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Sample records for began providing bottled

  1. How nuclear power began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowing, M.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the features of the story of nuclear power, both in nuclear weapons and nuclear power stations, derive from their timing. Usually, in the history of science the precise timing of discovery does not make much difference, but in the case of nuclear fission there was the coincidence that crucial discoveries were made and openly published in the same year, 1939, as the outbreak of the Second World War. It is these events of the 1930s and the early post-war era that are mainly discussed. However, the story began a lot earlier and even in the early 1900s the potential power within the atom had been foreseen by Soddy and Rutherford. In the 1930s Enrico Fermi and his team saw the technological importance of their discoveries and took out a patent on their process to produce artificial radioactivity from slow neutron beams. The need for secrecy because of the war, and the personal trusts and mistrusts run through the story of nuclear power. (UK)

  2. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  3. New wine in an old bottle: does alienation provide an explanation of the origins of physician discontent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John B; Marceau, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    We have witnessed transformational changes to the U.S. health care system over several decades. Alongside these changes is an increasing number of research reports and commentaries on physician workplace dissatisfaction and discontent. Primary care physicians, in particular, report dissatisfaction with conditions on the ground. Is there solid evidence concerning the magnitude of doctors' discontent, and how is it changing over time? Is it confined to the United States, or is it also occurring in other countries with different health care systems? Does physician discontent affect the processes, quality, and outcomes of medical care? This article addresses these questions. It considers the dimensions of physician dissatisfaction, whether there is a problem, and competing contributions to physician discontent. The authors suggest that the classic concept of alienation may build upon valuable earlier work and provide a new, coherent explanation of the workplace origins of physician discontent. Alienation theory combines both structural and psychological components associated with workplace discontent and has the potential to explain the changing position of knowledge workers (such as physicians) in the new economy.

  4. The Geneva conference - How it began

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-08-15

    The First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy had its origin in President Eisenhower's initiative of the early nineteen-fifties, when he proposed a concerted international effort to divert the power of the atom from warlike purposes into the service of peace. To the United Nations General Assembly in December 1953, he pledged the determination of the United States 'to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma - to devote its entire heart and mind to finding the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life'. The UN General Assembly in plenary session, in December 1954, unanimously and enthusiastically adopted a resolution which provided for the establishment of an International Atomic Energy Agency, and for the holding of an international technical conference of governments under the auspices of the United Nations. To prepare the way, an Advisory Committee was set up, consisting of representatives of Brazil, Canada, France, India, USSR, United Kingdom and USA. The result was the largest meeting that had been convened under the auspices of the United Nations; it was held from 8 to 25 August 1955 in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, where the necessary facilities were available for such a large multilingual conference. Thirty-eight governments submitted 1067 papers and 1428 participants attended. The conference was wide in scope, embracing all major aspects of the peaceful applications of atomic energy.

  5. The Geneva conference - How it began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy had its origin in President Eisenhower's initiative of the early nineteen-fifties, when he proposed a concerted international effort to divert the power of the atom from warlike purposes into the service of peace. To the United Nations General Assembly in December 1953, he pledged the determination of the United States 'to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma - to devote its entire heart and mind to finding the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life'. The UN General Assembly in plenary session, in December 1954, unanimously and enthusiastically adopted a resolution which provided for the establishment of an International Atomic Energy Agency, and for the holding of an international technical conference of governments under the auspices of the United Nations. To prepare the way, an Advisory Committee was set up, consisting of representatives of Brazil, Canada, France, India, USSR, United Kingdom and USA. The result was the largest meeting that had been convened under the auspices of the United Nations; it was held from 8 to 25 August 1955 in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, where the necessary facilities were available for such a large multilingual conference. Thirty-eight governments submitted 1067 papers and 1428 participants attended. The conference was wide in scope, embracing all major aspects of the peaceful applications of atomic energy.

  6. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult it can be to break the bottle habit. Longer bottle use may lead to cavities or ... Drinks for Kids Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  7. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  8. Before time began the Big Bang and the emerging universe

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    What is the origin of the universe? What was there before the universe appeared? We are currently witnessing a second Copernican revolution: neither our Earth and Sun, nor our galaxy, nor even our universe, are the end of all things. Beyond our world, in an endless multiverse, are innumerable other universes, coming and going, like ours or different. Fourteen billion years ago, one of the many bubbles constantly appearing and vanishing in the multiverse exploded to form our universe. The energy liberated in the explosion provided the basis for all the matter our universe now contains. But how could this hot, primordial plasma eventually produce the complex structure of our present world? Does not order eventually always lead to disorder, to an increase of entropy? Modern cosmology is beginning to find out how it all came about and where it all might lead. Before Time Began tells that story.

  9. Microgrooved plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. N.; Ding, M.; Murugan, G. S.; Zervas, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an enhancement to SPW cavity through the incorporation of high-Q WGM bottle microresonator (BMR) with surface microgrooves. A standard BMR fabricated through the “soften-and-compress” technique with initial length of 280 μm, bottle diameter of 187 μm and stem diameter of 125 μm was utilized in the experiment for supporting WGMs. Thin gold film was deposited on top of the BMR for generating SPWs. 21 microgrooves was then inscribed on the metal surface of the BMR along the azimuthal direction with 10 μm length, 485 nm width, 6 μm depth and pitch of 1.5 μm. Due to surface curvature, the gold film only covered half of the BMR with a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered metal edges that facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice-versa. Lorentzian shape-line fit performed on the TM excited resonances show that plasmonic Q values in excess of 4000 could be achieved from such structure with ∼ 25% coupling efficiency.

  10. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Bottled water basics ....................................... pg.2 Advice for people with severely compromised immune systems (Sidebar) ............................. pg2 Know what you’re buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar) ..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ...

  11. Energy implications of bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleick, P H; Cooley, H S

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  12. Techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to providing investment data to guide entrepreneurs in making investment decisions. The economic evaluation was based on a factory capacity of 750,000 bottles (60cl) per annum with production ...

  13. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    has to have an inner coating barrier. The most reliable solution proposed is to coat the inner walls with silicon dioxide, which is not biodegradable but rather environmentally inert. To enhance the environmental footprint and sustainability of the bottle, and to be competitive with the existing...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  14. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  15. The trail to Leduc began in the North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    2000-06-01

    A milestone event in the history of the petroleum industry in Canada occurred in 1914 with the expedition down the Mackenzie River by Dr. T. O. Bosworth, a British geologist, which rivals in importance two better known events, namely the Dingman No. 1 discovery which began disgorging wet gas at Turner Valley in 1914, and the beginning of the modern era with the discovery of oil at Leduc, Alberta in 1947. The Bosworth expedition was commissioned by two Calgary businessmen to investigate the petroleum potential of northern Alberta and beyond, and to stake the most promising claims. That Dr. Bosworth did not disappoint his sponsors is evident from his 70-page long report which he produced upon his return, indicating excellent exploration prospects in three general regions, namely the Mackenzie River between Old Fort Good Hope and Fort Norman, the Tar Springs District on the Great Slave Lake, and the Tar Sand District on the Athabasca River. Exploration was postponed by the exigencies of World War I, but Imperial Oil drilled on one of Bosworth's claims after the war ended and oil was found in 1920. Because of lack of infrastructure to get the oil to major markets, development was lagging until after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, when Norman Wells was developed with American help, primarily to supply oil to the Pacific Fleet. Imperial drilled, while construction crews built a 1,000-km oil pipeline over the Mackenzie Mountains to a newly constructed refiner in Whitehorse. Despite a total cost to the U.S. taxpayers of $134 million, the Canol project (as it was known) contributed little to the war effort. Total production was 1.98 million barrels of oil, of which 46,000 barrels were spilled along the poorly constructed pipeline. Refined petroleum product output was just 866,670 barrels. The appalling disposal and clean up practices eventually led to having the Whitehorse site declared an environmentally contaminated site in 1998. The Maxwell Tar Pit is

  16. 27 CFR 4.26 - Estate bottled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled. (a) Conditions for use. The term Estate bottled may be used by a bottling winery on a wine label only if the wine is labeled with a viticultural area appellation of origin and the bottling winery: (1... owned or controlled by the winery within the boundaries of the labeled viticultural area; (3) crushed...

  17. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  18. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  19. Green fiber bottle: Towards a sustainable package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber Bot...... Bottle, towards a sustainable packaging...

  20. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed in...

  1. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  2. Post-consumer contamination in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) milk bottles and the design of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, F

    2005-10-01

    Six hundred conventional recycled HDPE flake samples, which were recollected and sorted in the UK, were screened for post-consumer contamination levels. Each analysed sample consisted of 40-50 individual flakes so that the amount of analysed individual containers was in the range 24,000-30,000 post-consumer milk bottles. Predominant contaminants in hot-washed flake samples were unsaturated oligomers, which can be also be found in virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellet samples used for milk bottle production. In addition, the flavour compound limonene, the degradation product of antioxidant additives di-tert-butylphenol and low amounts of saturated oligomers were found in higher concentrations in the post-consumer samples in comparison with virgin HDPE. However, the overall concentrations in post-consumer recycled samples were similar to or lower than concentration ranges in comparison with virgin HDPE. Contamination with other HDPE untypical compounds was rare and was in most cases related to non-milk bottles, which are HDPE and on the high cleaning efficiency of the super-clean recycling process especially for highly volatile compounds, the recycling process investigated is suitable for recycled post-consumer HDPE bottles for direct food-contact applications. However, hand-picking after automatically sorting is recommended to decrease the amount of non-milk bottles. The conclusions for suitability are valid, provided that the migration testing of recyclate contains milk bottles up to 100% and that both shelf-life testing and sensorial testing of the products are successful, which are topics of further investigations.

