemical evolution and the mode of explanation of the transition 'non-life into life' give a great variety of solutions. The differences between the theories, however, as well as the current controversies in the scientific community (what 'in the beginning' was?; where and when the prebiotic evolution may took place? etc.) will be shown as of secondary importance for the theories' systematization in comparison with several much more profound philosophical assumptions underlying the origin-of-life-studies. My proposal to organize and classify different types of the theories of genesis of life allows for extracting conceptions of different kind: metaphysical and scientific, and also for comparing them with each other. Some of them answer the question of the emergence of life in general and others on the question of the origin of life on the Earth only. In the perspective of contemporary scientific research on the origin of life it seems interesting that two main ideas concerning the problem of the origin of life, spontaneous generation and panspermia, are still present as presuppositions of certain theories but have been modified. Thus a 'philosophical key' seems to be the most appropriate to systematize all kinds of theories on the origin of life. This paper is an attempt to justify the position adopted. Most important conclusion is that the philosophical basis or implications, which are irreducibly present and possible to be found within the scientific theories of the origin of life

  10. The beginning and the end the meaning of life in a cosmological perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal, Clément


    In this fascinating journey to the edge of science, Vidal takes on big philosophical questions: Does our universe have a beginning and an end or is it cyclic? Are we alone in the universe? What is the role of intelligent life, if any, in cosmic evolution? Grounded in science and committed to philosophical rigor, this book presents an evolutionary worldview where the rise of intelligent life is not an accident, but may well be the key to unlocking the universe's deepest mysteries. Vidal shows how the fine-tuning controversy can be advanced with computer simulations. He also explores whether nat

  11. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of School Human Resource Practices (United States)

    Kwan, Paula


    Human resource (HR) management is defined as the sum of activities employed by an organization to attract, develop, and retain people with the appropriate knowledge and skills for effectively and efficiently achieving organizational goals. An understanding of the HR practices in schools is important, as the assembly of a team of qualified and…

  12. Participative Facility Planning for Obstetrical and Neonatal Care Processes: Beginning of Life Process

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    Jori Reijula


    Full Text Available Introduction. Old hospitals may promote inefficient patient care processes and safety. A new, functionally planned hospital presents a chance to create an environment that supports streamlined, patient-centered healthcare processes and adapts to users’ needs. This study depicts the phases of a facility planning project for pregnant women and newborn care processes (beginning of life process at Turku University Hospital. Materials and Methods. Project design reports and meeting documents were utilized to assess the beginning of life process as well as the work processes of the Women’s and Children’s Hospital. Results. The main elements of the facility design (FD project included rigorous preparation for the FD phase, functional planning throughout the FD process, and setting key values: (1 family-centered care, (2 Lean thinking and Lean tools as the framework for the FD process, (3 safety, and (4 cooperation. Conclusions. A well-prepared FD project with sufficient insight into functional planning, Lean thinking, and user-centricity seemed to facilitate the actual FD process. Although challenges occurred, the key values were not forgone and were successfully incorporated into the new hospital building.

  13. Ethics teaching on 'Beginning of Life' issues in UK medical schools. (United States)

    Oldroyd, Christopher; Fialova, Lydie


    Medical ethics forms an essential component of an undergraduate medical programme. In the UK the Institute of Medical Ethics has released a consensus statement detailing its recommendations for a minimum curriculum for ethics. One important issue it highlights for inclusion is 'Beginning of Life', which includes a wide range of themes. This paper presents an evaluation of the current teaching and assessment of these important issues in UK medical schools, complemented by a specific analysis of students' reaction to the teaching they received at the University of Edinburgh as part of their Obstetrics and Gynaecology rotation. Schools which responded to the survey reported a wide range of teaching and assessment methods. While there was a good overall coverage of topics, only one of them was covered by every institution and the religious/cultural elements of those topics were often neglected. The medical schools viewed better clinical integration of ethics teaching as the best route to improvement, but the students reported a desire for more ethics teaching in the form of specific tutorials, lectures or discussions. It is likely that a combination of these approaches will lead to significant improvements in the delivery of ethics teaching in this area and in others.

  14. Symposium: A Beginning in the Humanities (United States)

    Brooks, Peter; Fry, Paul H.; Carnochan, W. B.; Culler, Jonathan; Lerer, Seth; Marshall, Donald G.; Johnson, Barbara; Steiner, Wendy; Haack, Susan; Nussbaum, Martha C.


    2001 marked Yale's 300th birthday. It seemed an opportunity for reflection on the evolution of the institution, and particularly on the vicissitudes of the humanities over those three centuries. This article presents essays which represent a selection from the symposium, "Beginning With the Humanities," held at the Whitney Humanities Center on…

  15. The development of the temporal macrostructure of life narratives across adolescence: beginnings, linear narrative form, and endings. (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Ehlert-Lerche, Silvia; de Silveira, Cybèle


    The ontogeny of the ability to describe people culminates in adolescence in the development of the life story. An overarching temporal macrostructure and framing by a prehistory and a future-oriented global evaluation of life helps integrate disparate autobiographical memories into a coherent story. Two life narratives each of 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-year-olds (N=102) were analyzed in terms of how well-formed their beginnings and endings are and how much they follow a linear temporal order. By age 12, the majority of life narratives began with birth, ended in the present, and followed a chronological order. In late adolescence and early adulthood, more elaborate birth narratives and retrospective evaluations of life and outlooks into the future were added. These formal characteristics were related to biographical practices, biographical knowledge, and fluid intelligence. Text-analytical methods are proposed as a method for the analysis of biographical and autobiographical reasoning and understanding.


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    S. Y. Ivazova


    Full Text Available Article is devoted to use of a common law at the solution of disputes and conflicts at Kabardians, and also in their everyday life at the end of 19 – the beginning of the 20 centuries. In work is confirmed that reception of the main legal customs and traditions of the Kabardian people promoted formation of the most optimum models of his integration into structure of the Russian Empire. Relevance of this research consists in awareness of importance of interference of foundations of life and customs of Kabardians, and the Russian legislation at the end of 19 ‒ beginning of the 20th centuries. The relations and life regulated both by institutes of a common law of Kabardians, and the Russian legislation act as object. Is indisputable the fact that these or those people in the course of the legal development are guided by those legal customs which fully satisfy his interests and realize his requirements at the given, specifically taken historical stage. So, the Kabardian people gradually, by transfer from generation to generation of the experience of legal development which is saved up for centuries, developed such system of the rights and obligations which fully promoted implementation of requirements and satisfaction of interests of these people. In work regulatory legal acts, and also materials of lawenforcement practice are analyzed that is the main criterion of its novelty. The research purpose consists in studying of a role of a common law and the Russian legislation in everyday life of Kabardians at the end of 19 ‒ beginning of the 20th centuries. It is possible to draw a conclusion that during the specified period life of Kabardians was regulated, both regulations of a common law, and the Russian legislation.

  17. The origin of life. I: When and where did it begin? (United States)

    Davies, P


    For decades most scientists assumed that life emerged billions of years ago in a "primordial soup" somewhere on the Earth's surface. Evidence is mounting, however, that life may have begun deep beneath the surface, perhaps near a volcanic ocean vent or even inside the hot crust itself. Since there are hints that life's history on Earth extends back through the phase of massive cosmic bombardment, it may be that life started on Mars and came here later, perhaps inside rocks ejected from the Red Planet by large impacts. The traffic of intact rocks between Mars and Earth is now an established fact, and experiments confirm that microbes could survive the rigours of the journey through space if cocooned within such material. Unfortunately, this planetary cross-contamination compromises astrobiologists' hope of finding a second genesis in the solar system.

  18. Quality of Life Theory II. Quality of Life as the Realization of Life Potential: A Biological Theory of Human Being

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    Soren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life, which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research.Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life.

  19. Development of Bioregenerative Life Support for Longer Missions: When Can Plants Begin to Contribute to Atmospheric Management? (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.


    Through photosynthesis, plants can be used to generate oxygen and food for life support in human exploration of space. Initial contributions of plants to life support would likely occur through the production of supplemental, fresh foods. For plants to provide significant contributions to oxygen production, larger areas and significant lighting would be needed. An area of 10 m2 of plants with moderate lighting could provide about 13 of a human's oxygen needs. As mission distances and durations increase, plant growing areas could be expanded to assume more of the human life support needs.

  20. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes]. (United States)

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M


    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country.

  1. A clue to the origin of life: begin from making tools. (United States)

    Yin, Xiangchen; Yuan, Zhuangdong


    The small molecules already existing on the earth can be assembled to biological macromolecules in the presence of the suitable tool. A workman must sharpen his tools if he is to do his work well. The tool must be specific, delicate and automatic. Obviously, it is enzyme. Therefore, to explore the origin of life we must understand the origin of the manufacturing tool of biological macromolecules--the origin of enzymes. We can understand more about the origin and evolution procedures of enzymes from the NO2. NO2 can easily form the dimmer, N2O4. Four N2O4 molecules can coordinate with a suitable metal ion and form a plane super molecule with four N2O4 molecules. This supramolecule provides the basis for the appearance of enzymes: (1) It is the template for producing enzymes. (2) It provides the active centers for enzymes. (3) It provides for the enzymes with specific function of chiral selection. This supramolecule reacts with formaldehyde and porphyrin compound is gradually formed. Once suitable function groups are substituted on the porphyrin ring, enzymes are formed. The primitive environment of earth can easily produce NO2 and CH2O. Therefore, this might be one clue to the origin of life.


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    Ralind Re Marla


    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan desain teras Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (PLTN untuk jenis Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR dengan daya 70 MWe untuk keperluan proses smelter pada keadaan beginning of life (BOL. Analisis ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persen pengkayaan, distribusi suhu dan nilai keselamatan dengan koefisien reaktivitas teras yang negatif pada reaktor jenis PBMR apabila daya reaktor 70 MWe. Analisis menggunakan program Monte Carlo N-Particle-5 (MCNP5 dan dari hasil analisis ini diharapkan dapat memenuhi syarat dalam mendukung program percepatan pembangunan kelistrikan batubara 10.000 MWe khususnya untuk proses smelter, yang tersebar merata di wilayah Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, faktor perlipatan efektif (k-eff Reaktor jenis PBMR daya 70 MWe mengalami kondisi kritis pada pengkayaan 5,626 % dengan nilai faktor perlipatan efektif 1,00031±0,00087 dan nilai koefisien reaktivitas suhu pada -10,0006 pcm/K. Dari hasil analisis daat disimpulkan bahwa reaktor jenis PBMR daya 70 MWe adalah aman.   ABSTRACT The core design of Nuclear Power Plant for Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR type with 70 MWe capacity power in Beginning of Life (BOL has been performed. The aim of this analysis, to know percent enrichment, temperature distribution and safety value by negative temperature coefficient at type PBMR if reactor power become lower equal to 70 MWe. This analysis was expected become one part of overview project development the power plant with 10.000 MWe of total capacity, spread evenly in territory of Indonesia especially to support of smelter industries. The results showed that, effective multiplication factor (keff with power 70 MWe critical condition at enrichment 5,626 %is 1,00031±0,00087, based on enrichment result, a value of the temperature coefficient reactivity is - 10,0006 pcm/K. Based on the results of these studies, it can beconcluded that the PBMR 70 MWe design is theoritically safe.

  3. Regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms at the beginning of intron 2 of the human gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elena V Antontseva; Marina Yu Matveeva; Natalia P Bondar; Elena V Kashina; Elena Yu Leberfarb; Leonid O Bryzgalov; Polina A Gervas; Anastasia A Ponomareva; Nadezhda V Cherdyntseva; Yury L Orlov; Tatiana I Merkulova


    There are two regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs) at the beginning of the second intron of the mouse - gene that are strongly associated with lung cancer susceptibility. We performed functional analysis of three SNPs (rs12228277: T>A, rs12226937: G>A, and rs61761074: T>G) located in the same region of human . We found that rs12228277 and rs61761074 result in differential binding patterns of lung nuclear proteins to oligonucleotide probes corresponding two alternative alleles; in both cases, the transcription factor NF-Y is involved. G>A substitution (rs12226937) had no effect on the binding of lung nuclear proteins. However, all the nucleotide substitutions under study showed functional effects in a luciferase reporter assay. Among them, rs61761074 demonstrated a significant correlation with allele frequency in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Taken together, the results of our study suggest that a T>G substitution at nucleotide position 615 in the second intron of the KRAS gene (rs61761074) may represent a promising genetic marker of NSCLC.

  4. The Beginning and the End: The Meaning of Life in a Cosmological Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal, Clement


    Where does it all come from? Where are we going? Are we alone in the universe? What is good and what is evil? The scientific narrative of cosmic evolution demands that we tackle such big questions with a cosmological perspective. I tackle the first question in Chapters 4-6; the second in Chapters 7-8; the third in Chapter 9 and the fourth in Chapter 10. However, where do we start to answer such questions? In Chapters 1-3, I elaborate the concept of worldview and argue that we should aim at constructing comprehensive and coherent worldviews. In Chapter 4, I identify seven fundamental challenges to any ultimate explanation. I conclude that our explanations tend to fall in two cognitive attractors, the point or the cycle. In Chapter 5, I focus on the free parameters issue, while Chapter 6 is a critical analysis of the fine-tuning issue. I conclude that fine-tuning is a conjecture and that we need to further study how typical our universe is. This opens a research endeavor that I call artificial cosmogenesis. In ...

  5. Modern methods of human life evaluation

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    Raisa Viktorovna Nifantova


    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors classified the methods of evaluation of life and human health, physical and mental suffering, identified influencing factors affecting the value of the estimate cost of living on the basis of generalization of extensive theoretical and empirical material of various domestic and foreign publications. From the perspective of human capital theory, various approaches to modeling monetary value of human life are reviewed, for example, the demographic approach, consequential, direct investments in human lived during the interval years, theory of utility to the human society, the cost of risk unit and society's willingness to pay for the damages, as well as costs to society to reduce the risk of premature death of its member.

  6. Measuring quality of life in Macedonia - using human development indicators

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    Dimitar Eftimoski


    Full Text Available By the end of the 1980s, the central issue of development was focused on the growth of income and not on the growth of quality of life. Therefore, the development strategies were oriented towards production and left no significant space for improving the welfare of individuals.In the beginning of the 1990s, the human development concept emerged, stressing that economic development ultimately should result in growth of quality of life of individuals, while the goal of the development process was to expand the capabilities of individuals by placing them in the focus of the efforts for development.This paper if focused on the quality of life of the individuals. Moreover, in addition to the previous practice in Macedonia of calculating the human development index (HDI - as a measure of quality of life, an attempt will be made to calculate the humanpoverty index (HPI-2 - as a measure of non-income poverty, gender development index (GDI - as a measure of inequality between men and women, as well as the human development index at the level of aggregated urban and rural municipalities.We hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of decisions made by the state and local authorities in Macedonia when it comes to issues concerning the human development.

  7. Prospects for the Chinese Human Genome Project (HGP)at the beginning of next century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese Human Genome Project (CHGP) as part of the international human genome research has achieved significant progress and created a solid foundation for further development. While participating in the human genome sequencing and gene discovery, the emphasis of CHGP in the next century will be laid on functional genomics. The strategy, resources and some policy issues will be addressed.

  8. Athens: New capital of traditional Greek music: Testimonies on musical life at the beginning of the twentieth century

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    Peno Vesna


    Full Text Available During its long Byzantine and Post-Byzantine history Constantinople was the center for church art in general, but especially for music. This old city on the Bosporus maintained its prime position until the beginning of the 20th century when, because of new political and social conditions, the Greek people started to acquire their independence and freedom, and Athens became the new capital in the cultural as well as the political sense. During the first decades of the 20th century the Athenian music scene was marked by an intensive dispute between those musicians who leaned towards the European musical heritage and its methods in musical pedagogy, and those who called themselves traditionalists and were engaged in the preservation of traditional values of church and folk music. The best insight into the circumstances in which Greek musical life was getting a new direction are offered by the numerous musical journals published in Athens before the First World War. Among them, The Formigs is of the special interest, firstly because of the long period during which it was published (1901-1912, and secondly because of its main orientation. The editor Ioannes Tsoklis, a church chanter, and his main collaborator, the famous Constantinopolitan musician and theorist and later Principal of the Department for Byzantine music at Athens musical school Konstantinos Psahos, with other associates firmly represented the traditional position. That is why most of the published articles and the orientation of the journal generally were dedicated to the controversial problems and current musical events that were attracting public attention. The editorial board believed that there was a connection between the preservation of musical traditions and their development on one side, and foreign musical influences that were evident in the promotion of polyphonic church music, which had been totally foreign to the Greek Orthodox church until the end of the 19th century, on

  9. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.


    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  10. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

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    Natalay Kouprina


    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  11. Brucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century. (United States)

    Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J


    Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful.

  12. Survival of the fittest before the beginning of life: selection of the first oligonucleotide-like polymers by UV light

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    Cherepanov Dmitry A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key event in the origin of life on this planet has been formation of self-replicating RNA-type molecules, which were complex enough to undergo a Darwinian-type evolution (origin of the "RNA world". However, so far there has been no explanation of how the first RNA-like biopolymers could originate and survive on the primordial Earth. Results As condensation of sugar phosphates and nitrogenous bases is thermodynamically unfavorable, these compounds, if ever formed, should have undergone rapid hydrolysis. Thus, formation of oligonucleotide-like structures could have happened only if and when these structures had some selective advantage over simpler compounds. It is well known that nitrogenous bases are powerful quenchers of UV quanta and effectively protect the pentose-phosphate backbones of RNA and DNA from UV cleavage. To check if such a protection could play a role in abiogenic evolution on the primordial Earth (in the absence of the UV-protecting ozone layer, we simulated, by using Monte Carlo approach, the formation of the first oligonucleotides under continuous UV illumination. The simulations confirmed that UV irradiation could have worked as a selective factor leading to a relative enrichment of the system in longer sugar-phosphate polymers carrying nitrogenous bases as UV-protectors. Partial funneling of the UV energy into the condensation reactions could provide a further boost for the oligomerization. Conclusion These results suggest that accumulation of the first polynucleotides could be explained by their abiogenic selection as the most UV-resistant biopolymers.

  13. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

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    Miljenko Solarić


    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  14. 'The residues of freedom,… tendencies toward true humanism': thoughts on the role of the humanities at the beginning of the twentyfirst century

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    J. Snyman


    Full Text Available Remarks from Kant’s third critique, “The Critique of Judgement”, are taken as guidelines to develop a view on works of art as vessels of knowledge and judgements about what the world appears to be, can be and ought to be. In itself, Kant’s remarks amount to a justification of the study of the arts, i.e. it is for the sake of a world where human beings may experience other human beings as companions in the project to sustain human life. The viability of such an endeavour is borne out by, for example, a recent performance of Beethoven in a most adverse context, and by the fact of international treaties in the past decade against some of the most serious violations of human rights. These treaties could not have been possible were it not for the artistic explorations of the tragedies of these violations.

  15. Body as First Space of Communication: The Tonic-Emotional Dialogue in the Beginning of Psychic Life

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    Rui Martins


    Full Text Available In the early stages of ontogenesis, when thesupport for development relies upon the relational function of the mother–baby dyad, the child will organise the foundation of the Self. This process involves a physiological and emotional symbiosis, in a relation with predominance of a tonic-emotional dialogue. The presence or absence of the other, the dynamics of nearness/farness, the postural and gestural dynamics, the containment activities, rhythmic synchronicities and thermal contact, are essential supports to primary organization of the psyche. When these processes are inadequate, they can cause problems of individuation and affirmation of identity, linked to absences or deficiencies in the primary relationship between mother and baby. This perspective leads us to equate the importance of corporeality in the early processes of communication when they are mediated primarily by tonic-emotional processes of communication, imbued with affections, desires and emotions. These processes are essential to the organization of the internal processes that make up this pre-linguistic phase, based on the organization of body schema, ensuring a sense of identity and the possibility of individuation and differentiation from the maternal object. When there are disruptions in this evolutionary dynamics, psychomotor therapy is a privileged resource, providing a safe and container space in which through spontaneous and symbolic play, children learn to transform the feelings, acts and affections in thoughts, projects and words. A desired relationship, allows to experience new forms of expression and conflict resolution, improving emotional and behavioural regulation, and promoting mentoring capacity and executive functions (such as attention, working memory, planning and inhibition of impulses.

  16. Molecular dynamics studies of simple membrane-water interfaces: Structure and functions in the beginnings of cellular life (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.


    Molecular dynamics computer simulations of the structure and functions of a simple membrane are performed in order to examine whether membranes provide an environment capable of promoting protobiological evolution. Our model membrane is composed of glycerol 1-monooleate. It is found that the bilayer surface fluctuates in time and space, occasionally creating thinning defects in the membrane. These defects are essential for passive transport of simple ions across membranes because they reduce the Born barrier to this process by approximately 40%. Negative ions are transferred across the bilayer more readily than positive ions due to favorable interactions with the electric field at the membrane-water interface. Passive transport of neutral molecules is, in general, more complex than predicted by the solubility-diffusion model. In particular, molecules which exhibit sufficient hydrophilicity and lipophilicity concentrate near membrane surfaces and experience 'interfacial resistance' to transport. The membrane-water interface forms an environment suitable for heterogeneous catalysis. Several possible mechanisms leading to an increase of reaction rates at the interface are discussed. We conclude that vesicles have many properties that make them very good candidates for earliest protocells. Some potentially fruitful directions of experimental and theoretical research on this subject are proposed.

  17. Beginnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper is a contribution to a series of recollections and reflections on the professional experiences of distinguished economists which the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review started in 1979. In it Hyman Minsky offers a retrospective on his academic career and intellectual development.

  18. Beginnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F


    posttranslational processing. By these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are produced in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, gut hormones are widely expressed outside the gut. The different cell types often express different products of the same gene and release the peptides...... in different ways. Consequently, the same peptide may act as a hormone, a local growth factor, or a neurotransmitter. This new biology suggests that gastrointestinal hormones should be conceived as intercellular messengers of major general impact. The following short review is a vignette on steps......The gut is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones share some characteristics: Their structure groups hormones into families, each of which originate from a single gene. A hormone gene is often expressed in multiple peptides due to tandem genes, alternative splicing or differentiated...

  19. Roy's specific life values and the philosophical assumption of humanism. (United States)

    Hanna, Debra R


    Roy's philosophical assumption of humanism, which is shaped by the veritivity assumption, is considered in terms of her specific life values and in contrast to the contemporary view of humanism. Like veritivity, Roy's philosophical assumption of humanism unites a theocentric focus with anthropological values. Roy's perspective enriches the mainly secular, anthropocentric assumption. In this manuscript, the basis for Roy's perspective of humanism will be discussed so that readers will be able to use the Roy adaptation model in an authentic manner.

  20. The Beginning of a New Life Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury- Patient’s Experiences One Month Post-Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Bodil Bjørnshave; Bjerrum, Merete; Angel, Sanne


    Introduction: Studies show that individuals having suffered traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) are challenged by barriers and problems in their transition from hospital rehabilitation to home. This study aims to explore patients’ first-hand experiences of returning home and to compare their post......-discharge experiences with their pre-discharge expectations. Method: A qualitative follow-up study using inductive contents analysis. One month post-discharge, we reinterviewed seven Danish TSCI-patients, admitted for initial rehabilitation at the Spinal Cord Injury Centre of Western Denmark. Findings: We identified...

  1. Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Oliver


    Purpose Residues in field crops grown and harvested for human consumption are the main contributor to overall human exposure toward agricultural pesticides for the general population. However, exposure from crop residues is currently not considered in life cycle assessment practice. We therefore...... present a consistent framework for characterizing human toxicological impacts associated with pesticides applied to agricultural crops in the frame of life cycle impact assessment based on state-of-the-art data and methods. Methods We combine a dynamic multicrop plant uptake model designed for evaluating......-crop combinations of 10 orders of magnitude. Conclusions Our framework is operational for use in current life cycle impact assessment models, is made available for USEtox, and closes an important gap in the assessment of human exposure to pesticides. For ready use in life cycle assessment studies, we present...

  2. The Role of Human in Relation between Urban Life & Philosophy

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    Qodratullah Qorbani


    Full Text Available Historical documents show that urban life and urbanization is the first manifestation of complete form of human life, and it seems that most of human thoughts, like philosophies, were shaped in the cities and urbanizations. It means that the urban life is a society which has many social factors like: social classes and groups, economy, political power, organizations, family, cultures and geographical and environmental circumstances, that they cause to form many thoughts like human philosophies, then we see that most of past philosophers were in the cities in where urbanization was formed and thinkers could think by using of elements which are grown in such urbanizations. So, the being of urban life is necessary for making philosophical thoughts, because there are such social factors of urban living, can effect human's thinking and shape his/her worldview. But we can see the role of humankinds as a free existent who has divine position, intellect and freedom, then, he/she can manage, control and change the impacts of urban factors on philosophical thought. It means that effects of urbanizations and cultures as clear manifestation of urban life on philosophies is possible only by using of human‘s will and thinking as the central factor of the urban life and philosophy, while he/she can control and change these impacts. In fact, although human is under the impact of social and urban factors, he/she is not determined absolutely, but has freedom and intellect to control and change them. So, there is no place for absolute determinism due to social forces of urban life, but it seems there is a kind of intermediate state between absolute determinism and libertarianism. In this paper, it is tries to analysis the role of social and urban factors as the most important elements of the urban life on philosophy and philosophical thinking, and to argue that how human can manage this process.

  3. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction. (United States)

    Last, Cadell


    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

  4. Natural goodness and the political form of human life

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    Müller Jan


    Full Text Available Ethical Naturalism attempts to explain the objective normativity effective in human practices by reference to the relation between a living individual and the life-form it exhibits. This explanation falls short in the case of human beings (1 - not merely because of their essential rationality, but because the idea of normativity implicit in practice is dependent on the form of normativity’s being made explicit (2. I argue that this explicit form of normativity’s force and claim - the law in general - implies a tension between an explicit norm’s claim to absoluteness and the particularity of the situational case it is applied to. This tension may seem to produce an inherent violence corrupting the very idea of objective normativity inherent in the human form of life (3; in fact, it shows that the human form of life is essentially political. That the human form of life is essentially political does not contradict the idea of objective normativity - provided that this objectivity is not derived from a conception of “natural goodness”, but rather from the actuality of human practice and its principle, justice (4.

  5. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life


    Capone, Kimberly A; Scot E Dowd; Georgios N. Stamatas; Nikolovski, Janeta


    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first yea...

  6. Beginning of Viniculture in France (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.


    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.


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    Full Text Available One of the most significant directions of the world-wide contemporary philosophy, phenomenology of life of Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka represents a major path of thinking and acting for the promotion of what does mean the universal valuable in human beingness by disclosing and unfolding an essential modality of understanding and shaping some paradigms of world culture. We face an original author and a reputed activist doing exceptional work to foster a culture of dialogue in the world. The impressive Tymienieckan philosophical work has imposed itself as a great contribution to the heralding of a “New Enlightenment” encompassing humanity in the endeavour of creating, maintaining and developing the wellbeing and the common good of mankind, in securing the human common destiny. Putting in act a holistic and dynamic philosophy upon life and human condition, phenomenology of life offers a viable pattern of communication between different cultures, of overcoming any kind of contradictions in dealing with the fundamental issues of living together and sharing-in-life. We can find elements for tackling and comprehending in a better way our cosmopolitan humanness, due to the opening of a creative approach of identity and otherness, by admitting differentiation and also by working for harmony in the play of life. Throughout new concepts and a very own complex vision of the respect for life, the philosophy-in-act of AnnaTeresa Tymieniecka manifests valences of an integrator enterprise in interpreting the cosmopolitan status of the philosopher in nowadays, in affirming the role of a responsible citizen of the world.

  8. On the Psychometric Study of Human Life History Strategies. (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Sanning, Blair K; Lai, Mark H C; Copping, Lee T; Hardesty, Patrick H; Kruger, Daniel J


    This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS), provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a) use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b) confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c) establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested-there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.

  9. Imunidade relacionada à resposta alérgica no início da vida Immunity related to allergic response at the beginning of life

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    Joaquina M.M. Correa


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: considerando-se que é na infância que as manifestações alérgicas mais comuns (asma, rinite, dermatite, alergia alimentar ocorrem, porque é no início da vida que o sistema imune pode ser induzido à sensibilização ao invés de tolerância alergênica, analisamos as principais peculiaridades imunológicas do feto e da criança jovem, inerentes à sensibilização e resposta alérgica. MÉTODOS: os autores realizaram revisão literária detalhada concernente à resposta imune inespecífica (barreiras físico-químicas, células mielóides e específica (linfócitos T e B, citocinas do feto e de crianças mais jovens, enfatizando os estudos mais relevantes nos últimos quinze anos. RESULTADOS: vários compartimentos do sistema imune do feto e de crianças mais jovens são diferentes daqueles da criança maior e do adulto. Conseqüentemente, aspectos relativos ao desenvolvimento da imunidade inespecífica e específica, podem contribuir para a geração de atopia. CONCLUSÕES: a predisposição atópica determina-se no início da vida e parece originar-se, além dos fatores genéticos, por aqueles ocorridos no ambiente intra-uterino e fase inicial da infância, os quais influenciam o sistema imune à síntese elevada de IgE.OBJECTIVE: given that the most common allergic manifestations (asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis, food allergies occur during childhood, because the immune system can be induced into sensitization rather than into allergenic tolerance at the beginning of life, we analyzed the main immunological aspects of fetuses and infant in terms of allergic sensitization and response. METHODS: detailed bibliographic revision concerning nonspecific immune response (physical and chemical barriers, myeloid cells and specific immune response (T and B lymphocytes, cytokines of the fetus and infant, with special attention to studies carried out in the last fifteen years. RESULTS: various compartments of the immune system in fetuses and

  10. Language and life history: a new perspective on the development and evolution of human language. (United States)

    Locke, John L; Bogin, Barry


    It has long been claimed that Homo sapiens is the only species that has language, but only recently has it been recognized that humans also have an unusual pattern of growth and development. Social mammals have two stages of pre-adult development: infancy and juvenility. Humans have two additional prolonged and pronounced life history stages: childhood, an interval of four years extending between infancy and the juvenile period that follows, and adolescence, a stage of about eight years that stretches from juvenility to adulthood. We begin by reviewing the primary biological and linguistic changes occurring in each of the four pre-adult ontogenetic stages in human life history. Then we attempt to trace the evolution of childhood and juvenility in our hominin ancestors. We propose that several different forms of selection applied in infancy and childhood; and that, in adolescence, elaborated vocal behaviors played a role in courtship and intrasexual competition, enhancing fitness and ultimately integrating performative and pragmatic skills with linguistic knowledge in a broad faculty of language. A theoretical consequence of our proposal is that fossil evidence of the uniquely human stages may be used, with other findings, to date the emergence of language. If important aspects of language cannot appear until sexual maturity, as we propose, then a second consequence is that the development of language requires the whole of modern human ontogeny. Our life history model thus offers new ways of investigating, and thinking about, the evolution, development, and ultimately the nature of human language.

  11. [Influence of the Nuremberg physicians' trials--beginning a new era in the ethical judging of human experiments]. (United States)

    Kerpel-Fronius, Sándor


    This short historical review attempts to shed light on the tortuous road on which society moved toward the general acceptance of the idea of experimenting on human beings. Unfortunately people had to realize that under antihuman or lenient political leadership, some physicians might apply their knowledge against their fellow beings, or might endanger them while pursuing their scientific goals. For this reason, it became necessary to codify the ethical requirements of medical experiments. This was done first by the Prussian government in 1900. The historical significance of the Nuremberg physicians' trials is that, by recognizing the enormous scientific importance of human experiments, they led to the formulation of general ethical principles governing human studies, which became known as the Nuremberg Code. Broad, international regulations were developed as the consequence of the trial. Unfortunately human experiments performed on prison inmates were judged at the trial as ethically acceptable, provided an informed consent was signed. Misusing this possibility many unethical experiments were done primarily in the US after the war. The great indignation due to ethical misconduct in prison trials and the highly unethical Tuskegee experiments performed on black Americans' suffering from syphilis, led much later to the organization of independent ethics committees. Through these committees, society exercises supervision of human trials. However, in case of severely ill patients the physician might be left alone to make a quick, and ethically correct, decision corresponding to the situation. In the final analysis the safety and ethical protection of research subjects remain the joint responsibility of society and of the experimenting physicians.

  12. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life. (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin


    This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding.

  13. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral J Dando

    Full Text Available Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery. Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  14. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown. (United States)

    Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin


    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  15. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown (United States)

    Dando, Coral J.; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin


    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime. PMID:27149330

  16. Role Management Strategies of Beginning Teachers in Hong Kong (United States)

    Choi, Pik Lin; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan


    Beginning teachers encounter new challenges as the role system in contemporary society has become more and more demanding. By means of the life history method, role management strategies of four Hong Kong beginning teachers employed to cope with role demands and intra-role conflicts were located in their biographical, workplace and wider…

  17. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Effective Mentoring Techniques (United States)

    Slabodnik-Rivas, Kathryn


    The purpose of this study was to examine the value of mentoring techniques as perceived by beginning teachers. One specific school district in Southern California using the Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) program was the focus of this study. There were 12 beginning teachers involved in their second year of the BTSA program. The…

  18. The End Of The Beginning (United States)

    Seitz, Russell


    When, in the course of advancing the state of the art, one slams into a material barrier to the construction of one's appointed gadget, it is customary, and at times mandatory, to drop to one's knees and pray to DARPA for deliverance. Deliverance in the form of the right stuff. Something superbly strong, something utterly transparent, something remarkably light, and with dielectric properties rivaling a perfect vacuum. Ideally, this something should also be bulletproof, better at conducting heat than a silver spoon, insoluble in boiling acid, radiation hard, non-toxic, and cheap. Well, historically, nine out of ten isn't bad for a start. Indeed, it's better than nothing. So let me begin with some history. What we today call solid state physics began not as science but as technology. Victorian low technology to be exact. The first practical solid state electronic devices, demonstrated by Ferdinand Braun* at Leipzig on November 14, 1876, were based neither on theory nor on synthesis, nor on crystal growth. For in those days these things existed not. They were instead dug up, mined as lead ore. The performance of the galena (PbS) cat's whisker diode was marginal; it was rapidly superseded by the first, worse vacuum tube . So also, early infrared optics of rock salt gave way to synthetic crystals. But those early artifacts' performance demanded a physical explanation, and after a brief hiatus, in order for Willard Gibbs to break ground by inventing thermodynamics, the modern theory of solids arose to provide it. It all stemmed from the enterprise of explaining first the optical properties and then the electronic bebavior of crystals found in rocks. Today diamond, along perhaps with Iceland spar, remains the last optical material to be technically exploited as it is found in nature. It is a barbarous relic, a throwback to high technology's dim Neolithic past. For nowadays we are used to thinking about synthetic optical materials, like zinc sulfide or selenide, as being

  19. Goethe's bone and the beginnings of morphology. (United States)

    Opitz, John M


    Biology as a discipline per se and its agenda, seems not to have been burdened from its beginnings as heavily with neo-Platonism as its subspecialty morphology, conceptualized at the same time by Goethe and Burdach. One of the reasons may have been that biologists were then regarded as "mere" naturalists, "doing" anatomy and embryology, breeding, and field work (as did Darwin, Wallace, Bateson and a legion of others during the 19th century), whereas the, perhaps more elitist, morphologists, ab initio devoted themselves to the origin, even to the Kantian analysis of causes of development and its variability within and between species. Since Goethe included abnormal plant development in his studies, his definition of morphology as the science of the form, formation and transformation of living organisms may be modified to include the concept of malformation, although the embryological and comparative analysis of vertebrate/mammalian malformation had its real inception somewhat later with the younger Meckel. In view of the meaning attached by his French contemporaries to the term transformisme (eventually defined as evolution) one would err considering Goethe as a prophet of "descent;" he was not, referring primarily to the continuous state of flux of living beings. Nonetheless, Goethe and Burdach independently coined the concept of morphology and set its agenda, increasingly freed of Naturphilosophie, an agenda that dominated 19th century biology but which did not come to fruition in its causal analysis of form and its formation until the 20th century, after Mendel, Darwin and the pioneers of experimental embryology (a.o., Roux, Driesch, Spemann, Vogt). In his discovery of the intermaxillary bone in humans (Goethe's bone), he had a startling insight, against conventional wisdom, into the anatomical, hence developmental, similarity of primate/mammals. During his lifetime, this was still called analogie by his great French contemporary Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire who

  20. Beyond abortion: the potential reach of a human life amendment. (United States)

    Westfall, D


    In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court held that the constitutionally protected right to privacy includes a woman's right to terminate pregnancy. Following the decision, anti-abortion groups turned to Congress to limit or negate that right. As a result of their efforts, several "human life" statutes and constitutional amendments have been proposed. This Article focuses on the implications of proposed amendments that seek to ban or limit the availability of abortions indirectly by broadening the definition of "person" to include unborn individuals. The Article discusses the potentially serious effects such an amendment would have in areas unrelated to abortion. It finds that the resulting chaos and uncertainty would have great social costs, and concludes that if abortions are to be banned or restricted, a human life amendment that directly deals with abortion is preferable to one that defines "person" to include the unborn.

  1. 'Aid-in-dying' and the taking of human life. (United States)

    Campbell, C S


    In several US states, the legalisation of euthanasia has become a question for voters to decide in public referenda. This democratic approach in politics is consistent with notions of personal autonomy in medicine, but the right of choice does not mean all choices are morally equal. A presumption against the taking of human life is embedded in the formative moral traditions of society; human life does not have absolute value, but we do and should impose a strict burden of justification for exceptions to the presumption, as exemplified by the moral criteria invoked to justify self-defence, capital punishment, or just war. These criteria can illuminate whether another exception should be carved out for doctor-assisted suicide or active euthanasia. It does not seem, in the United States at any rate, that all possible alternatives to affirm the control and dignity of the dying patient and to relieve pain and suffering, short of taking life, have been exhausted. Moreover, the procedural safeguards built into many proposals for legalised euthanasia would likely be undone by the sorry state of the US health care system, with its lack of universal access to care, chronic cost-containment ills, a litigious climate, and socioeconomic barriers to care. There remains, however, common ground in the quest for humane care of the dying.

  2. Genomics and identity: the bioinformatisation of human life. (United States)

    Zwart, Hub


    The genomics "revolution" is spreading. Originating in the molecular life sciences, it initially affected a number of biomedical research fields such as cancer genomics and clinical genetics. Now, however, a new "wave" of genomic bioinformation is transforming a widening array of disciplines, including those that address the social, historical and cultural dimensions of human life. Increasingly, bioinformation is affecting "human sciences" such as psychiatry, psychology, brain research, behavioural research ("behavioural genomics"), but also anthropology and archaeology ("bioarchaeology"). Thus, bioinformatics is having an impact on how we define and understand ourselves, how identities are formed and constituted, and, finally, on how we (on the basis of these redefined identities) assess and address some of the more concrete societal issues involved in genomics governance in various settings. This article explores how genomics and bioinformation, by influencing research agendas in the human sciences and the humanities, are affecting our self-image, our identity, the way we see ourselves. The impact of bioinformation on self-understanding will be assessed on three levels: (1) the collective level (the impact of comparative genomics on our understanding of human beings as a species), (2) the individual level (the impact of behavioural genomics on our understanding of ourselves as individuals), and (3) the genealogical level (the impact of population genomics on our understanding of human history, notably early human history). This threefold impact will be assessed from two seemingly incompatible philosophical perspectives, namely a "humanistic" perspective (represented in this article by Francis Fukuyama) and a "post-humanistic" one (represented by Peter Sloterdijk). On the basis of this analysis it will be concluded that, rather than focussing on human "enhancement" by adding or deleting genes, genome-oriented practices of the Self will focus on using genomics

  3. Modelling the beginning and end of a planktonic life stage — the distribution of cod eggs and settled juveniles in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Munk, Peter


    The North Sea cod stock is close to the southern limit of the species’ range. Therefore, it might be vulnerable to future climate change. Direct as well as indirect effects of climate forcing may have the greatest effects on early life stages. Here we present a study on the distribution of cod (G...

  4. Historical aspects and causes of the synergy beginning as a science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimtsov V. V.


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the historical aspects of the beginning and development of a new popular science – synergy, as a means of interdisciplinary communication among scholars. Using methodological apparatus of synergy here were considered the basics of studies. Historical aspects of the origin, beginning and formation of synergy as a science and its application in all aspects of human life were analyzed. Current research areas within synergy and nonlinear dynamics were presented. Was presented a question of order and organization of global issues (energetic, environmental, social and economic and systems, that were developed by human using synergy. The conclusion was made on the need for a synergistic approach to all aspects of human life and especially to the economy – it is undeniable in the science of human development in society and especially within the manufacturing process.

  5. Taina Sfântului Botez- început nou al vieții prin unirea cu Hristos (The Sacrament of Baptism- new beginning of life through union with Christ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Ştefan Florea


    Full Text Available This articles presents the The Holy Sacrament of Baptism- new beginning of life through union with Christ. The sacraments were instituted by Christ and were part of the Liturgical Tradition of the early Christian Church. Holy Baptism is the first of seven Sacraments in the Orthodox Christian Church. The Lord Jesus who instituted Baptism, said of the Disciples: „Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit...”(Matthew 28,19. Baptism is necessary for salvation (John 3,5, and man is born a new life, new Christian is a child of God. Baptism is the basis of the whole Christian life held in the Church

  6. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.


    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  7. Diversity of the human skin microbiome early in life. (United States)

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta


    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function.

  8. Patterns, entropy, and predictability of human mobility and life

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Shao-Meng; Mohtaschemi, Mikael; Hartonen, Tuomo; Alava, Mikko


    Cellular phones are now offering an ubiquitous means for scientists to observe life: how people act, move and respond to external influences. They can be utilized as measurement devices of individual persons and for groups of people of the social context and the related interactions. The picture of human life that emerges shows complexity, which is manifested in such data in properties of the spatiotemporal tracks of individuals. We extract from smartphone-based data for a set of persons important locations such as "home", "work" and so forth over fixed length time-slots covering the days in the data-set. This set of typical places is heavy-tailed, a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1.7. To analyze the regularities and stochastic features present, the days are classified for each person into regular, personal patterns. To this are superimposed fluctuations for each day. This randomness is measured by "life" entropy, computed both before and after finding the clustering so as to subtract the c...