  3. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: total estrogenic burden and migration from plastic bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2009-05-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. So far, this has been demonstrated by exposure modeling or analytical identification of single substances in foodstuff (e.g., phthalates) and human body fluids (e.g., urine and blood). Since the research in this field is focused on few chemicals (and thus missing mixture effects), the overall contamination of edibles with xenohormones is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the integrated estrogenic burden of bottled mineral water as model foodstuff and to characterize the potential sources of the estrogenic contamination. In the present study, we analyzed commercially available mineral water in an in vitro system with the human estrogen receptor alpha and detected estrogenic contamination in 60% of all samples with a maximum activity equivalent to 75.2 ng/l of the natural sex hormone 17beta-estradiol. Furthermore, breeding of the molluskan model Potamopyrgus antipodarum in water bottles made of glass and plastic [polyethylene terephthalate (PET)] resulted in an increased reproductive output of snails cultured in PET bottles. This provides first evidence that substances leaching from plastic food packaging materials act as functional estrogens in vivo. Our results demonstrate a widespread contamination of mineral water with xenoestrogens that partly originates from compounds leaching from the plastic packaging material. These substances possess potent estrogenic activity in vivo in a molluskan sentinel. Overall, the results indicate that a broader range of foodstuff may be contaminated with endocrine disruptors when packed in plastics.

  4. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p < 0.0001). Moreover, bottled water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p < 0.05). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  5. Brucella detection in blood: comparison of the BacT/Alert standard aerobic bottle, BacT/Alert FAN aerobic bottle and BacT/Alert enhanced FAN aerobic bottle in simulated blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümerkan, B; Gökahmetoglu, S; Esel, D

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performances of the standard aerobic bottle (StAe), FAN aerobic (FANAe) and enhanced FAN aerobic (E-FANAe) (the charcoal component of the FANAe was revised recently to improve the feasibility of Gram smear interpretation) blood culture bottles for BacT/Alert system for the detection of Brucella melitensis in simulated blood culture. Triplicate strains of eight clinical isolates of B. melitensis were studied. Each bottle was inoculated with 5 mL of freshly collected human blood at three different targeted bacterial inocula (10(1), 10(2) and 10(3) CFU/bottle). All bottles were monitored for up to 21 days or until they became positive. The results of time to detection (TTD) on the eight B. melitensis samples were as follows: at 10(1) CFU/bottle, the E-FANAe had a mean TTD significantly shorter than the StAe (48 h vs. 56.2 h, P StAe (41.2 h and 40 h vs. 45.6 h, P StAe, FANAe and E-FANAe were 96, 83 and 58%, respectively. At 10(3) CFU/bottle, the reproducibilities of StAe, FANAe and E-FANAe were 95, 95 and 91%, respectively. Positive results for the presence of bacteria in Gram smears were confirmed in 68% of StAe, 54% of FANAe and 90% of E-FANAe. In case of suspected brucellosis, the combination of one StAe bottle and one E-FANAe bottle seems to provide the highest and fastest recovery of the organism.

  6. Whispering gallery mode selection in optical bottle microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Brambilla, Gilberto; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrated a method to excite selected whispering gallery modes in optical bottle microresonators (BMR) by inscribing microgroove scars on their surface by focused ion beam milling. Substantial spectral clean-up is obtained in appropriately scarred BMRs, providing the potential for high performance sensors and other optical devices.

  7. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  8. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Making Pop Bottle Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Graham

    2005-01-01

    Teaching about forces provides a good opportunity to encourage children to start thinking about energy transfer. Children come into the classroom with a number of ideas about the nature of energy. These often become apparent when eliciting their ideas about forces, particularly when discussing "push" and "pull". In this article, the author…

  10. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  11. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  12. Recycling plastic bottles in a creative way

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Beside other plastic products, plastic bottles represent a true environmental disaster in the last few years. We assume that hardly anyone asks what happens after they drink that last drop of water out of it. Just like most municipal waste, a plastic bottle can be reused, recycled, burned or deposited into landfill. When the Environment Protection Act is not respected, plastic bottle ends up in the nature, very often in the sea, where it decomposes very slowly and has negative influence on th...

  13. Oscillations in a half-empty bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, Andréane; Chardac, Amélie; Caussarieu, Aude; Plihon, Nicolas; Taberlet, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    When a half-empty bottle of water is pushed to roll on a flat surface, the oscillations of the fluid inside the bottle induce an overall jerky motion. These velocity fluctuations of the bottle are studied through simple laboratory experiments accessible to undergraduate students and can help them to grasp fundamental concepts in mechanics and hydrodynamics. We first demonstrate through an astute experiment that the rotation of the fluid and the bottle is decoupled. The equations of motion are then derived using a mechanical approach, while the hydrodynamics of the fluid motion is explained. Finally, the theory is tested against two benchmark experiments.

  14. Ship-in-a-bottle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, James F.; Song, Weiguo

    2006-07-18

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a novel catalyst system in which the catalytic structure is tailormade at the nanometer scale using the invention's novel ship-in-a-bottle synthesis techniques. The invention describes modified forms of solid catalysts for use in heterogeneous catalysis that have a microporous structure defined by nanocages. Examples include zeolites, SAPOs, and analogous materials that have the controlled pore dimensions and hydrothermal stability required for many industrial processes. The invention provides for modification of these catalysts using reagents that are small enough to pass through the windows used to access the cages. The small reagents are then reacted to form larger molecules in the cages.

  15. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T.; Morrissey, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison–to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification–to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  16. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The decanting of wine by caterers or other retail dealers for table or room service, banquets, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person...

  17. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  19. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    OpenAIRE

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-01-01

    Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure) out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  20. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  1. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  2. UHF RFID tag implementation on cork substrate for wine bottle monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rima Martí, Sergi; Georgiadis, Apostolos

    2013-01-01

    Wine industry is starting to deploy RFID technology for production control, logistics or innovative marketing. However, identifying wine bottles is difficult due to the unfavorable material content for the operation of the antennas. The thesis consists on the implementation of a UHF RFID tag placed on cork substrate in order to provide a feasible way of identifying wine packaged bottle. The proposed RFID tag consists on a meandered line dipole antenna, designed to be conformed so that it can ...

  3. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2014-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cu...

  4. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taps an aquifer—layers of porous rock, sand, and earth that contain water—which is under ... it to be labeled as “purified water.” Ensuring Quality and Safety Federal quality standards for bottled water ...

  5. GLOBEC NEP Rosette Bottle Data (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Rosette Bottle Data from New Horizon Cruise (NH0207: 1-19 August 2002). Notes: Physical data...

  6. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  7. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  8. Bottle roll leach test for Temrezli uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çetin, K.; Bayrak, M.; Turan, A. İsbir; Üçgül, E.

    2014-01-01

    The bottle roll leach test is one of the dynamic leaching procedure which can meet in-situ mining needs for determining suitable working conditions and helps to simulate one of the important parameter; injection well design. In this test, the most important parameters are pulp density, acidic or basic concentration of leach solution, time and temperature. In recent years, bottle roll test is used not only for uranium but also gold, silver, copper and nickel metals where in situ leach (ISL) mining is going to be applied. For this purpose for gold and silver metal cyanide bottle roll tests and for uranium metal; acidic and basic bottle roll tests could be applied. The new leach test procedure which is held in General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey is mostly suitable for determining metal extraction conditions and recovery values in uranium containing ore bodies. The tests were conducted with samples taken from Temrezli Uranium Ore located in approximately 200 km east of Turkey’s capital, Ankara. Mining rights of Temrezli Ore is controlled 100% by Anatolia Energy Ltd. The resource estimate includes an indicated mineral resource of 10.827 Mlbs U_3O_8 [~4160 t U] at an average grade of 1426 ppm [~1210 ppm U] and an additional inferred resource of 6.587 Mlbs of U_3O_8 [~2530 t U] at an average grade of 904 ppm [~767 ppm U]. In accordance with the demand from Anatolia Energy bottle roll leach tests have been initiated in MTA laboratories to investigate the recovery values of low-grade uranium ore under in-situ leach conditions. Bottle roll leaching tests are performed on pulverized samples with representative lixiviant solution at ambient pressure and provide an initial evaluation of ore leachability with a rough estimate of recovery value. At the end of the tests by using 2 g/L NaHCO_3 and 0.2 g/L H_2O_2 more than 90% of uranium can pass into leach solution in 12 days. (author)

  9. And so it all began: A personal tribute to the man behind the scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marialuisa

    2018-01-01

    At the time I began my scientific career as a PhD student under the supervision of Claudio Spitaleri, the Trojan Horse Method was still in its infancy. Like with any new-born idea, it took time and passion and effort to plant the early seeds that would eventually develop into a now well-established method in nuclear astrophysics research. Here, I offer my own recollection of those early years as a personal homage to Claudio's unique mix of human traits that shaped our professional relationship for many years since.

  10. Determination of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of HDPE bottles for pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yisheng; Li, Yanxia

    2008-06-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of experimental conditions for measuring the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles using a steady-state sorption method. Bottles were filled with desiccant, closed with caps and heat induction sealed, and then stored in stability chambers at controlled temperature and relative humidity. Weight gain of the bottles was determined every 1 or 2 weeks until a linear weight gain profile was obtained. WVTR of the bottles was determined from the slope of the linear portion of the weight gain versus time profile. The effects of desiccants and temperature/humidity were studied. Results show that, with a sufficient amount of anhydrous calcium chloride in bottles, a negligibly low and sufficiently constant headspace humidity is maintained, and a steady-state permeation rate is achieved. For all 8 sizes of bottles used in this study, steady-state was achieved in 1 or 2 weeks after the experiment was started. This method provided reproducible WVTR data for HDPE bottles. Apparent moisture permeability of all 8 sizes of bottles was (2.3+/-0.3)x10(-7), (2.6+/-0.2)x10(-7), and (3.4+/-0.2)x10(-7)cm(2)/s at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, respectively. Moisture permeability determined from the current study was similar to data reported in the literature, indicating that the steady-state weight gain method can be used to obtain reliable WVTR of containers for pharmaceutical products.

  11. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  12. Beer bottle whistling: a stochastic Hopf bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujo, Edouard; Bourquard, Claire; Xiong, Yuan; Noiray, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    Blowing in a bottle to produce sound is a popular and yet intriguing entertainment. We reproduce experimentally the common observation that the bottle ``whistles'', i.e. produces a distinct tone, for large enough blowing velocity and over a finite interval of blowing angle. For a given set of parameters, the whistling frequency stays constant over time while the acoustic pressure amplitude fluctuates. Transverse oscillations of the shear layer in the bottle's neck are clearly identified with time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). To account for these observations, we develop an analytical model of linear acoustic oscillator (the air in the bottle) subject to nonlinear stochastic forcing (the turbulent jet impacting the bottle's neck). We derive a stochastic differential equation and, from the associated Fokker-Planck equation and the measured acoustic pressure signals, we identify the model's parameters with an adjoint optimization technique. Results are further validated experimentally, and allow us to explain (i) the occurrence of whistling in terms of linear instability, and (ii) the amplitude of the limit cycle as a competition between linear growth rate, noise intensity, and nonlinear saturation. E. B. and N. N. acknowledge support by Repower and the ETH Zurich Foundation.

  13. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  14. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market. ... Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among ... limits set by WHO guidelines and therefore safe for human consumption.

  15. 27 CFR 19.749 - Bottling and packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling and packaging record. 19.749 Section 19.749 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Account § 19.749 Bottling and packaging record. The bottling and packaging record shall be prepared and...

  16. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  17. Calcite precipitates in Slovenian bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanič, Tamara Ferjan; Miler, Miloš; Brenčič, Mihael; Gosar, Mateja

    2017-06-01

    Storage of bottled waters in varying ambient conditions affects its characteristics. Different storage conditions cause changes in the initial chemical composition of bottled water which lead to the occurrence of precipitates with various morphologies. In order to assess the relationship between water composition, storage conditions and precipitate morphology, a study of four brands of Slovenian bottled water stored in PET bottles was carried out. Chemical analyses of the main ions and measurements of the physical properties of water samples were performed before and after storage of water samples at different ambient conditions. SEM/EDS analysis of precipitates was performed after elapsed storage time. The results show that the presence of Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , SiO 2 , Al, Mn and other impurities such as K + , Na + , Ba and Sr in the water controlled precipitate morphology by inhibiting crystal growth and leading to elongated rhombohedral calcite crystal forms which exhibit furrowed surfaces and calcite rosettes. Different storage conditions, however, affected the number of crystallization nuclei and size of calcite crystals. Hollow calcite spheres composed of cleavage rhombohedrons formed in the water with variable storage conditions by a combination of evaporation and precipitation of water droplets during high temperatures or by the bubble templating method.

  18. High-Q plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. Narizee; Ding, Ming; Murugan, G. Senthil; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid plasmonic bottle microresonator (PBMR) which supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) along with surface plasmon waves (SPWs) for high performance optical sensor applications. The BMR was fabricated through "soften-and-compress" technique with a thin gold layer deposited on top of the resonator. A polarization-resolved measurement was set-up in order to fully characterize the fabricated PBMR. Initially, the uncoated BMR with waist diameter of 181 μm, stem diameter of 125 μm and length of 400 μm was fabricated and then gold film was deposited on the surface. Due to surface curvature, the gold film covering half of the BMR had a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered edges which facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice versa. This results in low transition losses, which combined with partially-metal-coated resonator, can result in high hybrid-PBMR Q's. The transmission spectra of the hybrid PBMR are dramatically different to the original uncoated BMR. Under TE(TM) excitation, the PBMR showed composite resonances with Q of ~2100(850) and almost identical ~ 3 nm FSR. We have accurately fitted the observed transmission resonances with Lorentzian-shaped curves and showed that the TE and TM excitations are actually composite resonances comprise of two and three partially overlapping resonances with Q's in excess of 2900 and 2500, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the highest Qs observed in plasmonic microcavities.

  19. Shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldan, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material comprises a can having a cavity therein for receiving the bottle, a screw cap for the can and the cavity, and an annular bottle retainer extending downwardly in the cavity from its upper end having an outwardly extending flange at its upper end clamped between the cap and the upper end of the cavity and an inwardly extending flange at its lower end receiving the neck of the bottle. The cap carries a sponge to absorb spillage from the bottle. (U.S.)

  20. An Experimental Approach to Study Individual Differences in Infants' Intake and Satiation Behaviors during Bottle-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Mennella, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    As a group, bottle-fed infants are at higher risk for rapid weight gain compared with breast-fed infants. However, little is known about individual differences in feeding behaviors of bottle-feeding infants, as well as maternal and infant characteristics associated with bottle-feeding outcomes. We conducted a 2-day, within-subject study of 21 formula-feeding dyads; the within-subject factor was feeding condition: mother-led (ML; mothers were given the instruction to feed their infants as they typically would) vs. infant-led (IL; the experimenter ensured feeding began when infants signaled hunger and ended when they rejected the bottle on three consecutive occasions). Intake was determined by bottle weight; feedings were video-recorded and later analyzed to determine feeding duration and types of satiation behaviors displayed. Percent difference scores were calculated for each outcome as [((ML - IL)/IL) × 100] to standardize differences among dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires of feeding styles and infant temperament. On average, infants consumed ∼42% more formula during the ML- than IL-condition (p = 0.03). However, notable variation existed in difference scores for intake (range = -52.8% to 268.9%; higher scores reflect greater intake during ML than IL). Stepwise regression illustrated that greater intakes during the ML-condition were predicted by the combination of: (1) higher infant age; (2) lower levels of infant rhythmicity and adaptability; (3) higher levels of infant positive mood; and (4) lower levels of maternal restrictive and responsive feeding styles. This objective, experimental approach illustrated that variation in bottle-feeding outcomes is associated with characteristics of both members of the dyad.

  1. SmartStuff: A case study of a smart water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil; Nallathimmareddygari, Vindhya R; Pryor, Jonathan E

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) and miniature wearable biosensors have generated new opportunities for personalized eHealth and mHealth services. Smart objects equipped with physiological sensors can provide robust monitoring of activities of daily living and context for wearable physiological sensors. We present a case study of an intelligent water bottle that can precisely measure the amount of liquid in the bottle, monitor activity using inertial sensors, and physiological parameters using a touch and photoplethysmographic sensor. We evaluate two system configurations: a smart water bottle integrated into a personal body sensor network and a cloud based device. This paper presents system organization and the results from preliminary field testing of the prototype device.

  2. Investigation of Antimony Leaching from Bottles (PET into the Bottled Waters in Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Noshadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most common material used in manufacturing mineral water bottles. Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 used to form the PET containers may pollute water with their ingredients. In this research, graphite furnance atomic absorption spectrometry was used to investigate the effects of storage time (1 to 8 weeks, storage temperature (-20 to 80 °C, pH (6.3 to 8.3, exposure to sunlight, and UV radiation on leaching antimony from PET bottles into the mineral water of 15 bottled water brands available in Fars Province. Concentrations of antimony in the first and second weeks were lower than the maximum standard limit (5 ppb recommended by Iranian regulations. Antimony concentration in one sample (brand A rose above the standard limit after four weeks and in 3 samples (brands A, F, and J with antimony concentrations of 5.48, 5.08, and 5.06 µg/L, respectively exceeded the standard limit after 8 weeks. Sunlight, UV radiation, changes in pH, and storage at temperatures of -20 ℃, 60 ℃, and 80℃ were also found to increase antimony concentrations to levels above the maximum standard limit. Clearly, storing bottled mineral water in ambient conditions may lead to the release of antimony into bottled water, which is a serious threat to public health.