  9. Beginnings of the Cauchy problem

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne


    Brief account of results on the Cauchy problem for the Einstein equations starting with early the works of Darmois and Lichnerowicz and going up to the proofs of the existence and uniqueness of solutions global in space and local in time, in Sobolev spaces, for the general equations either in vacuum or with classical sources.

  10. Patterns, entropy, and predictability of human mobility and life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Meng Qin

    Full Text Available Cellular phones are now offering an ubiquitous means for scientists to observe life: how people act, move and respond to external influences. They can be utilized as measurement devices of individual persons and for groups of people of the social context and the related interactions. The picture of human life that emerges shows complexity, which is manifested in such data in properties of the spatiotemporal tracks of individuals. We extract from smartphone-based data for a set of persons important locations such as "home", "work" and so forth over fixed length time-slots covering the days in the data-set (see also [1], [2]. This set of typical places is heavy-tailed, a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1.7. To analyze the regularities and stochastic features present, the days are classified for each person into regular, personal patterns. To this are superimposed fluctuations for each day. This randomness is measured by "life" entropy, computed both before and after finding the clustering so as to subtract the contribution of a number of patterns. The main issue that we then address is how predictable individuals are in their mobility. The patterns and entropy are reflected in the predictability of the mobility of the life both individually and on average. We explore the simple approaches to guess the location from the typical behavior, and of exploiting the transition probabilities with time from location or activity A to B. The patterns allow an enhanced predictability, at least up to a few hours into the future from the current location. Such fixed habits are most clearly visible in the working-day length.

  11. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins (United States)


    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days. The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow. Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael


    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  13. Politics drives human functioning, dignity, and quality of life. (United States)

    Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; McNeely, Clea; Page, Paul D; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu


    Too little is known about human functioning amidst chronic adversity. We addressed that need by studying adult Palestinians in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), a population that has experienced longstanding economic and political hardships. Fourteen group interviews were conducted in February, 2010 in Arabic by local fieldworkers with 68 participants representing the main stratifications of Palestinian society: gender, region, refugee status, and political affiliation. Interview tasks included each participant: describing someone doing well and not well, free listing domains of functioning, and prioritizing domains to the three most important. Thematic analyses highlighted the dominating role of the political domain of functioning (e.g., political structures, constraints, effects, identity, and activism) and the degree to which political conditions impacted all other realms of functioning (economic, education, family, psychological, etc.). The discussion links the findings to relevant theory and empirical work that has called attention to the need to include the political in frameworks of quality of life. It also emphasized that values, such as justice, rights, dignity and self-determination, that underlie political structures and policies, are key elements of human functioning. This is the case not only in the oPt, but in any society where power imbalances marginalize segments of the population.

  14. Work Environment Predictors of Beginning Teacher Burnout (United States)

    Goddard, Richard; O'Brien, Patrick; Goddard, Marion


    This study investigated elements of school environments that explain variance in burnout scores in a sample of university graduates from Brisbane, Australia, two years after they commenced work as teachers. Using a longitudinal survey methodology, 79 beginning teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) on four occasions over a two-year…

  15. Common pitfalls of beginning therapists utilizing enactments. (United States)

    Butler, Mark H; Davis, Sean D; Seedall, Ryan B


    Empirical data, clinical observation, and theoretical rationales support use of enactments as a fundamental mechanism of change in relationship therapies. Yet beginning therapists may lack an adequate conceptual framework and operational training essential to effectively utilize enactments. Inadequate training may contribute to ineffective execution, and in turn to negative results, which could lead to abandonment of enactments. This study sought to identify proficiencies and nonproficiencies of beginning therapists in conducting enactments. Twenty beginning therapists from three Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE)-accredited programs were briefly trained in an indirect therapy style that incorporates enactments. Twenty-six therapist enactments were coded using a comprehensive observational measure designed to assess proficiencies and nonproficiencies in executing enactment phases, component tasks, and subcomponent operations. Results suggest that beginning therapists struggle with numerous clinical operations conceptually linked to the successful engagement of relationships in marriage and family therapy. In light of these findings, specific recommendations for additional enactment training in COAMFTE-accredited programs are offered.

  16. Chronomics and ``Glocal'' (Combined Globaland Local) Assessment of Human Life (United States)

    Otsuka, K.; Cornélissen, G.; Norboo, T.; Takasugi, E.; Halberg, F.

    Most organisms, from cyanobacteria to mammals, are known to use circadian mechanisms to coordinate their activities with the natural 24-hour light/dark cycle and/or interacting socio-ecologic schedules. When the human clock gene was discovered in 1997, it was surprising to see that it was very similar in all earthly life. Recent findings suggest that organisms which evolved on Earth acquired many of the visible and invisible cycles of their habitat and/or of their cosmos. While circadian systems are well documented both time-macroscopically and time-microscopically, the temporal organization of physiological function is much more extensive. Long-term physiological quasi-ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate, among other variables, such as those of the ECG and other tools of the neuroendocrinologic armamentarium, have already yielded information, among others, on circaseptan (about 7-day), transyears and cisyears (with periods slightly longer or shorter tha n one year, respectively), and circadecennian (about 10-year) cycles; the nervous system displays rhythms, chaos and trends, mapped as chronomes. Chronomes are time structures consisting of multifrequency rhythms covering frequencies over 18 orders of magnitude, elements of chaos, trends in chaotic and rhythmic endpoints, and other, as-yet unresolved variability. These resolvable time structures, chronomes, in us have counterparts around us, also consisting of rhythms, trends and chaos, as is increasingly being recognized. In 2000, we began a community-based study, relying on 7-day/24-hour monitoring of blood pressure as a public service. Our goal was the prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction and of the decline in cognitive function of the elderly in a community. Chronomic detection of elevated illness-risks aim at the prevention of diseases of individuals, such as myocardial infarctions and strokes, and, equally important, chronomics resolves illness of societies, such as crime and war

  17. A Graphophonic Investigation of Beginning Level Texts (United States)

    Walker, Kevin Clark


    This study attempted to provide a systematic framework for phonics instruction for beginning readers in literature-based classrooms based on relative frequency of phoneme-grapheme occurrences found in three distinct corpora. The first corpus contained an academic word list. The second corpus contained the running text from 363 books identified as…

  18. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity



    Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary dat...

  19. How long did it take for life to begin and evolve to cyanobacteria? (United States)

    Lazcano, A.; Miller, S. L.


    There is convincing paleontological evidence showing that stromatolite-building phototactic prokaryotes were already in existence 3.5 x 10(9) years ago. Late accretion impacts may have killed off life on our planet as late as 3.8 x 10(9) years ago. This leaves only 300 million years to go from the prebiotic soup to the RNA world and to cyanobacteria. However, 300 million years should be more than sufficient time. All known prebiotic reactions take place in geologically rapid time scales, and very slow prebiotic reactions are not feasible because the intermediate compounds would have been destroyed due to the passage of the entire ocean through deep-sea vents every 10(7) years or in even less time. Therefore, it is likely that self-replicating systems capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution emerged in a period shorter than the destruction rates of its components (cyanobacteria is usually thought to be very long. However, the similarities of many enzymatic reactions, together with the analysis of the available sequence data, suggest that a significant number of the components involved in basic biological processes are the result of ancient gene duplication events. Assuming that the rate of gene duplication of ancient prokaryotes was comparable to today's present values, the development of a filamentous cyanobacterial-like genome would require approximately 7 x 10(6) years--or perhaps much less. Thus, in spite of the many uncertainties involved in the estimates of time for life to arise and evolve to cyanobacteria, we see no compelling reason to assume that this process, from the beginning of the primitive soup to cyanobacteria, took more than 10 million years.

  20. Dreptul omului de a fi protejat de stresul negativ excesiv – un nou drept fundamental al omului postmodern, la începutul sec. XXI (The right to be protected from the negative stress – a new fundamental right of the post-modern human, at the begining of the XXIst century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Virginia ANTONESCU


    Full Text Available The development of the human rights field, at the beginning of XXIst century, brings new challenges for the legal academic school under the pressure to realize a continuous effort to adapt itself to multiple changes of the global world and equally, to those changes resulted from the state and non-state entities actions, under the impact of specific threats and problems. Within this context, we propose in this paper “a right of human being to be protected from stress -the negative excessive stress-“; in our opinion, this right can be considered, from the beginning, to belong to the IVth generation of human rights, after the category of solidarity rights. Particularly, we consider that it should be adopted (under the aegis of UN.GA a “Charter for the human rigths protection of the metropolitan man”, facing the situations and conditions of life generating a level of stress that is an exclusive feature of the metropolitan style of life, an action prescribed in order to rise concretely the level of protection for human rights, face to challenges brought by postmodern lifestyle. This Charter would realize a consecration of human rights starting from a specific quality of human being (as “living into great urban agglomerations”- metropolis, megalopolis, and by taking into account the universality of the urbanization phenomena, as specific phenomena of the global age, at the beginning of the XXIst century. Quality of the human being “to live into great urban agglomerations” should be taken, in our opinion, into consideration, more attentively, by the XXIst century legal academic school, this quality shifting towards a legal quality, and generating rights and obligations specific to the human being of the XXIst century global society. Also, it should be recommended to ellaborate (possibly, through a Romanian proposal within UN.GA a declaration, signed by UN states, regarding an international day of fighting against negative excessive

  1. The life-cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (United States)

    Goto, T; Nakai, M; Ikuta, K


    The life-cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been studied using several techniques including immunoelectron microscopy and cryomicroscopy. The HIV-1 particle consists of an envelope, a core and the region between the core and the envelope (matrix). Virus particles in the extracellular space are observed as having various profiles: a central or an eccentric round electron-dense core, a bar-shaped electron-dense core, and immature doughnut-shaped particle. HIV-1 particles in the hydrated state were observed by high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy to be spherical and the lipid membrane was clearly resolved as a bilayer. Projections around the circumference were seen to be knob-like. The shapes and sizes of the projections, especially the head parts, were found to vary with each projection. HIV-1 cores were isolated with a mixture of Nonidet P40 and glutaraldehyde, and were confirmed to consist of HIV-1 Gag p24 protein by immunogold labelling. On infection, the HIV-1 virus was found to enter the cell in two ways: membrane fusion and endocytosis. After viral entry, no structures resembling virus particles could be seen in the cytoplasm. In the infected cells, positive reactions by immunolabelling suggest that HIV-1 Gag is produced in membrane-bound structures and transported to the cell surface by the cytoskeletons. A crescent electron-dense layer is then formed underneath the cell membrane. Finally, the virus particle is released from the cell surface and found extracellularly to be a complete virus particle with an electron-dense core. However, several cell clones producing defective mature, doughnut-shaped (immature) or teardrop-shaped particles were found to be produced in the extracellular space. In the doughnut-shaped particles, Gag p17 and p24 proteins exist facing each other against an inner electron-dense ring, suggesting that the inner ring consists of a precursor Gag protein showing a defect at the viral proteinase.

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL Measures: There are Still Many Unanswered Questions about Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayowa Ojo Owolabi


    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL measures are used to assess the multifaceted impact of disease, and determine the utility and associated disability. In addition, the impact of medical interventions must be assessed by psychometrically robust HRQOL measures based on a comprehensive and dynamic model. To develop such a model, the concepts of life, its quality, domains, essence, and purpose must be properly and clearly understood. The correct understanding of these entities is specifically important for patient-centered medicine and has universal implications for all fields of human endeavor. Therefore, in order to explore questions about life and quality of life adequately, every necessary field of knowledge should be employed. A multilinguistic and etymological appraisal reveals that life is related to medicine, freedom, being, soul, and spirit, all of which must therefore be considered in its conceptualization.

  3. Toward Voluntary Desegregation: The Beginnings of the St. Louis Plan. (United States)

    Foote, Edward T. II


    The human drama in beginning St. Louis's desegregation plan is presented. As the chair of a citizen's committee, the author worked with the superintendent and the Board of Education to create a plan. Implementation was accomplished in a few months. The desegregation of suburban districts was settled in court. (VM)

  4. Difficulties encountered at the beginning of professional life: results of a 2003 pilot survey among undergraduate students in Paris Rene Descartes University (France). (United States)

    Benbelaïd, R; Dot, D; Levy, G; Eid, N


    In addition to dental hospital clinical activity, dental students at Paris Rene Descartes University have the opportunity in their final year of study to practise clinically in a dental office, as associates. This paper outlines a pilot, experimental study designed to assess student reaction to this Vocational Clinical Activity (VCA) in order to identify relevant weaknesses of the undergraduate programme. Using questionnaires, data were collected for each of the following clinical or management skills: clinical difficulty, therapeutic decision-making, patient/practitioner relationship, time management, administrative matters and technical problems. Students were asked to rank each item in order of difficulty (1, high level to 6, low level). A high response rate was observed (90%) among the 50 undergraduate VCA students. The results pointed out three main difficulties encountered by undergraduate students during the VCA: time management (90% of the students), administrative matters (85% of the students) and clinical decision-making (80% of the students). These preliminary results need further investigation. However, they give us the incentive to carry on with this type of assessment and to extend it to young, qualified colleagues' perceptions and to other French Universities.

  5. Economic assessment of human life as a diagnostic indicator of the crisis phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yevgenyevna Shipitsyna


    Full Text Available In the paper to reveal the essence of the term “economic assessment of human life” the methodological approaches used in the economic theory and estimation theory are applied, the categorical apparatus revealing the meaning of the economic cost, price and value of human life is created. To define the cost of human life, the income, cost-based, and comparative approaches are analyzed. Various types of living costs depending on the purpose of assessment application are allocated. For the state purposes and definition of social payments, the concept of cadastral value of human life is introduced. The introduction of the macroeconomic indicator reflecting level and quality of life in the country is substantiated. The author's technique of the economic assessment of human life is given in the article and is approved on the example of the Russian Federation. Besides, the interrelations between manifestations of the crisis phenomena and their tendencies in society, quality of life and a size of life assessment at the calculation of regional coefficients for an assessment of risks to the citizens' life or health are revealed

  6. 42 CFR 407.25 - Beginning of entitlement: Individual enrollment. (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT Individual Enrollment and Entitlement for SMI § 407.25 Beginning of entitlement: Individual enrollment. The following apply whether an individual is self-enrolled or automatically enrolled in SMI: (a)...

  7. Behaviorism and the beginnings of close reading. (United States)

    Gang, Joshua


    Many of close reading's most enduring assumptions and techniques have their origins in psychological behaviorism. Beginning with I. A. Richards's critical work from the 1920s, this article demonstrates the central place of behaviorist ideas in New Critical theories of poetry. Despite explicitly disparaging Richards's behavioristic poetics, Brooks's Well Wrought Urn and Wimsatt and Beardsley's "intentional fallacy" perpetuated behaviorism's influence on literary criticism. This article traces how the New Critics translated behavioristic psychology into poetic formalism and discusses the implications of this for contemporary critical practice.

  8. Biodemography of exceptional longevity: early-life and mid-life predictors of human longevity. (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S


    This study explores the effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States between 1890 and 1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies, and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (aged less than 25 years) had significantly higher chances of living to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33-3.11, p = .001). Paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 years and beyond differ in physical characteristics at a young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men who were born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the U.S. Social Security Administration database and linked to U.S. World War I civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls who were matched by calendar year of birth, race, and place of draft registration in 1917. Results showed a negative association between "stout" body build (being in the heaviest 15 percent of the population) and survival to age 100. Having the occupation of "farmer" and a large number of children (4 or more) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. The results of both studies demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity.

  9. The Grammar of the Human Life Process: John Dewey's New Theory of Language (United States)

    Harris, Fred


    Dewey proposed a new theory of language, in which the form (such as symbols) and content of language are not separated. The content of language includes the physical aspects of the world, which are purely quantitative: the life process, which involves functional responses to qualities, and the human life process, which involves the conscious…

  10. Dynamics and stabilization of the human gut microbiome during the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik; Roswall, Josefine; Peng, Yangqing


    The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first...... of the microbiome. Our findings establish a framework for understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and the human body in early life....

  11. Embryos, Unborns and Other Species. A Choreography of the Limits of Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz Marcos


    Full Text Available In this article we draw upon the theoretical baggage of posthumanism as toolkit to inquire about the processes that configure the limits of human life. To do so we focus in three dimensions that, according to our analysis, are delineating the boundary which settles the initiation of human life as such: the first dimension will consider the morphological aspects, the second the temporal ones and the third the spatial aspects. The first one, morphological, will answer the question about the proper human form, the second will refer to when does that human life start, and the third will consider the wheretakes place that initiation. To track down how those three axes operate we analyse various materials, mostly legal texts and images. We try, therefore, to pursue a whole array of heterogeneous actors -both human and non-human-, practices, discourses and relations that facilitate the emergence of the properly "human" as such. As this complex array of elements tends to be erased from the narrative on the origins of human life, "humanness" comes to be read as a given, something unmediated and a-problematic.

  12. Influence of quality of life on the state and development of human capital in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Tsaurkubule


    Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.

  13. The Beginning and End of the Universe (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan


    Cosmology is the scientific study of how the Universe began more than 13 billion years ago, how its properties have changed, and what its future might be. The balance of forces and energy cause the Universe to expand, first accelerating, then decelerating and then accelerating again. Within this overall structure, the interplay of atoms and light with the mysterious dark matter and dark energy causes stars and galaxies to form and evolve, leading to galaxies like our own home, the Milky Way. Observational cosmology uses telescopes on Earth and in space to reach back in time to find the faint remaining echoes of the Big Bang and to trace the formation and evolution of the galaxies and structures that fill the Universe. In this lecture, Dr. Gradner will give an overview of cosmology, outlining the 13-billion year history of the Universe, and highlighting the very rapid progress this field has made i the last decade. He will discuss the role that NASA space telescopes have played in this progress and wil continue to play in the years to come. He will give a time-based history of the Universe, discussing the successive processes that formed matter, particles, atoms, stars and galaxies. In particular, he will focus on cosmological inflation, the rapid accelerated expansion that marks the beginning of the Universe, and dark energy, a tenuous substance that overcomes gravity and whose properties will determine its final fate.

  14. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): the end of the beginning or the beginning of the end? (United States)

    Bradley, Ray; Liberski, Paweł P


    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a zoonosis being the origin of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and an important cattle disease in its own right. This association has driven both the research into the disease and extensive epidemiological investigations of practical value. Not only has the occurrence of BSE has a serious effect on animal health and public health, it has also seriously interrupted trade in cattle and cattle products from affected countries. Since 2001, several additional European countries, Japan, Israel and Canada have reported BSE in native-born stock and this has led to a concern about the BSE status of countries that have imported cattle and cattle products from any affected country. A single case recently reported in the USA was in a cow imported from Canada, thus extending the risk of BSE occurrence into the North American continent as a whole. Extensive feed and offal bans have protected the food and feed chains in all countries with BSE, even though initially they tended to be leaky. Application of newly-developed, approved 'Rapid' tests for misfolded PrP in central nervous tissue of targeted, high-risk animals and slaughter cattle now provides the tools whereby the real incidence of the disease (and to a degree, infection) can be determined in an active surveillance programme. 'Rapid' testing also enables the progress of epidemics to be monitored in response to applied measures. In the EU, over 10 million cattle are tested annually. Analysis of the extensive data shows that it is the beginning of the end of the BSE epidemic in the UK; most European countries, Israel and Japan are close behind. The epidemic in North America (two cases to date) is at the beginning. Significant measures had already been adopted there to reduce the risk from recycling of infection via feed but it remains to be seen if they are watertight. Advice has been given to ensure that public health is protected and to monitor the epidemic by strategic use of

  15. When "personhood" begins in the embryo: avoiding a syllabus of errors. (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F


    The following essay was delivered at the conference "Ontogeny and Human Life" at the Ponifical Athenaeum "Regina Apostolorum," November, 2007. Sponsored by the Legion of Christ, the Pontifical Academy for Life, and the John Templeton Foundation, the sessions focused on when the conceptus became a "person." My essay focused on the scientific conclusions that could aid such discussions. Moreover, after listening to the philosophical, legal, and theological discussions that ensued, I responded theologically as well. New concepts in modern embryology have made scientists revise their views concerning the autonomy of embryos and the mechanisms that generate such embryos. There are interactions between the sperm and the female reproductive tract and egg which had never been known until recently. There are also interactions between the developing organism and its environment that had been unsuspected a decade ago. Gut bacteria induce the development of the mammalian digestive system and immune system by changing the gene expression patterns in the mammalian intestine. Conversely, chemicals in our technological society can adversely affect the embryo, rendering it sterile or prone to tumors later in life. While there is no consensus among scientists as to when human life begins, both Church and science can become allies in persuading governments to regulate or ban the production and use of these fetotoxic chemicals. These new views of embryonic development change many of the stories told about human embryos and fetuses, and they have implications concerning the use of science as evidence for theological positions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Ioana Cozianu


    Full Text Available The present approach studies the probability of the decomposition of the current international geopolitical system in the context of the EU’s socio-economical and political stagnation. We do not intend to say that European Union represents the determinant factor for the system’s decomposition, since we have not found EU as a major player on the International Relations arena, but we are more pointing out that EU’s dream to recover a lost greatness will not so soon fulfil. We also intend to refer to those elements that actually connect EU to a changing world: competitive human resources engaged in the market economy, and hardly its values, like the promotion of the human rights and democracy. So, is it possible to play by the rules and be regarded as a powerful player on the same time?! International Relations system diversity makes it almost impossible. (NeoLiberal concepts like “democratic peace” or “international institutions”, the promotion of the human rights and of democracy get pale in the face of a reality dominated by an emerging Russian Federation that plays by the (Neo Realism power commandments. And so we get to deal with the Ukrainian situation where to each Western sanction, The Russian Federation opposes a “tank”.

  17. Is the discovery of the novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC) the beginning of another SARS-like pandemic? (United States)

    Chan, Jasper F W; Li, Kenneth S M; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung


    Fouchier et al. reported the isolation and genome sequencing of a novel coronavirus tentatively named "human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC)" from a Saudi patient presenting with pneumonia and renal failure in June 2012. Genome sequencing showed that this virus belongs to the group C species of the genus betacoronavirus and phylogenetically related to the bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5 previously found in lesser bamboo bat and Japanese Pipistrelle bat of Hong Kong respectively. Another patient from Qatar with similar clinical presentation and positive RT-PCR test was reported in September 2012. We compare and contrast the clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis and management of infection due to this novel coronavirus and that of SARS coronavirus despite the paucity of published information on the former. Since 70% of all emerging infectious pathogens came from animals, the emergence of this novel virus may represent another instance of interspecies jumping of betacoronavirus from animals to human similar to the group A coronavirus OC43 possibly from a bovine source in the 1890s and the group B SARS coronavirus in 2003 from bat to civet and human. Despite the apparently low transmissibility of the virus at this stage, research preparedness against another SARS-like pandemic is an important precautionary strategy.

  18. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants. (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K


    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  19. Vegetal paleoenvironment in the human settlements found in Payre Cave at the end of the Middle Pleistocene and the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene (Ardeche, Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalai, Chafika


    Full Text Available The Middle Paleolithic site named Payre is located in the south-east of France, in the Middle Rhone Valley, in the Mediterranean world. Since 1990, the excavations have yielded a sequence dated from the isotopic stages 7 to 5. The palynological study based on settlement levels from the isotopic stages 6 and 5 has provided us with information about the vegetal environment of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene. When men came, the landscape was semi-forest and the climate was temperate with Mediterranean influences.

    [es] El emplazamiento arqueológico del Paleolítico Medio de Payre se sitúa al sureste de Francia, en el valle del Ródano, en el contexto mediterráneo actual. Las excavaciones que vienen llevándose a cabo desde 1990 presentan una secuencia fechada en los estadios isotópicos 7 al 5. El estudio palinológico de los niveles de ocupación de los estadios isotópicos 6 y 5 nos informan sobre el contexto vegetal del final del Pleistoceno Medio y de principios del Pleistoceno Superior. Los diferentes periodos climáticos se caracterizan por la predominancia de los taxones arbóreos como Quercus t. ilex y Buxus. El paisaje es a lo largo del diagrama, globalmente semi-abierto y el clima de tipo templado presenta influencias mediterráneas. [fr] Le gisement paléolithique moyen de Payre est situé dans le sud-est de la France, dans la moyenne vallée du Rhône en contexte méditerranéen. Les fouilles, qui s'y déroulent depuis 1990, livrent une séquence datée des stades isotopiques 7 à 5. L'étude palynologique des niveaux d'occupation des stades isotopiques 6 et 5 nous informe sur le contexte végétal de la fin du Pléistocène moyen et du début du Pléistocène supérieur. Le paysage est, lors des diverses occupations humaines, globalement semi-ouvert et le climat de type tempéré sous influence méditerranéenne.

  20. Social Media: Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Couldry


    Full Text Available This article explores the idea that research into media communications and information has recently undergone a normative turn as more and more writers reflect on the ever deeper embedding of our lives in media, and the possible costs that this entails. Possible ways forward for deepening and addressing this normative turn are explored, based on the particular contribution to media and communications research of social theory.

  1. Metabolic acceleration and the evolution of human brain size and life history. (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Brown, Mary H; Raichlen, David A; Dunsworth, Holly; Hare, Brian; Walker, Kara; Luke, Amy; Dugas, Lara R; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Schoeller, Dale; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Shumaker, Robert W; Ross, Stephen R


    Humans are distinguished from the other living apes in having larger brains and an unusual life history that combines high reproductive output with slow childhood growth and exceptional longevity. This suite of derived traits suggests major changes in energy expenditure and allocation in the human lineage, but direct measures of human and ape metabolism are needed to compare evolved energy strategies among hominoids. Here we used doubly labelled water measurements of total energy expenditure (TEE; kcal day(-1)) in humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans to test the hypothesis that the human lineage has experienced an acceleration in metabolic rate, providing energy for larger brains and faster reproduction without sacrificing maintenance and longevity. In multivariate regressions including body size and physical activity, human TEE exceeded that of chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas and orangutans by approximately 400, 635 and 820 kcal day(-1), respectively, readily accommodating the cost of humans' greater brain size and reproductive output. Much of the increase in TEE is attributable to humans' greater basal metabolic rate (kcal day(-1)), indicating increased organ metabolic activity. Humans also had the greatest body fat percentage. An increased metabolic rate, along with changes in energy allocation, was crucial in the evolution of human brain size and life history.

  2. Tractatus; The beginning of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach to philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available On the one hand, Wittgenstein considers philosophy as a generator of mental confusion, but on the other hand, he desires philosopher as a therapist. This two-sided attitude to philosophy begins with Tractatus and then admitting the various therapeutic methods, reaches to the second period of his life. Recently, the origins of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach in Tractatus are neglected by most of his positivist commentators, instead, this approach have been followed in the second period of his thought, especially in Philosophical Investigations. In this essay, we have tried to clarify this obscurity and to indicate the roots of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach in Tractatus. Since mentioning the "symptom" or symptoms of mental confusion resulting from philosophical thinking and stage of its "diagnosis" is considered as preparations of therapy, we, by emphasizing on the therapeutic value of clarity, will survey "symptom", "diagnosis" and finally Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach toward philosophy in Tractatus, and then we will point out some reasons causing negligence to Tractatus therapeutic approach. In this way, we will show that Wittgenstein, from the beginning of his philosophical thinking, has believed in this approach and in Philosophical Investigations he has just declared it in the everyday language. Here, we will also unveil restriction of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach to philosophy.

  3. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent proteolysis of human cyclin A starts at the beginning of mitosis and is not subject to the spindle assembly checkpoint. (United States)

    Geley, S; Kramer, E; Gieffers, C; Gannon, J; Peters, J M; Hunt, T


    Cyclin A is a stable protein in S and G2 phases, but is destabilized when cells enter mitosis and is almost completely degraded before the metaphase to anaphase transition. Microinjection of antibodies against subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) or against human Cdc20 (fizzy) arrested cells at metaphase and stabilized both cyclins A and B1. Cyclin A was efficiently polyubiquitylated by Cdc20 or Cdh1-activated APC/C in vitro, but in contrast to cyclin B1, the proteolysis of cyclin A was not delayed by the spindle assembly checkpoint. The degradation of cyclin B1 was accelerated by inhibition of the spindle assembly checkpoint. These data suggest that the APC/C is activated as cells enter mitosis and immediately targets cyclin A for degradation, whereas the spindle assembly checkpoint delays the degradation of cyclin B1 until the metaphase to anaphase transition. The "destruction box" (D-box) of cyclin A is 10-20 residues longer than that of cyclin B. Overexpression of wild-type cyclin A delayed the metaphase to anaphase transition, whereas expression of cyclin A mutants lacking a D-box arrested cells in anaphase.

  4. Influence of Indoor Hygrothermal Conditions on Human Quality of Life in Social Housing (United States)

    Soares, Sara; Fraga, Silvia; Delgado, Joao M.P.Q.


    Background: Modern societies spend most of their time indoors, namely at home, and the indoor environment quality turns out to be a crucial factor to health, quality of life and well-being of the residents. The present study aims to understand how indoor environment relates with quality of life and how improving housing conditions impacts on individuals’ health. Design and Methods: This study case will rely on the following assessments in both rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated social housing: i) field measurements, in social dwellings (namely temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, air velocity, air change rate, level of mould spores and energy consumption); ii) residents’ questionnaires on social, demogaphic, behavioural, health characteristics and quality of life. Also, iii) qualitative interviews performed with social housing residents from the rehabilitated houses, addressing the self-perception of living conditions and their influence in health status and quality of life. All the collected information will be combined and analysed in order to achieve the main objective. Expected impact It is expected to define a Predicted Human Life Quality (PHLQ) index, that combines physical parameters describing the indoor environment measured through engineering techniques with residents’ and neighbourhood quality of life characteristics assessed by health questionnaires. Improvement in social housing should be related with better health indicators and the new index might be an important tool contributing to enhance quality of life of the residents. Significance for public health This study will contribute to understand how indoor environment relates with quality of life and how improving housing conditions impacts on individuals’ health, in social housing neighbourhoods. As so, it is important to share the undertaken methodology carried out by a multidisciplinary team, in order to allow other researchers following comparable studies to

  5. Fermi's paradox, extraterrestrial life and the future of humanity: a Bayesian analysis (United States)

    Verendel, Vilhelm; Häggström, Olle


    The Great Filter interpretation of Fermi's great silence asserts that Npq is not a very large number, where N is the number of potentially life-supporting planets in the observable universe, p is the probability that a randomly chosen such planet develops intelligent life to the level of present-day human civilization, and q is the conditional probability that it then goes on to develop a technological supercivilization visible all over the observable universe. Evidence suggests that N is huge, which implies that pq is very small. Hanson (1998) and Bostrom (2008) have argued that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would point towards p not being small and therefore a very small q, which can be seen as bad news for humanity's prospects of colonizing the universe. Here we investigate whether a Bayesian analysis supports their argument, and the answer turns out to depend critically on the choice of prior distribution.

  6. The Ethics of Human Life Extension: The Second Argument from Evolution. (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris


    One argument that is sometimes made against pursuing radical forms of human life extension is that such interventions will make the species less evolvable, which would be morally undesirable. In this article, I discuss the empirical and evaluative claims of this argument. I argue that radical increases in life expectancy could, in principle, reduce the evolutionary potential of human populations through both biological and cultural mechanisms. I further argue that if life extension did reduce the evolvability of the species, this will be undesirable for three reasons: (1) it may increase the species' susceptibility to extinction risks, (2) it may adversely affect institutions and practices that promote well-being, and (3) it may impede moral progress.

  7. Beginning Female Therapists' Experiences of Applying Theory into Their Practice.



    Although there is an extensive amount of literature on the developmental stages of beginning therapists and the challenges they face, little is known about one of their most difficult challenges; transferring theory learned in class to their practice. This study is a qualitative look at how beginning therapists learn to apply theory to their practice. Ten students who were beginning therapists with at least 75 hours of client contact hours were interviewed from four different universities wit...

  8. Human life, media and market: a sociotechnical perspective of research with embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar de Almeida Nobre


    Full Text Available New biotechnologies of reproduction emerge nowadays as radical destabilizing agents of what we understand as human life. Within this context, research involving stem cells are on the agenda of several academic articles and major newspapers and magazines around the world. The arguments vary from a sort of pride about the emancipatory power of technology to a fear about the absence of limits to restrict undesirable advances. Amid such controversies, our proposal is, based on Actor Network Theory, to draw a map of networks that produce what we understand as human life, insofar as it seems to be unstabled by the new biotechnologies of reproduction. We followed different mediators along their deviations, in order to produce a report based on the analysis of current bioethical controversies involving, specifically, embryonic stem cell research. These controversies led to a strong connection between media, new biotechnologies of human reproduction and a market logic.

  9. Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Oliver


    with specific confidence intervals for each factor. Results and discussion Intake fractions aggregating exposure via crop residues and exposure via fractions lost to air and soil for pesticides applied to agricultural crops vary between 10−8 and 10−1 kg intake per kilogram applied as a function of pesticide...

  10. On the development of life prediction methodologies for the failure of human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, R.K.; Imbeni, V.; Kinney, J.H.; Marshall, S.J.; Ritchie, R.O.


    Human dentin is known to be susceptible to failure under cyclic loading. Surprisingly, there are few reports that quantify the effect of such loading, considering the fact that a typical tooth experiences a million or so loading cycles annually. In the present study, a systematic investigation is described of the effects of prolonged cyclic loading on human dentin in a simulated physiological environment. In vitro stress-life (S/N) data are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of fatigue damage and failure.

  11. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants. (United States)

    Lim, Efrem S; Zhou, Yanjiao; Zhao, Guoyan; Bauer, Irma K; Droit, Lindsay; Ndao, I Malick; Warner, Barbara B; Tarr, Phillip I; Wang, David; Holtz, Lori R


    The early years of life are important for immune development and influence health in adulthood. Although it has been established that the gut bacterial microbiome is rapidly acquired after birth, less is known about the viral microbiome (or 'virome'), consisting of bacteriophages and eukaryotic RNA and DNA viruses, during the first years of life. Here, we characterized the gut virome and bacterial microbiome in a longitudinal cohort of healthy infant twins. The virome and bacterial microbiome were more similar between co-twins than between unrelated infants. From birth to 2 years of age, the eukaryotic virome and the bacterial microbiome expanded, but this was accompanied by a contraction of and shift in the bacteriophage virome composition. The bacteriophage-bacteria relationship begins from birth with a high predator-low prey dynamic, consistent with the Lotka-Volterra prey model. Thus, in contrast to the stable microbiome observed in adults, the infant microbiome is highly dynamic and associated with early life changes in the composition of bacteria, viruses and bacteriophages with age.

  12. Alteration of a human intestinal microbiota under extreme life environment in the Antarctica. (United States)

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Touyama, Mutsumi; Yamada, Shin; Yamazaki, Takashi; Benno, Yoshimi


    The human intestinal microbiota (HIM) settles from birth and continues to change phenotype by some factors (e.g. host's diet) throughout life. However, the effect of extreme life environment on human HIM composition is not well known. To understand HIM fluctuation under extreme life environment in humans, fecal samples were collected from six Japanese men on a long Antarctic expedition. They explored Antarctica for 3 months and collected their fecal samples at once-monthly intervals. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, the composition of HIM in six subjects was investigated. Three subjects presented restoration of HIM after the expedition compared versus before and during the expedition. Two thirds samples collected during the expedition belonged to the same cluster in dendrogram. However, all through the expedition, T-RFLP patterns showed interindividual variability. Especially, Bifidobacterium spp. showed a tendency to decrease during and restore after the expedition. A reduction of Bifidobacterium spp. was observed in five subjects the first 1 month of the expedition. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which is thought to proliferate during emotional stress, significantly decreased in one subject, indicating that other factors in addition to emotional stress may affect the composition of HIM in this study. These findings could be helpful to understand the effect of extreme life environment on HIM.

  13. The Algebra Content Knowledge of Beginning Teachers in California (United States)

    Caswell, Lisa M.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the competence of beginning California K-6 teachers in basic algebra topics, and to investigate their level of math anxiety and attitudes toward math. The sample for this study was beginning California elementary teachers in the Bay Area of California. An algebra content assessment and a self-report…

  14. Establishing 'quality of life' parameters using behavioural guidelines for humane euthanasia of captive non-human primates. (United States)

    Lambeth, Sp; Schapiro, Sj; Bernacky, Bj; Wilkerson, Gk


    Chronic pain and distress are universally accepted conditions that may adversely affect an animal's quality of life (QOL) and lead to the humane euthanasia of an animal. At most research institutions and zoological parks in the USA, a veterinarian, who has physically examined the animal and reviewed the clinical records, ultimately decides when an animal has reached a humane endpoint. To aid in the difficult process of interpreting pain and distress, we have developed specific behavioural guidelines, in addition to standard clinical information, to help define unique characteristics and traits of primates to assess and promote discussion of an individual primate's QOL, and thereby, to assist in the decision-making process regarding euthanasia. These guidelines advocate the creation of a QOL team when the animal is diagnosed with a life-threatening or debilitating chronic condition, or at the time the animal is entered into a terminal study. The team compiles a list of characteristics unique to that individual animal by utilising a questionnaire and a behavioural ethogram. This list enables the team to quantitatively assess any deviations from the established normal behavioural repertoire of that individual. Concurrently, the QOL team determines the number of behavioural deviations that are needed to trigger an immediate discussion of the necessity for humane euthanasia of the animal. The team remains intact once created, and revisits the animal's condition as frequently as deemed necessary. This process improves animal welfare by continuing the quest to optimally define QOL for captive primates, and potentially for all captive animals.

  15. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Gawlik


    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  16. Assessment of Human Bio-Behavior During Gait Process Using LifeMOD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rogozea


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a set of observations concerning the
    analysis and assessment of human bio-behavior during gait process. In the first part of the paper the fundamental and theoretical considerations of the gait process are approached and aspects connected to malfunctions are expressed. In the second part of the paper we present the modeling methodology using
    the LifeMOD software, while in the third part the results and conclusions are presented.

  17. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures (United States)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C


    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  18. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Garbe, James C.


    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  19. Classroom Management: Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Preparedness (United States)

    Woods, Sean A.


    Classroom management has been the focal point of many different studies and research projects. Unfortunately, it has also been cited as one of the top three reasons teachers leave the field of education not only today, but for the last 40 years (Berry, 2010). There is a need for an understanding of the implications of past classroom management…

  20. The Beginning of Semiconductor Research in Cuba (United States)

    Veltfort, Theodore

    I was invited to Cuba in 1962 to initiate some efforts in semiconductor development. I had been a physicist and senior research engineer with various electronic companies of the "Silicon Valley" of California, south of San Francisco. I had heard of the efforts made by the new revolutionary government of Cuba to advance the level of science and technology, and I was anxious to see what I could do to help.

  1. The Beginnings of Airborne Weightlessness Research. (United States)


    flight, fifty-one sub-"l’s passenger, Laika (1.-D-81 stated gra-itv flying missions of the overall that "the accelerated heart rate of the...periods of sleep, and required reported"’ in the tachycardia of Laika several seconds before he was aware in Sputnik II which lasted three times of his...about Sputnik II’s from launching until burnout of the 48 hr. After a full breakfast, which passenger, Laika . This data noted engine. The transition from

  2. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system. Here we see the transport vehicle alongside the magnet supports. Visible in the background is the first magnet in place.

  3. The Beginnings of Danish Speech Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerbye, Torkil

    , in the light of the rich and complex Danish sound system. The first two studies report on native adults’ perception of Danish speech sounds in quiet and noise. The third study examined the development of language-specific perception in native Danish infants at 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The book points...... to interesting differences in speech perception and acquisition of Danish adults and infants when compared to English. The book is useful for professionals as well as students of linguistics, psycholinguistics and phonetics/phonology, or anyone else who may be interested in language.......Little is known about the perception of speech sounds by native Danish listeners. However, the Danish sound system differs in several interesting ways from the sound systems of other languages. For instance, Danish is characterized, among other features, by a rich vowel inventory and by different...

  4. How, when and where Life will begin on another planet after Earth by Duky’s Theory (United States)

    Deol, Satveer; Singh Nafria, Amritpal


    Our Sun is a Red Giant Star and in distant future it will engulf Mercury, Venus and probably Earth and Mars. This paper shows that in distant future due to increasing size & luminosity of the Sun life will begin on one of the planet after 1 duky’s Unit. 1 duky's Unit is the time from now to the time when Mercury would get merged in Sun. At that time Venus would be first planet & due to closeness to Sun, its upper atmosphere would get heated up by solar wind. In a continuous process the clouds of sulfuric acid would escape its gravity. Eventually it would get drifted off into space and it become Mercury twin. On Earth after few million years moisture in air would become very good to trap infra red radiation. As it will warms up, oceans would evaporate even more & in few million years it would get covered with blanket of water vapours. Due to increasing temperature & pressure, volcanoes on Earth would become active then volcanic eruption would blast billions of tons of sulfur high into atmosphere there sulfur would mix with water vapors & form conc. Sulfuric acids. In a continuous process of few more million years whole Earth would get covered with sulphuric acids cloud. As Earth’s moon is receding away from Earth, so before 1 DU, Moon will have been gone away from Earth. As a result it would get started slow down one spin about 1 million year. These would lead to massive outpouring of CO2 & other greenhouse gasses. At that Earth would become Venus Twin. Now it's Mars turn, according to scientists after 50 millions years from now phobo will crash onto the surface of Mars. When that would happen, Mars would have one moon like Earth. This collision would be so hard & strong that phobo would get totally immersed in the surface of Mars as a results it's possible that Mars would get tilted at about 23.5 degree. Due to collision molten lava would come out. When temperature & pressure would rise then water ice would become water. When water would get enriched with

  5. Nuclear power: The beginning of the end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas


    The global significance of nuclear energy is greatly overestimated - accounting for share of barely two per cent of worldwide energy consumption, it is a rather phoney giant: The closer one look at facts, the less potential this controversial energy source seems to hold for the future. (orig.)

  6. [The beginnings of orthopedic surgery in Israel]. (United States)

    Tauber, Chanan


    In early mandatory Israel, orthopedics was mainly conservative, The first modern orthopedic surgeon was Ernst Spira from Czechoslovakia who established an orthopedic service at the Beilinson Hospital in Petah Tikva and left in 1948 to establish the Orthopedic Department and the Rehabilitation Center in Tel Hashomer, which treated the War of Independence casualties including amputees and victims of spinal cord injuries. A second orthopedic department was opened in Tel Hashomer by Shmuel Weissman who left in 1961 to open the Orthopedic Department at the Ichilov hospital in Tel Aviv. Shmuel Weissman became the first Chairman of Orthopedic Surgery at the Tel Aviv University medical school. In 1955, Myer Makin opened a modern orthopedic department in the Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem and the Alyn Hospital for crippled children. In 1951, Assaf Harofeh Hospital opened the Department of Orthopedic Surgery headed by Anatol Axer who specialized in the treatment and rehabilitation of polio patients. The majority of the second generation of orthopedic department directors was trained by these four surgeons. Major developments in the 1960s and 1970s were the introduction of the AO system revolutionizing fracture treatment from conservative to operative treatment, the advent of total hip and knee replacements, Harrington instrumentation in spinal surgery and arthroscopy were major advances in orthopedic patient care brought to Israel by the aforementioned second generation of orthopedic surgeons. Hand surgery became an independent subspecialty of orthopedics and was lead by the internationally renowned hand surgeon, Isidore Kessler.

  7. The Beginning and End of the Universe (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.


    Cosmology is the scientific study of how the Universe began more than 13 billion years ago, how its properties have changed from that time to the present, and what its eventual fate might be. Observational cosmology uses telescopes like the Hubble to reach back in time to find the faint echoes of the Big Bang. In this lecture, I will give an overview of cosmology, highlighting the very rapid progress this field has made in the last decade, and the role that NASA space telescopes have played and will continue to play in the years to come. I will then focus on two of the most intriguing of those recent discoveries: inflation and dark energy. Our universe began in an extremely rapid accelerated expansion, called inflation, which removed all traces anything that may have existed before, flattened the geometry of space-time, and turned microscopic quantum fluctuations into the largest structures in the universe. At the present time, more than 70% of the mass-energy in the Universe consists of a mysterious substance called dark energy. The dark energy causes the expansion of the Universe to accelerate, and he will discuss the ways that we might be able to measure that acceleration more accurately, revealing the nature of the dark energy and learning the eventual fate of the Universe.

  8. The Beginnings of Aeromedical Acceleration Research (United States)


    loads: namely 20, 40, 60 and 98 G, for a duration of five minutes. No wonder that Garsaux detected in the surviving animals severe neurological...after the von Diringshofen Era In 1934 Jongbloed and Noyons (15) published the results of their experi- ments with a small animal centrifuge on which...des Menschen im Flugzeug. Publisher J. Springer, Berlin. 19. Von Beckh, H. J. 1955. Fisiologia del Vuelo (Physiology of Flight). 147 pp. Publisher

  9. Half-life of each dioxin and PCB congener in the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Isamura [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)


    It is well known that dioxin and PCB congeners accumulate in the human body. For assessing their toxicological risk, it is important to know the half-life of each congener in the human body. This study summarizes the overall half-lives of congeners in humans as reported in the literature, and compares them with the half-lives due to fecal and sebum excretions, as estimated by data on the concentrations of congeners in feces and sebum in the literature. In addition, the overall half-lives of congeners for the general Japanese population were estimated from the data on dietary intakes and concentrations in the human body reported by the municipalities.

  10. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel. We...

  11. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system.Photos 01, 02: Pictured with the newly installed magnet and transport system in the transfer line tunnel are LHC project leader Lyn Evans (second left, white helmet); Volker Mertens, responsible for the LHC injecti...

  12. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel. Th...

  13. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel.Pho...

  14. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system.Photo 01: Pictured with the newly installed magnet and transport system in the transfer line tunnel are (left to right) Volker Mertens, responsible for the LHC injection and transfer lines; personnel involved in tr...

  15. Geochemical Mapping of 4 Vesta Begins (United States)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Feldman, William C.; Forni, Olivier; Joy, Steven P.; Lawrence, David J.; LeCorre, Lucille; Mafi, Joseph N.; McCord, Thomas B.; McCoy, Timothy J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Middlefehldt, David W.; Polanskey, Carol; Rayman, Marc; Raymond, Carol A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Reedy, Robert C.; Russell, Christopher T.; Titus, Timothy N.; Toplis, Mike J.


    By December, the NASA Dawn spacecraft will have descended to a low altitude mapping orbit (LAMO), where the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) will acquire global mapping data for up to four months. Measurements by GRaND will help answer elusive questions about how Vesta differentiated and the nature of processes that shaped Vesta s surface. The data will be analyzed to determine the abundances of Mg, Si, Fe, K, Th, and H at a spatial resolution of roughly 300 km full-width-at-half-maximum from a 465 km radius orbit. Thermal and fast neutron counting data will be analyzed to determine the neutron macroscopic absorption cross section and average atomic mass, providing constraints on additional elements, such as Ca and Al. GRaND will quantify the elemental composition of coarse spatial units identified by Dawn s Framing Camera (FC) and the Visible & Infrared Spectrometer (VIR). In addition, GRaND will map the mixing ratio of compositional end members selected from the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites, determine the relative proportions of plagioclase and mafic minerals, and search for compositions that are absent or under-represented in the meteorite collection. While it is generally thought that Vesta s crust on a regional scale should be well-represented by linear mixing of HED whole-rock compositions, there are hints that Vesta may be more diverse than implied by this model. For example, the discovery of K-rich impact glasses in howardites suggests that K-rich rocks may be present on a portion of Vesta s surface, and the analysis of diogenites indicates considerable variability in the magmatic processes that formed them. The chemical composition of materials within Vesta s south polar structure may provide further clues to how it formed. An impact might have exposed mantle and lower crustal materials, which should have a distinctive compositional signature. We present the analysis of data acquired by GRaND from cruise through the descent to

  16. Higgs: the beginning of the exploration

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    Even in the most specialized circles, the new particle discovered in July is not called the “Higgs boson” yet. Physicists still hesitate to give it this name because they want to be sure that its properties fit with those predicted by the Higgs theory. This week, at the HCP conference in Kyoto, CMS and ATLAS presented their latest results: a more refined data analysis has produced a more accurate value of the mass of the particle and has started to show decay channels never before observed.   Since July, both ATLAS and CMS have been working on extending the capabilities of their data analysis. The large teams of physicists have studied in even greater detail all the signals and the information that can be extracted from the data. Following this collective effort, both collaborations have recently presented an update on the mass of the new particle, together with several new measurements which are starting to unveil its properties. ATLAS has analysed a large sample of 13 fb-1 ...

  17. What do we mean by Human-Centered Design of Life-Critical Systems? (United States)

    Boy, Guy A


    Human-centered design is not a new approach to design. Aerospace is a good example of a life-critical systems domain where participatory design was fully integrated, involving experimental test pilots and design engineers as well as many other actors of the aerospace engineering community. This paper provides six topics that are currently part of the requirements of the Ph.D. Program in Human-Centered Design of the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT.) This Human-Centered Design program offers principles, methods and tools that support human-centered sustainable products such as mission or process control environments, cockpits and hospital operating rooms. It supports education and training of design thinkers who are natural leaders, and understand complex relationships among technology, organizations and people. We all need to understand what we want to do with technology, how we should organize ourselves to a better life and finally find out whom we are and have become. Human-centered design is being developed for all these reasons and issues.

  18. Apexification: the beginning of its end. (United States)

    Huang, G T-J


    Apexification is a procedure for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. It contrasts apexogenesis in terms of its outcome in that apical maturation and normal root thickness cannot be obtained. Apexification has been a routine practice for such teeth for many decades, and despite a literature replete with discussion, including recent artificial barrier methods with mineral trioxide aggregate, ultimately there has been no major breakthrough to improve this treatment. Recently, two new clinical concepts have emerged. One involves a revitalization approach to achieve tissue generation and regeneration. In this method, new living tissue is expected to form in the cleaned canal space, allowing continued root development in terms of both length and thickness. The other is the active pursuit of pulp/dentine regeneration via tissue engineering technology to implant or re-grow pulps. Although the technology is still at its infancy, it has the potential to benefit immature pulpless teeth by allowing continued growth and maturation. With this understanding, it may be predicted that apexification will become less needed in years to come. This study will overview the recent concept of pulp revitalization in the treatment of immature teeth with nonvital pulps and the emerging research on pulp tissue engineering and regeneration.

  19. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia


    On 19 February, the very first magnet was installed in one of the two tunnels that will house the transfer lines leading to the LHC. This magnet, recycled from a previous facility, was transported and positioned using a novel system designed for conveying large objects through narrow tunnels.

  20. Are we seeing the beginnings of Inflation?

    CERN Document Server

    Ilie, Cosmin; Freese, Katherine


    Phantom Cosmology provides an unique opportunity to "connect" the phantom driven (low en- ergy meV scale) dark energy phase to the (high energy GUT scale) inflationary era. This is possible because the energy density increases in phantom cosmology. We present a concrete model where the energy density, but not the scale factor, cycles through phases of standard radiation/matter domi- nation followed by dark energy/inflationary phases, and the pattern repeating itself. An interesting feature of the model is that once we include interactions between the "phantom fluid" and ordinary matter, the Big rip singularity is avoided with the phantom phase naturally giving way to a near exponential inflationary expansion.

  1. Life after a Humanities Degree (United States)

    Masola, Athambile


    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  2. The Life Mission Theory VI. A Theory for the Human Character: Healing with Holistic Medicine Through Recovery of Character and Purpose of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available The human character can be understood as an extension of the life mission or purpose of life, and explained as the primary tool of a person to impact others and express the purpose of life. Repression of the human character makes it impossible for a person to realize his personal mission in life and, therefore, is one of the primary causes of self-repression resulting in poor quality of life, health, and ability. From Hippocrates to Hahnemann, repression of physical, mental, and spiritual character can be seen as the prime cause of disease, while recovery of character has been the primary intention of the treatment. In this paper, human character is explained as an intersubjective aspect of consciousness with the ability to influence the consciousness of another person directly. To understand consciousness, we reintroduce the seven-ray theory of consciousness explaining consciousness in accordance with a fractal ontology with a bifurcation number of seven (the numbers four to ten work almost as well. A case report on a female, aged 35 years, with severe hormonal disturbances, diagnosed with extremely early menopause, is presented and treated according to the theory of holistic existential healing (the holistic process theory of healing. After recovery of her character and purpose of life, her quality of life dramatically improved and hormonal status normalized. We believe that the recovery of human character and purpose of life was the central intention of Hippocrates and thus the original essence of western medicine. Interestingly, there are strong parallels to the peyote medicine of the Native Americans, the African Sangomas, the Australian Aboriginal healers, and the old Nordic medicine. The recovery of human character was also the intention of Hahnemann's homeopathy. We believe that we are at the core of consciousness-based medicine, as recovery of purpose of life and human character has been practiced as medicine in most human cultures

  3. Beginnings and development of English teaching in the medical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad Atiés Caballero


    Full Text Available Various authors have claimed the imperious necessity and significance of the acknowledgement and domain of the English language as a cultural means and way of communication among men. The present study aims an approximation to the teaching of this language in its diverse stages, starting from its beginnings up to its present situation in the Cuban Medical School. Here are stated the different approaches and methods that have engulfed the English teaching and its relations with the pedagogical and theoretical conceptions that have emerged, along with the criteria and judgments of the ones who dedicated their works to this field. Taking into consideration that the various pedagogical theories, the educational systems, the organization, the content and the teaching methods are determined by the conditions of the society's material life, whose development is influenced at a time; a revision and valorization of these conditions in different societies are carried out, as an important cause of the different pedagogical theories, methods and teaching approaches applied in the different schools, for example, in the Cuban Medical University.

  4. Patenting life forms and preserving human values. (United States)

    Lisson, E L


    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  5. The Life of Digital Photographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    The Life of Digital Photographs: The Case of Tourist Photography PhD, Jonas Larsen, Lecturer in Social and Cultural Geography, ENSPAC, Roskilde University, Denmark Inspired by ideas that things have lives, the mobilities paradigm's (Hannam et al. 2006) attentiveness to the spatiotemporal (im......)mobilities of things, practice approaches to photography and multi sited ethnography, this talk discusses and empirically track the life (the conception, birth, transformative years, ageing and death) travel, detours, makeovers and destinations of (analogue and digital) photographs in our present network societies. So...... and newer forms of photography are reported. I argue that in order to explore the life of photographs we need to think of them as corporeal, travelling, aging and affective humans rather than conventionally as bodiless, timeless, fixed and passive images. I begin with a brief theoretical discussion of how...

  6. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life. (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon


    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion.

  7. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able


    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  8. Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Stambaugh, Imelda C.


    Life support system architectures for long duration space missions are often explored analytically in the human spaceflight community to find optimum solutions for mass, performance, and reliability. But in reality, many other constraints can guide the design when the life support system is examined within the context of an overall vehicle, as well as specific programmatic goals and needs. Between the end of the Constellation program and the development of the "Evolvable Mars Campaign", NASA explored a broad range of mission possibilities. Most of these missions will never be implemented but the lessons learned during these concept development phases may color and guide future analytical studies and eventual life support system architectures. This paper discusses several iterations of design studies from the life support system perspective to examine which requirements and assumptions, programmatic needs, or interfaces drive design. When doing early concept studies, many assumptions have to be made about technology and operations. Data can be pulled from a variety of sources depending on the study needs, including parametric models, historical data, new technologies, and even predictive analysis. In the end, assumptions must be made in the face of uncertainty. Some of these may introduce more risk as to whether the solution for the conceptual design study will still work when designs mature and data becomes available.

  9. Aggregate human health risk assessment from dust of daily life in the urban environment of Beijing. (United States)

    Xu, L Y; Shu, X


    Because of the high emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment by the increasing number of vehicles in Beijing and the absorption of these PAHs onto particulates, the performance of a preliminary health risk assessment of the aggregate exposure to PAHs of urban citizens in daily life is very important. Urban dust can be used to examine the aggregation of atmospheric particulates from local pollution sources over a long time period and the direct exposure of the urban human population. The environment's correlative with clothing, dining, residing, and traveling in urban daily life was assessed using exposure-receptor-oriented analysis. The multipathway exposure model was used to simulate the lifetime exposure of a female citizen to PAHs in dust. All of the PAH concentrations in dust for each behavior and its correlative environment in Beijing were acceptable because all of the carcinogenic risks of PAHs in the dust were approximately 1.0 × 10(-6). The dominant induced carcinogenic risks in the dust were Benzo(a)pyrene and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene. The main carcinogenic risk routes for humans were dermal contact and oral intake, which contributed on average 99.78% of the risk. Indoor risk is especially important, as the decoration and height within the building were important impact factors for carcinogenic risk induced by indoor PAHs. For people living in an urban area, a healthy lifestyle includes less decoration per room, living on a low floor, wearing a respirator, and reducing exposed skin area when traveling.

  10. Associations among depression, suicidal behavior, and quality of life in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Montebovi, Franco; Lamis, Dorian A; Erbuto, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario; Pompili, Maurizio


    AIM: To investigate the potential associations among major depression, quality of life, and suicidal behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. METHODS: A detailed MEDLINE search was carried out to identify all articles and book chapters in English published from January 1995 to January 2015. RESULTS: Based on the main findings, the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) ranged from 14.0% to 27.2%. Furthermore, the prevalence of suicidal ideation varied from 13.6% to 31.0% whereas, attempted suicides were reported to range from 3.9% to 32.7%. Interestingly, various associated risk factors for both depression and suicide were identified in HIV patients. Finally, consistent associations were reported among MDD, suicidal ideation, and poor quality of life in individuals living with HIV. CONCLUSION: Although additional studies are needed to elucidate this complex association, our results suggest the importance of early detection of both MDD and suicidality in patients living with HIV. PMID:26279991

  11. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.


    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  12. A Conceptual Model for Teaching the Relationship of Daily Life and Human Environmental Impact to Ecological Function (United States)

    Wyner, Yael


    In the general activity of daily life, it is easy to miss our dependency on the Earth's ecology. At the same time that people are living apparently separate from the environment, our impact on the Earth is increasing. This study seeks to understand how teachers can bridge this persistent disconnect of daily life from ecology and human impact.…

  13. Human Resource and Work Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Dalgaard


    of human beings the nurses are – what they priorities in their lives and therefore what they priorities in their work. In my Ph.D. I have described the staffing challenges that characterize the Danish labor market as a way to illustrate the relevance of the thesis. More specifically a clarification...

  14. Biospheric Life Support - integrating biological regeneration into protection of humans in space. (United States)

    Rocha, Mauricio; Iha, Koshun


    retirement (2016). The extension will allow partner agencies to deploy new experiments there, resuming basic research focusing more forward-looking goals. For deep-space, since consumables logistics becomes more difficult- and habitability an issue, with diminishing Earth's view, further research has been recommended. Four major areas have been identified for human protection: (1) radiation mitigation; (2) highly recyclable bio-regenerative (BR) LSS; (3) micro-gravity countermeasures- including artificial gravity (AG), and (4) psychological safety. To contribute to the efforts to address these issues, a basic lab/virtual iterative research has been proposed, assuming (in a worst case scenario) that: I) It won't be possible to send people to long deep space missions, safely, with the current (low quality of life) support technology (ISS micro-gravity 'up-gradings'); II) The alternative to implant a Mars surface human supportive biosphere would also not be possible, due to environmental/ evolutionary restraints (life could adapt and survive, but not necessarily to favor humans). From the above considerations arises the question: Would an average approach be possible where, by applying the artificial gravity concept to S/Cs, a fragment of Earth bio-regenerative environment could be integrated inside reusable manned vehicles- thus enhancing its habitability/autonomy in long deep space missions? For this research question a provisory answer/hypothesis has been provided. And to test it, a small AG+BR bench simulator (plus computer methods) has been devised.

  15. [Respiratory stridency by larynx paralysis. Anusual beginning of miastenia]. (United States)

    Padilla Parrado, M; Morales Puebla, J M; Díaz Sastre, M A; Caro García, M A; Cabeza Alvarez, C I; Velázquez Pérez, J M; Menéndez Loras, L M


    A case of severe miastenia beginning with dyspnea, secondary to a bilateral larynx paralysis in aduction is presented. During the evolution of the severe miastenia the affectation of the larynx musculature does not result infrequent, but however, after having realized a bibliographic revision, the infrequency resulting in this disease of the beginning through a bilateral larynx paralysis in aduction was verified. A wide exposition of the clinic case, methods of exploration to obtain the diagnosis of severe miastenia, and the different treatment options actually in use to control these disease, are realized.

  16. Beginning teachers’ challenges in their pursuit of effective teaching practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Confait


    Full Text Available This article explores the context and experiences of three beginning teachers in their effort to improve their teaching and to implement and align themselves with their schools’ expectations of effective teaching practices. Research findings emerging from a sociocultural-ethnographic framework revealed that participants challenged their own beliefs about effective teaching practices in aligning themselves with their schools’ expectations. In complying with routine expectations, they embraced predominantly teacher-centred practices, rather than a student-centred approach. Given the ongoing effort to augment the quality of education in the Seychelles, beginning teachers’ implementation of and access to evidenced-based practices could be recognised as part of this endeavour.

  17. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris with human urine in multibiological life support system experiments (United States)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei

    The Integrative Experimental System (IES) was established as a tool to evaluate the rela-tionship of the subsystems in Bioregenerative Life Support System, and Multibiological Life Support System Experiments (MLSSE) have been conducted in the IES. The IES consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a plate photo bioreactor (PPB) which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), respectively. In MLSSE, four volunteers took turns breathing the system air through a tube connected with the animal chamber periodically. According to the CO2 concentration in the IES, the automotive control system of the PPB changed the light intensity regulating the photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels. Chlorella vulgaris grew with human urine by carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with synthetic urine replenished into the system, and O2 was regenerated, at the same time human urine was purified. Results showed that this IES worked stably and Chlorella vulgaris grew well; The culture of Chlorella vulgaris could be used to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 , and the change of light intensity could control the gas composition in the IES; Microalgae culture could be used in emergency in the system, the culture of Chlorella vulgaris could recover to original state in 5 days; 15.6 ml of condensation water was obtained every day by the culture of Chlorella vulgaris; The removal efficiencies of N, P in human urine could reach to 98.2% and 99.5%.

  18. Modelling the life insurance needs using the human life value revision method (United States)

    Hashim, Haslifah; Service, David


    There are numerous methods to determine the appropriate amount of life insurance a person needs - it can be scientific or simplistic. Many life insurance agents and financial advisors simply rely on traditional rules of thumb using the multiple of income method. The more scientific methods are the needs analysis and the human life value. The needs analysis is regarded as the most commonly used sales tool and the human life value is the most agreed academic expression for the purpose of life insurance. However, there are several weaknesses of using both methods. By using needs analysis as a sales tool, the recommendation amount of life insurance would leave a person underinsured. Similar goes to the human life value method. Nevertheless, both methods can be improved with a few revisions. The post-death needs under the needs analysis must be revised to incorporate the reality that the family's standard of living changes over time. The projection of a changing standard of living is a part of human life value analysis. Therefore, this research looked into both methods and combines both concept of needs analysis and human life value to create a powerful methodology that provide adequate life insurance protection - a method we name it as 'the Human Life Value Revision Method'.

  19. Beginning Teachers' Challenges in Their Pursuit of Effective Teaching Practices (United States)

    Confait, Steve


    This article explores the context and experiences of three beginning teachers in their effort to improve their teaching and to implement and align themselves with their schools' expectations of effective teaching practices. Research findings emerging from a sociocultural-ethnographic framework revealed that participants challenged their own…

  20. A landslide on a mudslide? Natural hazards and the right to life under the European Convention of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Rytter, Jens Elo


    This paper investigates the protection of individuals’ lives against natural hazards under the European Convention on Human Rights. In 2008, the European Court of Human Rights decided to include natural hazards in a well-established doctrine developed to protect individuals from life-threatening ...

  1. Understanding beginning teacher induction: A contextualized examination of best practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Kearney


    Full Text Available The problems that teachers face early in their careers are a major factor in growing rates of attrition among neophyte teachers. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, high rates of attrition, coupled with and aging teacher population in many countries in the developed world, may cause a teacher shortage crisis in coming years. Beginning teacher induction is an imperative process in acculturating teachers to their new careers and helping them overcome the hardships of teaching and the accreditation process. While induction practices have become more common in recent years, there are still no mandated structures for inducting teachers into the profession throughout Australia. This article reviews a number of international induction programs, which have been successful in supporting beginning teachers and curbing attrition rates, to emphasize why many programs are inadequate at meeting the needs of beginning teachers. The review proposes a definition for induction to better understand common misconceptions and highlights best practice induction as a way to retain quality teachers in the profession and help ameliorate conditions for beginning teachers. Finally, recommendations are made, specifically in the Australian context, which could help to improve induction practices to better acculturate neophyte teachers to their profession.

  2. The Role of Hand Dominance in Beginning Braille Readers (United States)

    Wright, Tessa


    In this article, the author examines the role of "hand dominance" in beginning braille readers. "Hand dominance" refers to whether an individual is "right handed" or "left handed." The data for these analyses were taken from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study). The ABC Braille Study was a five-year nonrandomized…

  3. Heme degradation and human disease: diversity is the soul of life. (United States)

    Shibahara, Shigeki; Kitamuro, Tomomi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro


    We all depend on molecular oxygen and heme for our life, as evident from the pigments in blood and daily wastes. About 80% of serum bilirubin is derived from hemoglobin of senescent erythrocytes, which have finished their mission of 120 days and have been phagocytized by macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system. Here we present an overview of the heme degradation processes and relevant disorders by focusing on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a key enzyme in heme catabolism. HO-1 cleaves the porphyrin macrocycle of heme at the expense of molecular oxygen to release a linear tetrapyrrole biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and ferrous iron; biliverdin is rapidly reduced to bilirubin. Bilirubin is transported to the liver (hepatocytes), conjugated with glucuronic acid by bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and excreted into bile. Genetic diversity, a strategy in the host defense, is seen in the human ho-1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes. Moreover, striking interspecies variations are noted in the regulation of HO-1 expression by hypoxia, heat shock, or interferon-gamma, each of which mainly represses HO-1 expression in human cells. Implications of such a variety are discussed in relevance to the pathogenesis of severe malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most ancient foe of humans.

  4. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen


    , there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14)C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14)C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14)C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon...... on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close...... that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the (14)C content of various tissues may be used to assess...

  5. Insertional polymorphisms: a new lease of life for endogenous retroviruses in human disease. (United States)

    Moyes, David; Griffiths, David J; Venables, Patrick J


    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) result from ancestral infection by infectious viruses over millions of years of primate evolution. Some are transcriptionally active, express proteins and therefore have the potential to cause disease. Here we review the controversial attempts to link them with cancer and autoimmunity. The main difficulty is that most HERVs investigated to date are present at the same locus in 100% of the population. However, a new class of insertionally polymorphic HERV-K family members, present in a minority of individuals, has recently been described. We propose that insertionally polymorphic HERVs could be novel genetic risk factors and hence provide a new lease of life for research into HERVs and disease.

  6. Human probing behavior of Aedes aegypti when infected with a life-shortening strain of Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A Moreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are vectors of many serious pathogens in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Current control strategies almost entirely rely upon insecticides, which increasingly face the problems of high cost, increasing mosquito resistance and negative effects on non-target organisms. Alternative strategies include the proposed use of inherited life-shortening agents, such as the Wolbachia bacterium. By shortening mosquito vector lifespan, Wolbachia could potentially reduce the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations. We have recently been able to stably transinfect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the life-shortening Wolbachia strain wMelPop, and are assessing various aspects of its interaction with the mosquito host to determine its likely impact on pathogen transmission as well as its potential ability to invade A. aegypti populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have examined the probing behavior of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in an attempt to understand both the broader impact of Wolbachia infection on mosquito biology and, in particular, vectorial capacity. The probing behavior of wMelPop-infected mosquitoes at four adult ages was examined and compared to uninfected controls during video-recorded feeding trials on a human hand. Wolbachia-positive insects, from 15 days of age, showed a drastic increase in the time spent pre-probing and probing relative to uninfected controls. Two other important features for blood feeding, saliva volume and apyrase content of saliva, were also studied. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As A. aegypti infected with wMelPop age, they show increasing difficulty in completing the process of blood feeding effectively and efficiently. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes on average produced smaller volumes of saliva that still contained the same amount of apyrase activity as uninfected mosquitoes. These effects on blood feeding behavior may reduce vectorial capacity and point to underlying physiological

  7. Shelf-life evaluation of bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™. (United States)

    Seet, Wan Tai; Manira, Maarof; Maarof, Manira; Khairul Anuar, Khairoji; Chua, Kien-Hui; Ahmad Irfan, Abdul Wahab; Ng, Min Hwei; Aminuddin, Bin Saim; Ruszymah, Bt Hj Idrus


    Skin plays an important role in defense against infection and other harmful biological agents. Due to its fragile structure, skin can be easily damaged by heat, chemicals, traumatic injuries and diseases. An autologous bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™, was engineered to provide a living skin substitute to treat critical skin loss. However, one of the disadvantages of living skin substitute is its short shelf-life, hence limiting its distribution worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of MyDerm™ through assessment of cell morphology, cell viability, population doubling time and functional gene expression levels before transplantation. Skin samples were digested with 0.6% Collagenase Type I followed by epithelial cells dissociation with TrypLE Select. Dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were culture-expanded to obtain sufficient cells for MyDerm™ construction. MyDerm™ was constructed with plasma-fibrin as temporary biomaterial and evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after storage at 4°C for its shelf-life determination. The morphology of skin cells derived from MyDerm™ remained unchanged across storage times. Cells harvested from MyDerm™ after storage appeared in good viability (90.5%±2.7% to 94.9%±1.6%) and had short population doubling time (58.4±8.7 to 76.9±19 hours). The modest drop in cell viability and increased in population doubling time at longer storage duration did not demonstrate a significant difference. Gene expression for CK10, CK14 and COL III were also comparable between different storage times. In conclusion, MyDerm™ can be stored in basal medium at 4°C for at least 72 hours before transplantation without compromising its functionality.

  8. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline


    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  9. Management of Environmental Risks in the Life Cycle of Human Pharmaceuticals in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Kruopienė


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes and outlines the peculiarities and importance of different stages of the life cycle of human pharmaceuticals in Lithuania with regard to their environmental impact, and points out to the need of risk reduction measures.Use stage and disposal of unused, unwanted or expired medicines are those stages when the biggest emissions occur and risk management is not adequate yet. Pharmaceuticals consumption distribution profile is presented in the article. Environmental risk assessment was carried out indicating that for Lithuania pharmaceutical substances consumed in amounts over 25 kg/year might be causing a risk to the environment. Three substances  have PEC/PNEC ratios above 1 under the worst case calculations. In reality in spite of high environmental load, one of them - amoxicillin - is not likely to pose a risk due to its low environmantal stability and high removal rates in WWTPs. The other two substances show a potential of environmental risk even after calculation of the refined PEC/PNEC ratio. The importance of proper wastewater treatment needs to be underlined due to inevitable excretion of pharmaceutical substances from the use phase.The most popular way to dispose of unused, unwanted or expired medicines in Lithuania is via the household waste. The system for collection of residual medicines is not properly functioning yet. Good management of environmental risk requires establishment of an effective system to collect and destroy pharmaceuticals in an environmentally sound manner.

  10. Ars Longa, Vita Brevis. The Importance Of Art In Human Life. A Proustian Interpretation Of Honigmann’s Forever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noortwijk, A.


    This article aims to present an exploration of the theme of art’s power within human life in Heddy Honigmann’s documentary film Forever (2006), which exemplifies her obsession with this topic. The film’s contemplation of art is a self-reflexive one, as it uses the medium of film to explore represent

  11. Fruits of human genome project and private venture, and their impact on life science. (United States)

    Ikekawa, A; Ikekawa, S


    A small knowledge base was created by organizing the Human Genome Project (HGP) and its related issues in "Science" magazines between 1996 and 2000. This base revealed the stunning achievement of HGP and a private venture and its impact on today's biology and life science. In the mid-1990, they encouraged the development of advanced high throughput automated DNA sequencers and the technologies that can analyse all genes at once in a systematic fashion. Using these technologies, they completed the genome sequence of human and various other organisms. These fruits opened the door to comparative genomics, functional genomics, the interdisprinary field between computer and biology, and proteomics. They have caused a shift in biological investigation from studying single genes or proteins to studying all genes or proteins at once, and causing revolutional changes in traditional biology, drug discovery and therapy. They have expanded the range of potential drug targets and have facilitated a shift in drug discovery programs toward rational target-based strategies. They have spawned pharmacogenomics that could give rise to a new generation of highly effective drugs that treat causes, not just symptoms. They should also cause a migration from the traditional medications that are safe and effective for every members of the population to personalized medicine and personalized therapy.

  12. Human Dignity and the Manipulation of the Sense of Happiness: From the Viewpoint of Bioethics and Philosophy of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Morioka


    Full Text Available If our sense of happiness is closely connected to brain functions, it might become possible to manipulate our brain in a much more refined and effective way than current methods allow. In this paper I will make some remarks on the manipulation of the sense of happiness and illuminate the relationship between human dignity and happiness. The President’s Council on Bioethics discusses this topic in the 2003 report Beyond Therapy, and concludes that the use of SSRIs might make us “feel happy for no good reason at all, or happy even when there remains much in one’s life to be truly unhappy about.” I will extend their line of thought through two thought experiments. In the first, a “perfect happiness” drug is given to a person, and in the second a happiness device with an on/off switch is placed inside a person. The first case leads us to conclude that a life with dignity means a life free from domination by the sense of happiness and the sense of unhappiness. The second case leads us to conclude that a life with dignity requires substantive freedom to choose unhappiness. At the end of this paper, I present a new interpretation ofhuman dignity,” that is, “a life with dignity means a life in which we are able to explore our own life, equipped with both happiness and unhappiness, without regret, through relationships with others, without being exploited by the desires of anyone, and without being dominated by our own desires.”

  13. 3 CFR 8339 - Proclamation 8339 of January 15, 2009. National Sanctity of Human Life Day, 2009 (United States)


    ... building a culture of life in America. Also, I was proud to sign the Unborn Victims of Violence Act of 2004, which allows authorities to charge a person who causes death or injury to a child in the womb with...

  14. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lynnerup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon dating is made possible by comparing the (14C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric (14C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close relationship may be further expressed as a mathematical model, which takes into account the timing of the crystalline formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such a life-long permanence of human tissue has hitherto only been described for dental enamel. In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the (14C content of various tissues may be used to assess turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA. Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre

  15. The Era of International Space Station Utilization Begins: Research Strategy, International Collaboration, and Realized Potential (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Jean, Sabbagh


    With the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) nearing completion and the support of a full-time crew of six, a new era of utilization for research is beginning. For more than 15 years, the ISS international partnership has weathered financial, technical and political challenges proving that nations can work together to complete assembly of the largest space vehicle in history. And while the ISS partners can be proud of having completed one of the most ambitious engineering projects ever conceived, the challenge of successfully using the platform remains. During the ISS assembly phase, the potential benefits of space-based research and development were demonstrated; including the advancement of scientific knowledge based on experiments conducted in space, development and testing of new technologies, and derivation of Earth applications from new understanding. The configurability and human-tended capabilities of the ISS provide a unique platform. The international utilization strategy is based on research ranging from physical sciences, biology, medicine, psychology, to Earth observation, human exploration preparation and technology demonstration. The ability to complete follow-on investigations in a period of months allows researchers to make rapid advances based on new knowledge gained from ISS activities. During the utilization phase, the ISS partners are working together to track the objectives, accomplishments, and the applications of the new knowledge gained. This presentation will summarize the consolidated international results of these tracking activities and approaches. Areas of current research on ISS with strong international cooperation will be highlighted including cardiovascular studies, cell and plant biology studies, radiation, physics of matter, and advanced alloys. Scientific knowledge and new technologies derived from research on the ISS will be realized through improving quality of life on Earth and future spaceflight endeavours

  16. Application of duckweed for human urine treatment in Bioregenerative Life Support System (United States)

    Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    The object of the study was the common duckweed Lemna minor L. Thanks to the ability to assimilate mineral and organic substances, duckweed is used to purify water in sewage lagoons. In addition, duckweed biomass is known to be a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. The aim of the study was to estimate an application of duckweed in a two-stage treatment of human urine in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). At the first stage, the urine’s organic matter is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Diluted solution of oxidized urine is used for cultivation of duckweed. The appointment of duckweed is the assimilation of mineralized substances of urine. Part of the duckweed biomass yield directly or after composting could be embedded in the soil-like substrate as organic fertilizer to compensate the carry-over in consequence of plant growing. The rest duckweed biomass could be used as a feed for animals in BLSS. Then, the residual culture liquid is concentrated and used as a source of dietary salt. It takes 10-15 m2 of duckweed culture per crewmember to treat oxidized urine. The BLSS configuration including two-component subsystem of urine treatment is presented.

  17. Sustainable Wearables: Wearable Technology for Enhancing the Quality of Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Lee


    Full Text Available This paper aims to elicit insights about sustainable wearables by investigating recent advancements in wearable technology and their applications. Wearable technology has advanced considerably from a technical perspective, but it has stagnated due to barriers without penetrating wider society despite early positive expectations. This situation is the motivation behind the focus on studies by many research groups in recent years into wearable applications that can provide the best value from a human-oriented perspective. The expectation is that a new means to resolve the issue can be found from a viewpoint of sustainability; this is the main point of this paper. This paper first focuses on the trend of wearable technology like bodily status monitoring, multi-wearable device control, and smart networking between wearable sensors. Second, the development intention of such technology is investigated. Finally, this paper discusses about the applications of current wearable technology from the sustainable perspective, rather than detailed description of the component technologies employed in wearables. In this paper, the definition of sustainable wearables is discussed in the context of improving the quality of individual life, social impact, and social public interest; those wearable applications include the areas of wellness, healthcare, assistance for the visually impaired, disaster relief, and public safety. In the future, wearables will not be simple data trackers or fun accessories but will gain extended objectives and meanings that play a valuable role for individuals and societies. Successful and sustainable wearables will lead to positive changes for both individuals and societies overall.

  18. Estimating the beginning of the waterpipe epidemic in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Kenneth D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waterpipe smoking is becoming a global public health problem, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. Methods We try in this study, which is a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of waterpipe smokers in cafes/restaurants in Aleppo-Syria, to assess the time period for the beginning of this new smoking hype. We recruited 268 waterpipe smokers (161 men, 107 women; mean age ± standard deviation (SD 30.1 ± 10.2, response rate 95.3%. Participants were divided into 4 birth cohorts (≤ 1960, 1961–1970, 1971–1980, >1980 and year of initiation of waterpipe smoking and daily cigarette smoking were plotted according to these birth cohorts. Results Data indicate that unlike initiation of cigarette smoking, which shows a clear age-related pattern, the nineties was the starting point for most of waterpipe smoking implicating this time period for the beginning of the waterpipe epidemic in Syria. Conclusion The introduction of new flavored and aromatic waterpipe tobacco (Maassel, and the proliferation of satellite and electronic media during the nineties may have helped spread the new hype all over the Arab World.

  19. Impacts of "metals" on human health: a comparison between nine different methodologies for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Christensen, Per; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen;


    This paper looks into the differences and uncertainties in determining the impact of "metals" emissions on human health, in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Metals are diverse substances, with different properties and characteristics, considered important in LCIA because of their toxicity to ...

  20. [Nursing and the humanization of the end- of-life care within healthcare systems]. (United States)

    Gómez Arca, Marina


    The reflection upon the humanisation of the end-of-life process within healthcare systems and the implication of healthcare professionals is the main objective of this article. The evolution of the model of care and nurses leadership role at the end-of-life process is evaluated. This analysis starts from the first European references regarding advance wills, made in 1997 at the Oviedo Convention, until the introduction of the idea of advance directives incorporated into Spanish law in 2002. It sets the concept of advance planning in health-related decisions, which establishes a process of voluntary dialogue where every person can clarify values, preferences and wishes regarding the final moments of life, with the support of the healthcare professionals.

  1. Model systems to study the life cycle of human papillomaviruses and HPV-associated cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Louise; T.Chow


    The prevalent human papillomaviruses(HPVs) infect either cutaneous or mucosal epithelium. Active Infections lead to epithelial hyperprolifeation and are usually cleared in healthy individuals within a year. Persistent infections in the anogenital tracts by certain high-risk genotypes such as HPV-16, HPV-18 and closely related types, can progress to high grade dysplasias and carcinomas in women and men, including cervical, vulva, penile and anal cancers. A significant fraction of the head and neck cancers are also caused by HPV-16. The viral oncogenes responsible for neoplastic conversion are E6 and E7 that disrupt the pathways controlled by the two major tumor suppressor genes, p53 and members of p RB family. Because HPV cannot be propagated in conventional submerged monolayer cell cultures, organotypic epithelial raft cultures that generate a stratified and differentiated epithelium have been used to study the viral life cycle. This article describes several systems to examine aspects of the viral productive phase, along with the advantages and limitations. Animal model systems of HPV carcinogenesis are also briefly described.

  2. Early-life experiences and the development of adult diseases with a focus on mental illness: The Human Birth Theory. (United States)

    Maccari, Stefania; Polese, Daniela; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Amici, Tiziana; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Fagioli, Francesca


    In mammals, early adverse experiences, including mother-pup interactions, shape the response of an individual to chronic stress or to stress-related diseases during adult life. This has led to the elaboration of the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease, in particular adult diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In addition, in humans, as stated by Massimo Fagioli's Human Birth Theory, birth is healthy and equal for all individuals, so that mental illness develop exclusively in the postnatal period because of the quality of the relationship in the first year of life. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of programming during the early developmental period on the manifestation of adult diseases in both animal models and humans. Considering the obvious differences between animals and humans we cannot systematically move from animal models to humans. Consequently, in the first part of this review, we will discuss how animal models can be used to dissect the influence of adverse events occurring during the prenatal and postnatal periods on the developmental trajectories of the offspring, and in the second part, we will discuss the role of postnatal critical periods on the development of mental diseases in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms that cause reversible modifications in gene expression, driving the development of a pathological phenotype in response to a negative early postnatal environment, may lie at the core of this programming, thereby providing potential new therapeutic targets. The concept of the Human Birth Theory leads to a comprehension of the mental illness as a pathology of the human relationship immediately after birth and during the first year of life.

  3. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span. (United States)

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan


    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose-response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age.

  4. [Richard Freiherr v. Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freud--discourse on the "normality" and "perversion" of human sexuality at the close of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century]. (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter


    Sexuality has been defined a central feature of personal identity since the epoch of enlightenment and has gradually become a decisive issue also in societal and political terms. A major transfer from religion and religious institutions to medicine and medical experts and later on to neuropsychiatrists has to be underlined in the primary position to assess "normal" and "deviant" manifestations of sexuality. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freund play an eminent role in this "discourse on sexuality" (M. Foucault) during the nineteenth and beginning twentieth century on the way to modern sexology. Within this overarching context Krafft-Ebing's and Freud's theoretical conceptualizations of sexuality and perversion will be sketched and basic clinical and societal implications there out will be discussed.