  3. Running Mechanics and Metabolic Responses with Water Bottles and Bottle Belt Holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Zdziarski, Laura A; Fallgatter, Kyle; Negron, Giorgio; Chen, Cong; Leavitt, Trevor; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Wasser, Joseph G; Vincent, Kevin R

    2018-01-18

    This study determined whether differential kinematics, kinetics, rates of energy use and cardiopulmonary responses occurred during running with water bottles and bottle belt holders compared to running only. Trained runners (N=42; 27.2±6.4 yr) ran on an instrumented treadmill for four conditions in a randomized order: 1) control run (CON); 2) hand-held full water bottle (FULL, 16.9 fluid oz; 454 g); 3) hand-held half-full water bottle (HALF, 8.4 fluid oz.; 227 g); and 4) waist-worn bottle belt holder (BELT; hydration belt; 676 g). Gas exchange was measured using a portable gas analyzer. Kinetic and kinematic responses were determined via standard 3D videographic techniques. Interactions of limb side (right, left) by study condition (CON, FULL, HALF, BELT) were tested for rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure, and kinematic and kinetic parameters. No significant limb side × condition interactions existed for rates of oxygen use or energy expenditure. A significant interaction occurred with sagittal elbow flexion (pwater by hand or on the waist does not significantly change kinematics of running motion, rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure or cardiopulmonary measures over short durations. Runners are likely making adjustments to joint moments and powers that preserve balance and protect the lower extremity joints while maintaining the rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure.

  4. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  5. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the…

  6. Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taaffe, Jonathan; O’Sullivan, Seán; Rahman, Muhammad Ekhlasur; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of a novel “Eco-brick” by recycling PET bottles and plastic waste. • Eco-bricks have properties for possible uses in construction. • Consistent manufacturing of Eco-bricks demonstrated to be possible. • Weight of Eco-bricks has a nearly linear relationship with mechanical strength. • Light passage and sound reduction potential of Eco-bricks shown to be good. - Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of recycling waste plastic by considering the feasibility of use of Eco-bricks for constructional purposes. The Eco-bricks are formed by packing plastic within Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles. Guidelines were provided for the construction of Eco-bricks. Experiments were carried out to characterise some of the properties of these bricks. Compression test, sound insulation assessment and light transmission were considered in this regard and compared with traditional construction materials and conditions. Possible applications of Eco-bricks were discussed. The paper presents the first attempt to characterise these bricks and the results encourage future use of them to a significantly wider extent and for various purposes

  7. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important pre...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  9. The current revolution in column technology: how it began, where is it going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2012-03-09

    This work revisits the exceptionally rapid evolution of the technology of chromatographic columns and the important progress in speed of analysis and resolution power that was achieved over the last ten years. Whereas columns packed with 10 and 5 μm fully porous particles dominated the field for nearly thirty years (1975-2000), it took barely six years to see the commercialization of monolithic silica rods (2000), their raise to fame and decay to oblivion, the development of finer fully porous particles with size down to 1.7 μm (2006), and of sub-3 μm superficially porous particles (2006). Analysis times and plate heights delivered by columns packed with these recent packing materials have then been improved by more than one order of magnitude in this short period of time. This progress has rendered practically obsolete the age-old design of LC instruments. For low molecular weight compounds, analysts can now achieve peak capacities of 40 peaks in about 15s with a hold-up time of the order of 1.5s , in gradient elution, by operating columns packed with sub-3 μm shell particles at elevated temperatures, provided that they use optimized high pressure liquid chromatographs. This is the ultimate limit allowed by modern instruments, which have an extra-column band broadening contribution of 7 μL² at 4.0 mL/min and data acquisition rate of 160 Hz. The best 2.1 mm × 50 mm narrow-bore columns packed with 1.7 μm silica core-shell particles provide peaks that have a variance of 2.1 μL² for k=1. Finally, this work discusses possible ways to accelerate separations and, in the same time perform these separations at the same level of efficiency as they have today. It seems possible to pack columns with smaller particles, probably down to 1 μm and operate them with current vHPLC equipments for separations of biochemicals. Analyses of low molecular weight compounds will require new micro-HPLC systems able to operate 1mm I.D. columns at pressures up to 5 kbar, which

  10. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  11. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  12. Tomorrow Began Yesterday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sixtiers was prepared by the previous historical period. The period after the World War II comprises a fundamental change of the world order – from a multipolar world to a confrontation of two superpowers and two ideological systems, and, at the same time, formation of a complex of international organizations on a global scale. In this context, the Soviet architecture made a sharp turn from Stalin’s Empire style to an extreme ascetism – the continuation of constructivism of the early XXth century. The Irkutsk architectural school, unlike the main flow of the 1960s, developed the style of Neo-Brutalism. The article draws parallels between Neo-Brutalism of the Irkutsk school and “a severe style” of the Soviet pictorial art of the same period.

  13. How life began.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, P

    1986-11-01

    Study of the origin of life has become a legitimate scientific inquiry, with an international, multidisciplinary membership and a cogent body of data. Experiments involving plausible early Earth conditions and biogeochemical analyses of carbonaceous meteorites imply a variety of available starting molecules. Biogeological evidence indicates microbial beginnings about 3800 million years (3.8 aeons) ago. By then the known universe had been in existence for perhaps 15 aeons and galaxies abundant for ten. Conditions suitable for the origin of life may require a long prior cosmic evolution. The natural origin of life on the early Earth is now widely agreed upon but not the pathways. The beginnings of catalysis, replication and a functional cell remain moot. Much discussion has centered on the templating role that crystals such as clays and zeolites might have played in prebiotic evolution. Recent discovery of the catalytic and replicative functions of RNA recommend it as the key molecule in the transition from chemical to biological evolution. Copyright © 1986. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. How nonimaging optics began

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Classical optics was traditionally the mapping of point sources by lenses, mirrors and occasionally holograms , i.e. making an image. The subject has had many famous scientists associated with it; Fermat, Huygens, Descartes, Hamilton just to name a few. By the mid 20th Century it was a well-developed field as exemplified by such luminaries as Walter T. Welford, Emil Wolf and many others. The theory of aberrations which addresses the imperfections of the mapping codified the state of the art. Then arose the need to collect energy, not just images. To the author's knowledge it can be traced back to WWII Germany with collection of infra-red radiation (the work by D. E. Williamson, was not published until 1952). The radiation collector, a simple right-circular cone, was a harbinger of things to come.

  15. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  16. Rework and postponement: a comparison of bottling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Teunter (Ruud); S.D.P. Flapper

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling strategy for produced batches. A batch can be bottled directly after production, after positive intermediate test results,

  17. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  18. Aschroft Pressure Switch - Monitor for Low SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    These pressure switches are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. The switches monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure and are set to alarm at 2200 psig. There is one switch for each SCHe supply (4). Electronic output signal is NON-SAFETY (GS)

  19. Improvements to the Whoosh Bottle Rocket Car Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Staiger, Felicia A.; Jujjavarapu, Chaitanya N.

    2015-01-01

    The whoosh bottle rocket car has been redesigned to be more reusable and more robust, making it even easier to use as a demonstration. Enhancements of this demonstration, including the use of heat sensitive ink and electronic temperature probes, enable users to find warmer and cooler regions on the surface of the whoosh bottle.

  20. Filling or Draining a Water Bottle with Two Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli's equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  1. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  2. Quality assessment of sachet and bottled water sold in Gboko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of selected sachet and bottled water produced and sold within Gboko town, Benue State was investigated to determine their Shelf life. Eight brands of sachet water and four brands of bottled water samples were collected from different manufacturers within 24 hours and stored at ambient temperature.

  3. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  4. Labeling practices of water bottling firms and its public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bottled water labels enable the consumers to choose brands that can best fit to their needs and preferences. Anything inaccurate, however, may pose serious public health risks, especially to vulnerable individuals. In Ethiopia, regular monitoring of bottled water quality and labelling practices is still lacking.

  5. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    The work carried out in this research aims at identifying suitable ways for thorough characterization of the quality of paper bottles. Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is particularly advantageous in determining the quality of paper bottles and thus correlating it with the production...

  6. Quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria were investigated to determine their physical, chemical and bacteriological content. The four brands of bottled water investigated were Mevok ®, Ozonized April ®, Lacrystal ® and Eva ®. The mean turbidity value of all the samples were ...

  7. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same tax class when that wine is removed from bond, without benefit of tolerance, when the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and...

  8. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  9. Screening sealed bottles for liquid explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Kim, Y.-W.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Ficke, L.; Chhoa, T. K.; Moeller, C. R.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Burnett, Lowell J.; Czipott, Peter V.; Pence, J. S.; Skvoretz, David C.

    1997-01-01

    A particularly disturbing development affecting transportation safety and security is the increasing use of terrorist devices which avoid detection by conventional means through the use of liquid explosives and flammables. The hazardous materials are generally hidden in wine or liquor bottles that cannot be opened routinely for inspection. This problem was highlighted by the liquid explosives threat which disrupted air traffic between the US an the Far East for an extended period in 1995. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening systems capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system, magnetic resonance (MR) is used to interrogate the liquid. MR produces an extremely rich data set and many characteristics of the MR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple MR signatures can be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat. The Quantum Magnetics Liquid Explosives Screening System is currently operational. Following extensive laboratory testing, a field trial of the system was carried out at the Los Angeles International Airport.

  10. Security of bottle to fill in a high pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todic, M.; Latinovic, T.; Golubovic-Bugarski, V.; Majstorovic, A.