  5. Spatial- and time-explicit human damage modeling of ozone depleting substances in life cycle impact assessment. (United States)

    Struijs, Jaap; van Dijk, Arjan; Slaper, Harry; van Wijnen, Harm J; Velders, Guus J M; Chaplin, George; Huijbregts, Mark A J


    Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer is mainly caused by emissions of persistent halocarbons of anthropogenic origin. The resulting increase of solar ultraviolet radiation at the Earth's surface is associated with increased exposure of humans and increased human health damage. Here we assessed the change in human health damage caused by three types of skin cancer and cataract in terms of (healthy) years of life lost per kiloton emission reduction of an ozone-depleting substance (ODS). This so-called characterization factor is used in Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs). Characterization factors are provided for the emissions of five chlorofluorocarbons, three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, three (bromine-containing) halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and anthropogenic emissions of methyl bromide. We employed dynamic calculations on a global scale for this purpose, taking physical and social geographic data into account such as skin tones, population density, average age, and life expectancy. When emission rates of all ODSs in 2007 are multiplied by our characterization factors, the resulting number of years of life lost may be a factor of 5 higher than reported previously. This increase is merely explained through the global demographic development until 2100 we took into account.

  6. The possibility of aromorphosis in further development of closed human life support systems using genetically modified organisms (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef

    Creation of closed systems that would be able to support human life outside the biosphere for extended periods of time (CES) was started after humans went into outer space. The last fifty years have seen the construction of experimental variants of the CES in Russia, USA, and Japan. The "MELISSA" project of the European Space Agency is being prepared to be launched. Much success has been achieved in closing material loops in the CES. An obstacle to constructing a fully closed ecosystem is significant imbalance in material exchange between the producing components and the decomposing ones in the CES. The spectrum of metabolites released by humans does not fully correspond to the requirements of the main producer of the CES -plants. However, this imbalance can be corrected by rather simple physicochemical processes that can be used in the CES without unclosing the system. The major disagreement that prevents further improvement of human life support systems (LSS) is that the spectrum of products of photosynthesis in the CES does not correspond to human food requirements qual-itatively, quantitatively, or in terms of diversity. In the normal, physiologically sound, human diet, this discrepancy is resolved by adding animal products. However, there are technical, technological, and hygienic obstacles to including animals in the closed human life support systems, and if higher animals are considered, there are also ethical arguments. If between the photoautotrophic link, plants, and the heterotrophic link, the human, there were one more heterotrophic link, farm animals, the energy requirements of the system would be increased by nearly an order of magnitude, decreasing its efficiency and making it heavier and bulkier. Is there another way to close loops in human life support systems? In biology, such "findings" of evolution, which open up new perspectives and offer ample opportunities for possible adapta-tions, are termed aromorphoses (Schmalhausen, 1948). In further

  7. Environmental and human health assessment of life cycle of nanoTiO2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile. (United States)

    Pini, Martina; Bondioli, Federica; Montecchi, Rita; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria


    Recently, there has been a rise in the interest in nanotechnology due to its enormous potential for the development of new products and applications with higher performance and new functionalities. However, while nanotechnology might revolutionize a number of industrial and consumer sectors, there are uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding toxicological effects of this emerging science. The goal of this research concerns the implementation into Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of preliminary frameworks developed to evaluate human toxicity and exposure factors related to the potential nanoparticle releases that could occur during the life cycle steps of a functionalized building material. The present LCA case study examines the ecodesign of nanoTiO2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile production. The aim of this investigation is to manufacture new eco-friendly products in order to protect human health and ecosystem quality and to offer the market, materials with higher technological properties obtained by the addition of specific nanomaterials.

  8. The epidemiology of AIDS in Iran from beginning until now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi F


    Full Text Available The problem of AIDS had not been recognized up to 1981 and in 1984 it was found that HIV virus is factor of this disease. For the time beings AIDS/HIV infection has chanched to a pandemic and cases affected to it are now reported from all over the world. In our country the first case was reported in 1987. Regarding the importance of disease and recognition of its prevention and transmission routes, based on disease epidemiology in country, this survey was conducted. This study was performed in 1999-2000 and is retrospective descriptive study. The main purpose of study is epidemiology of AIDS in Iran from beginning until now. Total information of cases of AIDS/HIV from beginning in Iran and all performed activities were obtained from ministry of health center for disease control-AIDS Dept. 95 files existing in the archives of Imam Khomeini hospital related to AIDS were also studied. 1953 cases of HIV+ have been reported until March of year 2000. At the same time 250 cases of AIDS have been reported which 215 of them died. Among transmission routes, in AIDS disease the most common way of transmission was transfusion of infected blood or its components but in HIV+ case the most one was drug injection. With respect to age, the higher and lower rate of affected people were in 30-39 and 0-4 ranges years respectively. The sex percentage in AIDS affected and HIV+ persons were 90.8% and 9.2%; 95.2% and 4.8% male and female respectively. 130 from 1953 HIV+ cases had travel to abroad.

  9. Extending the Serum Half-Life of G-CSF via Fusion with the Domain III of Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiang Zhao


    Full Text Available Protein fusion technology is one of the most commonly used methods to extend the half-life of therapeutic proteins. In this study, in order to prolong the half-life of Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, the domain III of human serum albumin (3DHSA was genetically fused to the N-terminal of G-CSF. The 3DHSA-G-CSF fusion gene was cloned into pPICZαA along with the open reading frame of the α-factor signal under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant expression vector was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115, and the recombinant strains were screened by SDS-PAGE. As expected, the 3DHSA-G-CSF showed high binding affinity with HSA antibody and G-CSF antibody, and the natural N-terminal of 3DHSA was detected by N-terminal sequencing. The bioactivity and pharmacokinetic studies of 3DHSA-G-CSF were respectively determined using neutropenia model mice and human G-CSF ELISA kit. The results demonstrated that 3DHSA-G-CSF has the ability to increase the peripheral white blood cell (WBC counts of neutropenia model mice, and the half-life of 3DHSA-G-CSF is longer than that of native G-CSF. In conclusion, 3DHSA can be used to extend the half-life of G-CSF.

  10. [People, the environment and health: the "Oneness" of human health from the perspective of universal life presented in "Changes"]. (United States)

    Yang, Ke-Ping


    This paper aimed to expand the paradigm of nursing and expand the essential factors of nursing theories beyond "environment" to encompass universal life. While individuals live between the sky and earth, we are an inseparable part of the universe. "Health" is derived from a oneness that embraces the body, mind and spirit. The human body contains the wisdom of the universe, known in Chinese philosophy as the wisdom of "Changes". The body has its own consciousness and possesses great powers of self-healing. Healthiness is the original condition of life. Modern medicine assumes sickness to be a natural phenomenon, with the essential nature of "Changes" neglected as a universal law for maintaining health. Dr. Sun, a renowned physician from the Tang Dynasty, was quoted as saying "Knowing Changes is the prerequisite of knowing medicine." Another saying holds that, "Every word and every sentence in the Book of Changes is an indicator of medicine." Much emphasis has been placed on the relationship between "Changes" and "medicine" in the past. This paper elaborates the relationship between nature and human health in order to provide a clear understanding of the nature of true health, described from the perspectives of medicine and "Changes", an evaluation of modern medical science and the oneness of body-mind-spirit, which is the reality of health. The human body is thus a reflection of the mind and spirit, while the mind and spirit is the "inner body". The body is a highly intelligent organism that truly reflects our inner world. Our inner world is also displayed through physical symptoms. As human suffering is caused by separation from our inner life, the only path to enjoying a healthy and joyful life is to achieve a oneness between our body-mind-spirit. Such is a universal law, which is called "Changes" or "Oneness".

  11. Beginning C

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Ivor


    Beginning C, 5th Edition teaches you how to program using the widely-available C language. You'll begin from first-principles and progress through step-by-step examples to become a competent, C-language programmer. All you need are this book and any of the widely available free or commercial C or C++ compilers, and you'll soon be writing real C programs. C is a foundational language that every programmer ought to know. C is the basis for C# used in Microsoft .NET programming. It is the basis for Objective-C used in programming for the iPhone, the iPad, and other Apple devices. It is the basis

  12. Optimization of controlled environments for hydroponic production of leaf lettuce for human life support in CELSS (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Knight, S. L.; Ford, T. L.


    A research project in the food production group of the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program sought to define optimum conditions for photosynthetic productivity of a higher plant food crop. The effects of radiation and various atmospheric compositions were studied.

  13. A study on development of ear ossicles from prenatal to postnatal life of humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma M.


    Conclusions: Ossicles at 20 weeks of prenatal life were cartilagenous, and at 24 weeks they were ossified and surrounded by mesenchyme. Postnatal changes were minimal. These parameters of Ossicles will help in designing of implants and treating hearing loss. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4793-4796

  14. Green PC Saves Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Shaik


    Full Text Available Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. This give idea about reduce the use of hazardous materials maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability. Green computing can be broadly defined as the problem of reducing the overall carbon footprint of computing and communication infrastructure, such as data centers, by using energy-efficient design and operations. As the environmentalists and energy conservationists ponder over the issue of conserving environment, technologists have come out with a simple solution to let you contribute to the “Go Green” campaign- with the help of Green PCs. By using green computing practices; you can improve energy management, increase energy efficiency, reduce e-waste, and save money. Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before. It is worth emphasizing that this “green technology” should not be just about sound bytes to impress activists but concrete action and organizational policy. The plan towards Green PC should include new electronic products and services with optimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings and technical issues in high-performance green computing span the spectrum from green infrastructure like energy-efficient buildings, intelligent cooling systems, green power sources for green hardware multi-core computing systems, energy-efficient server design, energy-efficient solid-state storage for green software and applications.

  15. Quality of life, socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitude toward sexuality from the perspectives of individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiry Fernanda Pinto Okuno


    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the quality of life of "patients" with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and relate it to their socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality. Method: crosssectional and analytical study with 201 individuals who are 50 years old or older. The Targeted Quality of Life and Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scales were applied during interviews. Multiple Linear Regression was used in data analysis. Results: dimensions of quality of life more strongly compromised were disclosure worries (39.0, sexual function (45.9, and financial worries (55.6. Scores concerning knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality were 31.7 and 14.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between attitudes and the domains of overall function, health worries, medication worries, and HIV mastery. Conclusion: guidance concerning how the disease is transmitted, treated and how it progresses, in addition to providing social and psychological support, could minimize the negative effects of the disease on the quality of life of patients living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

  16. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community (United States)

    Ramani, Uma


    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  17. Human Resource Executives' Perceptions and Measurement of the Strategic Impact of Work/Life Initiatives (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Heames, Joyce Thompson; McMillan, Heather S.


    Given the stresses associated with today's demanding workplaces, work/life (w/l) initiatives continue to grow in importance as an organizational development (OD) intervention. In a period of increasing accountability, it is important for scholars and practitioners to demonstrate how OD interventions, like w/l initiatives, can be used as a…

  18. The natural place to begin: The ethnoprimatology of the Waorani



    Ethnoprimatology is an important and growing discipline, studying the diverse relationships between humans and primates. However there is a danger that too great a focus on primates as important to humans may obscure the importance of other animal groups to local people. The Waorani of Amazonian Ecuador were described by Sponsel [Sponsel (1997) New World Primates: Ecology, evolution and behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p 143–165] as the “natural place” for ethnoprimatology, because of t...

  19. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving


    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining...... such as No Observed Effect Levels (NOEL). NOELs, and similar data, are determined in laboratory studies using rodents and are then extrapolated to more relevant human measures. Many examples also exist of measures and methods beyond potency-based indicators that attempt to account for differences in expected severity......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...

  20. Beginning Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, James


    This is a book for those of us who believed that we didn't need to learn Perl, and now we know it is more ubiquitous than ever. Perl is extremely flexible and powerful, and it isn't afraid of Web 2.0 or the cloud. Originally touted as the duct tape of the Internet, Perl has since evolved into a multipurpose, multiplatform language present absolutely everywhere: heavy-duty web applications, the cloud, systems administration, natural language processing, and financial engineering. Beginning Perl, Third Edition provides valuable insight into Perl's role regarding all of these tasks and more. Comm

  1. Education, Human Development and Quality of Life: Measurement Issues and Implications for India (United States)

    Narayana, M. R.


    This paper analyses and compares the measurement of indicators and variables in the construction of education index in Human Development Index (HDI) at the global, national and 18 sub-national human development reports in India since 1990. The results show non-comparability of measurement of the education indicators and variables. This implies…

  2. The right to life and criminal-law protection of the human person in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etlon Peppo


    Full Text Available The basic principle for which a democratic governance stands, are expressed in the “Declaration of Independence of the United States of America with the words of Thomas Jefferson: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” The government of a democratic state does not exist to recognize the basic human rights, but to respect and guarantee the protection of these rights that any person possesses and benefits due to his existence starting from the most important right: The right to life, which is faced against the duty of the state for the protection of the human person’s life! In this sense this article analyzes the criminal-law protection of life in the Western Balkans.

  3. History of dermatologic surgery. From the beginnings to late antiquity. (United States)

    Marmelzat, W L


    We stop short, with Celsus, our glimpse of ancient dermatologic surgery in the West. As was stated at the beginning of the chapter, only a few examples and speculations are mentioned in this brief account. Much has gone unmentioned, including the contributions of great Eastern civilizations, such as ancient India, China, and Persia; the Bible; and the "ancient" inhabitants of the "new" world. We note especially the omission of the amazing ancient Hindu cosmetic operations that successfully employed rotating pedicle flaps in reconstructing amputated ears and noses. Important names before Celsus are missing from this account, especially the two Alexandrian physician-surgeons who flourished three centuries earlier--Herophilus (the Father of Anatomy) and Erasistratus (the Father of Physiology). Except for a few extant anatomic fragments, the works of Herophilus and Erasistratus are completely lost. We may with confidence, however, infer from the writings of Celsus and Galen that the brillant anatomy and physiology of the Alexandrian period made for good surgical diagnosis and practice. We must remember, too, that after Celsus' time, the slow disintergration of the Roman Empire took more than 500 years. This period of 500 years saw a number of important Roman physician-surgeons who contributed significantly with daring new operations and original surgical concepts and techniques: Heliodorus, Soranus, Rufus, Archigenes, Galen, Antyllus, Leonides, Oribasius, Aetius, Paulus, and others. The positive surgical contributions of these giants would be lost and rediscovered, many times.

  4. [William Harvey and the beginnings of modern medical science]. (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo


    Modern medical science was born in the post-Renaissance age and began to consolidate towards the middle of the XVII century thanks to physicists, physiologists, and biologists, most of whom were direct or indirect pupils, of Galilei. The discovery of blood circulation by Harvey is now considered the only progress in physiology at the beginning of the XVII century, comparable to the current advances seen in physical sciences. The history of this achievement could be written from the view point of the progressive advance in knowledge. In his experiments, Harvey referred to the authentic, not the imaginary experiments, and put forward irrefutable quantitative arguments. We can therefore claim that his discovery of blood circulation was the first proper explanation of an organic process and the starting point leading to experimental physiology. Nevertheless, the second monograph of the English researcher, dealing with the generation of animals, published in 1651, has some passages that correspond to modern scientific reasoning yet in others he includes confused, vague and capricious assertions compatible with the prescientific era that the author was not able to escape completely. In conclusion, it seems justified to assert that modern medical science did not all rise suddenly, but was gradually structured starting from the middle of the XVII century following the path traced by William Harvey in light of Galilei's thought.

  5. Impacts of “metals” on human health: uncertainties in using different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Christensen, Per; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    This study looks into the uncertainties in determining the impact of “metals” emissions to human health, in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Metals are diverse substances, with different proprieties and characteristics, considered important in LCIA because of their toxicity to humans...... or ecosystems. Various methodologies for LCIA are at the present time available, but we believe that big differences exist in the way they address human toxicity of metals. After a research on relevant literature sources, we identified four scientific criteria for the definition of which metals should...... be considered in an impact assessment focused on human health, and defined a list of 14 metals. We performed a contribution analysis in order to compare methods in relative terms; an approach successfully used in other studies. Various processes have been analyzed with 8 different LCIA methods in order...

  6. Aeons the search for the beginning of time

    CERN Document Server

    Gorst, Martin


    The story of man's attempt to discover the moment that time began, from James Ussher's confident assertion in 1650 that the world was 5654 years old to the Hubble Space telescope's images of a world 13 billion years old, with a starry cast of eccentrics, mystics, scientists and visonaries. The moment of the beginning of time is one of science's Holy Grails, pursued by devotees and obsessives across the ages. Few were more committed than Bishop James Ussher who lost his sight in his 50-year quest, laboriously outlined in his 2000 Latin pages of Annals - a chronology of all known history - that is now famous only for one spectacularly inaccurate date: 4004BC, the creation of the world. Theology failed Ussher, just as it thwarted Theophilus of Antioch and many others before him. Geology was next to fail the test of time: the Comte de Buffon, working out the rate at which the Earth was supposed to have cooled, came up with age of 74,832 years, even though he suspected this was far too little. Biology had a go in ...

  7. The influence of life history and sexual dimorphism on entheseal changes in modern humans and African great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Milella

    Full Text Available Entheseal changes have been widely studied with regard to their correlation to biomechanical stress and their usefulness for biocultural reconstructions. However, anthropological and medical studies have demonstrated the marked influence of both age and sex on the development of these features. Studies of entheseal changes are mostly aimed in testing functional hypotheses and are mostly focused on modern humans, with few data available for non-human primates. The lack of comparative studies on the effect of age and sex on entheseal changes represent a gap in our understanding of the evolutionary basis of both development and degeneration of the human musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present work is to compare age trajectories and patterns of sexual dimorphism in entheseal changes between modern humans and African great apes. To this end we analyzed 23 postcranial entheses in a human contemporary identified skeletal collection (N = 484 and compared the results with those obtained from the analysis of Pan (N = 50 and Gorilla (N = 47 skeletal specimens. Results highlight taxon-specific age trajectories possibly linked to differences in life history schedules and phyletic relationships. Robusticity trajectories separate Pan and modern humans from Gorilla, whereas enthesopathic patterns are unique in modern humans and possibly linked to their extended potential lifespan. Comparisons between sexes evidence a decreasing dimorphism in robusticity from Gorilla, to modern humans to Pan, which is likely linked to the role played by size, lifespan and physical activity on robusticity development. The present study confirms previous hypotheses on the possible relevance of EC in the study of life history, pointing moreover to their usefulness in evolutionary studies.

  8. Beginning Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Poe, Curtis 'Ovid'


    Everything beginners need to start programming with Perl Perl is the ever-popular, flexible, open source programming language that has been called the programmers’ Swiss army knife. This book introduces Perl to both new programmers and experienced ones who are looking to learn a new language. In the tradition of the popular Wrox Beginning guides, it presents step-by-step guidance in getting started, a host of try-it-out exercises, real-world examples, and everything necessary for a Perl novice to start programming with confidence. Introduces Perl to both new programmers and experienced o

  9. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert


    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  10. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Linwood, Jeff


    Beginning Hibernate, Second Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open source, lightweight Hibernate-the de facto object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework. This book packs in brand-new information about the latest release of the Hibernate 3.5 persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you

  11. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Minter, Dave; Ottinger, Joseph


    Beginning Hibernate, Third Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open-source, lightweight Hibernate, a leading object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework.This book packs in information about the release of the Hibernate 4.x persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you'll be able to immediately star

  12. Human factor observations of the Biosphere 2, 1991-1993, closed life support human experiment and its application to a long-term manned mission to Mars. (United States)

    Alling, Abigail; Nelson, Mark; Silverstone, Sally; Van Thillo, Mark


    Human factors are a key component to the success of long-term space missions such as those necessitated by the human exploration of Mars and the development of bioregenerative and eventually self-sufficient life support systems for permanent space outposts. Observations by participants living inside the 1991-1993 Biosphere 2 closed system experiment provide the following insights. (1) Crew members should be involved in the design and construction of their life support systems to gain maximum knowledge about the systems. (2) Individuals living in closed life support systems should expect a process of physiological and psychological adaptation to their new environment. (3) Far from simply being a workplace, the participants in such extended missions will discover the importance of creating a cohesive and satisfying life style. (4) The crew will be dependent on the use of varied crops to create satisfying cuisine, a social life with sufficient outlets of expression such as art and music, and to have down-time from purely task-driven work. (5) The success of the Biosphere 2 first 2-year mission suggests that crews with high cultural diversity, high commitment to task, and work democracy principles for individual responsibility may increase the probability of both mission success and personal satisfaction. (6) Remaining challenges are many, including the need for far more comprehensive real-time modeling and information systems (a "cybersphere") operating to provide real-time data necessary for decision-making in a complex life support system. (7) And, the aim will be to create a noosphere, or sphere of intelligence, where the people and their living systems are in sustainable balance.

  13. A life course perspective on migration and mental health among Asian immigrants: the role of human agency. (United States)

    Gong, Fang; Xu, Jun; Fujishiro, Kaori; Takeuchi, David T


    The relationship between human agency and health is an important yet under-researched topic. This study uses a life course perspective to examine how human agency (measured by voluntariness, migratory reasons, and planning) and timing (measured by age at immigration) affect mental health outcomes among Asian immigrants in the United States. Data from the National Latino and Asian American Study showed that Asian immigrants (n=1491) with multiple strong reasons to migrate were less likely to suffer from mental health problems (i.e., psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in the past 12 months) than those without clear goals. Moreover, Asian immigrants with adequate migratory planning had lower levels of distress and lower rates of 12-month psychiatric disorders than those with poorly planned migration. Compared with migrants of the youngest age category (six or younger), those who migrated during preteen and adolescent years without clear goals had higher levels of psychological distress, and those who migrated during adulthood (25 years or older) were less likely to suffer from recent depressive disorders (with the exception of those migrating for life-improving goals). Furthermore, we found that well-planned migration lowered acculturative stress, and multiple strong reasons for migration buffered the negative effect of acculturative stress upon mental health. Findings from this study advance research on immigrant health from the life course perspective by highlighting the effects of exercising human agency during the pre-migration stage upon post-migration mental health.

  14. Scattered Families : Transnational family life of Afghan refugees in the Netherlands in the light of the human rights based protection of the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, P.H.A.M


    This study focuses on family life of Afghan refugees in the Netherlands, within and across borders. While family life constitutes a foundation in the lives of human beings, the disruption of the family through external causes has a huge impact on the people involved. In the case of refugees, many of

  15. The Right to Concerted Action as Part of Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiQi,; ZhuShida; DavidKelly


    Associations existed in primitive human society. Only when the human race entered modem society, however, did concerted actions begin to enjoy institutionalized space and exercise tremendous impact on human life. In the late 20th century a worldwide revolution of associations took place. Concerted actions may be classified as economic,

  16. The influence of the level of physical activity and human development in the quality of life in survivors of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickner Robert C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between physical activity and quality of life in stroke survivors has not been analyzed within a framework related to the human development index. This study aimed to identify differences in physical activity level and in the quality of life of stroke survivors in two cities differing in economic aspects of the human development index. Methods Two groups of subjects who had suffered a stroke at least a year prior to testing and showed hemiplegia or hemiparesis were studied: a group from Belo Horizonte (BH with 48 people (51.5 ± 8.7 years and one from Montes Claros (MC with 29 subjects (55.4 ± 8.1 years. Subsequently, regardless of location, the groups were divided into Active and Insufficiently Active so their difference in terms of quality of life could be analyzed. Results There were no significant differences between BH and MCG when it came to four dimensions of physical health that were evaluated (physical functioning, physical aspect, pain and health status or in the following four dimensions of mental health status (vitality, social aspect, emotional aspect and mental health. However, significantly higher mean values were found in Active when compared with Insufficiently Active individuals in various measures of physical health (physical functioning 56.2 ± 4.4 vs. 47.4 ± 6.9; physical aspect 66.5 ± 6.5 vs. 59.1 ± 6.7; pain 55.9 ± 6.2 vs. 47.7 ± 6.0; health status 67.2 ± 4.2 vs. 56.6 ± 7.8 (arbitrary units, and mental health (vitality 60.9 ± 6.8 vs. 54.1 ± 7.2; social aspect 60.4 ± 7.1 vs. 54.2 ± 7.4; emotional aspect 64.0 ± 5.5 vs. 58.1 ± 6.9; mental health status 66.2 ± 5.5 vs. 58.4 ± 7.5 (arbitrary units. Conclusions Despite the difference between the cities concerning HDI values, no significant differences in quality of life were found between BH and MCG. However, the Active group showed significantly better results, confirming the importance of active lifestyle to enhance quality of

  17. Development of Human Resources Using New Technologies in Long-Life Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micu Bogdan Ghilic


    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT offer new opportunities to reinvent the education and to make people and makes learning more fun and contemporary but poses many problems to educational institutions. Implementation of ICT determines major structural changes in the organizations and mental switch from bureaucratic mentality to customer-oriented one. In this paper I try to evaluate methods of developing the lifelong learning programs, impact to human resources training and development and the impact of this process on educational institutions. E-learning usage in training the human resources can make a new step in development of the education institutions, human resources and companies.

  18. The Sanctity of human life. A perspective from New Testament anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C. van Zyl


    Full Text Available The article deals with sanctity of life issues such as abortion, euthanasia, treatment of the disabled, war, and capital punishment. These matters are not treated individually but collectively from the perspective of New Testament anthropology. Having taken care of a few methodological considerations, the main focus falls on a discussion of man as sinner, man in Christ, and the category of the least.

  19. Remarks regarding the Romanian writers and literary world at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranţa Sofia MILANCOVICI


    Full Text Available An analysis of the cultural configuration at the beginning of the 20th century leads to theconclusion that the dominant tendency is that of changing. The two forces in dispute are thetraditionalism and the modernism.The Romanian literary world is characterised by impurity. The reason is the fact that manyartistic forms that were already anachronistic in Occident, in Romania didn’t express all theirpotential and, on the other hand, we can detect, at the very beginning of the 20th century, a newwave of confusion between the concepts of aesthetic, ethic and ethnic.This contradictory landscape is completed by the avant-garde movements, characterised byextreme denial of tradition, cancellation of all patterns and revolt accompanied by repulsionagainst human and cultural condition.

  20. The Composition of Human Milk and Infant Faecal Microbiota Over the First Three Months of Life: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Murphy, Kiera; Curley, David; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; O’Shea, Carol-Anne; Dempsey, Eugene M.; O’Toole, Paul W.; Ross, R. Paul; Ryan, C. Anthony; Stanton, Catherine


    Human milk contains a diverse array of bioactives and is also a source of bacteria for the developing infant gut. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial communities in human milk and infant faeces over the first 3 months of life, in 10 mother-infant pairs. The presence of viable Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in human milk was also evaluated. MiSeq sequencing revealed a large diversity of the human milk microbiota, identifying over 207 bacterial genera in milk samples. The phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were the predominant bacterial groups. A core of 12 genera represented 81% of the microbiota relative abundance in milk samples at week 1, 3 and 6, decreasing to 73% at week 12. Genera shared between infant faeces and human milk samples accounted for 70–88% of the total relative abundance in infant faecal samples, supporting the hypothesis of vertical transfer of bacteria from milk to the infant gut. In addition, identical strains of Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus plantarum were isolated from the milk and faeces of one mother-infant pair. Vertical transfer of bacteria via breastfeeding may contribute to the initial establishment of the microbiota in the developing infant intestine. PMID:28094284

  1. Brain-based origins of change language: a beginning. (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Yezhuvath, Uma; Houck, Jon M; Filbey, Francesca M


    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising treatment for heavy drinking. Client change talk (CT), a critical component of MI, has been associated with differential brain activation. The goal of this study was to begin to deconstruct how and why CT may affect the brain. Specifically, we sought to determine whether simply repeating statements in favor of change would cause differential brain activation, or whether client statements must be spontaneously generated within a therapeutic milieu in order to influence brain activation. We therefore examined blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response following two types of client language (CT; and sustain talk, ST) across two conditions: (1) Self-Generated: CT and ST were elicited during an MI session vs. (2) Experimenter-Selected: a pre-established list of CT and ST was provided to the individual in the absence of an MI session. Across both conditions, participants' CT and ST were visually and aurally presented during fMRI. We enrolled 39 recent binge drinkers (41% male; M age=19.9; n=18 in Self-Generated group; n=21 in Experimenter-Selected group). We found that both types of client language (CT and ST) elicited greater BOLD activation in the Self-Generated vs. the Experimenter-Selected group in the left inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and superior temporal gyri (p≤0.001). These findings indicate that the nature of client language matters. It appears that it is not just the words themselves, but the origin (naturally generated within a therapeutic session) that influences brain-based effects.

  2. Quality of sleep and quality of life in adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Caires Gazini


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess sleep characteristics of adolescents infected by HIV, and to ascertain whether psychosocial aspects are associated to the quality of sleep. METHODS: A cross-sectional study assessing 102 HIV-infected adolescents of both genders, aged between 10 and 20 years-old and 120 Controls. Data collection was performed by applying the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. RESULTS: A sleep disturbance prevalence of 77.4% was found in patients, and a 75% prevalence in controls, and there was correlation between quality of sleep and of life. HIV-infected adolescents scored higher for sleep breathing disorders and had higher prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected adolescents had similar quality of sleep compared to healthy adolescents. This may be explained by the steady improvements in daily living as a result of successful anti-retroviral therapy, and by the vulnerability that affects Brazilian adolescents living in major urban centers.

  3. Human Genome Project: an attentive reading of the book of life?



    The idea to sequence all 3 billion bases of the humane genome started in the late 80s and the project began in the early 90s. In June 2000, the first "draft" was announced and in February, 2001 the final sequence was published by Science and Nature. Many debates about the ethical, legal and social issues originated from the Human Genome Project. The main questions are? "who should have access to an individual's genetic information?"; "will the genetic information be used as a discrimination t...

  4. Developmental origins of cardiovascular disease: Impact of early life stress in humans and rodents. (United States)

    Murphy, M O; Cohn, D M; Loria, A S


    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesizes that environmental insults during childhood programs the individual to develop chronic disease in adulthood. Emerging epidemiological data strongly supports that early life stress (ELS) given by the exposure to adverse childhood experiences is regarded as an independent risk factor capable of predicting future risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal models utilizing chronic behavioral stress during postnatal life, specifically maternal separation (MatSep) provides a suitable tool to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. The purpose of this review is to highlight current epidemiological studies linking ELS to the development of cardiovascular disease and to discuss the potential molecular mechanisms identified from animal studies. Overall, this review reveals the need for future investigations to further clarify the molecular mechanisms of ELS in order to develop more personalized therapeutics to mitigate the long-term consequences of chronic behavioral stress including cardiovascular and heart disease in adulthood.

  5. Life in our hands? Some ethical perspectives on the human genome and human genome diversity projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius W. du Toit


    Full Text Available The article dealt with implications of the human genome and the human genome diversity project. It examined some theological implications, such as: humans as the image of God, God as the creator of life, the changed role of miracles and healings in religion, the sacredness of nature, life and the genome. Ethical issues that were addressed include eugenics, germline intervention, determinism and the human genome diversity project. Economic and legal factors that play a role were also discussed. Whilst positive aspects of genome research were considered, a critical stance was adopted towards patenting the human genome and some concluding guidelines were proposed.

  6. Morphological description and life cycle of Paragonimus sp. (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae): causal agent of human paragonimiasis in Colombia. (United States)

    Vélez, Imelda; Velásquez, Luz E; Vélez, Iván D


    The first morphological description is made of all stages of the life cycle of a Paragonimus species infecting humans in Colombia. Larval stages were obtained both in vitro and from field collections. Adult Paragonimus spp. are described. The aquatic snail Aroapyrgus sp. serves as an intermediate host of this species, both naturally and experimentally, yielding rediae and cercariae. Crabs (Hypolobocera bouvieri monticola and H. emberarum) were found to be the natural second intermediate hosts, and individuals of another crab species (Strengeria sp.) were also infected in the laboratory.

  7. Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans. (United States)

    Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D


    We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour.

  8. Categorial Ontology of Complex Systems, Meta-Systems and Levels: The Emergence of Life, Human Consciousness and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Glazebrook


    Full Text Available Relational structures of organisms and the human mind are naturally represented in terms of novel variable topology concepts, non-Abelian categories and Higher Dimensional Algebra{ relatively new concepts that would be defined in
    this tutorial paper. A unifying theme of local-to-global approaches to organismic development, evolution and human consciousness leads to novel patterns of relations that emerge in super- and ultra- complex systems in terms of compositions of local procedures [1]. The claim is defended in this paper that human consciousness is unique and should be viewed as an ultra-complex, global process of processes, at a meta-level not sub{summed by, but compatible with, human brain dynamics [2]-[5]. The emergence of consciousness and its existence
    are considered to be dependent upon an extremely complex structural and functional unit with an asymmetric network topology and connectivities{the human brain. However, the appearance of human consciousness is shown to be critically dependent upon societal co-evolution, elaborate language-symbolic communication and `virtual', higher dimensional, non{commutative processes involving separate space and time perceptions. Theories of the mind are approached from the theory of levels and ultra-complexity viewpoints that throw
    new light on previous semantic models in cognitive science. Anticipatory systems and complex causality at the top levels of reality are discussed in the context of psychology, sociology and ecology. A paradigm shift towards non-commutative, or more generally, non-Abelian theories of highly complex dynamics [6] is suggested to unfold now in physics, mathematics, life and cognitive sciences, thus leading to the realizations of higher dimensional algebras in neurosciences and psychology, as well as in human genomics, bioinformatics and interactomics. The presence of strange attractors in modern society dynamics gives rise to very serious concerns for the future

  9. [Marjorie Brierley and the beginnings of the London Middle Group]. (United States)

    Huppke, Andrea


    This article presents an introduction to the life and work of Marjory Brierley (1893-1984) who, but for her paper on affects published in 1936, is nowadays relatively unknown. A member of the British Psychoanalytical Society since 1927, she withdrew from active work around 1950. In the 30s, she developed her psychoanalytic and scientific approach, centered on metapsychological issues. In the early 40s she played an important role in the Controversial Discussions between the groups around Melanie Klein and Anna Freud. She remained independent, refusing any idealization, bound only by her obligation to her scientific principles. With this attitude, she can be regarded as a typical pioneer of the later Middle Group or the Independents. After the controversy, Brierley elaborated her metapsychological and ethical ideas in four major papers.

  10. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications (United States)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.


    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  11. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.


    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  12. What Are You Worth? The Value of a Human Life and Its Impact on Personnel Recovery (United States)


    reptiles , who typically have many young and take less care of them afterwards, most mammals only reproduce a small number of live young that must be...nurtured and protected.29 Because the number of offspring is small, each life is valuable and worth protecting.30 If one reptile offspring is lost...concludes with the assertion, “I will trust in my God and in the United States of America .” What does trust in the United States look like— is it trust

  13. The HumanIndexMod and New Calculations Demonstrating Heat Stress Effects All Aspects of Human Life Through Industry, Agriculture, and Daily Life. (United States)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.


    We show the new climatic tool, HumanIndexMod (HIM), for quantitatively assessing key climatic variables that are critical for decision making. The HIM calculates 9 different heat stress and 4 moist thermodynamic quantities using meteorological inputs of T, P, and Q. These heat stress metrics are commonly used throughout the world. We show new methods for integrating and standardizing practices for applying these metrics with the latest Earth system models. We implemented the HIM into CLM4.5, a component of CESM, maintained by NCAR. These heat stress metrics cover philosophical approaches of comfort, physiology, and empirically based algorithms. The metrics are directly connected to the Urban, Canopy, Bare Ground, and Lake modules, to differentiate distinct regimes within each grid cell. The module calculates the instantaneous moisture-temperature covariance at every model time step and in every land surface type, capturing all aspects of non-linearity. The HIM uses the most accurate and computationally efficient moist thermodynamic algorithms available. Additionally, we show ways that the HIM may be effectively integrated into climate modeling and observations. The module is flexible. The user may decide which metrics to call, and there is an offline version of the HIM that is available to be used with weather and climate datasets. Examples include using high temporal resolution CMIP5 archive data, local weather station data, and weather and forecasting models. To provide comprehensive standards for applying the HIM to climate data, we executed a CLM4.5 simulation using the RCP8.5 boundary conditions. Preliminary results show moist thermodynamic and heat stress quantities have smaller variability in the extremes as compared to extremes in T (both at the 95th percentile). Additionally, the magnitude of the moist thermodynamic changes over land is similar to sea surface temperature changes. The metric changes from the early part of the 21st century as compared to the

  14. Closest to the Heart--The Life of Emerson Hynes: A Biographical Study of Human Goodness with a Focus on the College Years (United States)

    Cofell, Jeanne Lorraine


    This study examined human goodness as lived through the life of Emerson Hynes with a focus on the college years. Emerson Hynes was an ethics and sociology professor at St. John's University during the 1940s and 50s before he became legislative assistant to Senator Eugene McCarthy. He cared deeply about ethics and was a leader in family life,…

  15. Home-based telecommuting and quality of life: further evidence on an employee-oriented human resource practice. (United States)

    Hornung, Severin; Glaser, Jürgen


    Building on previous research, further evidence for the potential of home-based telecommuting as an employee-oriented human resource practice is provided from a study in the German public administration. Survey data from 1,008 public employees were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Mean age of the sample was 43.6 yr. (SD = 8.8 yr.), and 27.5% (277) of the participants were women. Analysis supported the roles of higher Autonomy and lower Work-Family Conflict as psychological mediators between Telecommunication Intensity and both Job Satisfaction and Quality of Life. Implications for the design of flexible working arrangements are discussed.

  16. Embryonic Human Life and Dignity: The French Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tsarapatsanis


    Full Text Available Human dignity is considered by a number of commentators as a normative concept that could potentially bridge the gap between bioethics and human rights. The purpose of this article is to question this assumption insofar as it applies to embryonic human life by way of a case study. The article will chart the way dignity has been historically used in French political and legal debates since the 1990s to attempt to afford constitutional protection to human embryos. It then proposes an interpretation of why such attempts failed, which could have wider significance for current debates.

  17. N-glycosylation increases the circulatory half-life of human growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flintegaard, Thomas V; Thygesen, Peter; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik


    Therapeutic use of recombinant GH typically involves daily sc injections. We examined the possibilities for prolonging the in vivo circulation of GH by introducing N-glycans. Human GH variants with a single potential N-glycosylation site (N-X-S/T) introduced by site-directed mutagenesis were expr...

  18. Alexander von Humboldt and the Beginning of the Environmental Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard Weigl


    Full Text Available Article in English, Abstracts in English and German.In the middle of the 19th century the question whether expanding civilization and industrialization had an effect on climate was discussed intensely worldwide. It was feared that increasing deforestation would lead to continuous decrease in rainfall. This first scientific discussion about climate change as the result of human intervention was strongly influenced by the research Alexander von Humboldt and Jean-Baptiste Boussingault had undertaken when they investigated the falling water levels of Lake Valencia in Venezuela. This essay aims to clarify the question whether Alexander von Humboldt can be counted among the leading figures of modern environmentalism on account of this research as is being claimed by Richard H. Grove in his influential book Green Imperialism. Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860 (1995.

  19. In the beginning was information

    CERN Document Server

    Gitt, Werner, Dr


    Information is the cornerstone of life, yet it is something people don't often think about. In his fascinating new book, In the Beginning Was Information, Dr. Werner Gitt helps the reader see how the very presence of information reveals a Designer.

  20. Aesthetics of the Human Image in Life and Iconography of the Ancient Philosophers in Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeev, Daniil


    Full Text Available The acoustic and visual understanding of man is a hotly debated issue in contemporary culture. I found it important therefore to look at certain historical, cultural, aesthetical, philosophical and anthropological peculiarities of human image in Antiquity as reflected in the arts. The following aspects deserve special attention: the visualization of sense and values; the interaction of “ethos” (character and “soma” (body; the influence of the plastic images on the narrative ones; a normative typology of man; the significance of visual and acoustic perception. In this context, I studied ancient physiognomic; Aristotelian understanding of the acoustic and plastic arts; genesis, evolution and significance of the sculptural portrait image of man and the image of philosopher in Antiquity. I also pay attention to some methodological aspects of the study. As a result, there emerges an integral image of philosopher, which allows looking at the Greek culture from a fresh angle.

  1. The natural place to begin: the ethnoprimatology of the Waorani. (United States)

    Papworth, Sarah; Milner-Gulland, E J; Slocombe, Katie


    Ethnoprimatology is an important and growing discipline, studying the diverse relationships between humans and primates. However there is a danger that too great a focus on primates as important to humans may obscure the importance of other animal groups to local people. The Waorani of Amazonian Ecuador were described by Sponsel [Sponsel (1997) New World Primates: Ecology, evolution and behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p 143-165] as the "natural place" for ethnoprimatology, because of their close relationship to primates, including primates forming a substantial part of their diet. Therefore they are an ideal group in which to examine contemporary perceptions of primates in comparison to other types of animal. We examine how Waorani living in Yasuní National Park name and categorize primates and other common mammals. Although there is some evidence that the Waorani consider primates a unique group, the non-primate kinkajou and olingo are also included as part of the group "monkeys," and no evidence was found that primates were more important than other mammals to Waorani culture. Instead, a small number of key species, in particular the woolly monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii) and white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), were found to be both important in the diet and highly culturally salient. These results have implications for both ethnoprimatologists and those working with local communities towards broader conservation goals. Firstly, researchers should ensure that they and local communities are referring to the same animals when they use broad terms such as "monkey," and secondly the results caution ethnoprimatologists against imposing western taxonomic groups on indigenous peoples, rather than allowing them to define themselves which species are important.

  2. Imposition of a delay prior to beginning radiotherapy: impact on mood states for cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, R.A.


    Waiting lists for radiotherapy are a recent phenomenon in highly populated areas and, coupled with the public's awareness of the nature of cancer and the need for immediate treatment, a psychological dilemma has emerged. Since virtually all patients are now assigned to the radiotherapy waiting list, a random sample of patients who would begin radiotherapy immediately following their initial consultation was created. Quality of life, in terms of self-reported mood indices, was assessed at five points in time for each patient using the Profile of Mood States. Approximately 25% of the delayed patients chose to leave the waiting list and seek treatment elsewhere. The most striking finding was that patients who began radiotherapy immediately experienced improved quality of life during the course of treatment as per Forester, et al., (1985). In contrast, the patients who spent time (1-8 weeks) on a treatment waiting list experienced a decrease in quality of life over their course of radiotherapy and even more so at a month following the end of treatment.

  3. What Teachers Should Know about the Evolution-Intentional Design Debate on the Origin of Life. (United States)

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    This paper discusses the beginning of life on Earth, the formation of life forms, evolution, and the origin of life. The paper suggests that how life first appeared on earth is not known and may never be known. (YDS)

  4. [Patient information: management in the beginning of the XXIth century]. (United States)

    Rougé-Maillart, C; Tuech, J J; Pessaux, P; Riche, P; Penneau, M


    The Conseil d'Etat, the supreme jurisdiction on legislative matters in France, rendered its decree on January 5, 2000, founding its decision on jurisprudence established in 1997 and 1998 by the supreme Court of Appeals. In accordance with this decision, physicians have a legal obligation to inform patients of all possible risks, including very exceptional risks. The information may be given to the patient in any appropriate form. Proof that information was delivered to the patient is incumbent upon the physician. When proof of information delivery is provided, any injury compensation can only be awarded on the grounds of ill-fate. We conducted an objective review of the jurisprudence on patient information and report the three basic aspects observed in the current situation in France. In application of the Court of Appeals judgments of February 25, 1997 and October 14, 1997, proof of delivery of information to the patient is incumbent upon the physician. The question is whether the physician must retain written documents as necessary proof against future claims. The answer to this question is not straightforward. A written document is not the only proof accepted by the court and could even be of debatable legal value if used inappropriately. The solution retained by the Conseil d'Etat is a good example. The real debate concerns the information content. It now appears that the physician is required to inform his/her patient of all risks susceptible of influencing the patient's decision, particularly serious or life-threatening risks, but also, and most certainly, risks that in the past have been considered frequent but benign. Finally, the judges recall that failure to provide information does not in itself assert the physician's civil responsibility, proof of real damage is also needed. But the reality of damage (ill-fate) depends on the reality of the choice open to the patient had he/she been informed. And the true nature of the choice open to the patient is

  5. The Exploitation of shale gas – A Grave peril for human health and life


    Dumitru Mazilu


    In recent years the American example is evoked insistently for the exploitation of shale gas. The main argument for this exploitation is the positive impact of this exploitation for the energy crisis. A movie produced by Americans who are concerned about the serious human consequences of shale gas exploitation, and which was broadcasted by many televisions including Romanian ones – shows terrifying images: „the tap water that was drinkable before drilling for shale gas started to burst into f...

  6. Selective Reproduction: Social and Temporal Imaginaries for Negotiating the Value of Life in Human and Animal Neonates. (United States)

    Svendsen, Mette N


    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as models for the premature infants in research experiments within neonatology. While the comparison is unusual, the article argues that there are parallels across the decision-making processes that shape the lives and deaths of infants and pigs alike. Collectivities or the lack thereof as well as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge.

  7. Early-life compartmentalization of human T cell differentiation and regulatory function in mucosal and lymphoid tissues. (United States)

    Thome, Joseph J C; Bickham, Kara L; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Masaru; Matsuoka, Nobuhide; Gordon, Claire; Granot, Tomer; Griesemer, Adam; Lerner, Harvey; Kato, Tomoaki; Farber, Donna L


    It is unclear how the immune response in early life becomes appropriately stimulated to provide protection while also avoiding excessive activation as a result of diverse new antigens. T cells are integral to adaptive immunity; mouse studies indicate that tissue localization of T cell subsets is important for both protective immunity and immunoregulation. In humans, however, the early development and function of T cells in tissues remain unexplored. We present here an analysis of lymphoid and mucosal tissue T cells derived from pediatric organ donors in the first two years of life, as compared to adult organ donors, revealing early compartmentalization of T cell differentiation and regulation. Whereas adult tissues contain a predominance of memory T cells, in pediatric blood and tissues the main subset consists of naive recent thymic emigrants, with effector memory T cells (T(EM)) found only in the lungs and small intestine. Additionally, regulatory T (T(reg)) cells comprise a high proportion (30-40%) of CD4(+) T cells in pediatric tissues but are present at much lower frequencies (1-10%) in adult tissues. Pediatric tissue T(reg) cells suppress endogenous T cell activation, and early T cell functionality is confined to the mucosal sites that have the lowest T(reg):T(EM) cell ratios, which suggests control in situ of immune responses in early life.

  8. Reymont's The Vampire: the beginning of infernal doom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adamczyk


    Full Text Available In The Vampire Reymont presents London as the imperial city falling into decline, where Polish immigrants, who lack identity, wander timelessly. It is also a place where a mercantile society is immersed in a reality dominated by technological development. Reymont's novel allows us to analyse the space of London at the end of the 19th century, and the human fate which is determined by this space. In my paper I would like to focus on the analysis of the city space,including the division into centre and suburbs of London, and losing the way in a maze (a maze of streets and a maze of subconsciousness of the main characters, the consequences of abandoning sacrum, entropy, and the crisis of family and art. The interesting vision of London created by Reymont gives us answers to a few important questions. Do the Polish immigrants find themselves in a new reality? How does the experience of a modern city affect people's lives? Why cannot contemporary man find his place in the surrounding world?

  9. Water Quality Criteria for Human Health and Aquatic Life (United States)

    Collaborative effort with the Office of Water to provide science in support of the development and implementation of new or revised ambient water quality criteria for microbial and chemical contaminants for human health and aquatic life. The research also addresses implementation...

  10. [Water pipelines conduits and urban sanitation in Cartagena in the beginning of the twentieth century]. (United States)

    Orrego, A L


    Throughout its history, Cartagena de Indias, a seaport in the Colombian Caribbean, has been handicapped for not offering salubrious conditions to its people and visitors. The lack of an aqueduct and a sewerage system was an impairment to progress. For nearly forty years (1890-1930) these problems have caused a myriad of medical discourses formulated by scientists, technicians and politicians. Cartagena's contribution to solve the sanitation problem in cities has consisted in making use of engineers' knowledge. The construction of urban facilities in the beginning of the twentieth century required a more technical knowledge, one which would advance a comprehensive solution to the water problem, ensure sufficient supply and efficient drainage. Thus, in the last turn of the century, the medical doctor is no longer the only authoritative voice when it comes to the management of urban life. The construction works which require an engineer, involving him in public health, have drawn a distinction between "hygiene" and "sanitary science".

  11. Limited Life Expectancy, Human Capital and Health Investments: Evidence from Huntington Disease


    Emily Oster; Ira Shoulson; Ray Dorsey, E


    One of the most basic predictions of human capital theory is that life expectancy should impact human capital investment. Limited exogenous variation in life expectancy makes this difficult to test, especially in the contexts most relevant to the macroeconomic applications. We estimate the relationship between life expectancy and human capital investments using genetic variation in life expectancy driven by Huntington disease (HD), an inherited degenerative neurological disorder with large im...

  12. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit. (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  13. The probability of extraterrestrial life; La probabilidad de vida extraterrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A


    Since beginning of times, human beings need to live in the company of other humans, beings developing what we now know as human societies. According to this idea there has been speculation, specially in the present century, about the possibility that human society has company of the other thinking creatures living in other planets somewhere in our galaxy. In this talk we will only use reliable data from scientific observers in order to establish a probability. We will explain the analysis on the physico-chemical principles which allow the evolution of organic molecules in our planet and establish these as the forerunners of life in our planet. On the other hand, the physical process governing stars, their characteristics and their effects on planets will also be explained as well as the amount of energy that a planet receives, its mass, atmosphere and kind of orbit. Finally, considering all this information, a probability of life from outer space will be given. (Author)

  14. Quality of life technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wac, Katarzyna; Fiordelli, M.; Gustarini, M.


    mobile devices facilitates the provision of ubiquitous computing applications that enable health monitoring and QoL improvements. Here, the authors discuss QoL technologies and present examples of currently researched mobile services for monitoring and improving individuals' physical and psychological......Inevitably, as basic human needs are assured in any developed society, differentiating factors for quality of life (QoL) relate to a greater capacity to make informed decisions across daily life activities, especially those related to health. The availability of powerful, personalized, and wearable...... health, social interactions, or environmental conditions. They also delineate future work areas for successfully deploying and adopting QoL technologies....

  15. Exoplanets, Exo-Solar Life, and Human Significance (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer


    With the recent detection of over 500 extrasolar planets, the existence of "other worlds", perhaps even other Earths, is no longer in the realm of science fiction. The study of exoplanets rapidly moved from an activity on the fringe of astronomy to one of the highest priorities of the world's astronomical programs. Actual images of extrasolar planets were revealed over the past two years for the first time. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is already characterizing the atmospheres of Jupiter-like planets, in other systems. And the recent launch of the NASA Kepler space telescope is enabling the first statistical assessment of how common solar systems like our own really are. As we begin to characterize these "other worlds" and assess their habitability, the question of the significance and uniqueness of life on Earth will impact our society as never before. I will provide a comprehensive overview of the techniques and status of exoplanet detection, followed by reflections as to the societal impact of finding out that Earths are common, or rare. Will finding other potentially habitable planets create another "Copernican Revolution"? Will perceptions of the significance of life on Earth change when we find other Earth-like planets? I will discuss the plans of the scientific community for future telescopes that will be abe to survey our solar neighborhood for Earth-like planets, study their atmospheres, and search for biological signs of life.

  16. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Andrew


    chimpanzees, and other research fields presently deprived of funding, but would also increase the compliance of US animal researchers with internationally-accepted animal welfare and bioethical standards. It could even result in the first global moratorium on invasive research, for any non-human species, unless conducted in the best interests of the individual or species.

  17. Origin of Life and Definition of Life, from Buffon to Oparin (United States)

    Tirard, Stéphane


    Many theories on origin of life at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth, generally use conceptions of life instead of explicit definitions of life. This paper presents ideas on the origin of life as studied by Buffon (1707-1788), Lamarck (1744-1829), Darwin (1809-1882), Huxley (1825-1895), Oparin (1894-1980) and Haldane (1892-1964). We show that their conceptions on the evolution of matter and life reveal their conceptions of life rather than their definitions of life.

  18. Origin of life and definition of life, from Buffon to Oparin. (United States)

    Tirard, Stéphane


    Many theories on origin of life at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth, generally use conceptions of life instead of explicit definitions of life. This paper presents ideas on the origin of life as studied by Buffon (1707-1788), Lamarck (1744-1829), Darwin (1809-1882), Huxley (1825-1895), Oparin (1894-1980) and Haldane (1892-1964). We show that their conceptions on the evolution of matter and life reveal their conceptions of life rather than their definitions of life.

  19. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Reuben H., E-mail: [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lieberman, Mark B.; Lee, Rachel [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shin, Ki-Hyuk [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Park, No-Hee [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kang, Mo K., E-mail: [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)


    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-{beta}-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15{sup INK4B}, and p57{sup KIP2}. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-{beta} receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-{beta} antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in NHOK.

  20. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Preiss, Philipp; van Goethem, Thomas; Van Dingenen, Rita; Huijbregts, Mark


    We developed regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for human health damage from particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and for damage to vegetation from ozone, at the global scale. These factors can be used in the impact assessment phase of an environmental life cycle assessment. CFs express the overall damage of a certain pollutant per unit of emission of a precursor, i.e. primary PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The global chemical transport model TM5 was used to calculate intake fractions of PM2.5 and ozone for 56 world regions covering the whole globe. Furthermore, region-specific effect and damage factors were derived, using mortality rates, background concentrations and years of life lost. The emission-weighted world average CF for primary PM2.5 emissions is 629 yr kton-1, varying up to 3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Larger CFs were obtained for emissions in central Asia and Europe, and smaller factors in Australia and South America. The world average CFs for PM2.5 from secondary aerosols, i.e. NOx, NH3, and SO2, is 67.2 to 183.4 yr kton-1. We found that the CFs for ozone human health damage are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower compared to the CFs for damage due to primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. Human health damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.7·10-2 yr capita-1 worldwide in year 2010, with primary PM2.5 emissions as the main contributor (62%). The emission-weighted world average CF for ecosystem damage due to ozone was 2.5 km2 yr kton-1 for NMVOCs and 8.7 m2 yr kg-1 for NOx emissions, varying 2-3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Ecosystem damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.6·10-4 km2 capita-1 worldwide in 2010, with NOx as the main contributor (72%). The spatial range in CFs stresses the importance of including spatial variation in life cycle impact assessment of

  1. Aquinas's account of human embryogenesis and recent interpretations. (United States)

    Eberl, Jason T


    In addressing bioethical issues at the beginning of human life, such as abortion, in vitro fertilization, and embryonic stem cell research, one primary concern regards establishing when a developing human embryo or fetus can be considered a person. Thomas Aquinas argues that an embryo or fetus is not a human person until its body is informed by a rational soul. Aquinas's explicit account of human embryogenesis has been generally rejected by contemporary scholars due to its dependence upon medieval biological data, which has been far surpassed by current scientific research. A number of scholars, however, have attempted to combine Aquinas's basic metaphysical account of human nature with current embryological data to develop a contemporary Thomistic account of a human person's beginning. In this article, I discuss two recent interpretations in which it is argued that a human person does not begin to exist until a fetus has developed a functioning cerebral cortex.

  2. 论“五四”小说的人生意蕴%On the Meaning of Human Life in the Novels of May 4th Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    During the time of the May 4th Movement, Luxun and writers from a dozen of literary societies broke the bondage of feudal ideology, took human life as the principal theme of their literary creation, described rich and colourful features of human life in their writings, thus manifesting fully the meaning and value of human life in various aspects.%“五四”时期,鲁迅、文学研究会、创造社、乡土小说家的小说创作,突破了封建思想的束缚,以人为创作主体,展现了丰富多彩的人生,多元化地表现出人生意义和人的价值。

  3. [From human genome to man-made life: J. Craig Venter leads the life sciences]. (United States)

    Sun, Mingwei; Li, Yin; Gao, George F


    For the first time ever, the scientists of J. Craig Venter team have created actual self-replicating synthetic life. The research was just published in the Journal of Science on May 20, 2010. Although this news immediately brings the worry about the possible potential threat to biosecurity and biosafety as well as the ethical disputes, it yet indicates that mankind have made a new step forward in synthetic biology. In the time of post-genome era, we believe the advancement of synthetic biology that might affect or change the future life of human being will be widely used in energy, environment, materials, medication and many other fields.

  4. [Metacaspases and their role in the life cycle of human protozoan parasites]. (United States)

    González, Iveth J


    Metacaspases are caspase-related cysteine-proteases that are present in organisms devoid of caspases such as plants, yeast, and protozoan parasites. Since caspases are important effector molecules in mammalian apoptosis, the possible role of metacaspases in programmed cell death has been evaluated in the organisms where they are expressed. In some species of the human protozoan parasites Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp., metacaspases have been involved in programmed cell death, although a role of metacaspases in recycling processes in T. brucei has also been suggested. Metacaspases are also expressed in Plasmodium spp., however their role in these organisms is still unknown. More than one metacaspase gene is present in some of these parasites, which suggests that these proteins are physiologically redundant or have different functions depending on their localization and protein interactions. The catalytic activity of metacaspases is different from that of caspases-again noting that metacaspase genes are absent in mammals. These characteristics make metacaspases and their activating mechanisms interesting subjects of research in the development of new drug targets for the treatment of trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and malaria. A summary of the literature on metacaspases is provided, and Latin American researchers are encouraged to more actively explore the metacaspase potential.

  5. Hearing Loss and Quality of Life (QOL) among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected and Uninfected Adults (United States)

    Duong, N; Torre, P; Springer, G; Cox, C; Plankey, MW


    Objective Research has established that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes hearing loss. Studies have yet to evaluate the impact on quality of life (QOL). This project evaluates the effect of hearing loss on QOL by HIV status. Methods The study participants were from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS). A total of 248 men and 127 women participated. Pure-tone air conduction thresholds were collected for each ear at frequencies from 250 through 8000 Hz. Pure-tone averages (PTAs) for each ear were calculated as the mean of air conduction thresholds in low frequencies (i.e., 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (i.e., 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz). QOL data were gathered with the Short Form 36 Health Survey and Medical Outcome Study (MOS)-HIV instrument in the MACS and WIHS, respectively. A median regression analysis was performed to test the association of PTAs with QOL by HIV status. Results There was no significant association between hearing loss and QOL scores at low and high pure tone averages in HIV positive and negative individuals. HIV status, HIV biomarkers and treatment did not change the lack of association of low and high pure tone averages with poorer QOL. Conclusion Although we did not find a statistically significant association of hearing loss with QOL by HIV status, testing for hearing loss with aging and recommending treatment may offset any presumed later life decline in QOL.

  6. Emerging infectious diseases at the beginning of the 21st century. (United States)

    Lashley, Felissa R


    The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases involves many interrelated factors. Global interconnectedness continues to increase with international travel and trade; economic, political, and cultural interactions; and human-to-human and animal-to-human interactions. These interactions include the accidental and deliberate sharing of microbial agents and antimicrobial resistance and allow the emergence of new and unrecognized microbial disease agents. As the 21st century begins, already new agents have been identified, and new outbreaks have occurred. Solutions to limiting the spread of emerging infectious diseases will require cooperative efforts among many disciplines and entities worldwide. This article defines emerging infectious diseases, summarizes historical background, and discusses factors that contribute to emergence. Seven agents that have made a significant appearance, particularly in the 21st century, are reviewed, including: Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, human monkeypox, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West Nile virus, and avian influenza. The article provides for each agent a brief historical background, case descriptions, and health care implications.

  7. Equation of state and Beginning of Thermalization After Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Podolsky, D I; Kofman, L; Peloso, M; Podolsky, Dmitry I.; Felder, Gary N.; Kofman, Lev; Peloso, Marco


    We study the out-of-equilibrium nonlinear dynamics of fields after post-inflationary preheating. During preheating, the energy in the homogeneous inflaton is exponentially rapidly transfered into highly occupied out-of-equilibrium inhomogeneous modes, which subsequently evolve towards equilibrium. The infrared modes excited during preheating evolve towards a saturated distribution long before thermalization completes. We compute the equation of state during and immediately after preheating. It rapidly evolves towards radiation domination long before the actual thermal equilibrium is established. The exact time of this transition is a non-monotonic function of the coupling between the inflaton and the decay products, and it varies only very weakly (around 10^(-35) s) as this coupling changes over several orders of magnitude. This result is applied to refine the relation between the number of efoldings N and the physical wavelength of perturbations generated during inflation. We also discuss the implications fo...

  8. On the beginnings of the Constantinopolitan School of embroidery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papastavrou Elena


    Full Text Available This paper examines Greek-Orthodox ecclesiastical embroidery in Ottoman Constantinople after 1453 until the emergence of the Constantinopolitan School of embroidery. We are well informed about the artistic production that flourished between the last decades of the seventeenth century and midnineteenth century via preserved artifacts and inscriptions bearing the embroiderers’ signature. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the production between the fall of Byzantium and the last decades of the seventeenth century is lacking. In this paper, our aim is to evaluate whether the Byzantine artistic tradition continued to live in the Greek Constantinopolitan production. The iconographical and technical analysis of different artifacts will give the answer to this question revealing at the same time the foundation basis of the embroidery of that School.

  9. Beginnings of microbiology and biochemistry: the contribution of yeast research. (United States)

    Barnett, James A


    With improvements in microscopes early in the nineteenth century, yeasts were seen to be living organisms, although some famous scientists ridiculed the idea and their influence held back the development of microbiology. In the 1850s and 1860s, yeasts were established as microbes and responsible for alcoholic fermentation, and this led to the study of the rôle of bacteria in lactic and other fermentations, as well as bacterial pathogenicity. At this time, there were difficulties in distinguishing between the activities of microbes and of extracellular enzymes. Between 1884 and 1894, Emil Fischer's study of sugar utilization by yeasts generated an understanding of enzymic specificity and the nature of enzyme-substrate complexes.

  10. Landmarks in the Evolution of (t)-RNAs from the Origin of Life up to Their Present Role in Human Cognition



    How could modern life have evolved? The answer to that question still remains unclear. However, evidence is growing that, since the origin of life, RNA could have played an important role throughout evolution, right up to the development of complex organisms and even highly sophisticated features such as human cognition. RNA mediated RNA-aminoacylation can be seen as a first landmark on the path from the RNA world to modern DNA- and protein-based life. Likewise, the generation of the RNA modi...

  11. Cancer immunotherapy: the beginning of the end of cancer? (United States)

    Farkona, Sofia; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Blasutig, Ivan M


    These are exciting times for cancer immunotherapy. After many years of disappointing results, the tide has finally changed and immunotherapy has become a clinically validated treatment for many cancers. Immunotherapeutic strategies include cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T and natural killer cells, and administration of antibodies or recombinant proteins that either costimulate cells or block the so-called immune checkpoint pathways. The recent success of several immunotherapeutic regimes, such as monoclonal antibody blocking of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), has boosted the development of this treatment modality, with the consequence that new therapeutic targets and schemes which combine various immunological agents are now being described at a breathtaking pace. In this review, we outline some of the main strategies in cancer immunotherapy (cancer vaccines, adoptive cellular immunotherapy, immune checkpoint blockade, and oncolytic viruses) and discuss the progress in the synergistic design of immune-targeting combination therapies.

  12. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers (United States)

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.


    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  13. Why Teaching? Motivations Influencing Beginning Teachers' Choice of Profession and Teaching Practice (United States)

    Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M.; Prytula, Michelle P.


    This paper explores why beginning teachers in Saskatchewan chose to enter the profession and the importance of these motivations in their first year as teachers. More specifically, using survey and interview methodologies, the purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the entry motivations of Saskatchewan beginning teachers; (2) determine if…

  14. Methodologically Sound: Evaluating the Psychometric Approach to the Assessment of Human Life History [Reply to Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio José Figueredo


    Full Text Available Copping, Campbell, and Muncer (2014 have recently published an article critical of the psychometric approach to the assessment of life history (LH strategy. Their purported goal was testing for the convergent validation and examining the psychometric structure of the High-K Strategy Scale (HKSS. As much of the literature on the psychometrics of human LH during the past decade or so has emanated from our research laboratory and those of close collaborators, we have prepared this detailed response. Our response is organized into four main sections: (1 A review of psychometric methods for the assessment of human LH strategy, expounding upon the essence of our approach; (2 our theoretical/conceptual concerns regarding the critique, addressing the broader issues raised by the critique regarding the latent and hierarchical structure of LH strategy; (3 our statistical/methodological concerns regarding the critique, examining the validity and persuasiveness of the empirical case made specifically against the HKSS; and (4 our recommendations for future research that we think might be helpful in closing the gap between the psychometric and biometric approaches to measurement in this area. Clearly stating our theoretical positions, describing our existing body of work, and acknowledging their limitations should assist future researchers in planning and implementing more informed and prudent empirical research that will synthesize the psychometric approach to the assessment of LH strategy with complementary methods.

  15. The Creation of the Fourth Planet: Beginning Therapists and Supervisors Inducing Change in Families. (United States)

    Andolfi, Maurizio; And Others


    Contends that beginning therapists are not prepared to deal with complexity that families bring to therapeutic setting and have reductionistic approach to understanding what is occurring in family. Explores development of "therapeutic story" with goal of assisting beginning therapist in approaches that can be used to incorporate all…

  16. Beginning Teachers' Conceptions of Competency: Implications to Educational Policy and Teacher Education in Malaysia (United States)

    Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Wong, Kung Teck


    When any innovations or measurement procedures are introduced into the education system to improve or judge the quality of its teaching force, beginning teachers often have to adapt to these new concepts of what constitute a high quality teaching. This article contends that these new concepts neither necessarily match beginning teachers' own…

  17. Beginning teachers' self-efficacy and stress and the supposed effects of induction arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Slof, Bert; Vermue, Carlien E.; Canrinus, Esther. T.


    Induction arrangements are implemented in schools all over the world to support beginning teachers (BTs) (novices) in gradually growing into their profession. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into two key psychological processes involved in the work of a qualified beginning teacher, nam

  18. The Role of Environmental Factors in Beginning Teachers' Professional Learning Related to Differentiated Instruction (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert


    Little research has investigated factors that facilitate beginning teachers' participation in professional learning activities related to differentiated instruction (DI). This study examines environmental factors for DI learning activities in a sample of 272 beginning teachers from 72 primary schools. Multilevel analyses show that teacher…

  19. A Model for Online Support in Classroom Management: Perceptions of Beginning Teachers (United States)

    Baker, Credence; Gentry, James; Larmer, William


    Classroom management is a challenge for beginning teachers. To address this challenge, a model to provide support for beginning teachers was developed, consisting of a one-day workshop on classroom management, followed with online support extending over eight weeks. Specific classroom management strategies included (a) developing a foundation…

  20. World and Life or Education and the Question of Meaning (of Life). (United States)

    Masschelein, Jan


    Examines whether the human world is threatened by a decline in respect for life, questioning some of the convictions and assumptions which underlie this diagnosis and the concomitant demand for an education in the value of life. The paper discusses the meaning of life, human existence, the sacredness of life, and the question of meaning and…

  1. Philosophical problems of physics at the beginning of the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Cherednikova


    Full Text Available The author analyzes the issues of interaction of mathematics and natural sciences in the beginning of the last century and finds out the epistemological value of philosophy for the solution of fundamental problems of physics.

  2. Life-long endurance exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Couppé, C; Karlsen, A;


    Human aging is associated with a loss of skeletal muscle and an increase in circulating inflammatory markers. It is unknown whether endurance training (Tr) can prevent these changes. Therefore we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young-Tr...

  3. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    The bacteria that colonize the human body, our microbiota, can influence our health, both positively and negatively. The importance and functions of the microbiota in our intestinal tract have been the focus of several research projects and are widely published. However, there are great gaps in our...... knowledge concerning microbiota composition, development and function in other areas of human body. Lack of knowledge about the microbiota development in the airways is an example of such a deficiency. The work presented in this PhD thesis is based on the vast sample collection of the COPSAC2010 cohort......, with 700 mother-infant pairs. The objectives were to perform a detailed examination of the mothers’ vaginal microbiota, describe the early composition and development of the microbiota in the airways of their infants, and determine whether the infants’ microbiota are affected by that of their mothers...

  4. Human Life and American Values Projection (United States)


    student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army...Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. The views expressed in this student academic research paper are those of the author...who is residing in the womb of another living human being.” 44 J. Hernandez, “Doctor Sued For Malpractice For Failure to Monitor Fetal Vital Signs

  5. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers]. (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos


    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  6. The beginnings, development and painting of Greek ceramics


    Volk, Andrea


    The thesis thematises the history and development of Greek ceramics as well as its typical decoration within different periods of history. Through the process of historical development, Greek pottery was subject to many changes, including major inventions of different shapes and various decoration techniques in pottery. This development was the key for further evolution of general pottery. With the invention of the pottery wheel, in those days powered by foot, this period of time paved th...

  7. Elaboration of selective solar energy absorbers beginning with stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aries, L.; Bonino, J.P.; Benavente, R.; Laaouini, A.; Traverse, J.P.


    An original simple and cheap method of elaboration of selective surfaces is described. The method involves anodic oxydation of stainless steel in acid solution with addition of sulfides; chemical conversion of the metallic surface is achieved. The selective surfaces exhibit an excellent thermal stability.

  8. Child Art: The Beginnings of Self-Affirmation. (United States)

    Lewis, Hilda Present, Ed.

    This book collects the thoughts of some of the world's most astute observers of child art. Essays in the book include: (1) "Art as a Unifying Principle in Education" (Sir Herbert Read); (2) "Stages of Development in Preschool Art" (Rhoda Kellogg); (3) "Child Art and Visual Thinking" (Rudolf Arnheim); (4) "The Mental Foundation of Art Education in…

  9. Use of Human Modeling Simulation Software in the Task Analysis of the Environmental Control and Life Support System Component Installation Procedures (United States)

    Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)


    Virtual reality and simulation applications are becoming widespread in human task analysis. These programs have many benefits for the Human Factors Engineering field. Not only do creating and using virtual environments for human engineering analyses save money and time, this approach also promotes user experimentation and provides increased quality of analyses. This paper explains the human engineering task analysis performed on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) space station rack and its Distillation Assembly (DA) subsystem using EAI's human modeling simulation software, Jack. When installed on the International Space Station (ISS), ECLSS will provide the life and environment support needed to adequately sustain crew life. The DA is an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) that provides means of wastewater (primarily urine from flight crew and experimental animals) reclamation. Jack was used to create a model of the weightless environment of the ISS Node 3, where the ECLSS is housed. Computer aided drawings of the ECLSS rack and DA system were also brought into the environment. Anthropometric models of a 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female were used to examine the human interfaces encountered during various ECLSS and DA tasks. The results of the task analyses were used in suggesting modifications to hardware and crew task procedures to improve accessibility, conserve crew time, and add convenience for the crew. This paper will address some of those suggested modifications and the method of presenting final analyses for requirements verification.

  10. China at the beginning of 3rd millennium: geopolitical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pintescu


    Full Text Available The paper presents and briefly examines the main geohistorical, geoeconomic and geostrategic advantages of China, related to this attempt to become a regional hegemonic power and, in special circumstances, a worldwide superpower. First, is presented a historical background of the country, a source of self-confidence and rise of the so-called “Chinese mentality”, different of Western mentality. Further is shown the essence of the Chinese contemporary naval strategy (Haijun Zhanlue, currently an essential element of geostrategy of this country. Policies and economic resources of the country – the fundamental elements of its geopolitics – are more detailed presented. The final part of the article reviews and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of strategic policy towards Central Asia and China’s fundamental goal – gaining of the regional hegemonic power status.In conclusion, the authors consider that in order to become the first superpower of the world in the next 2-3 decades, China needs a mixture of brilliant leadership, economic growth, modernization (not Westernization!, Chinese mentality and “Chinese way of life” (last two based on Tao. If a single element of this combination will not work properly, this “Chinese dream” will not be achieved.

  11. Contextual Effects of Bilingual Programs on Beginning Reading (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Foorman, Barbara R.; Francis, David J.; Mehta, Paras D.


    This study of 1,338 Spanish-speaking 1st graders examined contextual effects of bilingual programs on reading comprehension and the effect of language of instruction within these contexts. The study included 128 classrooms in 32 schools located in border Texas and in urban Texas and California. These classrooms used either English immersion or…

  12. Nothing Begins with N: New Investigations of Freewriting. (United States)

    Belanoff, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    This book provides a theoretical underpinning for the strategy of freewriting through a collection of 16 essays that are very diverse in focus, methodology, and point of view. The essays are as follows: "Recording and Transforming: The Mystery of the Ten-Minute Freewrite" (Sheryl I. Fontaine); "Freewriting: An Aid to Rereading…

  13. Life begins when the sea lion is ashore: microhabitat use by a louse living on a diving mammal host. (United States)

    Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Vales, D G; Feijoo, M; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J


    Among Anoplura, the family Echinophthiriidae includes species that infest pinnipeds and otters. Previous evidence obtained from pinnipeds infested by echinophthiriids, specifically from seals, indicates that flippers are the preferred infestation sites, while lice from fur seals select areas in the pelage. We studied habitat selection of Antarctophthirus microchir on South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens Shaw, 1800) from Patagonia, Argentina, during the austral summer of 2009. We found a clear pattern of habitat selection: eggs are laid on the dorsal surface; nymphs 1 hatch there and then migrate to the belly, where they develop into adults and copulate; and then ovigerous females return to the dorsal surface. On the one hand, nymphs 1 are characterised by their low locomotory ability; therefore, the fact that they migrate as soon as they hatch suggests a clear pressure leading to microhabitat restriction. On the other hand, the described pattern of microhabitat selection seems to respond to the physiological requirements of each stage, which vary according to the physiological process considered, e.g. oviposition, morphogenesis, hatching and development. Accordingly, it appears that A. microchir would prefer the host's ventral area for development and copulation and the dorsal area for oviposition. However, the causes of this pattern are not clear, and many factors could be involved. Considering that sea lion pups periodically soak at high tides, and that prolonged immersion and very high humidity are known to be lethal for lice eggs, selecting the dorsal area would be advantageous for oviposition because it dries much faster. Furthermore, because humidity should be retained for longer periods on the ventral surface of the pup, wetter conditions on the sea lion would prevent desiccation of the nymphs in the very arid environment where O. flavescens breeds.

  14. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society. (United States)

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B


    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society.

  15. Beginnings of fruit growing in the old world. (United States)

    Zohary, D; Spiegel-Roy, P


    The article reviews the available information on the start of fruit tree cultivation in the Old World. On the basis of (i) evaluation of the available archeological remains and (ii) examination of the wild relatives of the cultivated crops, it was concluded that olive, grape, date, and fig were the first important horticultural additions to the Mediterranean grain agriculture. They were most likely domesticated in the Near East in protohistoric time (fourth and third millennia B.C.) and they emerge as important food elements in the early Bronze Age. Domestication of all four fruit trees was based on a shift from sexual reproduction (in the wild) to vegetative propagation of clones (under domestication). Olive, grape, date, and fig can be vegetatively propagated by simple techniques (cuttings, basal knobs, suckers) and were thus preadapted for domestication early in the development of agriculture. The shift to clonal propagation placed serious limitations on selection and on fruit set under cultivation. We have examined the consequences of this shift in terms of the genetic makeup of the cultivars and traced the various countermeasures that evolved to ensure fruit set. Finally, it was pointed out that in each of these classic fruit trees we are confronted with a variable complex of genuinely wild types, secondary weedy derivatives and feral plants, and groups of the domesticated clones, which are all interfertile and interconnected by occasional hybridization. It was concluded that introgression from the diversified wild gene pool facilitated the rapid buildup of variation in the domesticated crops.

  16. [Foundational questions in the beginning of clinical psychology]. (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Glauco


    This work proposes an initial survey on the origins of American clinical psychology between the nineteenth and twentieth century, against a backdrop of historiographical interpretation that hypothesizes a "plurality of matrices" of clinical psychology, linked to different theoretical perspectives and different socio-cultural contexts. Particular attention is focused upon the main foundational issues of the discipline, drawing from some of the writings of Lightner Witmer, to whom we owe the founding of the first "clinical psychology" for subjects in childhood characterized by "retardation or physical defects interfering with school progress"; and of a lesser-known scholar, John E.W. Wallin. Both authors, indeed, worry themselves anxious to define clinical psychology, differentiating it from other medical and psychological branches; to establish which is the field of competence of the clinical psychologist; and to outline their training and specify the aims and contents of their intervention. Attention is then addressed to the relationship psychologists-psychiatrists at the time of its emergence, making specific reference to a document of the New York Psychiatrical Society--which represents one of the first attempts to exclude clinical psychologists from the field of mental health--and reporting also on the response to this position signed by Shepherd Franz. After an allusion to the Italian situation from the 1950s to today, the article concludes by emphasizing that at least some of the basic questions that clinical psychology had to deal with at its birth are still present, though filtered through the intense debate that has taken place over the years, and consequently supporting the importance of a historical component in the training of contemporary clinical psychologists.

  17. The beginnings of mineral processing research in Canada (part 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering


    This article presented the historical aspects regarding Canadian research in mineral processing and ore refining. It highlighted the career of Eugene Haanel, the first director of Canada's Department of Mines. The events that led to the creation of the Canadian Bureau of Mines and the Energy Branch at the turn of the 1900s were described along with the creation of the first assay office to deal with the large amounts of gold produced in British Columbia and the Yukon. In order to encourage the exploitation of Canada's iron ore deposits and the abundant electrical energy from Niagara Falls, Haanel organized a mission to Europe to study steel production using electric furnaces. He sought ways to secure a supply of the reducing agent and the fuel that metallurgical processes required in great quantities. Noting that Canada was spending millions to import coal and coke, he promoted the exploitation of the large deposits of peat in Ontario and Quebec. He also drew attention to the need to stop using wood as a fuel to conserve the forests. In 1905, the Mining Section was commissioned to evaluate nonferrous metal deposits in Canada, including lead-zinc, cobalt, asbestos, mica, graphite and raw materials for cement manufacture. Serious hydrometallurgical research in Canada began in 1921 at the Ministry of Mines, followed by pyrometallurgical research in 1922. The radioactivity division was created in 1948. The article also described the reorganization of extractive metallurgical research in Canada. 9 figs.

  18. The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Panosa


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of writing as a system for communication, since its origins, in terms of its uses and socio-cultural context. We shall also look to review and comment on the way in which it has evolved in time and space and its primordial domains for expression. Likewise, we shall look at the current state of affairs with respect to graphic communication, which includes the alphabet, logographic systems and symbols. From a more global point of view, the relationship between the concept of writing and the concept of civilisation is studied and two dimensions are set out: the oral culture and the written culture.

  19. Tacit Beginnings Towards a Model of Scientific Thinking (United States)

    Glass, Rory J.


    The purpose of this paper is to provide an examination of the role tacit knowledge plays in understanding, and to provide a model to make such knowledge identifiable. To do this I first consider the needs of society, the ubiquity of information in our world and the future demands of the science classroom. I propose the use of more implicit or tacit understandings as foundational elements for the development of student knowledge. To justify this proposition I consider a wide range of philosophical and psychological perspectives on knowledge. Then develop a Model of Scientific Knowledge, based in large part on a similar model created by Paul Ernest (Social constructivism as a philosophy of mathematics, SUNY Press, Albany, NY, 1998a; Situated cognition and the learning of mathematics, University of Oxford Department of Educational Studies, Oxford, 1998b). Finally, I consider the work that has been done by those in fields beyond education and the ways in which tacit knowledge can be used as a starting point for knowledge building.

  20. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain]. (United States)

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo


    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions.

  1. The discount phenomenon at the beginning of the new millennium


    Ducháčová, Lenka


    This bachelor's thesis aims to research into the consumer behaviour with respect to sales and discounts. The theoretical part provides the definition of consumer behaviour and forms of sales and discounts, focusing on the phrase "for FREE". The next part takes a look "under the bonnet" of low prices in retail chains and introduces Czech retail chains and their recent development along with the continuously increasing offer of special sales and discounts on the Czech market. One chapter deals ...

  2. Voigt's transformations and the beginning of the relativistic revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Heras, Ricardo


    In 1887 W. Voigt published a paper on the Doppler effect, which marked the birth of the relativistic revolution. In his paper Voigt derived a set of spacetime transformations by demanding covariance to the homogeneous wave equation in inertial frames, and this was an application of the first postulate of special relativity. Voigt assumed in his derivation the invariance of the speed of light in inertial frames, and this is the second postulate of special relativity. He then applied the postulates of special relativity to the wave equation 18 years before Einstein explicitly enunciated these postulates. Voigt's transformations questioned the Newtonian notion of absolute time for the first time in physics by suggesting that the absolute time should be replaced by the non-absolute time $t'=t-vx/c^2$. Unfortunately, Voigt's 1887 paper was not appreciated by most physicists of that time. Voigt's transformations do not form a group and are an example of the conformal symmetry of spacetime. In the present paper we e...

  3. Wild Boys and Idiots: The Beginnings of Special Education. (United States)

    Graham, Lorraine


    This paper examines the philosophies and practical methods of Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard and Edouard Seguin in the nineteenth century to consider the genesis of the special education field. Noted is how many of these early techniques and ideas are either still relevant or common place today. (Author/DB)

  4. The beginnings of radio astronomy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, Hugo; Strom, Richard G.


    The birth of Dutch radio astronomy can be rather precisely dated to 15 April 1944, when H.C. van de Hulst presented the results of his theoretical research into the origin of radio waves from space. We have investigated the events leading up to the momentous suggestion that hydrogen emission at 21 c

  5. The Job Realities of Beginning and Experienced Assistant Principals (United States)

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Shoho, Alan R.; Oleszewski, Ashley M.


    This study examined the perceptions of a cross section of new and experienced assistant principals regarding the realities of their jobs. Findings indicated that their challenges pertain to workload and task management, conflicts with adults and students, and curriculum and instruction issues. Novice and experienced assistant principals' responses…

  6. Nuclear PDFs in the beginning of the LHC era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paukkunen, Hannu, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 (Finland)


    The status of the global fits of nuclear parton distributions (nPDFs) is reviewed. In addition to comparing the contemporary analyses of nPDFs, difficulties and controversies posed by the neutrino–nucleus deeply inelastic scattering data is overviewed. At the end, the first dijet data from the LHC proton+lead collisions are briefly discussed.

  7. Nuclear PDFs in the beginning of the LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Paukkunen, Hannu


    The status of the global fits of nuclear parton distributions (nPDFs) is reviewed. In addition to comparing the contemporary analyses of nPDFs, difficulties and controversies posed by the neutrino-nucleus deeply inelastic scattering data is overviewed. At the end, the first dijet data from the LHC proton+lead collisions is briefly discussed.

  8. The Beginnings of Communication Study in the United States. (United States)

    Schramm, Wilbur

    The history of communication research in the United States is reviewed in this paper through an extensive look at the lives of four men who made significant contributions to the field: Harold Lasswell, Kurt Lewin, Paul Lazarsfeld, and Carl Hovland. The pattern of institute formation in the social sciences is briefly reviewed to explain the…

  9. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology. (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F


    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  10. Nurse leaders as stewards: the beginning of change. (United States)

    Murphy, Norma Sinnott


    In understanding fully persons' moral predicaments, a core component of forming perceptual judgments, nurses may need to shift the epistemology of their practice from instrumental reasoning, or means-ends thinking, integrating a virtue-based practical reasoning. A bearing witness that achieves understanding of clients' moral qualities is attained through the articulation of nurses' self-identities within matrices, such as MacIntyre's theory of virtue ethics and standards and codes of ethics. Moreover, nurse leaders who exercise stewardship could apply the concept of communities of inquiry to structure learning conditions by which nurses may engage in experiential learning. This leadership enhanced by the nurse steward's phronetic knowledge, or practical wisdom, which guides understanding of how the clockwork of practical reasoning may evolve within such communities, is critical to nurses' shift in reasoning. Nonetheless, nurse leaders need empirical evidence to comprehend how stewards' accumulated moral insights may shape their character qualities, hence selection of values upon which to act in facilitating nurses' self-expression.