    2018-01-01

    Charging the bottle of high pressure air isolation devices is performed by a high-pressure compressor. The charging time is in function of the compressor capacity and the intensity of the nominal pressure of the air in the bottle. However, in accident situations this time is long and therefore high-pressure accumulators are used where the filling time of the bottle of isolation apparatus has been drastically reduced. Due to the short filling time of the bottle through the air flow, there is a thermodynamic load of bottle material that could endanger the safety of users and other participants in the area. It is therefore necessary to determine the critical parameters of the rapid charge and their intensity.

  11. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-04-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important predisposing factors. Preventive measures we suggest are better standards for manufacturers, more careful inspection of returnable bottles to detect defective ones, a separate detailed warning label on all bottles, and health education especially of school children about this and other risks of serious injury to the eyes and other parts of the body.

  12. Preliminary estimation of infantile exposure to BPA based on the standard quality of baby bottles distributed in Isfahan urban society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to estimate the bisphenol A (BPA intake from baby bottles, considering the diversity and the standard quality of the baby bottles distributed in an Isfahan urban society. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Isfahan in 2011. Baby shops ( n = 33 and drug stores ( n = 7 in four district areas were included in the study. The distribution of baby bottles was investigated regarding their brand, origin, and being labeled "BPA free." Estimation of exposure to BPA from baby bottles was made based on the national and international representative data. Results: The products marked as "BPA free" were found among the western products and limited to two of the selected areas. No "BPA free" marked baby bottle was distinguished among the Iranian made products. Of the 8% exclusively formula-fed infants, 90% may be the high consumers of BPA from polycarbonate baby bottles, with an intake of 1.5-2 μg/kg b.w./day for the moderate and 7.5-10 μg/kg b.w./day in case of worse condition. Conclusion: Considering the current globally accepted threshold daily intake (TDI for BPA, primary exposure estimation is that feeding using non-BPA-free baby bottles is not a serious health concern in Iran. Thought that threshold level of TDI is discussed to be reduced in future, improvement and revision of the national standards can be effective in reducing the exposure to BPA in Iranian infants so as to provide large margin of safety for them.

  13. Radioactivity in bottled waters sold in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila Rangel, J.I.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Quirino Torres, L.L.; Villalba, M.L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of gross alpha and beta activities were made on 21 domestic and international brands of bottled (purified and mineral) water sold in the Mexican market to assess its radiological quality. Alpha and beta activities were determined using a liquid-scintillation detector with pulse-shape analysis feature. All the purified water had values of beta activity lower than the limit for potable drinking water (1.0 Bq/l), while three brands surpassed the limit of alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l). The limit for alpha radioactivity content was exceed by three mineral waters; the results show a correlation between radioactivity content and mineral salts, which are related with the origin and treatment of the waters

  14. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Rapid Identification of Candida albicans Directly from Blood Culture Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Susan; Procop, Gary W.; Haase, Gerhard; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine; Kurtzman, Cletus; Oliveira, Kenneth; Von Oy, Sabina; Hyldig-Nielsen, Jens J.; Coull, James; Stender, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method that uses peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Candida albicans directly from positive-blood-culture bottles in which yeast was observed by Gram staining (herein referred to as yeast-positive blood culture bottles) is described. The test (the C. albicans PNA FISH method) is based on a fluorescein-labeled PNA probe that targets C. albicans 26S rRNA. The PNA probe is added to smears made directly from the contents of the blood culture bottle and hybridized for 90 min at 55°C. Unhybridized PNA probe is removed by washing of the mixture (30 min), and the smears are examined by fluorescence microscopy. The specificity of the method was confirmed with 23 reference strains representing phylogenetically related yeast species and 148 clinical isolates covering the clinically most significant yeast species, including C. albicans (n = 72), C. dubliniensis (n = 58), C. glabrata (n = 5), C. krusei (n = 2), C. parapsilosis (n = 4), and C. tropicalis (n = 3). The performance of the C. albicans PNA FISH method as a diagnostic test was evaluated with 33 routine and 25 simulated yeast-positive blood culture bottles and showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. It is concluded that this 2.5-h method for the definitive identification of C. albicans directly from yeast-positive blood culture bottles provides important information for optimal antifungal therapy and patient management. PMID:12037084

  15. Dynamically tunable optical bottles from an optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yan, Lu; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have long been used to impose spatial coherence to shape free-space optical beams. Recent work has shown that one can use higher order fiber modes to create more exotic beam profiles. We experimentally generate optical bottles from Talbot imaging in the coherent superposition of two...... fiber modes excited with long period gratings, and obtain a 28 μm × 6 μm bottle with controlled contrast up to 10.13 dB. Our geometry allows for phase tuning of one mode with respect to the other, which enables us to dynamically move the bottle in free space....

  16. An axisymmetric PFEM formulation for bottle forming simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhakov, Pavel B.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model for bottle forming simulation is proposed. It is based upon the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) and is developed for the simulation of bottles characterized by rotational symmetry. The PFEM strategy is adapted to suit the problem of interest. Axisymmetric version of the formulation is developed and a modified contact algorithm is applied. This results in a method characterized by excellent computational efficiency and volume conservation characteristics. The model is validated. An example modelling the final blow process is solved. Bottle wall thickness is estimated and the mass conservation of the method is analysed.

  17. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  18. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%. However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD, though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics. Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especially BBTD in Indonesia. Purpose: This research was aimed to obtain data relating with bottle-feeding habit in 3-5 year old children in Indonesia and its caries risk. Method: The study was an observational research conducted with clinical examination through caries status (deft of each child deserved by pediatric dentists and through questionnaire distributed to parents to examine the risk factor of BBTD. Observation was conducted on 62 children in the range of age 3 to 5 years old with bottle-feeding habit. Result: The results revealed that status of caries was various. The data showed that the frequency of bottle feeding more than twice could trigger BBTD 2.27 times higher than other factors such as the use of bottle feeding as a pacifier prior sleeping, the period of bottle-feeding, and the breast-feeding experience. Conclusion: though milk as subtract can possibly become a factor triggering caries, the frequency of bottle-feeding is highly considered as main factor. Since it could modulated the bacterial colonization on dental surface, which affects its virulence.Latar belakang: Karies masih menjadi masalah utama di Indonesia. Dalam praktek sehari-hari prevalensi karies masih sangat tinggi (90.05%. Belum ada data yang memadai dalam penelaahan karies yang spesifik pada anak balita selama ini khususnya kasus sindroma karies botol (SKB sementara itu kasus SKB ditemukan sangat tinggi di beberapa klinik gigi anak (90% dari jumlah pasien yang datang ke klinik

  19. Energy Globe 2004 - Plastic bottles for a human life; Plastikflaschen fuer ein Menschenleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This short article takes a look at how the Swiss Aquatic Research Centre EAWAG won a special prize for its simple method of providing people suffering from lack of clean drinking water in the aftermath of the tsunami catastrophe in south-east Asia. The method involves filling PET-bottles with water and placing them for a period of six hours in the sun, preferably on hot corrugated iron. In this way, contaminated water can be made potable.

  20. Development of Insertion and Deletion Markers for Bottle Gourd Based on Restriction Site-associated DNA Sequencing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi WU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd is an important cucurbit crop worldwide. To provide more available molecular markers for this crop, a bioinformatic approach was employed to develop insertion–deletions (InDels markers in bottle gourd based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq data. A total of 892 Indels were predicted, with the length varying from 1 bp to 167 bp. Single-nucleotide InDels were the predominant types of InDels. To validate these InDels, PCR primers were designed from 162 loci where InDels longer than 2 bp were predicated. A total of 112 InDels were found to be polymorphic among 9 bottle gourd accessions under investigation. The rate of prediction accuracy was thus at a high level of 72.7%. DNA fingerprinting for 4 cultivars were performed using 8 selected Indels markers, demonstrating the usefulness of these markers.

  1. Dimensioning of a solar water heater made from PET bottles; Dimensionamento de um aquecedor solar de agua feito com garrafas PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoleti, Pedro Henrique Fonseca; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis

    2008-07-01

    This document show the solar water heater made of PET bottles, a simple-construction solar water heater that try to give us two important solutions, water heating using solar energy and reutilization of the PET bottles left in the nature. Also, it will be showed how to do the dimensioning of it. Based on the showed dimensioning a application / software is developed and after that simulations are made using the application to provide how is the economy if it's used this kind of solar water heater and their environmental contribution by reutilization of the PET bottles abandoned in the nature. For example, in a common home the economy is about 45% of the electricity bill considering that the warmed water is used just to take a shower. So, the conclusion is: the solar water heater made by PET bottles is a very relevant equipment to the use of the solar energy, to useful applications and environmental contribution. (author)

  2. Life cycle assessment of bottled water: A case study of Green2O products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Naomi; Frago, Jessica; Mu, Dongyan

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted a full life cycle analysis of bottled water on four types of bottles: ENSO, PLA (corn based), recycled PET, and regular (petroleum based) PET, to discern which bottle material is more beneficial to use in terms of environmental impacts. PET bottles are the conventional bottles used that are not biodegradable and accumulate in landfills. PLA corn based bottles are derived from an organic substance and are degradable under certain environmental conditions. Recycled PET bottles are purified PET bottles that were disposed of and are used in a closed loop system. An ENSO bottle contains a special additive which is designed to help the plastic bottle degrade after disposed of in a landfill. The results showed that of all fourteen impact categories examined, the recycled PET and ENSO bottles were generally better than the PLA and regular PET bottles; however, the ENSO had the highest impacts in the categories of global warming and respiratory organics, and the recycled PET had the highest impact in the eutrophication category. The life cycle stages that were found to have the highest environmental impacts were the bottle manufacturing stage and the bottled water distribution to storage stage. Analysis of the mixed bottle material based on recycled PET resin and regular PET resin was discussed as well, in which key impact categories were identified. The PLA bottle contained extremely low impacts in the carcinogens, respiratory organics and global warming categories, yet it still contained the highest impacts in seven of the fourteen categories. Overall, the results demonstrate that the usage of more sustainable bottles, such as biodegradable ENSO bottles and recycled PET bottles, appears to be a viable option for decreasing impacts of the bottled water industry on the environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  4. Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling industries in Benin city, ... job descriptions and activities which constitute health hazards for the individual. ... with the major work-related injuries and illness being physical injuries.