  11. Minimalism as civilization paradigmat the beginning of the 21. century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana


    Full Text Available The term minimalism is currently used descriptively to refer to a style marked by a certain asceticism in the art, architecture and design. It has begun from American Minimal Art of the 1960s in the fields of painting and sculpture and has filtered into other sectors of society. It is now found in fashion, music, literature and interior decoration, as well as architecture. Minimalisms has come to define the result of the use of simple geometric forms, pure and simple lines, the modular principle, surfaces with a smooth industrial appearance that negate any character of handmade individuality. As far as architecture is concerned, minimalism is characterized by the emphasis on essential elements - like light and the way it falls on the volumes and masses that make up buildings and shape space and structure. Linear structures and essential geometric forms define identity but despite the apparent simplicity of these works the effect they make is extremely complex.

  12. John Ambrose Fleming and the Beginning of Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Dylla; Steve Corneliussen


    2004 was the centenary of John Ambrose Fleming's momentous patent on the thermionic diode that can be called the birth of electronics. The ''Edison effect'' was discovered in 1882; this was later shown to be the result of thermionic emission of electrons from a heated filament into a vacuum. Edison did not make any significant devices based on this discovery, and the effect was ignored for more than 8 years. In 1890 Fleming explained the effect and showed that the thermionic diode could be used as a rectifier. Fourteen years later Fleming filed his 1904 patent on the thermionic diode. It was the first public announcement of the electron tube; this revolutionized the development of radio and led to the invention of the thermionic triode by Lee de Forest in 1906. The background to these events will be described.

  13. Recursive Heaviside step functions and beginning of the universe (United States)

    Shin, Changsoo; Kim, Seongjai


    This article introduces recursive Heaviside step functions, as a potential of the known universe, for the first time in the history of mathematics, science, and engineering. In modern cosmology, various bouncing models have been suggested based on the postulation that the current universe is the result of the collapse of a previous universe. However, all Big Bounce models leave unanswered the question of what powered inflation. Recursive Heaviside step functions are analyzed to represent the warpage of spacetime during the crunch-bounce transition. In particular, the time shift appeared during the transition is modeled in the form of recursive Heaviside step functions and suggested as a possible answer for the immeasurable energy appeared for the Big Bounce.

  14. The early beginnings of Nordoff-Robbins music therapy. (United States)

    Kim, Youngshin


    Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy is an improvisational and compositional approach to individual and group therapy that resulted from the pioneering teamwork of Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins over a period of 17 years. Nordoff and Robbins developed this approach for practical clinical purposes while working with the children at Sunfield Children's Home in 1959. This paper explores the critical academic year of 1959-1960 as a watershed in the early development of Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy. By way of context, it also examines (a) how Paul Nordoff, as a distinguished American pianist and composer, became a music therapist; (b) how Nordoff's former musical career as a composer and pianist affected his clinical musicianship as a music therapist; (c) how Clive Robbins, as a British special educator, became a music therapist; (d) how their team work emerged; and (e) how they developed their own approach. In conclusion, the early development of Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy resulted from Nordoff and Robbins' similar philosophical background, the supportive environment of Sunfield Children's Home, the guidance of Herbert Geuter, M.D., and their courage. Since the 1959-1960 academic years, the application and practice of Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy has undergone many changes. However, the pioneering spirit of Nordoff and Robbins manifested in that watershed year remains strong among contemporary Nordoff-Robbins music therapy practitioners.

  15. Marginalia as the beginning of written culture: The Glosas Emilianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šabec


    Full Text Available The Glosas emilianenses are notes in Latin and in a Romance language dating from the eleventh century, written by an anonymous monk between the lines and in the margins of a Latin manuscript known as Codex Aemilianensis 60 to explicate syntactic, morphological, and semantic difficulties in understanding the original. The document was named after its place of origin, a monastery in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, known as “the cradle of Castilian.” The non-Latin Romance glosses are believed to be the first written accounts of the language that later evolved into present-day Castilian or Spanish; they are therefore invaluable historical, linguistic, literary, and cultural material. The place and time of the origin of the glosses are not a coincidence, but a consequence of particular historical circumstances in the Iberian Peninsula. The Moorish invasion in 711 AD destroyed the Visigothic Kingdom and constrained the development of Christian culture, confining it to two independent cores in the north. The ninth century therefore saw the establishment of the County of Castile emerging from the two cores as the predecessor of the Kingdom of Castile (1065. Due to turbulent historical events, the place was populated by people from various adjacent and rather distant countries, thus making the spoken language a mixture of several varieties of Vulgar Latin, Mozarabic, and Navarrian (Basque elements. All of these features are reflected in the glosses in the San Millán manuscript. Therefore, it is difficult for linguists to name the variant of the Romance language the glosses were written in: “the Riojan dialect,” “a vernacular Castilian-Riojan dialect of the second half of the eleventh century displaying tendencies towards learned Latin,” or “a Riojan dialect with elements more common to neighboring dialects (Aragon, Navarrian, Léon, and Mozarabic than to Castilian.” However, because the San Millán glosses also include elements

  16. How to Begin Molecular Research of Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyung Yoon


    Full Text Available Advancing higher education is an important goal within the scientific and medical communities. The Korean Endocrine Society has worked with medical researchers who hope to conduct molecular research in addition to their clinical education. Based on concepts developed at a 2016 educational workshop, this article summarizes the requirement for a strong foundation in the performance of molecular research. Specifically, recent articles in metabolic research are highlighted to provide examples of commonly used techniques in this field of study.

  17. Collective Defense of the Baltic States: A SOF Beginning (United States)


    in its foreign policy. In a dramatic example, Russia cut off its delivery of natural gas to the Ukraine in 2006.27 Similarly, it cut off the oil flow...Having specially selected and trained SOF troopers with these experiences has additional synergy as these soldiers are by their nature extremely...specialized in raiding Norway in kayaks and consisted of British, Canadians, North American Indians (Natives) plus members of the US 2 Ranger

  18. APSP Journal of Case Reports: A New Beginning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mirza


    Full Text Available This is apt to the discipline of pediatric surgery, as unusual anomalies are seen frequently in clinical practices. At times one tries to seek opinions and learn from experiences of other colleagues in dealing with such patients. Case reports thus become an important source of documenting such experiences and observations. In hierarchy of evidence in scientific literature, they are placed at lowest level but even then, are the important contribution to the medical literature. According to Karl Popper any proposition or theory is scientific only if it is falsifiable. Thus logically an observation can falsify an assertion. A reported case may shift the existing thinking paradigm.

  19. Cortical sequence of word perception in beginning readers. (United States)

    Parviainen, Tiina; Helenius, Päivi; Poskiparta, Elisa; Niemi, Pekka; Salmelin, Riitta


    Efficient analysis of written words in normal reading is likely to reflect use of neural circuits formed by experience during childhood rather than an innate process. We investigated the cortical sequence of word perception in first-graders (7-8 years old), with special emphasis on occipitotemporal cortex in which, in adults, letter-string-sensitive responses are detected at 150 ms after stimulus. To identify neural activation that is sensitive to either the amount of basic visual features or specifically to letter strings, we recorded whole-head magnetoencephalography responses to words embedded in three different levels of noise and to symbol strings. As was shown previously in adults, activation reflecting stimulus nonspecific visual feature analysis was localized to occipital cortex in children. It was followed by letter-string-sensitive activation in the left occipitotemporal cortex and, subsequently, in the temporal cortex. These processing stages were correlated in timing and activation strength. Compared with adults, however, the timing of activation was clearly delayed in children, and the delay was progressively increased from occipital to occipitotemporal and further to temporal areas. This finding is likely to reflect increasing immaturity of the underlying neural generators when advancing from low-level visual analysis to higher-order areas involved in written word perception. When a salient occipitotemporal letter-string-sensitive activation was detected (10 of 18 children), its strength was correlated with phonological skills, in line with the known relevance of phonological awareness in reading acquisition.

  20. Componential skills of beginning writing: An exploratory study. (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Wagner, Richard K


    The present study examined the components of end of kindergarten writing, using data from 242 kindergartners. Specifically of interest was the importance of spelling, letter writing fluency, reading, and word- and syntax-level oral language skills in writing. The results from structural equation modeling revealed that oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were positively and uniquely related to writing skill after accounting for reading skills. Reading skill was not uniquely related to writing once oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were taken into account. These findings are discussed from a developmental perspective.

  1. LHC Report: perhaps the end of the beginning

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team


    The 2015 6.5 TeV proton run will end on the morning of 4 November as we approach the close of an interesting but somewhat challenging year. Following machine development time and a technical stop, the LHC will restart operation with a proton-proton configuration at 2.51 TeV in the middle of November. Data from this special run will be used by the experiments as a reference point for the proton-lead and lead-lead collisions.     The rate of UFOs per hour has dropped since the first high-intensity runs. Here it is seen after the first scrubbing run (SR1), through the second technical stop (TS2) until now (right end of the abscissae). As of the end of October, the LHC is delivering luminosity in the order of 4.8x1033 cm-2s-1 to ATLAS and CMS, 3x1032 cm-2s-1 to LHCb and 5x1030 cm-2s-1 to ALICE, with an integrated luminosity of around 3.5 fb-1 for both ATLAS and CMS. Looking back, the year’s operations can be roughly divided into four main phases, interspersed with technica...

  2. Numerical Modelling of Subduction Zones: a New Beginning (United States)

    Ficini, Eleonora; Dal Zilio, Luca; Doglioni, Carlo; Gerya, Taras V.


    Subduction zones are one of the most studied although still controversial geodynamic process. Is it a passive or an active mechanism in the frame of plate tectonics? How subduction initiates? What controls the differences among the slabs and related orogens and accretionary wedges? The geometry and kinematics at plate boundaries point to a "westerly" polarized flow of plates, which implies a relative opposed flow of the underlying Earth's mantle, being the decoupling located at about 100-200 km depth in the low-velocity zone or LVZ (Doglioni and Panza, 2015 and references therein). This flow is the simplest explanation for determining the asymmetric pattern of subduction zones; in fact "westerly" directed slabs are steeper and deeper with respect to the "easterly or northeasterly" directed ones, that are less steep and shallower, and two end members of orogens associated to the downgoing slabs can be distinguished in terms of topography, type of rocks, magmatism, backarc spreading or not, foredeep subsidence rate, etc.. The classic asymmetry comparing the western Pacific slabs and orogens (low topography and backarc spreading in the upper plate) and the eastern Pacific subduction zones (high topography and deep rocks involved in the upper plate) cannot be ascribed to the age of the subducting lithosphere. In fact, the same asymmetry can be recognized all over the world regardless the type and age of the subducting lithosphere, being rather controlled by the geographic polarity of the subduction. All plate boundaries move "west". Present numerical modelling set of subduction zones is based on the idea that a subducting slab is primarily controlled by its negative buoyancy. However, there are several counterarguments against this assumption, which is not able to explain the global asymmetric aforementioned signatures. Moreover, petrological reconstructions of the lithospheric and underlying mantle composition, point for a much smaller negative buoyancy than predicted

  3. The Competencies of an English Teacher: Beginning Student Teachers' Perceptions (United States)

    Penn-Edwards, Sorrel


    This paper presents the results of a survey conducted with first year Education students at a Queensland university on the levels of competency in literacies expected for teachers in schools. Eight aspects were chosen to be examined to discover the skill levels students thought to be essential for effective teaching and to compare these with their…

  4. Understanding Beginning Teacher Induction: A Contextualized Examination of Best Practice (United States)

    Kearney, Sean


    The problems that teachers face early in their careers are a major factor in growing rates of attrition among neophyte teachers. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, high rates of attrition, coupled with and aging teacher population in many countries in the developed world, may cause a teacher shortage crisis in…

  5. Family Background of Beginning Education Students: Implications for Teacher Educators (United States)

    Stewart, Roger A.; Coll, Kenneth M.; Osguthorpe, Richard


    Teacher education has not historically focused on the social and emotional development of teachers even though there is evidence that such variables influence student success (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). We believe such a focus is important and we explored variables in teacher education students' families of origin that underpin social and…

  6. Beginnings of rocket development in the czech lands (Czechoslovakia) (United States)

    Plavec, Michal


    Although the first references are from the 15th Century when both Hussites and crusaders are said to have used rockets during the Hussite Wars (also known as the Bohemian Wars) there is no strong evidence that rockets were actually used at that time. It is worth noting that Konrad Kyeser, who described several rockets in his Bellifortis manuscript written 1402-1405, served as advisor to Bohemian King Wenceslas IV. Rockets were in fact used as fireworks from the 16th century in noble circles. Some of these were built by Vavřinec Křička z Bitý\\vsky, who also published a book on fireworks, in which he described how to build rockets for firework displays. Czech soldiers were also involved in the creation of a rocket regiment in the Austrian (Austro-Hungarian) army in the first half of the 19th century. The pioneering era of modern rocket development began in the Czech lands during the 1920s. The first rockets were succesfully launched by Ludvík Očenášek in 1930 with one of them possibly reaching an altitude of 2000 metres. Vladimír Mandl, lawyer and author of the first book on the subject of space law, patented his project for a stage rocket (vysokostoupající raketa) in 1932, but this project never came to fruition. There were several factories during the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in 1939-1945, when the Czech lands were occupied by Nazi Germany, where parts for German Mark A-4/V-2 rockets were produced, but none of the Czech technicians or constructors were able to build an entire rocket. The main goal of the Czech aircraft industry after WW2 was to revive the stagnant aircraft industry. There was no place to create a rocket industry. Concerns about a rocket industry appeared at the end of the 1950s. The Political Board of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party started to study the possibilities of creating a rocket industry after the first flight into space and particularly after US nuclear weapons were based in Italy

  7. Some thoughts on the beginning of prehistoric archery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Ibáñez, Francisco Javier


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the possible origin of prehistoric archery during the Upper Solutrean in Mediterranean Iberia. From analysis of the light arrowheads of the Extracantabrian Solutrean (barbed and tanged point and the shouldered points of Mediterranean type are established the ballistics characteristic of this type of tool kit. These characteristics permit us to establish some hypothesis on the function in relation to their mounting and propulsion.

    En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen de la arquería prehistórica durante el Solutrense Superior en la vertiente mediterránea de la Península Ibérica. A partir del análisis de las puntas ligeras de proyectil del Solutrense Extracantábrico (punta de aletas y pedúnculo y punta de muesca de tipo mediterráneo se establecen las características balísticas de este tipo de utillaje. Estas características permiten establecer algunas hipótesis sobre su funcionalidad en relación a los sistemas de engaste y propulsión.

  8. The Nothing at the Beginning of the Universe Made Precise

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Y; Sugawara, Y; Nakayama, Yu; Rey, Soo-Jong; Sugawara, Yuji


    We propose a new worldsheet approach to the McGreevy-Silverstein proposal: resolution of spacelike singularity via Scherk-Schwarz compactification and winding string condensation therein. Our proposal is built upon so-called three parameter sine-Liouville theory, which has useful features and could be solvable in conformal field theory method. Utilizing standard Wick rotation, we compute string pair production rate exactly in terms of renormalized worldsheet cosmological constant and find that the production rate is finite for six or less spacetime dimensions. We also find that the sine-Liouville potential excises string excitation in the asymptotic past, and that such "Nothing state" is realizable for a range of sine-Liouville coupling constants. We compute one loop vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude and again detect presence of the "Nothing state". We also survey various worldsheet approaches to the tachyon condensation based on timelike Liouville theory. We point out that string theory on a conifold pro...

  9. The induction of teacher educators: the needs of beginning teacher educators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Velzen, Corinne; Van der Klink, Marcel; Swennen, Anja; Yaffe, Elka


    Van Velzen, C., Van der Klink, M., Swennen, A., & Yaffe, E. (2008). The induction of teacher educators: the needs of beginning teacher educators. Paper presented at the ATEE Conference. August, 24, 2008, Brussels, Belgium.

  10. The beginnings of dermatopathology and dermatologic microbiology in Spain. (United States)

    del Río, E


    Crisóstomo Martínez from Valencia was a pioneering microscopist in 17th-century Europe. The first microscopic representations of skin in Spain appeared in an 18th-century work by Martín Martínez. Microbiology and histopathology progressed considerably in the late 19th century thanks to anatomists like Maestre de San Juan and surgeons like Federico Rubio Galí. The first Spanish pathologist to specialize in dermatology was Antonio Mendoza, a colleague of José Eugenio de Olavide at the Hospital San Juan de Dios in Madrid. Claudio Sala and Juan de Azúa also made significant contributions, including the description of pseudoepithelioma. Several disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Jorge FranciscoTello, such as Lorenzo Ruiz de Arcaute and Guillermo de la Rosa King, consolidated the dermatology laboratory, but the Civil War sent many into exile or deprived them of their professional status. Juan Rubió in Barcelona and Julio Rodríguez Puchol in Madrid were the immediate predecessors of today's dermatopathologists.

  11. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors a review of the beginnings

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M


    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with µW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm2, retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at > 10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities > 10 cm-2. The noise in a channel was ~100 e- r.m.s. and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level 30 Mrad, respectively.

  12. Features from the non-attractor beginning of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Wang, Dong-Gang; Wang, Ziwei


    We study the effects of the non-attractor initial conditions for the canonical single-field inflation. The non-attractor stage can last only several $e$-folding numbers, and should be followed by hilltop inflation. This two-stage evolution leads to large scale suppression in the primordial power spectrum, which is favored by recent observations. Moreover we give a detailed calculation of primordial non-Guassianity due to the "from non-attractor to slow-roll" transition, and find step features in the local and equilateral shapes. We conclude that a plateau-like inflaton potential with an initial non-attractor phase yields interesting features in both power spectrum and bispectrum.

  13. Child Support Enforcement: Effects of Declining Welfare Caseloads Are Beginning To Emerge. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives. (United States)

    Hembra, Richard L.

    As a condition of receiving federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) funds, states are required to operate Child Support Enforcement (CSE) programs. Families receiving TANF are required to participate in the CSE program; families not receiving TANF may also request CSE services. However, since 1994, an increasing number of states…

  14. A community study of clinical traits and risk factors for human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection during the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Høgh, Mette; Nordbø, Svein;


    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are important respiratory pathogens with similar symptomatology. The aim of this prospective birth cohort study was to identify risk factors for an hMPV or RSV infection during the first year of life in unselected healthy children...

  15. Targeting B cells for the treatment of SLE: The beginning of the end or the end of the beginning?


    Calero, Ismael; Sanz, Iñaki


    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease for which therapeutic advances in immunosuppressive and support therapy have significantly improved survival over the last 5 decades. Unfortunately, SLE still carries substantially increased rates of mortality and end stage renal disease which are even more elevated in younger patients. No new drugs have been approved for SLE in over 50 years. Hence, a lot of hope and excitement has been generated by the development of biolog...

  16. The beginning of a new era - OTC's satellite business services (United States)

    Bachmann, Erik

    OTC has developed a new range of digital services which will provide business organizations in Australia with high quality private international telecommunications. This range will be known as Satnet and the paper deals with Satnet 2 which is the service offerings using medium-size earth stations (nominally 5- and 7-meter antenna apertures), installed at customers' premises. These services will rely on the Intelsat 6/4 GHz space segment. Operation will be totally digital and will be integrated with no distinction between individual applications such as voice, data, video, etc. Carrier capacities between 64 kb/s and 8.448 Mb/s can be provided and ISDN performance requirements can be supported. The paper describes key service features, systems design and transmission analysis. Consideration is also given to operation, installation and frequency coordination aspects.

  17. Targeting B cells for the treatment of SLE: the beginning of the end or the end of the beginning? (United States)

    Calero, Ismael; Sanz, Iñaki


    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease for which therapeutic advances in immunosuppressive and support therapy have significantly improved survival over the last 5 decades. Unfortunately, SLE still carries substantially increased rates of mortality and end stage renal disease which are even more elevated in younger patients. No new drugs have been approved for SLE in over 50 years. Hence, a lot of hope and excitement has been generated by the development of biological agents designed to eliminate B cells either through direct killing (anti-B cell antibodies such as rituximab) or attrition by inhibition of survival (anti-BLyS/BAFF agents such as belimumab). Indeed a strong rationale for targeting B cells in SLE is supported by the major pathogenic roles they play in SLE through both autoantibody production and multiple antibody-independent functions. These hopes, however, have been darted by the failure of two different phase III randomized placebo-controlled trials of rituximab. Yet, clinicians continue to use rituximab off-label with the belief that it provides significant benefit and can rescue patients with disease that is refractory to current modalities. Moreover, recent positive results of two large controlled trials of belimumab have restored confidence that B cell targeting may after all be of benefit in SLE. In this review we discuss the background and rationale for the use of anti-B cell agents in SLE, review the available results, and provide models that could help reconcile the opposing results observed in different studies. These models could also help frame the design and evaluation of current and future B cell therapies.

  18. The effects of biological and life-style factors on baseline frequencies of chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilada Nefic


    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the influence of sex and ageing on chromosomal damage and the role of life-style habits on the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs of healthy Bosnian subjects. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 100 healthy, unrelated individuals in Bosnia and Herzegovina during 2010 and 2011. Chromosome preparations were made by dropping and air drying and slides were stained with 10% Giemsa solution (pH 6.8. The cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a cytogenetic laboratory in the Department of Biology of the Faculty of Science in Sarajevo. The category of total structural CAs was sub classified as chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs and chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs while the category of total numerical CAs was sub classified as aneuploid and polyploid mitoses. All statistical analyses were carried out using Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft Corporation and the Windows Kwikstat Winks SDA 7.0.2 statistical software package (Texa Soft Cedar Hill, Texas. Results: Cytogenetic analysis revealed the average number of structural CAs was 2.84 and of numerical CAs was 9.56. There was a significant increase in the frequency of chromosome-type aberrations (1.92 compared with chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs (0.92 and a significant increase in the frequency of aneuploid (8.83 compared with polyploid (0.73 mitoses. Significant positive correlations between age and CTAs in human PBLs were also demonstrated. Additional statistical analysis showed that ageing increase number of numerical CAs in lymphocytes of drinkers. The frequency of structural CAs of females exposed to radiation was significantly greater than in males. Analysis indicates the presence of a positive association between CAs and smoking in younger subjects but a negative correlation between aberrant cells frequencies and alcohol in older drinkers. Conclusion: The results of the study support the

  19. A conception of modern Life as “the Awakening of the Human Spirit, revisited”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Steen


    By reference to Stanley Cavell´s characterization of the later Wittgenstein´s writings as expressing a “philosophy of culture”, it is argued that this characterization also might cast a light on Wittgenstein´s early remarks on Frazer In relation to this I show that three aspects in conjunction...... points. I argue that a gradual transformation within this constellation also culminates in the idea of a perspicuous representation, not the least due to a change in Wittgenstein´s assessment of the notion of an operation, both within and outside of mathematics. All in all, the paper presents how...

  20. Clinical manifestations of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in children in the first few months of life


    Aziza Khodjaeva


    The research objective was to study frequency of antenatal infection and record probable clinical manifestations in 100 children with HCMV born from mother with HCMV in blood and mononuclear cells. The study identified poly-systemic internal organ damage in neonates due to prenatal HCMV. Research procedures involved study of 100 pairs of patients, Mother-Child tandem, using regular clinical assessment methods per algorithm and HCMV diagnostic methods: ELISA, affinity and avidity of HCMV antib...

  1. Clinical manifestations of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection in children in the first few months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Khodjaeva


    Full Text Available The research objective was to study frequency of antenatal infection and record probable clinical manifestations in 100 children with HCMV born from mother with HCMV in blood and mononuclear cells. The study identified poly-systemic internal organ damage in neonates due to prenatal HCMV. Research procedures involved study of 100 pairs of patients, Mother-Child tandem, using regular clinical assessment methods per algorithm and HCMV diagnostic methods: ELISA, affinity and avidity of HCMV antibodies, and HCMV genome identification via PCR method in blood plasma and mononuclear cells. Initial clinical disease manifested in 71% of children during late neonatal period. Children who died of HCMV (5% were infected antenatal, and 39% were born prematurely. Embryonic stigma found in five cases. HCMV’s affinity to different tissues during the process of embryogenesis leads of poly-systemic damage and results in various clinical manifestations in the postnatal period. HCMV’s ability to invade mononuclear blood cells jeopardizes the antivirus defense system. The research is vital to deter the transmission of the virus and provide HCMV specific treatment to couples planning to have children.

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, In begining stages of digital, Published in unknown, Millard County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'In begining stages of digital'. The extent of these data is generally Millard County, UT....

  3. The Origin of Life (United States)

    Hodson, D.


    Presents an outline of lectures given on this topic to British secondary students. Man's various ideas about the origin of life are included in three categories: those that consider life to have been created by a Divine Being; those that consider life to have developed from non-living matter; and those that consider life to be eternal. (MLH)

  4. Human life: genetic or social construction? (United States)

    Yudin, Boris


    I am going to discuss some present-day tendencies in the development of the very old debate on nature vs nurture. There is a widespread position describing the history of this debate as a pendulum-like process. Some three decades ago there was a time of overwhelming prevalence of the position stressing social factors in determining human character and behavior; now the pendulum has come to the opposite side and those who stress the role of biology, of genes are in favor. Yet in my view rather acute opposition of both positions still exists. Its existence depends not so much on new scientific discoveries as on some social and cultural factors which are more conservative than the development of science. More than that, we can even talk about competition of these two positions.

  5. Beginning elementary school teachers' perceptions of structural and cultural context factors impacting their science teaching (United States)

    Sterling, Hillary A.

    Science maintains low status in many elementary classrooms. Beginning teachers find it difficult to teach science effectively. The Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform Model suggests there are personal, structural, and cultural factors that impact teaching practices. The questions that drove this study were: (a) How do beginning teachers perceive structural and cultural factors of the TCSR model as affecting their science teaching practices? (b) How do those perceptions compare between beginning teachers who teach science and those who do not? (c) How do beginning teachers' perceptions compare to those of principals and veteran teachers? The model was used to collect and analyze data on the perceptions of factors that influenced beginning teachers' science teaching practices. A case study involved six beginning teachers from three elementary schools in the southwestern United States during the 2005--2006 school year. Through an initial survey, two groups of beginning teachers were first identified as (a) those who taught and liked science, and (b) those who did not teach or like science. Three teachers from each group were selected to participate in the study that consisted of semi-structured interviews, observations, and review of artifacts. These data were compared with interview data from three veteran teachers and three principals. The findings of this study supported the TCSR model and confirmed that the beginning teachers did perceive certain structural context factors (e.g., curriculum, materials, time, professional development, district requirements, classroom management), and cultural context factors (e.g., district-wide low priority of science) as having an impact on their science teaching. The veteran teachers' perceptions more closely matched those of the beginning teachers' than did those of the principals. Despite the contextual influences, the beginning teachers' perceptions ultimately differed in teacher thinking (i.e., those who taught science had

  6. Ethnic Diversity of Population in Vojvodina at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Stojšin


    Full Text Available Vojvodina, an autonomous province in the Republic of Serbia, is ethnically one of the most heterogeneous regions of Europe and therefore represents an inexhaustible subject of research. There are more than 20 ethnic groups living in Vojvodina. According to the most recent 2011 census, there are 1,931,809 people living in Vojvodina and the Serbs make the largest ethnic group, 66.7% of the total population. Hungarians make 13.0% of the total population of Vojvodina and with a somewhat smaller proportion come the Slovaks, Croats, Rroma and Rromanians. In the period between the two censuses the reduction in the number of members of all ethnic groups was recorded and the only ethnic group that increased in number was the Rroma. Different socio-economic and demographic trends have had a great influence on the reduction of the share of members of almost all ethnic groups in the total population of Vojvodina in the last decades. First of all, it was influenced by forced migrations in the nineties of the previous century caused by the war on the territory of former Yugoslavia and its disintegration, a period of transition. The goal of this paper is to analyze the ethnic structure of the population in Vojvodina, as well as the factors which have had the most significant impact on the changes in the structure at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The importance of this analysis is reflected in better understanding of the status of different ethnic groups in Vojvodina and a better quality of their inclusion in social, cultural and political life.

  7. Trends in basic mathematical competencies of beginning undergraduates in Ireland, 2003-2013 (United States)

    Treacy, Páraic; Faulkner, Fiona


    Deficiencies in beginning undergraduate students' basic mathematical skills has been an issue of concern in higher education, particularly in the past 15 years. This issue has been tracked and analysed in a number of universities in Ireland and internationally through student scores recorded in mathematics diagnostic tests. Students beginning their science-based and technology-based undergraduate courses in the University of Limerick have had their basic mathematics skills tested without any prior warning through a 40 question diagnostic test during their initial service mathematics lecture since 1998. Data gathered through this diagnostic test have been recorded in a database kept at the university and explored to track trends in mathematical competency of these beginning undergraduates. This paper details findings surrounding an analysis of the database between 2003 and 2013, outlining changes in mathematical competencies of these beginning undergraduates in an attempt to determine reasons for such changes. The analysis found that the proportion of students tested through this diagnostic test that are predicted to be at risk of failing their service mathematics end-of-semester examinations has increased significantly between 2003 and 2013. Furthermore, when students' performance in secondary level mathematics was controlled, it was determined that the performance of beginning undergraduates in 2013 was statistically significantly below that of the performance of the beginning undergraduates recorded 10 years previously.

  8. Life Sciences Division and Center for Human Genome Studies 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, L.S.; Stafford, C. [comp.


    This report summarizes the research and development activities of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Life Sciences Division and the biological aspects of the Center for Human Genome Studies for the calendar year 1994. The technical portion of the report is divided into two parts, (1) selected research highlights and (2) research projects and accomplishments. The research highlights provide a more detailed description of a select set of projects. A technical description of all projects is presented in sufficient detail so that the informed reader will be able to assess the scope and significance of each project. Summaries useful to the casual reader desiring general information have been prepared by the group leaders and appear in each group overview. Investigators on the staff of the Life Sciences Division will be pleased to provide further information.

  9. Healty lifestyles a fundamental rigth on human being life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salas Cabrera


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the impact of certain lifestyles in our daily lives, and to reference some of them, among which are a sedentary lifestyle, diet, physical activity, social and family support, and the impact they have on people’ quality of life. It is clear that as a human beings, the developments in everyday life are addressed by duties and rights that affect our way of living, hence all individuals should enjoy the right to a better quality of life; to achieve this, it is necessary to maintain healthy lifestyle habits that create mechanisms to protect people against the development of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically it has been shown that people who have unhealthy life habits develop over time no only hypokinetic diseases, but also neurological ones such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Under this scenario this paper is intended to present clear and concise information about what lifestyles represent to people and their importance as a right for everyone who decides to adapt them to their daily lives.

  10. A community study of clinical traits and risk factors for human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection during the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linstow, Michael Ernst Von; Hogh, M.; Nordbo, S.A.;


    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are important respiratory pathogens with similar symptomatology. The aim of this prospective birth cohort study was to identify risk factors for an hMPV or RSV infection during the first year of life in unselected healthy children......% CI:0.09-0.85). Risk factors for RSV hospitalisation (n = 11) were: (1) older siblings (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.08-18.73) and (2) smoking in the household (OR = 5.06; 95% CI: 1.36-18.76). Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 14 days of life protected against hospitalisation (OR = 0.21; 95% CI:0...

  11. Multiple origins of life (United States)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.


    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  12. Visible humans, vanishing bodies, and virtual nursing: complications of life, presence, place, and identity. (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete


    The emergence of the posthuman body and the disappearance of the humanist body serve as background for the rediscovery of the body as resource and problem in nursing. At the precise moment when the fleshy body is deemed increasingly irrelevant and immaterial in cyberspace come divergent moves in nursing toward not only resurrecting this body, but also toward virtual environments of nursing care, where fleshy bodies never encounter each other. The posthuman conflation of bodies and information poses the greatest challenge yet to the secure place, presence, and identity of nursing in health care.

  13. Ethical consideration of experimentation using living human embryos: the Catholic Church's position on human embryonic stem cell research and human cloning. (United States)

    Ohara, N


    Although the potential applications of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning hold promise for the alleged medical benefits, these technologies have posed profound ethical issues because they necessitate the destruction of human embryos. A fundamental point in the issues is the concept of the moral status of human embryos. The Catholic Church has held that human life begins at the moment of conception and therefore, has defended the dignity, inviolable right to life and integrity of human embryos. The Catholic Church has opposed human embryonic stem cell research and any kind of human cloning because they are contrary to the dignity of procreation, of conjugal union and of human embryos. Moreover, these techniques have the risk of creating a sub-category of human beings that are destined basically for the convenience of others. In conclusion, science and technology can never be independent of the criterion of morality, since technology exists for man and must respect his finality.

  14. Human clinical studies of tea polyphenols in allergy or life style-related diseases. (United States)

    Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari


    Many previous epidemiological studies have revealed that green tea or green tea catechins contributed to the preveintion of lifestyle-related diseases. Several cohort studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk/type 2 diabetes mellitus risk have been conducted. The results showed that green tea consumption (5 or more cups/day) was inversely associated with mortality from CVD and all causes. Within CVD mortality, the strongest inverse association was observed for stroke mortality. Furthermore, consumption of green tea, coffee, and total caffeine was associated with a reduced risk for type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, the analysis of randomized clinical trial (RCT) studies showed that the administration of green tea beverages or extracts resulted in significant reductions in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but had no apparent effect on HDL-cholesterol. Green tea reduced fasting blood glucose levels in a small intervention trial, although no improvements in HbA1c levels were seen. Continuous intake of green tea containing catechins and caffeine (5 or more cups per day) may be beneficial for body weight management, vascular disease risk reduction via LDL-cholesterol improvement, and type 2 diabetes risk reduction through the lowering of fasting blood glucose levels. Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me) isolated from cv. "Benifuuki" green tea has been shown to strongly inhibit mast cell activation and histamine release after FcepsilonRI cross-linking through the suppression of tyrosine phosphorylation (Lyn) of cellular protein kinase, and the suppression of myosin light chain phosphorylation and high-affinity IgE receptor expression via the binding to 67 kDa laminin receptors. A double-blind clinical study on subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis was carried out. At the eleventh week after starting intake, which was coincident with the most severe period of cedar pollen

  15. The valuation of prenatal life in economic evaluations of perinatal interventions. (United States)

    Simon, Judit; Petrou, Stavros; Gray, Alastair


    Perinatal interventions delivered during the prenatal period have the potential to directly impact prenatal life. The decision on when to begin 'counting' the life of an infant in the calculus has received little attention in previous economic evaluations of perinatal interventions. We illustrate, using data from a recent trial-based economic evaluation of magnesium sulphate given to women with pre-eclampsia to prevent eclampsia, how different definitions of when human life commences can have a significant impact upon cost-effectiveness estimates based on composite outcome measures such as life years or quality-adjusted life years gained or disability-adjusted life years averted. Further, we suggest ways in which methods in this area can be improved.

  16. Multidisciplinary perspectives on the history of human interactions with life in the ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDiarmid, Alison; MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn


    volume of the ICES JMS and highlight issues which arose during general discussion. We make two conclusions. First, to have greater impact and ensure more efficient use of knowledge gained from marine historical ecology (MHE) and marine environmental history (MEH) in ecosystem-based management and related...

  17. The Effects of Toxic Particles in Human Lung Cells - Research Area 8. Life Sciences (United States)


    over 300 commercial products including sunscreen, stain- resistant clothing, tires, refrigerators, washing machines and sports equipment. The military is...prompted the use of other metal alloys comprised of nickel, cobalt and tungsten. Cobalt and nickel exhibit strong corrosion and erosion resistance ...achieved by passing the prescreened (ឝ um) particles through successive filtration steps using vacuum and Anatop filters. After several such repeats

  18. Enhancement of human performance with developing ergonomic workplace environment and providing work-life balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Forgacs,


    Full Text Available Ergonomy aims at creating a work place that suits the employee’s needs. A well-developed office does not only increase work efficiency but it can also significantly reduce costs. This study researches and reveals the specific personal attributes and the factors of workplace environment, which have an effect on the efficiency of the workforce. We were searching for studies, where the core work wasn’t changed -the increase in work efficiency was reached only by changing the work environment.

  19. The Social Life of Dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijnen, Adriënne

    The Social Life of Dreams: Thousand Years of Negotiated Meanings in Iceland is the first anthropological work that discusses how dreams, remembered upon awakening, motivate human action and influence social relations in contemporary Europe. Through detailed anthropological analyses of the ways...... in which many Icelanders see dreams as legitimate sources of knowledge, this book argues that sleeping and dreaming -- activities which are often considered to be psychological and “non-social”-- should be included in the analysis of social life....

  20. What Little Remains of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben G. Yacobi


    Full Text Available Life is a non-equilibrium process involving a series of biochemical reactions that use external energy to build the cellular structure and the complexity of the organism. Humans strive for the continuation of their existence. This can be based on an illusory afterlife according to religion or on practical efforts through technology. But the temporality of individual lives is inevitable. Death in the universe, governed by the law of entropy, is unavoidable. Thus, as all traces of human existence fade away,what is most important in life is what one thinks and does at the present moment, when one is fully aware of life. Capturing each moment and filling it with some meaning is the only consolation in life.

  1. A Life with the Sociology of Education (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff


    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his…

  2. A Life with the Sociology of Education (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff


    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his death in 2000 and…

  3. The history of life and death: a 'spiritual' history from invisible matter to prolongation of life. (United States)

    Gemelli, Benedino


    Over a long period of time, particularly from the nineteenth century on, Francis Bacon's philosophy has been interpreted as centred on the Novum organum and focused on the role that a well-organized method may play in securing a reliable knowledge of nature. In fact, if we examine Bacon's oeuvre as a whole, including some recent manuscript findings (De vijs mortis), we can safely argue that the issues addressed in the Novum organum represent only a part of Bacon's agenda, and not even the most important ones. By contrast, it is apparent that, from the very beginning of his investigations, he emphasized the central role of medicine, the need to establish new approaches in the study of the vital functions and the importance of promoting new discoveries in the medical field, not so much to find a cure for the many illnesses that plagued mankind as to prolong human life. In this sense, Historia vitae et mortis plays a central role in Bacon's programme to extend human knowledge and power, for, in his opinion, human beings could recover their lost ability to live a long and healthy life by embarking on careful investigations of nature. Far from being a purely descriptive or abstract exercise, Bacon's historia can therefore be seen as an operative tool to attain some of mankind's basic aims.

  4. The Russian religious painting of the end of XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickу Natalya


    Full Text Available Development of religious art, namely – religious painting, its specifics, in Russia of the end XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries, caused by system changes in the Russian society, on the example of painters – V. M. Vasnetsov, M. V. Nesterov, M. A. Vrubel is analyzed in article.

  5. Quality of Life Philosophy I. Quality of Life, Happiness, and Meaning in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available In the Danish Quality of Life Survey, we asked 10,000 people about their quality of life with the validated SEQOL questionnaire with more than 300 questions on their quality of life. How did they feel? How content were they with their lives? How happy were they? Did they feel their needs were fulfilled? And many more questions. We asked the questions we believed to be important for their quality of life (QOL. The results were quite surprising and forced us to recontemplate the following philosophical questions: What is quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life? What is a human being? Do we need a new biology? Is the brain the seat of consciousness? How do we seize the meaning of life and by doing so, will we become well again? What are the key concepts of quality of life? The meaning of life is connectedness and development. It is about realizing every opportunity and potential in one’s existence. The opportunities must be found and acknowledged. What do you find when you find yourself deep down? You find your real self and your purpose in life. You realize that you are already a part of a larger totality. Antonovsky called it “coherence”. Maslow called it “transcendence”. Frankl called it “meaning of life”. We call it simply “being”.To test if these philosophical questions are actually relevant for medicine, we looked at the consequences for patients being taught the quality of life philosophy. Quite surprisingly we learned from our pilot studies with “quality of life as medicine” that just by assimilating the basic concepts of the quality of life philosophy presented in this series of papers, patients felt better and saw their lives as more meaningful. The improvement of the patient’s personal philosophy of life seems to be the essence of holistic medicine, helping the patient to assume more responsibility for his or her own existence.

  6. Discovering Genes Essential to the Hypothalamic Regulation of Human Reproduction Using a Human Disease Model: Adjusting to Life in the "-Omics" Era. (United States)

    Stamou, M I; Cox, K H; Crowley, William F


    The neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction is an intricate process requiring the exquisite coordination of an assortment of cellular networks, all converging on the GnRH neurons. These neurons have a complex life history, migrating mainly from the olfactory placode into the hypothalamus, where GnRH is secreted and acts as the master regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Much of what we know about the biology of the GnRH neurons has been aided by discoveries made using the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD), a family of rare Mendelian disorders that share a common failure of secretion and/or action of GnRH causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Over the last 30 years, research groups around the world have been investigating the genetic basis of IGD using different strategies based on complex cases that harbor structural abnormalities or single pleiotropic genes, endogamous pedigrees, candidate gene approaches as well as pathway gene analyses. Although such traditional approaches, based on well-validated tools, have been critical to establish the field, new strategies, such as next-generation sequencing, are now providing speed and robustness, but also revealing a surprising number of variants in known IGD genes in both patients and healthy controls. Thus, before the field moves forward with new genetic tools and continues discovery efforts, we must reassess what we know about IGD genetics and prepare to hold our work to a different standard. The purpose of this review is to: 1) look back at the strategies used to discover the "known" genes implicated in the rare forms of IGD; 2) examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used to validate genetic variation; 3)substantiate the role of known genes in the pathophysiology of the disease; and 4) project forward as we embark upon a widening use of these new and powerful technologies for gene discovery. (Endocrine Reviews 36: 603-621, 2015).

  7. Discovering Genes Essential to the Hypothalamic Regulation of Human Reproduction Using a Human Disease Model: Adjusting to Life in the "-Omics" Era. (United States)

    Stamou, M I; Cox, K H; Crowley, William F


    The neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction is an intricate process requiring the exquisite coordination of an assortment of cellular networks, all converging on the GnRH neurons. These neurons have a complex life history, migrating mainly from the olfactory placode into the hypothalamus, where GnRH is secreted and acts as the master regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Much of what we know about the biology of the GnRH neurons has been aided by discoveries made using the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD), a family of rare Mendelian disorders that share a common failure of secretion and/or action of GnRH causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Over the last 30 years, research groups around the world have been investigating the genetic basis of IGD using different strategies based on complex cases that harbor structural abnormalities or single pleiotropic genes, endogamous pedigrees, candidate gene approaches as well as pathway gene analyses. Although such traditional approaches, based on well-validated tools, have been critical to establish the field, new strategies, such as next-generation sequencing, are now providing speed and robustness, but also revealing a surprising number of variants in known IGD genes in both patients and healthy controls. Thus, before the field moves forward with new genetic tools and continues discovery efforts, we must reassess what we know about IGD genetics and prepare to hold our work to a different standard. The purpose of this review is to: 1) look back at the strategies used to discover the "known" genes implicated in the rare forms of IGD; 2) examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used to validate genetic variation; 3) substantiate the role of known genes in the pathophysiology of the disease; and 4) project forward as we embark upon a widening use of these new and powerful technologies for gene discovery.

  8. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers’ transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Agyei, Douglas; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael


    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning in utilizing Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program characterized by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’

  9. Pregnancy outcome is associated with maternal marital status in Austria--even at the beginning of the 21st century. (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Mayer, Michael; Voigt, Manfred


    Human reproduction is a biological phenomenon, however, sociocultural factors such as marital status influence pregnancy outcome and reproductive success. In the present study the impact of maternal marital status on pregnancy outcome was tested for all births, which had taken place in Austria between 1999 and 2004, which met the following criteria: single births, nulliparity, mothers older than 19 years (n = 179 830). The rate of preterm delivery (< 37 beginning weeks of gestation) and rate of low birth weight (< 2500 g) among term births were significantly higher among unmarried mothers in comparison to married mothers. Additionally the newborns of unmarried mothers were significantly lighter and shorter than those of married mothers. This was especially true of immigrant mothers. No significant differences between married and unmarried mothers were found regarding mode of delivery. Even at the beginning of the 21st century unmarried status represents an important stress factor for pregnant women.

  10. Houttuynia cordata targets the beginning stage of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Hung

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata, a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-κB-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-κB activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-κB activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV.

  11. Life Sciences Division and Center for Human Genome Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzmiller, D.; Bradbury, M.; Cram, S. (comps.)


    This report summarizes the research and development activities of Los Alamos National Laboratories Life Sciences Division and biological aspects of the Center for Human Genome Studies for the calendar year 1991. Selected research highlights include: yeast artificial chromosome libraries from flow sorted human chromosomes 16 and 21; distances between the antigen binding sites of three murine antibody subclasses measured using neutron and x-ray scattering; NFCR 10th anniversary highlights; kinase-mediated differences found in the cell cycle regulation of normal and transformed cells; and detecting mutations that cause Gaucher's disease by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Project descriptions include: genomic structure and regulation, molecular structure, cytometry, cell growth and differentiation, radiation biology and carcinogenesis, and pulmonary biology.

  12. End of Life Issues (United States)

    Planning for the end of life can be difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, you can ... right choices when the time comes. End-of-life planning usually includes making choices about the following: ...

  13. Beginning Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Jacob


    A thorough introduction that lessens the learning curve to Drupal development. Drupal is a free, open source modular framework and content management system written in the programming language PHP that carries with it a reputation of a steep learning curve. This guide to Drupal methodically demystifies Drupal and even aims shorten the learning curve. Author Jacob Redding is deeply embedded in the Drupal community, and walks first-time Drupal developers through the installation and configuration of a Drupal system. In-depth information on key areas of Drupal explore the Drupal hook system, Drup

  14. Small Beginnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Emerging Sino-Japanese defense cooperation could have far-reaching implications for the two countries and the region at large,despite the largely symbolic start History was made when a Chinese mis- sile destroyer sailed into Tokyo har- bor on November 28.Shenzhen,with 345 officials and crew onboard,head- ed by Rear Admiral Xiao Xinnian, Vice Chief of Staff of the South China Sea Fleet,became the first warship of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to visit Japan.

  15. Moralization y Work and Education at the beginnings of the assistentialpolicy in the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Coinciding with the growth of poverty at the beginning of the XIX century, we see how the State gradually begins to assume control over social affairs. The private and eclesiastic charity of the Old Regime begins to transform in public charity although marginal society still receives the same treatment, which basically intends their moralization. Basic elements of this moralization were work and education, that are the main points of this article, which in particular refers to charity establishments. Work and education for the poors were requirements that were reiterated in the writings of philantropists, politicians and moralists, following the tradition of the preceding centuries, and which were written into the legislation of the XIX century, the same as in the statutes of the poor houses. An always basic education and with a strong practical character, that intended basically to neutralize the risks of social dangers, transmitting the values of the dominant society.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of IBS in Malaysia and Comparing Human Health on Timber and Concrete Pre-cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tighnavard Balasbaneh


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the life cycle assessment of IBS and compares the environmental impacts of building. There are two different kinds of structure has been assessed in this project namely: Timber prefabricate and concrete pre-cast. IBS is a prefabricated structure which component manufacturing in the factory and then transfer to site work for erect. Timbers prefabricate and concrete pre-cast is compared from the initial stage of extracting material to end of life. The method of LCIA in the project is Impact 2002. This project reveals that the total environmental impact of Timber prefabricated is lower than concrete pre-cast in both manufacturing and use phase 100 year life cycle of IBS. Secondly global warming and ozone layer depletion emissions from timber are also much lower than concrete.

  17. Longitudinal patterns of emerging literacy in beginning deaf and hearing readers. (United States)

    Kyle, Fiona E; Harris, Margaret


    The emerging reading and spelling abilities of 24 deaf and 23 hearing beginning readers were followed over 2 years. The deaf children varied in their language backgrounds and preferred mode of communication. All children were given a range of literacy, cognitive and language-based tasks every 12 months. Deaf and hearing children made similar progress in literacy in the beginning stages of reading development and then their trajectories began to diverge. The longitudinal correlates of beginning reading in the deaf children were earlier vocabulary, letter-sound knowledge, and speechreading. Earlier phonological awareness was not a longitudinal correlate of reading ability once earlier reading levels were controlled. Only letter name knowledge was longitudinally related to spelling ability. Speechreading was also a strong longitudinal correlate of reading and spelling in the hearing children. The findings suggested that deaf and hearing children utilize slightly different reading strategies over the first 2 years of schooling.

  18. Analysis of Factors That Influence Beginning Teachers' Perception of Their Instructional Competency (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia; Loh, Wai Mun; Mak, Xueling Mabelene


    Literature concerning teacher quality indicates that there is a core body of knowledge and skills that a teacher must be equipped with to develop competencies of effective teaching. Beginning teachers (n = 3,353; 1-3 teaching years) participated in an online quality evaluation project at the National Institute of Education, Singapore. Factors…

  19. Conceptions of Competency: A Phenomenographic Investigation of Beginning Teachers in Malaysia (United States)

    Goh, Pauline Swee Choo


    I use phenomenography, which is an interpretive research approach, to seek and to discover what beginning teachers in Malaysia conceive and understand as competence in relation to what they do everyday as teachers. Phenomenographic approach is used because of its potential to capture variation of understanding, or way of constituting, the…

  20. Modelling Beginning Teachers' Assessment Literacy: The Contribution of Training, Self-Efficacy, and Conceptions of Assessment (United States)

    Levy-Vered, Adi; Alhija, Fadia Nasser-Abu


    Teachers devote a substantial amount of their time to assessment-related activities. This study aimed to describe beginning teachers' assessment literacy and to examine a structural model that binds assessment literacy with assessment training, self-efficacy, and conceptions of assessment. Data were collected from 327 Israeli inductee teachers and…

  1. A Pilot Study of Problems and Practices in the Induction of Beginning Teachers. (United States)

    Bouchard, John B.; Hull, Ronald E.

    A pilot study was designed to test the practicality of gathering data through interviews and to provide tentative information on induction problems and practices encountered by beginning teachers in the Cattaraugus-Chautauqua County area of New York. Fifty-three elementary self-contained classroom teachers and secondary academic subject-matter…

  2. Ethnographic Methodology in a Study of Word Recognition Strategies of Adult Beginning Readers. (United States)

    Schumacher, Sally

    Ethnography is a research methodology that belongs to a genre of research called by various names, including educational anthropology, participant observation, case study, field study, and naturalistic inquiry. Ethnography was used as the research methodology for a nine-month study of adult beginning readers in Virginia. The research design was a…

  3. The Role of Perception, Interpretation, and Decision Making in the Development of Beginning Teachers' Competence (United States)

    Santagata, Rossella; Yeh, Cathery


    This study investigates beginning US elementary teachers' competence for teaching mathematics and its development during teacher preparation and into the first 2 years of full-time teaching. Data are drawn from three longitudinal case studies and include the classroom video analysis survey, classroom observations and interviews about teachers'…

  4. Longitudinal Effects of Induction on Teaching Skills and Attrition Rates of Beginning Teachers (United States)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Wim; Maulana, Ridwan


    The teaching profession faces a shortage as well as a decline of teaching skills. A possible way to mitigate this is to implement evidence-based induction arrangements. Seventy-one schools with 338 beginning secondary education teachers were randomly allocated to an experimental or a control group. The experimental schools used induction…

  5. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain. (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo


    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  6. Transculturalism and the Meaning of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tartaglia


    Full Text Available I begin by introducing the standoff between the transculturalist aim of moving beyond cultural inheritances, and the worry that this project is itself a product of cultural inheritances. I argue that this is rooted in concerns about the meaning of life, and in particular, the prospect of nihilism. I then distinguish two diametrically opposed humanistic responses to nihilism, post-Nietzschean rejections of objective truth, and the moral objectivism favoured by some analytic philosophers, claiming that both attempt, in different ways, to break down the distinction between description and evaluation. I argue that the evaluative sense of a “meaningful life” favoured by moral objectivists cannot track objective meaningfulness in human lives, and that there are manifest dangers to treating social meaning judgements as a secular substitute for the meaning of life. I then conclude that the problems of the post-Nietzscheans and moral objectivists can be avoided, and the transculturalist standoff alleviated, if we recognise that nihilism is descriptive, and maintain a principled distinction between description and evaluation.

  7. From the Beginning: The "Journal of Chemical Education" and Secondary School Chemistry (United States)

    Lagowski, Joseph J.


    The people, events, and issues that were involved in the beginning and the evolution of the "Journal of Chemical Education" and the Division of Chemical Education (DivCHED) are traced and discussed. The constitution of the American Chemical Society incorporates the roots of chemical education as an area of interest to the Society. Both…

  8. Do training programs help AFDC recipients leave the welfare rolls? An evaluation of New York City's BEGIN (Begin Employment Gain Independence Now) program. (United States)

    Angelo, L; March, J A


    Guided by the Federal Family Support Act of 1988 and the Job Opportunity and Basic Skills Program (JOBS), welfare reform initiatives on state and local levels were designed to foster employability among the public assistance population. Reform has focused on enhancing the supply of labor rather than the demand for labor as a route to labor force participation for the public assistance population. Program reforms assume that, by providing job training, educational services, and training-related expenses, labor market entry of the participating clientele would be facilitated while caseloads and public expenditures would decline. To date, analysis of similar programs in many states indicates that the impact of such programs in reducing public assistance caseloads is marginal. In New York City, despite the large investment of public funds in such programs, prior to this study the outcome of program implementation remained largely unknown. This study evaluates New York City's BEGIN program outcome target defined as the ability of the program to move welfare clients off public assistance and into the labor market. While the results of the study indicate that New York City's BEGIN program does not improve client's odds of leaving welfare, when compared to the odds of a non-participation client, there are several significant findings. The impact of program participation can be distinguished among distinct age groups. While older clients responded positively to BEGIN participation, access to day care was the only factor that significantly improved the probability that clients younger than 36 years of age would leave the welfare rolls within a two-year period. In response to the findings, the researchers suggest that future welfare reform efforts should grant localities broader flexibility to determine their own target population so that resources can be allocated to those groups that are most likely to benefit from specific programs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Opait


    Full Text Available This paper reflects the research concerning the intensity of the correlation between the Human Development Index, respectively the Happy Planet Index and the Life Expectancy in Romania, through by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient and the correlation report. The Happy Planet Index (HPI is a new indicator which expresses the progress in any country, and also, we can say that the Happy Planet Index is a measure of sustainable well-being.



    Gabriela Opait


    This paper reflects the research concerning the intensity of the correlation between the Human Development Index, respectively the Happy Planet Index and the Life Expectancy in Romania, through by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient and the correlation report. The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is a new indicator which expresses the progress in any country, and also, we can say that the Happy Planet Index is a measure of sustainable well-being.

  11. The Beginning of the "17-year Film"Political Ideological Literary Theory and the In-depth Study of The Life of Wu-xun%“十七年电影”政治形态文艺学发轫与《武训传》再考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The critical event of The Life of Wu-xun has obviously identified the landform of the "17-year film" political ideological literary theory .As the practical representation of socialism ideologies ,the film breeds the audiences'political intervenes with the form of national parable .The Life of Wu-xun is the mile-stone of "17-year film",w hich helps to understand the political rhetoric speech of "17-year film".Its unique narrative texture closely connects the special social context of the "17-year period",which need to be reread and studied in the grand historical viewpoint .%从《武训传》开始,渐变的年代清晰指认出“十七年电影”政治形态文艺学地貌。作为主流意识形态实践的社会主义现实主义艺术,观众无意识幻觉所投射的,无疑是以民族寓言形式为表征的高度政治介入。作为“十七年电影”中的具有里程碑意义的电影,《武训传》有助于我们理会“十七年电影”的政治修辞表述。其独特的叙事肌理和文本结构、所紧密联系的“十七年”特殊社会政治语境,都需要我们借助大历史的视野,去除误读、重启对话。

  12. Tracing a Beginning Elementary Teacher’s Development of Identity for Science Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avraamidou, Lucy


    The purpose of this case study was to examine a beginning elementary teacher’s development of identity for science teaching from her first year at university, her field experience, and through her first year of teaching. Several kinds of data were collected over a period of 5 years through different

  13. The Influence of Beginning Instructional Grade on String Student Enrollment, Retention, and Music Performance (United States)

    Hartley, Linda A.; Porter, Ann M.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate three primary variables concerning the starting grade level of beginning string instruction in public schools: (a) initial enrollment, (b) retention data for both the end of the first year and at the seventh-grade year of instruction, and (c) music performance level in the seventh grade. Secondary…

  14. Aggregating Concept Map Data to Investigate the Knowledge of Beginning CS Students (United States)

    Mühling, Andreas


    Concept maps have a long history in educational settings as a tool for teaching, learning, and assessing. As an assessment tool, they are predominantly used to extract the structural configuration of learners' knowledge. This article presents an investigation of the knowledge structures of a large group of beginning CS students. The investigation…

  15. Prompting Spontaneity by Means of the Video Camera in the Beginning Foreign Language Class. (United States)

    Pelletier, Raymond J.


    Describes four techniques for using a video camera to generate higher levels of student interest, involvement, and productivity in beginning foreign language courses. The techniques include spontaneous discussion of video images, enhancement of students' use of interrogative pronouns and phrases, grammar instruction, and student-produced skits.…

  16. Improving Student Participation in Beginning Band Programs through the Use of Effective Recruiting Techniques. (United States)

    Fischer, Bob; Hamburg, Dave

    This study describes a recruiting method designed to increase the number of students involved in beginning band. The targeted population consisted of fifth and sixth grade students in a growing urban community in the Midwest. Evidence for the existence of the problem included numerical data and surveys. Analysis of probable causes was evidenced by…

  17. First year effects of induction arrangements on beginning teachers' psychological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Slof, Bert; van de Grift, Wim


    This study examined the (1) effects of a supportive program (i.e., induction arrangement) on beginning teachers' (BTs') psychological processes after a period of 1 year and (2) psychological paths of influence of the arrangement. Participants (56 Dutch secondary schools with 143 BTs) were randomly a

  18. Landmarks in the Evolution of (t)-RNAs from the Origin of Life up to Their Present Role in Human Cognition. (United States)

    Balke, Darko; Kuss, Andreas; Müller, Sabine


    How could modern life have evolved? The answer to that question still remains unclear. However, evidence is growing that, since the origin of life, RNA could have played an important role throughout evolution, right up to the development of complex organisms and even highly sophisticated features such as human cognition. RNA mediated RNA-aminoacylation can be seen as a first landmark on the path from the RNA world to modern DNA- and protein-based life. Likewise, the generation of the RNA modifications that can be found in various RNA species today may already have started in the RNA world, where such modifications most likely entailed functional advantages. This association of modification patterns with functional features was apparently maintained throughout the further course of evolution, and particularly tRNAs can now be seen as paradigms for the developing interdependence between structure, modification and function. It is in this spirit that this review highlights important stepping stones of the development of (t)RNAs and their modifications (including aminoacylation) from the ancient RNA world up until their present role in the development and maintenance of human cognition. The latter can be seen as a high point of evolution at its present stage, and the susceptibility of cognitive features to even small alterations in the proper structure and functioning of tRNAs underscores the evolutionary relevance of this RNA species.

  19. Predicting Scores of Beginning Agricultural Education Teachers on the Praxis II Examination (United States)

    Thobega, Moreetsi; Miller, Greg


    This descriptive-correlational study predicted performance of beginning agricultural education teachers on principles of learning and teaching (PLT) and Agriculture content (AgC) tests of the PRAXIS II examination using demographic and academic variables. Performance on the PRAXIS II was used for issuing initial teaching licenses to the…

  20. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom (United States)

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne


    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  1. The Effect of Beginning Shorthand on Learning in Selected Language Arts Skills. (United States)

    Johnson, Jack E.

    Eleventh-grade students from 11 high schools participated in this study of the effect of beginning shorthand on language arts skills. Pre- and posttests drawn from the California Achievement Test for Language Arts were administered to experimental groups and control groups in September and April of the 1974-75 academic year. Results indicated that…

  2. The Sustainability of a Teacher Professional Development Programme for Beginning Urban Teachers (United States)

    Gaikhorst, Lisa; Beishuizen, Jos J. J.; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.; Volman, Monique L. L.


    This study investigated the long-term effects of a professional development intervention for beginning urban teachers and explored which characteristics and activities in school organisations contributed to the sustainability of these effects. A quasi-experimental study (n = 72) investigated whether the positive effects of the programme were…

  3. The Effects of E-Mentoring on Beginning Teacher Competencies and Perceptions (United States)

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Powell, Selma; Little, Mary E.; Mike, Alyson


    There is a critical need to mentor novice special education teachers to meet the current and projected teacher shortages. However, due to the various skill-levels of beginning special education teachers in schools and the small number of current special educators in each school who could serve as mentors, there is difficulty finding…

  4. The use of visual landmarks in a wayfinding system for elderly with beginning dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, D.; Hagethorn, F.; Kröse, B.; de Greef, P.


    This paper presents an experiment carried out to study the design options of a GPS-based navigation aid for elderly with beginning dementia. Results suggest that landmark based instructions may yield higher performance of the system then left/right instructions.

  5. The Impact of Disrupted and Disjointed Early Professional Development on Beginning Teachers (United States)

    Fenwick, Ashley; Weir, Douglas


    This longitudinal study is set in the national and international contexts of early professional development, teacher careers, and teacher retention. It provides qualitative insights into key factors shaping beginning teachers' early professional learning (EPL) journeys and considers the impact of policy initiatives on new teachers in Scotland.…

  6. Navigating the Realities of the Induction Years: Exploring Approaches for Supporting Beginning Physical Education Teachers (United States)

    Ensign, Julene; Mays Woods, Amelia


    Because significant challenges continue to exist in the retention of teachers, the need for an infusion of proactive assimilation strategies, especially related to the induction phase, has become a mandate in physical education. Beginning teachers face countless potential hurdles. From marginalization, role conflict, and teaching diverse student…

  7. Factors Influencing Beginning Teacher Retention in the Diocese of St. Augustine Catholic Schools (United States)

    Bronsard, Patricia


    Researchers explored the problem of teacher retention, especially among beginning teachers, and noted a lack of consensus on why teachers leave teaching and how to retain the teachers. Private school studies include Catholic school data, but few researchers isolated the data or used data-gathering instruments to examine Catholic school issues,…

  8. Beginning Word Recognition: Benefits of Training by Segmentation and Whole Word Methods. (United States)

    Levy, Betty Ann; Lysynchuk, Linda


    Compares effectiveness of four different methods for acquiring initial reading vocabulary--onset plus vowel, rimes, phoneme segmentation and blending, and simple repetition of whole words. Finds that beginning nonreaders acquired the trained words fastest in the onset and rime conditions, and most slowly in the whole word condition. Finds the same…

  9. Agricultural Education Perceived Teacher Self-Efficacy: A Descriptive Study of Beginning Agricultural Education Teachers (United States)

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.


    The purpose of this study was to describe beginning agriculture teachers' perceived agricultural education teacher self-efficacy. Additionally, the researcher sought to describe the relationship among teachers' demographic characteristics and their agricultural education teacher self-efficacy. An instrument specific to agricultural education was…

  10. The Growth of Reflective Practice among Three Beginning Secondary Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Cavanagh, Michael; Prescott, Anne


    This paper reports a study of three beginning secondary mathematics teachers and how their reflective practice developed during a one-year university teacher education program and concurrent professional fieldwork experience or practicum. The participants were interviewed three times during the practicum and once more in their first year of…

  11. Reformation and transformation of charity work at the beginning of the new time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardashkin Igor B.


    Full Text Available This article is aimed at studying the transformation of Christian charity at the beginning of the New Time and the analysis of changes ongoing in this sphere. The authors of this research start with the analysis of the situation that had been formed in the economy, culture and activity of the Roman Catholic Church in the late Middle Ages. Such a preliminary excursion into the historical domain is not coincidental. It assists understanding the reasons for the Reformation and later events. However, “in the beginning was the Word”, therefore, the text analyzes the ideas of such founding fathers of Protestantism as Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli. The new ideology along with the sociocultural and socioeconomic factors promoted the formation of a radically different and more creative social system, also including the charity sphere that became more rational, practical and rough.

  12. Student understanding of quantum mechanics at the beginning of graduate instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha


    A survey was developed to probe student understanding of quantum mechanics at the beginning of graduate instruction. The survey was administered to 202 physics graduate students enrolled in first-year quantum mechanics courses from seven universities at the beginning of the first semester. We also conducted one-on-one interviews with fifteen graduate or advanced undergraduate students who had just completed a course in which all the content on the survey was covered. Although students from some universities performed better on average than others, we found that students share universal difficulties understanding the concepts of quantum mechanics. The difficulties were often due to over-generalizations of concepts learned in one context to other contexts where they are not directly applicable. Difficulties in distinguishing between closely related concepts and making sense of the formalism of quantum mechanics were common. The results of this study can sensitize instructors of first-year graduate quantum physi...

  13. The influence of social environment in early life on the behavior, stress response, and reproductive system of adult male Norway rats selected for different attitudes to humans. (United States)

    Gulevich, R G; Shikhevich, S G; Konoshenko, M Yu; Kozhemyakina, R V; Herbeck, Yu E; Prasolova, L A; Oskina, I N; Plyusnina, I Z


    The influence of social disturbance in early life on behavior, response of blood corticosterone level to restraint stress, and endocrine and morphometric indices of the testes was studied in 2-month Norway rat males from three populations: not selected for behavior (unselected), selected for against aggression to humans (tame), and selected for increased aggression to humans (aggressive). The experimental social disturbance included early weaning, daily replacement of cagemates from days 19 to 25, and subsequent housing in twos till the age of 2months. The social disturbance increased the latent period of aggressive behavior in the social interaction test in unselected males and reduced relative testis weights in comparison to the corresponding control groups. In addition, experimental unselected rats had smaller diameters of seminiferous tubules and lower blood testosterone levels. In the experimental group, tame rats had lower basal corticosterone levels, and aggressive animals had lower hormone levels after restraint stress in comparison to the control. The results suggest that the selection in two directions for attitude to humans modifies the response of male rats to social disturbance in early life. In this regard, the selected rat populations may be viewed as a model for investigation of (1) neuroendocrinal mechanisms responsible for the manifestation of aggression and (2) interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems in stress.

  14. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiggins Osborne P


    Full Text Available Abstract Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1 Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2 World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3 Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time. We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of

  15. Smart Body or the Problem of Human Corporeality Development in the Context of Outsourced Life. Part 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov S.A.,


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the issue of a popular trend called ‘life outsourcing’ which affects the structure of personality in an individual. Basing on the works of L.S. Vygotsky and others, the author explores the methodology of the concept of cultural development as a process of formation of an embodied personality or non-organic body. He outlines the search for the approaches to the process of cultural development and for its descriptions in terms of personality construction and ‘soul organism’ which can be traced down in Vygotsky’s works. According to these works, cultural-historical psychology employed a concept of tool- and activity-based personality body, or soul organism. As it is argued in the paper, this concept is to a certain extent incomplete. What happens to the individual’s personality body in a situation of increasingly popular life outsourcing, i.e. when more and more basic functions and actions are transferred from the individual to various devices? Using artistic creativity as an example, the author explores the artist’s transition from working with natural materials to working with devices and focuses on the problem of the artist’s ‘smart body’ losing the feeling of texture and form. The issue is to be continued in the second paper.

  16. Revealing Interactions between Human Resources, Quality of Life and Environmental Changes within Socially-oriented Observations : Results from the IPY PPS Arctic Project in the Russian North (United States)

    Vlasova, Tatiana


    Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and

  17. Life Expectancy and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Maternal Mortality Declines. NBER Working Paper No. 13947 (United States)

    Jayachandran, Seema; Lleras-Muney, Adriana


    Longer life expectancy should encourage human capital accumulation, since a longer time horizon increases the value of investments that pay out over time. Previous work has been unable to determine the empirical importance of this life-expectancy effect due to the difficulty of isolating it from other effects of health on education. We examine a…

  18. The Feast of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The enjoyment of life covers many things: the enjoyment of ourselves, of home life, of trees, flowers, clouds, winding rivers and falling cataracts and the myriad things in Nature, and then the enjoyment of poetry, art, contemplation, friendship, conversation, and reading, which are all some form or other of the communion of soirits.

  19. Inclination of the soul toward obscenity in the human life from viewpoint of the Quran and School of the analytical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Banaeian Esfahani


    Full Text Available The human being sometimes inclines toward the goodness and beauty, and sometimes toward the obscenity. So, Allah in the Quran has reminded man of dangers and wicked thoughts of the soul, and has described “al-Nafsul Ammāra” (commanding soul as a source of the souls` inclination toward the obscenity which is quite deceptive. It has also been mentioned that self-scrutiny would act as cause for attaining the way of life recommended by Quran. One of the duties of the psychology is to elaborate on the sources of the souls` inclination toward obscenity and the factors that deviating the human life. One of the psychological schools that especially studies this issue is the School of analytical psychology. Among psychologists of this school, viewpoints of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung need to be compared with the Islamic-Quranic viewpoint. This article firstly tries to clarify the concept of the soul and its characteristics, and then explains the process through which “al-Nafsul Ammāra”, influences. It also describes the origin of the soul's tendency toward obscenity from Freuds` viewpoint and satanic influences from viewpoint of Carl Jung comparing them with the Quranic attitude. The origin of inclination of the soul toward the obscenity is called “al-Nafsul Ammāra” based in the Quranic text while according to the Frauds` theory it is called ID. From the Quranic viewpoint, “al-Nafsul Ammāra” that is affected by the internal negative tendencies of the soul (Haway-e Nafs and external invisible stimuli(Satan commands the human and leads him to the obscenity. So the Quran introduces the Satan as the enemy of the human being that brings about his decadence. The Quran presents the human being a practical plan for struggling against the Satan. Analytical psychology of Jung also emphasizes the role of the satanic influences on the human tendency toward the obscenity and considers struggling with the Satan as a way for freedom and sublimation

  20. Bilastine and quality of life. (United States)

    Jáuregui, I; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A


    The evaluation of quality of life (QoL) and its modification through therapeutic interventions has become a prioritary concern in recent years and a requirement on the part of regulatory agencies for the authorization of new drugs. In clinical studies of allergic disorders, particularly allergic rhinitis and urticaria, different types of generic questionnaires have been used - especially disease specific instruments such as the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) or skin disease specific tools such as the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Throughout its clinical development, bilastine has been shown to be more effective than placebo and at least as effective as cetirizine, levocetirizine, fexofenadine or desloratadine in controlling the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. QoL has been studied as a secondary objective in three allergic rhinitis clinical trials, using the RQLQ, in a total of 2335 patients. Likewise, in chronic urticaria, QoL has been evaluated using the DLQI in a total of 525 patients, versus levocetirizine and placebo. The improvement in the QoL parameters in these studies (RQLQ or DLQI domains) at all times proved proportional to the symptoms improvement. In general, the data obtained relating to changes in QoL are concordant with the mean global visual analog scale (VAS in mm) values and their changes, from the beginning until the end of the treatment period, for all of the trials, for bilastine and all its comparators.

  1. How Did the Universe Make People? A Brief History of the Universe from the Beginning to the End (United States)

    Mather, John C.


    Astronomers are beginning to know the easy part: How did the Big Bang make stars and galaxies and the chemical elements? How did solar systems form and evolve? How did the Earth and the Moon form, and how did water and carbon come to the Earth? Geologists are piecing together the history of the Earth, and biologists are coming to know the history and process of life from the earliest times. But is our planet the only life-supporting place in the universe, or are there many? Astronomers are working on that too. I will tell the story of the discovery of the Big Bang by Edwin Hubble, and how the primordial heat radiation tells the details of that universal explosion. I will tell how the James Webb Space Telescope will extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope to ever greater distances, will look inside dust clouds to see stars being born today, will measure planets around other stars, and examine the dwarf planets in the outer Solar System. I will show concepts for great new space telescopes to follow the JWST and how they could use future moon rockets to hunt for signs of life on planets around other stars.

  2. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander


    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  3. A Placebo-Controlled, Blinded and Randomised Study on the Effects of Recombinant Human Thyrotropin on Quality of Life in the Treatment of Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte; Bastholt, Lars; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe


    BACKGROUND: It is well known that thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) in thyroid cancer patients can induce a decrease in quality of life (QOL). Recombinant human thyrotropin (rh-TSH) has been used to avoid this; however, no blinded studies have ever documented the effect. OBJECTIVE: To compare QOL...... in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) treated with either rh-TSH or liothyronine (L-T3) THW for 10 days. STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind, randomised cross-over. PATIENTS: Fifty-six patients with DTC treated by total thyroidectomy and indication for postsurgery radioiodine (RI) ablation therapy...

  4. Placing Care in the Human Life Cycle. (United States)

    Attanucci, Jane S.


    While Carol Gilligan was countering Lawrence Kohlberg's justice theories with feminist theories of caring, Kohlberg was inaugurating an alternative, caring-centered, "just-community" high school. The just-community approach draws on Dewey's and Piaget's notions of schools as democracies nourishing moral development and Durkheim's vision of schools…

  5. Aspirations of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Ningxin


    After entering Senior Three, besides strenuous revisions and examinations, what the students think most and discuss most is aspirations of life. As far as I know, most of my classmates have already specified their choices of majors and their aspirations of life. Some classmates excel in science subjects, so they have chosen science and engineering subjects, hoping that they will become scientists or engineers.

  6. Serbian societies in Dubrovnik at the beginning of the 20th century


    Nedeljković Saša


    In the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. Dubrovnik was the center of the coastline Serbs, both Catholic and Orthodox. National activities of the Serbs developed through cultural and economic societies. The educational-economic society Srpska Zora (Serbian Dawn) was founded in 1901 in Knin. It encouraged the establishment of agricultural co-operatives in villages and savings banks in towns. After the initiative of Srpska Zora, The Alliance of Serbian Eco...



    Lauren Strach


    The beginning of the hospital advertising industry followed the successful Federal Trade Commission’s application of the antitrust laws to healthcare, fully opening the competitive floodgates. The 1982 Supreme Court decision, upholding the FTC petition, triggered the start of a new era of advertising—hospital advertising. This paper will examine the unique qualities of this service industry that challenged marketers; the turbulent industry environment of the 1980’s with the introduction of ne...

  8. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew


    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  9. Emergence of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Paule Bassez


    Full Text Available Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with

  10. Emergence of Life. (United States)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule


    Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with transformation of molecules, of

  11. Two approaches to the study of the origin of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.


    This paper compares two approaches that attempt to explain the origin of life, or biogenesis. The more established approach is one based on chemical principles, whereas a new, yet not widely known approach begins from a physical perspective. According to the first approach, life would have begun wit

  12. Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar


    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, astrophysics and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA(ribonucleic acid) world, iron-sulphur world, panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kickstarting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  13. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Valverde


    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  14. In the Beginning... (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan


    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify and sea level rises, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we develop an alternative to fossil fuels in time to make a difference for our children and the "children" of all species? NASA puts people into outer space, where all resources (food, water, air, pressure, gravity, energy) are limited and far away and where conditions (temperature, radiation, vacuum) are problematic and dangerous-the life expectancy of an unprotected astronaut (physically exposed to the space environment) is 15 seconds. Therefore, by necessity, NASA has explored and developed "life-support systems" that optimize the use of resources, minimize the use of energy, and recycle, refurbish, re-use everything that on earth would be considered a waste material. Emerging from the legacy of life-support systems, the NASA OMEGA project uses microalgae, municipal wastewater, and the encroaching oceans to address our global needs for a sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally friendly energy supply that does not compete with agriculture. The OMEGA project is focused on producing aviation fuel, treating municipal wastewater, and sequestering carbon dioxide. More generally, however, OMEGA is an example of an "ecology of technologies" in which all processes are integrated and inter-dependent and wastes become resources. From a NASA perspective, the OMEGA project is also a reminder that "we are not passengers on Spaceship Earth, we are the crew."

  15. Pagan and bible beginning in the creative work of B.Shulz and F.Kafka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina M. Reguretskaya


    Full Text Available Modern literature pays great attention to the study of biblical and pagan aspects of the classical works of the twentieth century. Franz Kafka and Bruno Schulz – two classics of modernity, residents of “Republic of dreams”, if to use a beautiful metaphor of Schultz, were from Jewish families lived in a multicultural and multilingual Austro-Hungarian Empire absorbed with best achievements of the Austrian culture. As noted by J. Updike: «Kafka and Schulz – two unremarkable man, born in the backyard of once powerful empire, took a bite at the same apple myth, but from different sides». Both were able to transform the insightful observation in prophecy, describing the dreams and nightmares as precisely as if they were facts of life, both shed light on human nature and witnessed history, complementing each other. I. Klekh rightly observes certain «commonness» of their creative method, stressing the importance for the two writers’ motif of transformation, transformation, mutual penetration of books and worlds. Shulz’s «fairy tale», his myth-making, guided by its own laws, “mythological” rules, which, unlike Kafka, is not «mythological» of closeness exclusively on internal self-perception.

  16. European and Asian Countries through the Eyes of Foreigners (in 19th — beginning of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Ushakov


    Full Text Available The article is based on the study of a various publications and archive materials that were left in the 19th — beginning of 20th century by representatives of several generations of Russians going out of Russia for a long periods of time to Europe an and Asian contrives, or by Europeans who had been visiting and exploring the Russian Empire. Such materials come in sight of the article’s authors in the process of random selection. These materials varied in form, size and content; they were created in different conditions and for different purposes. They were written by people of different professional, social background, interests, character and life experience. Despite these factors the authors managed to study features of formation and development of the Russia’s image in social thinking of Western Europe on the basis of publications of authors from France and Netherland. Examples of Italian lands descriptions were used for consideration of Russian observers’ approaches to interpretation of the life of Europeans. And the perception of the Asian countries’ life (China and Japan and of their inhabitants that had formed by the beginning of the 19th century was described in the notes and memories of Russians — the participants of the Russian — Japan war. Such different sources served as well as some common and very inportant functions, and the authors of this article identified then. First of all, it was an informational-educational mission. Such functions as goal setting and recording were also important, when authors of the materials identified the most important events, processes and recorded them. The critical approach and function of criticism were also incidental to the authors of many sources. Again, the materials presented in the article showed other provisions of the problem “us vs. them” (“us vs. otters” that is currently being considered in the modern science, and which in general lead to generation of both the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Vujec


    Full Text Available A short review of the world mining situation at the begining of the new millenium is given. A comparison betveen the mining industries of Croatia and the USA regarding production per capi ta is presented. The basic information about the European Mining Coures (EMC is also given, as wetl as about the university education in mining at the Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Fngineering in Zagreb.

  18. Does Teaching Experience Matter? The Beliefs and Practices of Beginning and Experienced Physics Teachers (United States)

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Cho, Young Hoan


    This study utilized multiple data sources to examine the beliefs about learning and teaching physics and the instructional practices of five beginning teachers and seven experienced teachers from Singapore. Our study was implemented in the unique context of teachers teaching the topic of electricity to students grouped according to academic abilities. The topic of electricity is one of the most difficult physics topics for students to understand and for teachers to teach. It was found that the experienced teachers, compared to the beginning teachers, tended to have beliefs about teaching and learning physics that are closer to constructivist views. The majority of the teachers, particularly the beginning teachers, espoused beliefs about learning physics that were incongruent with their beliefs about teaching physics. Although transmission-oriented and teacher-directed practices dominated the classroom lessons of both groups of teachers, more elements of constructivist instruction were found in the classroom lessons of the experienced teachers. It was also found that the classroom practices of the teachers, especially those in their inductive years of teaching, were more aligned with their beliefs about learning physics than their beliefs about teaching physics.

  19. Beginning Ubuntu Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Raggi, Emilio; Channelle, Andy; Parsons, Trevor; Van Vugt, Sander


    Ubuntu Linux is the fastest growing Linux-based operating system, and Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Fifth Edition teaches all of us - including those who have never used Linux - how to use it productively, whether you come from Windows or the Mac or the world of open source. Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Fifth Edition shows you how to take advantage of the newest Ubuntu release, Lucid Lynx. Based on the best-selling previous edition, Emilio Raggi maintains a fine balance between teaching Ubuntu and introducing new features. Whether you aim to use it in the home or in the office, you'll be introduced to th

  20. Beginning Rails 3

    CERN Document Server

    Barazi, Rida Al


    Beginning Rails 3 is the practical starting point for anyone wanting to learn how to build dynamic web applications using the latest release of the Rails framework for Ruby. You'll learn how all of the components of Rails fit together and how you can leverage them to create sophisticated web applications with less code and more joy. This book is particularly well suited to those with little or no experience with web application development, or who have some experience but are new to Rails. Beginning Rails 3 assumes basic familiarity with web terms and technologies, but doesn't require you to b

  1. Telomerase expression extends the proliferative life-span and maintains the osteogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Janne Lytoft; Rosada, Cecilia; Serakinci, Nedime;


    Human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) were stably transduced by a retroviral vector containing the gene for the catalytic subunit of human telomerase (hTERT). Transduced cells (hMSC-TERTs) had telomerase activity, and the mean telomere length was increased as compared with that of control cells......, did not form tumors, and had a normal karyotype. When implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice, the transduced cells formed more bone than did normal cells. These results suggest that ectopic expression of telomerase in hMSCs prevents senescence-associated impairment of osteoblast functions....

  2. Epidemiology of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus and Quality of Life for People Living with HIV/AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ommari Baaliy Mkangara; Shaofa NIE; Chongjian WANG; Yihua XU; Saumu Tobbi Mweri; Theresia M Kobelo; Mustaafa Bapumiia


    HIV/AIDS is increasing in prevalence in China and spread of infection from highly risk populations to the general populations was recognized. Despite the fact, there are still only few scien- tific reviews on quality of life (QOL) for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). However, many PLWHAs are struggling with social and psychological influences such as substances abuse, cultural beliefs, depression, stigma, poverty, which can affect their QOL. Public unawareness about infection and disease, willingness to seek medical care and motivation to follow therapy are indirectly influ- encing health outcome. In 2003 Chinese government has established the so-called the "Four Frees and One Care" policy. The policy was officially implemented from 2004 in some areas, yet to date it is not implemented nationwide. This paper discussed the epidemiology of HIV, underlying psychoso- cial factors affecting PLWHAs and their impact on QOL. We put forward some recommendations for stakeholders, advocacy groups, non-government organizations and Chinese government.

  3. Beginning ASPNET Security

    CERN Document Server

    Dorrans, Barry


    Beginning ASP.NET 3.5 Security is geared for novice to intermediate ASP.NET programmers who wish to protect and defend their web sites against attack and exploitation. Beginning with a discussion of why we need security and the things that may occur when it is ignored and an overview of how ASP.NET works, readers are taken through the common steps in developing a web site, the security problems each area exposes and how these can be exploited. Visual Studio Security MVP Barry Dorrans teaches readers how they can defend their applications using the standard .NET framework, industry patterns and

  4. Humanity and the life of language : the "Two Cultures" to Montaigne's "De l’Institution des enfans".


    McKenzie, William


    This article analyses the often aggressive discussion between C. P. Snow and F. R. Leavis about the « Two Cultures » – what might otherwise be termed the « war of literature and science » – which took place in the 1950s and 1960s. It suggests that behind Leavis’s strident attack lurks a novel, even unique, understanding of the « human ». For Leavis, the « human » is neither a genre, nor a stable category, but a literary activity; a mode of reading and its phenomenological effects. But the pre...