  5. Effects of Sunlight Exposure on the Quality Parameters of Bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    microbial population (total coliform) of the bottled water with increasing exposure to sunlight was observed. ... safe drinking water which has led to the tremendous ... degradation under high temperature (Bach et al., ..... Solar and photocatalytic.

  6. Conical Refraction Bottle Beams for Entrapment of Absorbing Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseling, Michael; Alpmann, Christina; Schnelle, Jens; Meissner, Robert; Denz, Cornelia

    2018-03-22

    Conical refraction (CR) optical bottle beams for photophoretic trapping of airborne absorbing droplets are introduced and experimentally demonstrated. CR describes the circular split-up of unpolarised light propagating along an optical axis in a biaxial crystal. The diverging and converging cones lend themselves to the construction of optical bottle beams with flexible entry points. The interaction of single inkjet droplets with an open or partly open bottle beam is shown implementing high-speed video microscopy in a dual-view configuration. Perpendicular image planes are visualized on a single camera chip to characterize the integral three-dimensional movement dynamics of droplets. We demonstrate how a partly opened optical bottle transversely confines liquid objects. Furthermore we observe and analyse transverse oscillations of absorbing droplets as they hit the inner walls and simultaneously measure both transverse and axial velocity components.

  7. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  8. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bison, G.; Burri, F.; Daum, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Krempel, J. [Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Lauss, B., E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Meier, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ries, D., E-mail: dieter.ries@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-09-11

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments (32 L) e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  9. A complete life cycle assessment of high density polyethylene plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treenate, P.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine environmental performances of a lubricant oil bottle made from high density polyethylene and to develop potential measures for reducing its impacts. A complete life cycle assessment was carried out to understand a whole effect on the environment from acquiring, processing, using, and disposing the product. Two scenarios of disposal phase; recycle and incineration: were examined to quantify a lesser degree on environmental impact. The results illustrated that major impacts of the two scenarios were at the same categories with the highest contributor of raw material acquisition and pre-processing. However, all impacts in case of recycling provided a lower point than that in case of incineration, except mineral extraction. Finally, feasible measures for reducing the environmental impact of high density polyethylene plastic bottle were proposed in accordance with 3Rs concept.

  10. Direct identification from Bact/Alert™ blood culture bottles by MALDI-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Kroumova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial identification from blood culture using traditional methods needs about 48 hours, since positivization, to be performed. Rapid bacterial identification can result in clinical and economic benefits. To provide rapid pathogen identification for targeted antibiotic treatment, in this study we tested an our previously described homemade method for bacterial identification using MALDI-TOF directly from positive BACTEC blood culture, on positive BacT/ALERT blood culture. A total of 108 bacteria were identified by MALDI-TOF with a positive identification obtained for 98% of Gram negative and 84,3% of Gram positive bacteria.The average of identification score obtained using the protocol described in this study was 2,047 for Gram positive and 2,204 for Gram negative microorganisms. Data here described show that this method is also useful when BacT/ALERT bottles are used and even if these bottles have activated charcoal as inhibitor of antibiotics.

  11. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  12. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson; Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of 226 Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H 2 O, which allows one to identify the 222 Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10 5 pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H 2 O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ( 226 Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when 222 Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  13. Criticality safety requirements for transporting EBR-II fuel bottles stored at INTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R. M.; Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    Two carrier/shipping cask options are being developed to transport bottles of EBR-II fuel elements stored at INTEC. Some fuel bottles are intact, but some have developed leaks. Reactivity control requirements to maintain subcriticality during the hypothetical transport accident have been examined for both transport options for intact and leaking bottles. Poison rods, poison sleeves, and dummy filler bottles were considered; several possible poison materials and several possible dummy filler materials were studied. The minimum number of poison rods or dummy filler bottles has been determined for each carrier for transport of intact and leaking bottles

  14. Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, Clemens; Birke, Manfred; Filzmoser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A test comparing concentrations of 57 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr) determined by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union in glass and PET bottles demonstrates significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, α = 0.05) differences in median concentrations for Sb, Ce, Pb, Al, Zr, Ti, Th, La, Pr, Fe, Zn, Nd, Sn, Cr, Tb, Er, Gd, Bi, Sm, Y, Lu, Dy, Yb, Tm, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21x higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET bottles (0.33 vs. 0.016 μg/L). Glass contaminates the water with Ce (19x higher than in PET bottles), Pb (14x), Al (7x), Zr (7x), Ti, Th (5x), La (5x), Pr, Fe, Zn, Nd, Sn, Cr, Tb (2x), Er, Gd, Bi, Sm, Y, Lu, Yb, Tm, Nb and Cu (1.4x). Testing an additional 136 bottles of the same water sold in green and clear glass bottles demonstrates an important influence of colour, the water sold in green glass shows significantly higher concentrations in Cr (7.3x, 1.0 vs. 0.14 μg/L), Th (1.9x), La, Zr, Nd, Ce (1.6x), Pr, Nb, Ti, Fe (1.3x), Co (1.3x) and Er (1.1x). One hundred and twenty-six bottles of three different materials (glass, hard PET and soft PET) in 5 principal colours (clear, light and dark green and blue, brown) were subsequently washed and then filled with high purity water (18.2 MΩ cm). A portion of the bottles where left at the original average pH of the water (pH 6.5) while the remaining bottles were acidified to pH 3.5 with HNO 3 . Concentrations of the same 57 elements as above were determined after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 30, 56, 80 and 150 days of leaching. Results substantiate the observations from the direct comparison of the same water sold in different bottle types (colour). For most elements leaching is

  15. Milk Flow Rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt Frisk; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W Brant

    To test the milk flow rates and variability in flow rates of bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. Twenty-six nipple types that represented 15 common brands as well as variety in price per nipple and store location sold (e.g., Babies R' Us, Walmart, Dollar Store) were chosen for testing. Ten of each nipple type (n = 260 total) were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 minute using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Flow rates of nipples within brand were compared statistically. Milk flow rates varied from 1.68 mL/min for the Avent Natural Newborn Flow to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Standard Y-cut. Variability between nipple types also varied widely, from .03 for the Dr. Brown's Standard Level 3 to .37 for MAM Nipple 1 Slow Flow. The extreme range of milk flow rates found may be significant for medically fragile infants being discharged home who are continuing to develop oral feeding skills. The name of the nipple does not provide clear information about the flow rate to guide parents in decision making. Variability in flow rates within nipples of the same type may complicate oral feeding for the medically fragile infant who may not be able to adapt easily to change in flow rates. Both flow rate and variability should be considered when guiding parents to a nipple choice.

  16. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral water available in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Ralph, B.J.; Wilks, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    The levels of naturally-occurring radioactive elements in bottled mineral water, commercially available in Australia, have been assessed. The survey concentrated upon 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, radionuclides which have a high toxicity in drinking water. Detectable levels of 226 Ra were found to range from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.32Bq/1 in locally-bottled water and from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.44Bq/1 in imported brands. 210 Pb levels were found to be generally very low ( 228 Ra content of bottled water will have a similar distribution to that of 226 Ra. Concentrations of 228 Ra in excess of 0.7Bq/1 were measured in a number of samples. The radiological health implications of the consumption of bottled mineral water are discussed with reference to existing drinking water standards and also in terms of radiation exposure and the increased risk to health. It was concluded that, although some brands of water contain radioactivity in excess of the drinking-water limits recommended by Australian and overseas authorities, the annual radiation dose to an individual will be below the dose-equivalent limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for life-long exposure. The increased risk of radiation-induced fatal disease due to the consumption of bottled mineral water is estimated to be less than 10 -5 and is therefore negligible

  17. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans and Bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling

  18. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  19. Evaluation of microbial contamination of canine plasma eyedropper bottles following clinical use in canine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Rachel A; Genschel, Ulrike; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Sebbag, Lionel; Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2018-05-24

    To investigate microbial contamination of canine plasma eye drops when used clinically and to compare the effect of two different eyedropper bottles on contamination rate. Forty-six bottles containing plasma were randomly dispensed for use on 42 dogs with ulcerative keratitis. Of these, 23 were standard eyedropper bottles and 23 were Novelia ® bottles designed to prevent contamination. After use for up to 2 weeks, samples for bacterial culture were obtained from a drop of plasma, the bottle tip, the plasma inside the bottle, and the corneal surface. Fungal culture was performed from a drop of plasma. The overall microbial contamination rate was 17.4% (8/46 bottles); however, only one bottle had growth from the plasma inside the bottle. There was a lower contamination rate of Novelia ® bottles (3/23 = 13.0%) compared to standard bottles (5/23 = 21.7%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = .57). There were also no significant differences in contamination rate of bottles used greater than 7 days compared to less than or equal to 7 days, or in bottles used greater than 4 times daily compared to 4 times daily or less. Three corneal samples (6.5%) had bacterial growth, but none matched contamination from the bottles. Novelia ® bottles may decrease contamination of plasma eye drops used clinically. However, while microbial contamination of plasma bottles was documented, no clinically relevant complications were observed. This study supports safe use of plasma eye drops for up to 2 weeks when refrigerated and dispensed from either Novelia ® or standard eyedropper bottles. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Emptying device for expendable bottles, especially small counter bottles for radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltermann, W.