  5. Substantial Life Extension and Meanings of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.


    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2001 and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research the project enables. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology (Aust

  6. Clonal expansion of early to mid-life mitochondrial DNA point mutations drives mitochondrial dysfunction during human ageing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greaves, L.C.; Nooteboom, M.; Elson, J.L.; Tuppen, H.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Commane, D.M.; Arasaradnam, R.P.; Khrapko, K.; Taylor, R.W.; Kirkwood, T.B.; Mathers, J.C.; Turnbull, D.M.


    Age-related decline in the integrity of mitochondria is an important contributor to the human ageing process. In a number of ageing stem cell populations, this decline in mitochondrial function is due to clonal expansion of individual mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations within single cells. Ho

  7. A Life-Cycle Model of Human Social Groups Produces a U-Shaped Distribution in Group Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available One of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution is how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. Here we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, we build a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic and expansion behaviours. We find that once the transition from small-scale to large-scale groups occurs, a few large-scale groups continue expanding while small-scale groups gradually become scarcer, and large-scale groups become larger in size and fewer in number over time. Demographic and expansion behaviours of groups are largely influenced by the distribution and availability of resources. Our results conform to a pattern of human political change in which religions and nation states come to be represented by a few large units and many smaller ones. Future enhancements of the model should include decision-making rules and probabilities of fragmentation for large-scale societies. We suggest that the synthesis of population ecology and social evolution will generate increasingly plausible models of human group dynamics.

  8. Beginning Microsoft Excel 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott


    Beginning Microsoft Excel 2010 is a practical, step-by-step guide to getting started with the world's most widely used spreadsheet application. The book offers a hands-on approach to learning how to create and edit spreadsheets, use various calculation formulas, employ charts/graphs, and get work done efficiently. Microsoft is rolling out several new features with Excel 2010 - perhaps the most notable is the ability to use Excel 2010 online and this collaborate on a project in real time. Beginning Microsoft Office 2010 keeps you up-to-date with all of these new features and more. What you'll l

  9. Does one size fit all? A study of beginning science and mathematics teacher induction (United States)

    Kralik, Jeffrey M.

    Over the past few years, many induction programs have been implemented across the country, primarily designed to limit the amount beginning teacher attrition. Few of these programs have focused on improving teacher quality or identifying the specific needs of individual teachers. Research suggests that beginning science and mathematics teachers have specific needs that are not being met by current induction models, possibly resulting in higher rates of attrition. Harry and Janet Knowles created the Knowles Science Teaching Foundation (KSTF) to identify and support young scientists and mathematicians as they dedicate their lives to teaching young people. Through financial, curricular, and emotional support, KSTF encourages new teachers to remain in teaching and become leaders in their schools and districts. This dissertation is a sequential explanatory study, which first establishes national estimates for beginning teacher attrition rates and the reasons for the migration based on subject area taught, with an emphasis on mathematics and science teachers. This study then evaluates the KSTF model through multiple methods---analysis of KSTF survey data and interviews with KSTF participants and stakeholders.

  10. "The ladder of the law has no top and no bottom": how therapeutic jurisprudence can give life to international human rights. (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L


    In the past two decades, therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) has become one of the most important theoretical approaches to the law. But, there has, as of yet, been puzzlingly little written about the relationship between TJ and international human rights law. To be sure, there has been some preliminary and exploratory work on the relationship between TJ and international law in general, but virtually nothing on its relationship to international human rights law in a mental disability law context. This paper seeks to focus on this lack of consideration, to speculate as to why that might be, and to offer some suggestions as to how to infuse some new vitality and vigor into this important area of law and social policy. In this article, first, I offer a brief explanation of TJ. Next, I discuss, also briefly, the impact (and the potential future greater impact) of the recently-ratified United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on this area. Then, I consider the sparse commentary currently available on the intersection between TJ and international law in general, and will speculate as to why this is so sparse. Then, I offer some thoughts as to the TJ/international human rights law connection, looking specifically at three questions that require far more attention from this perspective (access to counsel, the use of state-sanctioned psychiatry as a tool of political oppression, and the potential redemptive power of the CRPD), and describe a research agenda that scholars might turn to in furtherance of the investigation of the relationships between therapeutic jurisprudence, international human rights law and mental disability law. I conclude by calling on scholars, activists, advocates and practitioners to begin to take this connection seriously in their future work.

  11. A Closer Look at Bacteroides: Phylogenetic Relationship and Genomic Implications of a Life in the Human Gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Fredrik H.; Ussery, David; Nielsen, Jens;


    The human gut is extremely densely inhabited by bacteria mainly from two phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and there is a great interest in analyzing whole-genome sequences for these species because of their relation to human health and disease. Here, we do whole-genome comparison of 105 Bacte...... of members of the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi phylum by whole genome comparison. Gut living Bacteroides have an enriched set of glycan, vitamin, and cofactor enzymes important for diet digestion.......The human gut is extremely densely inhabited by bacteria mainly from two phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and there is a great interest in analyzing whole-genome sequences for these species because of their relation to human health and disease. Here, we do whole-genome comparison of 105...... Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi genomes to elucidate their phylogenetic relationship and to gain insight into what is separating the gut living Bacteroides and Parabacteroides genera from other Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi species. A comprehensive analysis shows that Bacteroides species have a higher number...

  12. From the deep sea to the stars: human life support through minimal communities. (United States)

    Hendrickx, Larissa; Mergeay, Max


    Support of human life during long-distance exploratory space travel or in the creation of human habitats in extreme environments can be accomplished using the action of microbial consortia inhabiting interconnected bioreactors, designed for the purpose of reconversion of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes produced by the human crew or by one of the compartments of the bioregenerative loop, into nutritional biomass, oxygen and potable water. The microorganisms responsible for bioregenerative life support are part of Earth's own geomicrobial reconversion cycle. Depending on the resources and conditions available, minimal life support systems can be assembled using appropriately selected microorganisms that possess metabolic routes for each specific purpose in the transformation cycle. Under control of an engineered system, a reliable life-support system can hence be provided for.

  13. On the beginnings of cinema historiography: the architecture of a modern commercial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ávila Gómez


    Full Text Available This article outlines a structured critical reflection of Ben Hall´s analysis in his The Best Remaining Seats. The Golden Age of the Movie Palace. When it was published in 1961, this article progressively provoked interest in commercial architecture. Its mutations foretold its own disappearance, in the ways that were known at that time: it was architecture for cinematographic exhibition. Beginning with the identification of the main historic elements that are suggested by Hall, this analysis seeks to establish some of the continuities or lack of continuities that they subsequently have in renowned researchers’ written works on the ever-changing cinema architecture.

  14. Physiological and serological variation in S. mitis biovar 1 from the human oral cavity during the first year of life (United States)

    Kirchherr, Jennifer L.; Bowden, George H.; Cole, Michael F.; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Richmond, Dorothy A.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Wirth, Katherine A.


    SUMMARY Objective The purpose of the study was to explore the physiological and antigenic diversity of a large number of S. mitis biovar 1 isolates in order to begin to determine whether these properties contribute to species persistence. Design S. mitis biovar 1 was collected from four infants from birth to one year of age. At each of 8–9 visits 60 isolates each were obtained from the cheeks, tongue and incisors (once erupted) yielding 4,440 in total. These were tested for production of neuraminidase, β1-N-acetylglucosaminidase, β1-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, IgA1 protease, and amylase-binding. Antigenic diversity was examined by ELISA and Western immunoblotting using antisera raised against S. mitis biovar 1 NCTC 12261T and SK145. Results 3,330 (75%) of the isolates were identified as S. mitis biovar 1 and 3,144 (94.4%) could be divided into four large phenotypic groups based on glycosidase production. 54% of the isolates produced IgA1 protease, but production was disproportionate among the phenotypes. Between 1/3 to 1/2 of the strains of each phenotype bound salivary α-amylase. Antisera against strains NCTC 12261T and SK145 displayed different patterns of reactivity with randomly selected representatives of the four phenotypes. Conclusions S. mitis biovar 1 is physiologically and antigenically diverse, properties which could aid strains in avoiding host immunity and promote re-colonization of a habitat or transfer to a new habitat. PMID:17045561

  15. Origins of life: a route to nanotechnology. (United States)

    Sowerby, S J; Holm, N G; Petersen, G B


    The origins of life and nanotechnology are two seemingly disparate areas of scientific investigation. However, the fundamental questions of life's beginnings and the applied construction of a Drexlerian nanotechnology both share a similar problem; how did and how can self-reproducing molecular machines originate? Here we draw attention to the coincidence between nanotechnology and origins research with particular attention paid to the spontaneous adsorption and scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of purine and pyrimidine bases self-organized into monolayers, adsorbed to the surfaces of crystalline solids. These molecules which encode biological information in nucleic acids, can form supramolecular architectures exhibiting enantiomorphism with the complexity to store and encode putative protobiological information. We conclude that the application of nanotechnology to the investigation of life's origins, and vice versa, could provide a viable route to an evolution-driven synthetic life.

  16. Beginning to edit physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.W.


    A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

  17. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging (United States)


    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  18. Development of Temporal Macrostructure in Life Narratives across the Lifespan (United States)

    Köber, Christin; Habermas, Tilmann


    In Western cultures, life narratives are typically expected to recount the narrator's life from birth to the present. Disparate autobiographical memories need to be integrated into a more or less coherent story, which is facilitated by an overarching temporal macrostructure. The temporal macrostructure consists of elaborated beginnings that…

  19. The beginnings of Serbian music historiography: Serbian music periodicals between the world wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar


    Full Text Available The transition of the 19th into the 20th century in Serbian music history was a period of music criticism, journalism and essay writing. At that time, Serbian musicology had not yet been developed as an academic discipline. After WWI there were many more academic writings on this subject; therefore, the interwar period represents the beginning of Serbian music historiography. This paper analyses Serbian interwar music magazines as source material for the history of Serbian musicology. The following music magazines were published in Belgrade at the time: Muzički glasnik (Music Herald, 1922, Muzika (Music, 1928-1929, Glasnik Muzičkog društva „Stanković” (Stanković Music Society Herald, 1928-1934, 1938-1941; from January 1931. known as Muzički glasnik /Music Herald/, Zvuk ( Sound, 1932-1936, Vesnik Južnoslovesnkog pevačkog saveza (The South Slav Singing Union Courier, 1935-1936, 1938, Slavenska muzika ( Slavonic Music, 1939-1941, and Revija muzike (The Music Review, 1940. A great number of historical studies and writings on Serbian music were published in the interwar periodicals. A significant contribution was made above all to the study of Serbian musicians’ biographies and bibliographies of the 19th century. Vladimir R. Đorđević published several short biographies in Muzički glasnik (1922 in an article called Ogled biografskog rečnika srpskih muzičara (An Introduction to Serbian Musicians’ Biographies. Writers on music obviously understood that the starting point in the study of Serbian music history had to be the composers’ biographical data. Other magazines (such as Muzički glasnik in 1928 and 1931, Zvuk, Vesnik Južnoslovenskog pevačkog saveza, and Slavenska muzika published a number of essays on distinguished Serbian and Yugoslav musicians of the 19th and 20th centuries, most of which deal with both composers’ biographical data and analysis of their compositions. Their narrative style reflects the habits of 19th

  20. Thermodynamic Function of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, K


    Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The water cycle, including the absorption of sunlight in the biosphere, is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can therefore be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Antoaneta RADOI


    Full Text Available The latest four decades have marked by their width, speed and radicality a true “revolution” on the financial market, a transformation and restructuring of financial services, of financial instruments which were used, of transaction systems, but also of competitive processes. The importance that should be given to such transformations of financial systems is given, as well, by their impact, both at the micro- and at the macro- levels, on the economy as a whole.The evolution of the European financial market at the beginning of the 21st century has followed the general trend of global markets. As a main tendency of financial market restructuring at the European level we should keep in mind the fact that there was an opening towards private financing according to the American model, due to the necessity to attract international capital resources, a process which is still ongoing.The integration of the European financial markets at the beginning of the 21st century follows the general process of financial globalization which develops rapidly on several structures of financial systems.

  2. Time verification of twilight begin and end at Matrouh of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Hassan


    Full Text Available Twilight observations were carried out in the period «1983–1985» in different seasons at different sites mainly to deduce the beginning and the end of twilight. One of these sites was Matrouh. These observations were gathered using a refractor (an alt-azimuth scanner of 10 cm diameter associated with a photoelectric tube of the type (φ → Y − 51 using 3-filters namely; the blue, visual and red filters. The photoelectric system was calibrated with the international photoelectric color system. The phenomena were followed in steps each 10° in both altitude and azimuth. The depression of the sun below the horizon was calculated from the local time of each scan. The results indicated (at a = 5° and A = 10° for the latitude of Matrouh that the end and the beginning of the twilight occurred when the depression of the sun (Do was between 18° and 20°, while the dawn times were found to be between 14° and 16°. The brightness of the twilight phenomena was followed, however, to different altitudes and azimuths [0° ⩽ a° ⩽ 60° and 0° ⩽ A° ⩽ 60°].

  3. The Multimerization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Vif Protein: A REQUIREMENT FOR Vif FUNCTION IN THE VIRAL LIFE CYCLE*


    Yang, Shicheng; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Hui


    The Vif (virion infectivity factor protein of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) is essential for viral replication in vivo and productive infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, macrophages, and H9 T-cells. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of Vif remains unknown and needs to be further determined. In this report, we show that, like many other proteins encoded by HIV-1, Vif proteins possess a strong tendency toward self-association. In relatively native conditions, Vif pr...

  4. Effect of two commercial herbicides on life history traits of a human disease vector, Aedes aegypti, in the laboratory setting. (United States)

    Morris, Alexandra; Murrell, Ebony G; Klein, Talan; Noden, Bruce H


    Some mosquito species utilize the small niches of water that are abundant in farmland habitats. These niches are susceptible to effects from agricultural pesticides, many of which are applied aerially over large tracts of land. One principal form of weed control in agricultural systems involves the development of herbicide-tolerant crops. The impact of sub-agricultural levels of these herbicides on mosquito survival and life-history traits of resulting adults have not been determined. The aim of this study was to test the effect of two commercial herbicides (Beyond and Roundup) on the survivorship, eclosion time, and body mass of Aedes aegypti. First instar A. aegypti larvae were exposed to varying concentrations (270, 550 and 820 μg/m(2) of glyphosate and 0.74, 1.49, 2.24 μL imazamox/m(2)), all treatments being below recommended application rates, of commercial herbicides in a controlled environment and resulting adult mosquitoes were collected and weighed. Exposure to Roundup had a significant negative effect on A. aegypti survivorship at medium and high sub-agricultural application concentrations, and negatively affected adult eclosion time at the highest concentration. However, exposure to low concentrations of Beyond significantly increased A. aegypti survivorship, although adult female mass was decreased at medium sub-agricultural concentrations. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of two different herbicides, which can occur in rural larval habitats as a result of spray drift, can affect the same species of mosquito in both positive and negative ways depending on the herbicide applied. The effects of commercial herbicides on mosquito populations could have an important effect on disease transmission within agricultural settings, where these and other herbicides are extensively applied to reduce weed growth.

  5. The influence of video recordings on beginning therapist’s learning in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Olesen, Mette Kirk; Kløve, Astrid


    the current relatively widespread use of video, one finds only a very limited number of empirical studies on how these recordings specifically influence the learning process of the beginning therapist. Aim: After a brief discussion of the pro and cons of the use of video recordings this paper presents......Background: Due to the development of technologies and the low costs, video recording of psychotherapy sessions have gained ground in training and supervision. While some praise the advantages others decline to use this technological aid for ethical, theoretical or clinical reasons. Despite...

  6. The influence of video recordings on beginning therapists’ learning in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Olesen, Mette Kirk; Kløve, Astrid

    the current relatively widespread use of video, one finds only a very limited number of empirical studies on how these recordings specifically influence the learning process of the beginning therapist. Aim: After a brief discussion of the pro and cons of the use of video recordings this paper presents......Background: Due to the development of technologies and the low costs, video recording of psychotherapy sessions have gained ground in training and supervision. While some praise the advantages others decline to use this technological aid for ethical, theoretical or clinical reasons. Despite...

  7. Life cycle risks for human health: a comparison of petroleum versus bio-based production of five bulk organic chemicals. (United States)

    Roes, Alexander L; Patel, Martin K


    This article describes the development and application of a generic approach to the comparative assessment of risks related to the production of organic chemicals by petrochemical processes versus white biotechnology. White biotechnology, also referred to as industrial biotechnology, typically uses bio-based feedstocks instead of the fossil raw materials used in the petrochemical sector. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the production of chemicals by means of white biotechnology has lower conventional risks than their production by petrochemical processes. Conventional risks are the risks of well-established processes, and not those related to genetically modified microorganisms and plants. Our approach combines classical risk assessment methods (largely based on toxicology), as developed by the life cycle assessment (LCA) community, with statistics on technological disasters, accidents, and work-related illnesses. Moreover, it covers the total process chain for both petrochemical and bio-based products from cradle to grave. The approach was applied to five products: the plastics polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), and ethanol. Our results show that the conventional risks related to the white biotechnology products studied are lower than those of the petrochemical products. However, considering the uncertainties with respect to the ranges of input data, the (incomplete) coverage of emissions by the environmental priority strategies (EPS) 2000 method, and the uncertainties of the assumptions made in this study (i.e., large to very large), the differences in results between bio-based and petrochemical products fall into the uncertainty range. Because of this, future research is necessary to decrease the uncertainties before we can conclude that the conventional risks of biotechnologically produced chemicals are lower than those of fossil-fuel-derived chemicals.

  8. Mental life in the space of reasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend


    This paper argues the Wittgensteinian point that we can undo the psychologizing of psychology by conceiving of mental life as lived in the space of reasons. It is argued that mental life - human action, feeling and thinking - is constituted by normative connections and necessities rather than...... that it violates our conception of mental illness as something mental, yet outside the space of reasons...

  9. Integrating the teaching role into one's identity: a qualitative study of beginning undergraduate medical teachers. (United States)

    van Lankveld, T; Schoonenboom, J; Kusurkar, R A; Volman, M; Beishuizen, J; Croiset, G


    Beginning medical teachers often see themselves as doctors or researchers rather than as teachers. Using both figured worlds theory and dialogical self theory, this study explores how beginning teachers in the field of undergraduate medical education integrate the teacher role into their identity. A qualitative study was performed, involving 18 beginning medical teachers at a Dutch medical school. The teachers were interviewed twice and kept a logbook over a period of 7 months. The study shows that the integration of the teacher role into the teachers' identity was hampered by the idea that teaching is perceived by others as a low status occupation. Some teachers experienced significant tension because of this, while others showed resilience in resisting the negative associations that were thought to exist regarding teaching. The teachers used five different identity narratives in order to integrate the teacher role into their identity, in which the positions of teacher and doctor or researcher were found to be combined, adopted or rejected in diverse ways. The five identity narratives were: (1) coalition between the I-position of teacher and other I-positions; (2) no integration of the I-position of teacher: holding on to other I-positions; (3) construction of the I-position of teacher and other I-positions as opposites; (4) coalition between the I-position of teacher and a third position of coordinator; and (5) meta-position: trivialising the importance of status. These identity narratives offer starting points for supporting undergraduate teachers during their early professional years.

  10. Reports from Ministry of Finance: China Nay Begin to Collect Carbon Tax in the Next Five Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The investigation team of Research Institute for Fiscal Science, Ministry of Finance, just published a report on the "Study on the Issue of Beginning to Levy Carbon Tax in China." The report said that the beginning of the collection of carbon tax could be considered in the next five years.

  11. Influence of Niobium on the Beginning of the Plastic Flow of Material during Cold Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoja Rešković


    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on low-carbon steel and the steel with same chemical composition with addition of microalloying element niobium. While tensile testing was carried out, the thermographic measurement was tacking place simultaneously. A specific behavior of niobium microalloyed steel was noticed. Test results have shown that, in the elastic deformation region, thermoelastic effect occurs, which is more pronounced in niobium microalloyed steel. Start of plastic flow in steel which is not microalloyed with niobium begins later in comparison to the microalloyed steel, and it is conducted so that, at the point of maximum stress, deformation zone is formed within which stresses grow. In steel microalloyed with niobium after proportionality limit, comes the occurrence of the localized increase in temperature and the occurrence of Lüders band, which propagate along the sample forming a deformation zone.

  12. Influence of niobium on the beginning of the plastic flow of material during cold deformation. (United States)

    Rešković, Stoja; Jandrlić, Ivan


    Investigations were conducted on low-carbon steel and the steel with same chemical composition with addition of microalloying element niobium. While tensile testing was carried out, the thermographic measurement was tacking place simultaneously. A specific behavior of niobium microalloyed steel was noticed. Test results have shown that, in the elastic deformation region, thermoelastic effect occurs, which is more pronounced in niobium microalloyed steel. Start of plastic flow in steel which is not microalloyed with niobium begins later in comparison to the microalloyed steel, and it is conducted so that, at the point of maximum stress, deformation zone is formed within which stresses grow. In steel microalloyed with niobium after proportionality limit, comes the occurrence of the localized increase in temperature and the occurrence of Lüders band, which propagate along the sample forming a deformation zone.

  13. Beginning Chemistry Teachers Use of the Triplet Relationship During their First Three Years in the Classroom (United States)

    Adams, Krista

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been described as the knowledge teachers' use in the process of designing and implementing lessons to a particular group of students. This includes the most effective representations that make the content understandable to students, together with the preconceptions and misconceptions that students hold. For chemistry, students have been found to have difficulty with the discipline due to its reliance upon three levels of representation called the triplet: the macro, the submicro, and the symbolic. This study examines eight beginning chemistry teachers' depiction of the chemistry content through the triplet relationship and modifications as a result of considering students' understanding across the teacher's first three years in the classroom. The data collected included classroom observations, interviews, and artifacts for the purpose of triangulation. The analysis of the data revealed that beginning chemistry teachers utilized the abstract components, submicro and symbolic, primarily in the first year. However, the teachers began to engage more macro representations over time building a more developed instructional repertoire. Additionally, teachers' developed an awareness of and responded to their students' understanding of learning atomic structure during the second and third year teaching. The results of this study call for preservice and induction programs to help novice chemistry teachers build a beginning repertoire that focuses on the triplet relationship. In so doing, the teachers enter the classroom with a repertoire that allows them to address the needs of their students. Finally, the study suggests that the triplet relationship framework should be revisited to include an additional component that frames learning to account for socioscientific issues and historical contributions.

  14. [Acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock - trends at the beginning of 21st century]. (United States)

    Rokyta, Richard


    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a clinical syndrome of different etiology and several clinical presentations. Cardiogenic shock patients have highest long-term mortality. In contrast to chronic heart failure, we have no evidence of therapeutic benefit for any treatment strategy from randomized clinical trials. Search for new pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies is ongoing. Both causal and symptomatic treatment of AHF episode should be initiated as soon as possible. This review is focused on trends in acute heart failure therapy at the beginning of 21st century.




  16. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’


    Thomas B L Kirkwood


    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’, to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, ...

  17. Applying Human Factors during the SIS Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, K.


    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are widely used in U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nonreactor nuclear facilities for safety-critical applications. Although use of the SIS technology and computer-based digital controls, can improve performance and safety, it potentially introduces additional complexities, such as failure modes that are not readily detectable. Either automated actions or manual (operator) actions may be required to complete the safety instrumented function to place the process in a safe state or mitigate a hazard in response to an alarm or indication. DOE will issue a new standard, Application of Safety Instrumented Systems Used at DOE Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to provide guidance for the design, procurement, installation, testing, maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of SIS used in safety significant functions at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. The DOE standard focuses on utilizing the process industry consensus standard, American National Standards Institute/ International Society of Automation (ANSI/ISA) 84.00.01, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector, to support reliable SIS design throughout the DOE complex. SIS design must take into account human-machine interfaces and their limitations and follow good human factors engineering (HFE) practices. HFE encompasses many diverse areas (e.g., information display, user-system interaction, alarm management, operator response, control room design, and system maintainability), which affect all aspects of system development and modification. This paper presents how the HFE processes and principles apply throughout the SIS life cycle to support the design and use of SIS at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities.

  18. What We Don't Know about the Beginning of the Universe (United States)

    Carroll, Sean


    The history of the universe from a few seconds after the Big Bang is fairly well-understood, but what happened before then is largely mysterious. Inflation is a popular paradigm, but raises a number of conceptual problems, both in its conception and its implementation. Before inflation, we don't know whether there was a true beginning or whether the universe has lasted eternally; which alternative is correct may come down to dimly-understood features of quantum gravity. I will discuss these issues, how they relate to later-universe cosmology, and the prospects for future progress.

  19. How the effects of aging and stresses of life are integrated in mortality rates: insights for genetic studies of human health and longevity. (United States)

    Yashin, Anatoliy I; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Arbeeva, Liubov S; Wu, Deqing; Akushevich, Igor; Kovtun, Mikhail; Yashkin, Arseniy; Kulminski, Alexander; Culminskaya, Irina; Stallard, Eric; Li, Miaozhu; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V


    Increasing proportions of elderly individuals in developed countries combined with substantial increases in related medical expenditures make the improvement of the health of the elderly a high priority today. If the process of aging by individuals is a major cause of age related health declines then postponing aging could be an efficient strategy for improving the health of the elderly. Implementing this strategy requires a better understanding of genetic and non-genetic connections among aging, health, and longevity. We review progress and problems in research areas whose development may contribute to analyses of such connections. These include genetic studies of human aging and longevity, the heterogeneity of populations with respect to their susceptibility to disease and death, forces that shape age patterns of human mortality, secular trends in mortality decline, and integrative mortality modeling using longitudinal data. The dynamic involvement of genetic factors in (i) morbidity/mortality risks, (ii) responses to stresses of life, (iii) multi-morbidities of many elderly individuals, (iv) trade-offs for diseases, (v) genetic heterogeneity, and (vi) other relevant aging-related health declines, underscores the need for a comprehensive, integrated approach to analyze the genetic connections for all of the above aspects of aging-related changes. The dynamic relationships among aging, health, and longevity traits would be better understood if one linked several research fields within one conceptual framework that allowed for efficient analyses of available longitudinal data using the wealth of available knowledge about aging, health, and longevity already accumulated in the research field.

  20. Karyotypic instability and centrosome aberrations in the progeny of finite life-span human mammary epithelial cells exposed to sparsely or densely ionizing radiation. (United States)

    Sudo, Hiroko; Garbe, James; Stampfer, Martha R; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Kronenberg, Amy


    The human breast is sensitive to radiation carcinogenesis, and genomic instability occurs early in breast cancer development. This study tests the hypothesis that ionizing radiation elicits genomic instability in finite life-span human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and asks whether densely ionizing radiation is a more potent inducer of instability. HMEC in a non-proliferative state were exposed to X rays or 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions followed by delayed plating. Karyotypic instability and centrosome aberrations were monitored in expanded clonal isolates. Severe karyotypic instability was common in the progeny of cells that survived X-ray or iron-ion exposure. There was a lower dose threshold for severe karyotypic instability after iron-ion exposure. More than 90% of X-irradiated colonies and >60% of iron-ion-irradiated colonies showed supernumerary centrosomes at levels above the 95% upper confidence limit of the mean for unirradiated clones. A dose response was observed for centrosome aberrations for each radiation type. There was a statistically significant association between the incidence of karyotypic instability and supernumerary centrosomes for iron-ion-exposed colonies and a weaker association for X-irradiated colonies. Thus genomic instability occurs frequently in finite life-span HMEC exposed to sparsely or densely ionizing radiation and may contribute to radiation-induced breast cancer.

  1. Ontogenetic changes in the bacterial symbiont community of the tropical demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica: metamorphosis is a new beginning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Fieth


    Full Text Available Vertical transmission of bacterial symbionts, which is known in many species of sponge (Porifera, is expected to promote strong fidelity between the partners. Combining 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and electron microscopy, we have assayed the relative abundance of vertically-inherited bacterial symbionts in several stages of the life cycle of Amphimedon queenslandica, a tropical coral reef sponge. We reveal that adult A. queenslandica house a low diversity microbiome dominated by just three proteobacterial OTUs, with a single gammaprotebacterium clearly dominant through much of the life cycle. This ontogenetic perspective has revealed that, although vertical transmission occurs very early in development, the inherited symbionts do not maintain proportional dominance of the bacterial community at every developmental stage. A reproductive bottleneck in the A. queenslandica life cycle is larval settlement, when a free-swimming pelagic larva settles out of the water column onto the benthos and completes metamorphoses into the sessile body plan within just 3 to 4 days. During this dramatic life cycle transition, an influx of environmentally-derived bacteria leads to a major reorganization of the microbiome, potentially challenging the fidelity and persistence of the vertically-inherited symbiotic relationships. However, dominance of the primary, vertically-inherited symbionts is restored in adult sponges. The mechanisms underlying ontogenetic changes in the bacterial community are unknown, including how the dominance of the primary symbionts is restored in the adult sponge – does the host or symbiont regulate this process? Using high-resolution transcriptional profiling in multiple stages of the A. queenslandica life cycle combined with this natural perturbation of the microbiome immediately following larval settlement, we are beginning to identify candidate host genes associated with animal-bacterial crosstalk. Among the sponge host genes

  2. Beginning High School Teachers' Perceptions of Involvement in Professional Learning Communities and Its Impact on Teacher Retention (United States)

    Lovett, Helen Tomlinson


    The purpose of this study was to examine beginning high school teachers' perceptions of involvement in Professional Learning Communities in southeastern North Carolina and to determine whether beginning teachers' perceptions of involvement in Professional Learning Communities influenced their decisions to move to another location, stay in…

  3. From Attrition to Retention: A Narrative Inquiry of Why Beginning Teachers Leave and Then Rejoin the Profession (United States)

    Harfitt, Gary James


    The issue of beginning teachers leaving the profession in the first few years of their career represents a global problem, and while discrepancies exist over precise numbers, there is consensus that the attrition rate of new teachers is high. This paper reports on a narrative inquiry into two beginning teachers who left the profession after just…

  4. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana


    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  5. Sex differences in early-life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans suggest increased vulnerability in females: a systematic review. (United States)

    Carpenter, T; Grecian, S M; Reynolds, R M


    Fetal glucocorticoid overexposure is a key mechanism linking early development with later-life disease. In humans, low birth weight associates with increased fasting cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, and with cardiovascular risk and cognitive decline. As there are sex differences in these adult diseases, we hypothesized that there may be sex differences in programming of the HPA axis in response to prenatal stressors. We conducted a systematic review following Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. We searched Embase, MEDLINE and Web of Science from inception to 31 October 2016. We included studies related to sex differences, prenatal exposures and HPA axis. We excluded studies investigating specific disease states. The 23 included studies investigated the consequences of low birth weight, preterm birth and maternal stressors of asthma, psychosocial stress and glucocorticoid medications on HPA axis outcomes of placental glucocorticoid biology and offspring HPA axis function in early life and later life. Female offspring exposed to stressors had increased HPA axis reactivity compared with males. Furthermore, the female placenta increased its permeability to maternal glucocorticoids following maternal stress with changes in the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in response to maternal glucocorticoid exposure or asthma. Among males there was some evidence of altered diurnal cortisol secretion. We conclude that although there is some evidence of male vulnerability leading to altered diurnal cortisol secretion, the female HPA axis is more vulnerable to programming, particularly in terms of its reactivity; this suggests a mechanism underlying sex differences in later-life diseases.

  6. Strategies for Reading Chinese Texts with and without Pop-Up Dictionary for Beginning Learners of Chinese (United States)

    Wang, Jing


    This study is aimed at identifying reading strategies of beginning learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) with and without a pop-up dictionary and at determining if learners retain the reading comprehension gained from using the dictionary. Beginning CFL learners at a Midwestern university answered questions about their reading strategies…

  7. Beginning Science Teachers' Use of a Digital Video Annotation Tool to Promote Reflective Practices (United States)

    McFadden, Justin; Ellis, Joshua; Anwar, Tasneem; Roehrig, Gillian


    The development of teachers as reflective practitioners is a central concept in national guidelines for teacher preparation and induction (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education 2008). The Teacher Induction Network (TIN) supports the development of reflective practice for beginning secondary science teachers through the creation of online "communities of practice" (Barab et al. in Inf Soc, 237-256, 2003), which have been shown to have positive impacts on teacher collaboration, communication, and reflection. Specifically, TIN integrated the use of asynchronous, video annotation as an affordance to directly facilitate teachers' reflection on their classroom practices (Tripp and Rich in Teach Teach Educ 28(5):728-739, 2013). This study examines the use of video annotation as a tool for developing reflective practices for beginning secondary science teachers. Teachers were enrolled in an online teacher induction course designed to promote reflective practice and inquiry-based instruction. A modified version of the Learning to Notice Framework (Sherin and van Es in J Teach Educ 60(1):20-37, 2009) was used to classify teachers' annotations on video of their teaching. Findings from the study include the tendency of teachers to focus on themselves in their annotations, as well as a preponderance of annotations focused on lower-level reflective practices of description and explanation. Suggestions for utilizing video annotation tools are discussed, as well as design features, which could be improved to further the development of richer annotations and deeper reflective practices.

  8. Theoretical and experimental decisions in the creation of an artificial ecosystem for human life support in space. (United States)

    Kirensky, L V; Gitelson, I I; Terskov, I A; Kovrov, B G; Lisovsky, G M; Okladnikov, Y N


    All of man's former space flights were not real ventures into space in the biological sense, as his life was supported with unregenerated earth supplies. The coming stage of space exploration requires man's long existence in the cosmos and on the other planets. This stage of man's activity outside the earth become possible only by creating small man-made ecosystems, permitting the support of his metabolism by the recycling of substances of the terrestrial biosphere. Creation of such systems is a new scientific and technical task. Man-made ecosystems are a new product of man's activity, which have no complete analogy, either in nature, or in technology. Stochastic mechanisms, which stabilize biogeocenosis, cannot be effective in small ecosystems. A technique of parametric control over biosynthesis made it possible to calculate, and put to practice, an ecosystem for man with a cyclic regeneration of the atmosphere, water and, partially, food. The specific bio-technological properties of small man-made ecosystems are being analysed. The possibility of their application for man's excursions into space and for the settlement of other planets is being considered.

  9. About the Phenomenological Statute of Social Issues: The Beginning of a Pure Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Belvedere


    Full Text Available This article is part of a forthcoming book on the problems of social phenomenology, based on readings of the work of Alfred Schutz and his significance for contemporary social theory. Here, we will concentrate on the preliminary problems of a pure sociology. We will investigate the meaning of the categorial act according to Husserl, aiming to enlighten the fundamental question of the ontological statute of social issues. We will notice that a longstanding sociological tradition, which begins with Durkheim and continues until Schutz, has faced this issue in an unfruitful way. We will see, in both works, a “Kantian dilemma” which we believe would find solution in the Husserlian conception of the categorial act. We hope to make, with this work, a modest contribution to a future pure sociology.

  10. [The anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp: The beginning of a medical utopia]. (United States)

    Rosler, Roberto; Young, Pablo


    The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp was painted by Rembrandt Harmen-szoon van Rijn at the early age of 26 years. In the XVII century these paintings were very popular in the Netherlands, and in this country the cities flourished as cultural centers searching the anatomy knowledge. Nicolaes Tulp was one of the persons in the center of Amsterdam's scene during XVII century. In 1632 Tulp was 39 years old, and he was an anatomist and a surgeon. Rembrandt masterly shows an autopsy performed by Dr. Tulp. This picture is the description of the beginning of a medical intellectual utopia: the absolute visibility of the disease. Unfortunately this utopia is blind to the complete visibility of the psycho-socio-cultural dimensions of the ill.

  11. Toward a Developmental Psychology of Sehnsucht (Life Longings): The Optimal (Utopian) Life (United States)

    Scheibe, Susanne; Freund, Alexandra M.; Baltes, Paul B.


    The topic of an optimal or utopian life has received much attention across the humanities and the arts but not in psychology. The German concept of Sehnsucht captures individual and collective thoughts and feelings about one's optimal or utopian life. Sehnsucht (life longings; LLs) is defined as an intense desire for alternative states and…

  12. The human intestinal microbiome at extreme ages of life. Dietary intervention as a way to counteract alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eSalazar


    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiome is defined as the assembly of genomes from microorganisms inhabiting the gut. This microbial ecosystem regulates important functions of the host and its correct composition and functionality is essential for a healthy status. Metagenomic studies have highlighted variations of the intestinal microbiota as a function of age and diet. Colonization of the infant gut starts at birth and is influenced by feeding habits (formula vs. breast-feeding, birth mode and antibiotic exposure. The intestinal microbiota of full-term vaginally-delivered breast-fed infants is considered the gold-standard of a healthy infant microbiota, representing the reference for studies of alterations in other pediatric populations. At two to three years of age, the intestinal microbiota reaches a composition similar to adults, remaining without noticeable variations until senescence, when microbial instability and changes reappear. Here we summarize the current knowledge on intestinal microbiota alterations at extreme stages of life and tools for designing differentiated nutritional strategies by the use of probiotics, prebiotics and specific nutrients in order to restore a balanced microbiota and to improve immune and nutritional status.

  13. New year new beginning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yi-jian


    @@ Beginning from January 2005, the Chinese Medical Journal will be published semimonthly. Since its establishment in 1887, this oldest medical periodical in China has been published monthly most of the time,and bimonthly, quarterly or even semiannually at times. To be published semimonthly is really the first time in the long centennial history of the journal. The shortening of the publication interval, in fact, reflects the surging accomplishments of medical sciences and technology in China in the past decades.

  14. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V


    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  15. Thermodynamic Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, K


    Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Out of equilibrium structuring in space and time is contingent on continuous entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the natural tendency of Nature to explore all available microstates. The process producing the greatest amount of entropy in the biosphere is the absorption and transformation of sunlight, leading to the transpiration of water by plants and cyanobacteria. Here we hypothesize that life began, and exists today, as a dynamic catalyst for the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat, which could then be efficiently harvested by the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the ultraviolet light that could have penetrated the dense early atmosphere, and are extremely rapid in transforming this light into heat that can be readily absorbed by liquid water. The origin and evolution of life was thus driven...

  16. The origami of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezon, Timothy R [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Banavar, Jayanth R [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Maritan, Amos [Dipartimento di Fisica ' G Galilei' and INFN, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    All living organisms rely upon networks of molecular interactions to carry out their vital processes. In order for a molecular system to display the properties of life, its constituent molecules must themselves be endowed with several features: stability, specificity, self-organization, functionality, sensitivity, robustness, diversity and adaptability. We argue that these are the emergent properties of a unique phase of matter, and we demonstrate that proteins, the functional molecules of terrestrial life, are perfectly suited to this phase. We explore, through an understanding of this phase of matter, the physical principles that govern the operation of living matter. Our work has implications for the design of functionally useful nanoscale devices and the ultimate development of physically based artificial life.

  17. Strategies of Life Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, Oliver; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Selsis, Franck; Summons, Roger


    The search for life outside the Earth has been one of mankind's most challenging quests. We have reached a level of technology that allows for initial steps toward thorough scientific investigation. The aim of this workshop was to take an interdisciplinary look at the signatures that would be indicative of past or present life on another planet and compare them to biosignatures on Earth. The purpose of the workshop was also to discuss state-of-the-art in-situ instruments that are envisioned to search for these signatures in the exploration of the solar system, as well as the discussion of concepts descriptive of the search for habitable planets around other stars. This book is intended to provide a reference to scientists and instrument developers working in the field of in-situ and remote life detection. It can also be used as an interdisciplinary introduction for students and post-doctoral researchers entering this new and exciting field.

  18. A probabilistic approach to the assessment of some life history pattern parameters in a Middle Pleistocene human population. (United States)

    Durand, A I; Ipina, S L; Bermúdez de Castro, J M


    Parameters of a Middle Pleistocene human population such as the expected length of the female reproductive period (E(Y)), the expected interbirth interval (E(X)), the survival rate (tau) for females after the expected reproductive period, the rate (phi(2)) of women who, given that they reach first birth, do not survive to the end of the expected reproductive period, and the female infant plus juvenile mortality rate (phi(1)) have been assessed from a probabilistic standpoint provided that such a population were stationary. The hominid sample studied, the Sima de los Huesos (SH) cave site, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain), is the most exhaustive human fossil sample currently available. Results suggest that the Atapuerca (SH) sample can derive from a stationary population. Further, in the case that the expected reproductive period ends between 37 and 40 yr of age, then 24 less, similarE(Y) less, similar27 yr, E(X)=3 yr, 0.224of the expected reproductive period occurs after 40 yr of age, it turns out that 24 less, similarE(Y) less, similar30 yr, E(X)=3 yr, 0.204

  19. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James


    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  20. Quality of Life Philosophy VI. The Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available The about a hundred central concepts related to research in the global quality of life can, in a holistic medical frame of interpretation, be organized under ten abstract key concepts: existence, creation of the world, state of being, daily living, talents, relations, sex, health, personal development, and therapy with subthemes as discussed in this paper. The paper shows that the concepts in each group can be seen as related to each other in a quite intuitive and logical way, to give a coherent quality of life philosophy that allows the physician to encourage, inspire, and support his patient. In every consultation, one new concept and idea of existence can be taught to the patient, helping him or her to realize the meaning of life, the source of joy, and the reason for the actual suffering. In this way, we help the patient to mobilize hidden and known resources and to improve quality of life, subjective health, and the ability to function. The concepts were harvested in 2003 at a Nordic seminar on quality of life research, held in Sweden. Life does not only cohere on the inside, but also on the outside. The same power that ties together all the cells in our body, seems to tie us together in relationships and new wholeness. This power evolves into new kinds of relations that unite on more and more complex levels, with the global ecosystem as the highest known level.Our intentions come from this coherent matrix of life. In the beginning of our life, the web of life itself gave birth to our fundamental purpose of life. The abstract purpose determines the frame of interpretation of reality: How we will perceive ourselves throughout life, our inner life, and the world around us. The frame of interpretation is pitched in language and concepts, in fact it creates our perceptions. Based on these perceptions and our purposes of life, our behavior arises. Our consciousness evolves through the witnessing of our behavior and through the response caused by