    1975-01-01

    The device cuts up and empties, respectively, counting bottles and vials, respectively, for radioactive liquids. The vials are taken from a magazine and put on transport disks which move them past a circular saw blade cutting the vials into two cups. The liquid pouring out flows through a collection groove into a collection vessel. The two cups are pushed on the arms of a double turnstile by means of guide systems. Gas fed through lines running inside the arms of the turnstiles is used to flush the cups with nitrogen gas. In the downward movement of the double turnstile a catching surface removes the cups or they automatically fall into a collection bag, respectively. Baffle plates hold the vials on the transport disks. (DG/RF) [de

  1. Quality status of bottled water brands in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Tahir, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The (PCRWR) has carried out a study to evaluate the quality of mineral water brands available in the market owing to demand of general public and consumer associations. Twenty one brands of bottled water were collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Each water sample was analyzed for 24 aesthetic, physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters by adopting standard analytical methods. It was observed that only 10 out of 21 brands (47.62%) were fit for drinking purpose. The remaining eleven brands (52.38%), including one imported brand, were found unsafe for human consumption. It was also concluded that present situation of water quality of bottled water is due to lack of legislation for water quality control. Hence there is a dire need for a legal organization to monitor and regulate the quality issues of bottled water industry. (author)

  2. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  4. Using an interactive water bottle to target fluid adherence in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Kristin A; Scholl, Penny; Kidwell, Kelley M; Hmiel, S Paul

    2015-02-01

    Hydration is important post-renal transplant to maintain adequate renal perfusion and graft function. Adherence to fluid recommendations is challenging given barriers to staying hydrated. There are no studies of adherence to fluid intake recommendations following pediatric renal transplant. Through this pilot study, we sought to determine whether the use of a commercially available interactive water bottle would lead to better adherence to recommended fluid intake and improved kidney functioning post-transplant relative to standard of care. Participants included 32 youth ages 7-19 ≥1 month post-kidney transplant randomized to the intervention (HydraCoach(®) water bottle) or standard education control group. Laboratory records were reviewed for serum chemistries (Na, BUN, creatinine) at baseline and one-month follow-up, and participants recorded daily fluid intake for 28 days. Those in the intervention group were significantly more likely to meet or exceed their fluid target, but this did not translate into better kidney functioning. Participants in the intervention group largely reported satisfaction with the water bottle and were likely to continue its use. While an interactive water bottle providing real-time feedback may be a promising intervention to help pediatric kidney transplant patients meet fluid goals, it did not appear to impact kidney function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Thermophysical characteristics of plastic bottles as an element of water heat accumulators in solar greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalimov, A. G.; Khairiddinov, B. Eh.; Kim, V. D.; Khalimov, G. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the thermophysical and granulometric characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles filled with water. The given figures allow one to conduct calculations of thermal plastic bottles as heat storage elements for solar greenhouses. (author)

  6. 10 CFR 431.292 - Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Basic model means, with respect to refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines, all units... beverages and dispenses the bottled or canned beverages on payment. V means the refrigerated volume (ft3) of...

  7. Insulated Containers For Bottled Water (ICB)- Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    WATER STOWAGE PROTOTYPES BOTTLED WATER HIGH TEMPERATURE WEIGHT EJECTION CONTAINERS ...Soldiers are ineffectively mounting commercially  available  coolers and they,  as well as the bottles they  contain , are becoming projectile hazards... container  (shown in Figure 15). The tie‐down procedures were determined by a professional  rigger; a video of the procedures is  available  from NSRDEC

  8. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  9. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  10. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.

  11. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of each...

  12. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  13. Is Your Drinking Water Acidic? A Comparison of the Varied pH of Popular Bottled Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kellie F

    2015-06-01

    Dental professionals continually educate patients on the dangers of consuming acidic foods and beverages due to their potential to contribute to dental erosion and tooth decay. Excess acid in the diet can also lead to acidosis, which causes negative systemic side effects. However, water is not typically categorized as acidic. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the pH levels of several popular brands of bottled water and compare them to various other acidic beverages. Two different brands of marketed alkaline water (with a pH of 8.8 or higher) were also studied, tested for acidity and described. A pilot in-vitro study was conducted to determine the pH levels of a convenience sample of popular brands of bottled water, tap water and other known acidic beverages in comparison with the pH values reported on the respective manufacturers' website. Each beverage was tested in a laboratory using a calibrated Corning pH meter model 240, and waters were compared to the corresponding company's testified pH value. Waters were also compared and contrasted based on their process of purification. The data was then compiled and analyzed descriptively. The pH values for the tested beverages and bottled waters were found to be predominantly acidic. Ten out of the 14 beverages tested were acidic (pHwaters were neutral (pH=7) and 2 bottled waters were alkaline (pH>7). The majority of waters tested had a more acidic pH when tested in the lab than the value listed in their water quality reports. It is beneficial for the health care provider to be aware of the potential acidity of popular bottled drinking waters and educate patients accordingly. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  14. A comparison of bottling alternatives in the pharmaceutical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R.; Flapper, S.D.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines with possibilities for rework. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling alternative for produced batches when these have to undergo several lengthy quality tests related to the

  15. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  16. Factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, a number of companies and industries in Kenya and other developed countries have come up with bottled/packaged drinking water for sale to a wide range of consumers particularly those in urban areas. The objectives ... The brand choices were influenced by price, availability and media advertisements. More than ...

  17. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  18. Management of PET plastic bottles waste through recycling Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. B. I.

    2010-10-01

    This study been carried out to assess the general waste management in Khartoum State and effectively manage the PET plastic bottles by identifying practical means and introducing recycling as cleaner production tool to achieve sustainable development goals. The information data were gathered during the period June-July 2010 through questionnaires, interview, meeting and visits to various sites, in addition to the official information and documents collected from reliable sources, mainly Sudan Central Bank, customs authorities, Ministry of Industry, soft drink and water bottling factories. The data were presented in tables, graphs and charts by applying windows excel program and also applying e view package for the future forecast. Analysis of data shows a rising consumption in PET bottles and the forecasted PET consumption in year 2015 estimated to be 60000 Tons, twice the estimate in the year 2010. This situation will create serious environmental problems that require much more effort to be exerted by all stake holders to book for scientific and practical solutions for the disposal of plastic waste through recycling. Based on the analysis and findings recommendations have been made that ensure on recycling of PET plastic bottles by mechanical method that depends mainly on collection, segregation, cleaning and processing. Further studies and researches on other recycling methods have been recommended in the future. (Author)

  19. Characterizing Green Fiber Bottle Prototypes Using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Stolfi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Due to ever increasing demand of sustainability and biodegradability, there arises a need to develop environmental friendly packaging products. Green fiber bottle is a packaging product for carbonated beverages, made out of cellulose fibers. The production process accounts for moulding paper pulp...

  20. Evaluation of Microbial Quality of Bottled Water in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Alimohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of population growth, limited access to fresh water resources, the need to use bottled water, controlling microbial quality of  bottled water is important. Materials and Methods: Microbiological quality of 24 brands of bottled water available in the town markets of Iran was studied Random. Samples were collected in summer and autumn, 2012. In each season, we collected two samples for each brand. In order to analyze Total coliforms, E-Coli, and HPC, MPN and Plate Count Methods were used. Data analysis was processed by SPSS software. Results: Total coliforms were 2 MPN/100CC in two brands S18 and S20. Increased HPC levels were also observed in all brands. pH level of 6% from bottled waters were higher than the standard. Average of turbidity was 0.232 and 0.228 at the autumn and summer, respectively. Conclusion: the heterotrophic microorganisms were present in 100% of the samples. Total coliforms were also found in 12% of the samples. None of the samples contained E-Coli.

  1. Water Jets from Bottles, Buckets, Barrels, and Vases with Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopac, Vjera

    2015-01-01

    Observation of the water jets flowing from three equidistant holes on the side of a vertical cylindrical bottle is an interesting and widely used didactical experiment illustrating the laws of fluids in motion. In this paper we analyze theoretically and numerically the ranges of the stationary water jets flowing from various rotationally symmetric…

  2. techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to ... F. S. Adeyemo, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi (fiiro), P.M.B 21023, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. C. F. Kupoluyi, Federal ... weighing scale, holding tank, refractometer and PH meter. 22.

  3. infant bottle-feeding practice, agaro town, southwest ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    total of 224 mothers who had children between the ages of 0 and 24 months were included in the study. ... extensive advertising and aggressive sale practice of .... Reasons for bottle-feeding practice. No. %. Insufficient Breast Milk. Back to work. Short duration of Maternity leave. Availability of infant formula. Adopted child.

  4. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  5. Bottle Babies: A Guide to the Baby Foods Issue. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Jane, Comp.

    This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…

  6. Influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers' purchase decision. The research focused in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). The study used color, graphic design, size, printed information and shape of packaging as independent variables and consumers' purchase ...

  7. 27 CFR 5.41 - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling...), or any written, printed, graphic, or other matter accompanying the bottle to the consumer buyer shall not contain any statement, design, device, or graphic, pictorial, or emblematic representation that is...

  8. Exploring Klein Bottles through Pottery: A STEAM Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher E.; Paré, Jana N.

    2016-01-01

    While one author was reading "The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets by Simon Singh" (2013) in preparation for a presentation, the second author asked what in the book would be interesting to discuss. The topic of Klein bottles was on the first author's mind at that moment, so he tried to describe and explain the form to her--a real…

  9. factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    concern about the safety and quality of tap water in many cities and ... for the upper class markets. Most of the ... copying what is happening in the western world (Bullers,. 2002). ... bottled water and is the manufacturing of the water regulated?

  10. Inoculation of peritoneal dialysate fluid into blood culture bottles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine if direct inoculation of peritoneal fluid into Bactec blood culture bottles would improve the positive bacteriological yield compared with conventional techniques in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with peritonitis. All patients presenting with suspected peritonitis ...

  11. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.101...

  12. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  13. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  14. US MILITARY OVERSEAS BASES- HOW THEY BEGAN AND THE ENDURING NEED FOR FORWARD BASED UNITED STATES TROOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    military can respond to any threat or provide the same support from US soil’. While campaigning, candidate Donald Trump conveyed his lack of...military posture has since been an enduring concern with each new administration entering the presidential office. The current presidential ...as president due to the assassination of the newly elected President William McKinley. President Roosevelt was noted as being one to “go against the

  15. Community Response to Impaired Drinking Water Quality: Evidence from Bottled Water Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, M.; Zheng, S.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    Drinking water contaminants pose a harm to public health. When confronted with elevated contaminate levels, individuals can take averting actions to reduce exposure, such as bottled water purchases. This study addresses a problem of national interest given that 9 to 45 million people have been affected by drinking water quality violations in each of the past 34 years. Moreover, few studies address averting behavior and avoidance costs due to water quality violations. This study assesses how responses might differ across baseline risk of impaired water quality and demographics of service area. We match a panel of weekly supermarket sales data with geocoded violations data for 67 counties in the Southeast from 2006-2015. We estimate the change in bottled water sales due to drinking water violations using a fixed effects model. Observing market behavior also allows us to calculate the cost of these averting actions. Critical findings from this study contribute to understanding how communities respond to water quality violations. We find that violations have considerable effects on bottled water consumption. Sales increase 8.1 percent due to violations related to microorganisms and 31.2 percent due to Tier 1 violations, which pose an immediate health risk. In addition, we calculate a national cost of averting actions of $26 million for microorganism violations from 2006-2015, which represents a lower-bound estimate. Averting costs vary considerably across the U.S. and some counties bear a particularly large burden, such as in California and Texas. Overall, this study provides insight into how averting behavior differs across contaminant type, water utility characteristics, and community demographics. Such knowledge can aid public health agencies, water systems, and environmental regulators to direct assistance to communities most in need.

  16. Bottled, filtered, and tap water use in Latino and non-Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Wendy L; Knochel, Miguel L; Byington, Carrie L; Young, Paul C; Hoff, Charles J; Buchi, Karen F

    2007-05-01

    To describe bottled, filtered, and tap water consumption and fluoride use among pediatric patients; to analyze differences between ethnic and socioeconomic groups; and to describe the frequency of physician-parent discussions regarding water consumption. Convenience sample survey. An urban public health clinic. Parents attending a public health clinic. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of tap, filtered, and bottled water use. The secondary outcome measures were supplemental fluoride use and the percentage of patients reporting discussions of water consumption with their physician. A total of 216 parents (80.5% Latino and 19.5% non-Latino) completed the survey. Of the parents, 30.1% never drank tap water and 41.2% never gave it to their children. Latino parents were less likely than non-Latino parents to drink tap water (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.67) and less likely to give tap water to their children (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.70). More Latinos believed that tap water would make them sick (odds ratio, 5.63; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-14.54). Approximately 40% of children who never drank tap water were not receiving fluoride supplements. Of the lowest-income families (water to their children. Of the parents surveyed, 82.5% reported that their child's physician had never discussed the type of water they should use. Many Latino families avoid drinking tap water because they fear it causes illness. Unnecessary use of bottled and filtered water is costly and may result in adverse dental health outcomes. Physicians should provide guidance to families regarding the safety, low cost, and dental health benefits of drinking tap water.

  17. All-polymeric sensing platform based on packaged self-assembled bottle microresonator (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Romeo; Grimaldi, Immacolata A.; Persichetti, Gianluca; Testa, Genni

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, microbottle resonators that support non-degenerate whispering gallery modes (WGMs), propagating by successive total internal reflections close to the resonator surface and all along its axis, have been widely investigated due to their potential applications in optical sensing, microlasers and nonlinear optics. To overcome some drawbacks of the standard silica microbottle resonators, we focused our attention on polymers such as SU-8 resist and NOA resins. A drop of polymeric material is dispensed onto a fiber stem, providing a mechanical support for the bottle resonator, and is photo-polymerized by an UV lamp. The interrogation system, usually constituted by a tapered silica fiber evanescently coupled with the microresonator, is substituted by a more stable planar waveguide realized in SU-8 by means of standard photolithography technique. Moreover, for guarantying the stability to surrounding disturbance of the coupling between the microbottle resonator and the planar waveguide, the fiber stem is glued to substrate. Two drilled holes in the substrate allow the rise of the glue at the ends of the fiber stem and the fixing of sensor on PMMA substrate. In the present work, we presented an integrated full polymeric platform with self-assembled bottle microresonators packaged in a stable structure. SU-8 and NOA based microbottles are realized and morphologically characterized. The low autofluorescence emission and long term stability make the NOA based bottles suitable to be employed in a great variety of conditions. Bulk sensing measurements are performed by using water:ethanol solutions and a bulk sensitivity of 120 nm/RIU is estimated.

  18. Quantitative Determination of Arsenic in Bottled Drinking Water Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guţu Claudia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have been performed in the past few years, to determine arsenic speciation in drinking water, food chain and environment, arsenic being a well-recognized carcinogenic and toxic agent mainly in its inorganic species. The instrumental techniques used for arsenic determination, such as hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, can provide a great sensitivity only on the total amount. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method and to analyze the concentration of total inorganic arsenic in bottled drinking water. Methods: Total arsenic was determined in samples from six different types of commercially available bottled drinking water using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal or hydride generation vaporisation. All drinking water samples were acidified with 0.1M nitric acid to match the acidity of the standards. Results: The method was linear within the studied range (1-5 μg/L, R = 0.9943. The quantification limits for arsenic determination were 0.48 μg/L (HGAAS and 0.03 μg/L (GFAAS. The evaluated arsenic content in drinking water was within the accepted limits provided by law. Conclusions: A simple and sensitive method for the quantification of arsenic in drinking water using atomic absorbtion spectroscopy was described, which can be further used in toxicological studies. As an additional advantage, the system is very fast, efficient and environmental friendly

  19. Geographic variation in health IT and health care outcomes: A snapshot before the meaningful use incentive program began.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Catherine G; Lammers, Eric

    2015-03-01

    The 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, which includes the Meaningful Use (MU) incentive program, was designed to increase the adoption of health information technology (IT) by physicians and hospitals. Policymakers hope that increased use of health IT to exchange health information will in turn enhance the quality and efficiency of health care delivery. In this study, we analyze the extent to which key outcomes vary based on the levels of health ITness among physicians and hospitals before the HITECH and MU programs led to increases in adoption and changes in use. Our findings provide an important baseline for a future evaluation of the impact of these programs on population-level outcomes. We constructed measures of the degree of hospital and physician adoption and use ("health ITness") at the level of the hospital referral region (HRR). We used data from the 2010 IT Supplement of the American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey of Hospitals to capture hospital health ITness and data from the 2010 survey of ambulatory health care sites produced by SK&A Information Services for the physician measure. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between market-level Medicare costs and use and three measures: (1) physician health ITness, (2) hospital health ITness, and (3) an overall measure of health ITness. In general, greater levels of physician health ITness are associated with decreasing costs and use. Many of these relationships lose statistical significance, however, when we control for population and market characteristics such as the average age and health status of Medicare beneficiaries, mean household income, and the HMO penetration rate. Several of the relationships also change according to the level of hospital health ITness. Our findings suggest that greater levels of physician health ITness are associated with decreasing costs and use for a number of services, including inpatient costs

  20. Late Permian marine ecosystem collapse began in deeper waters: evidence from brachiopod diversity and body size changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W-H; Shi, G R; Twitchett, R J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, K-X; Song, H-J; Yue, M-L; Wu, S-B; Wu, H-T; Yang, T-L; Xiao, Y-F

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Permian-Triassic brachiopod diversity and body size changes from different water depths spanning the continental shelf to basinal facies in South China provides insights into the process of environmental deterioration. Comparison of the temporal changes of brachiopod diversity between deepwater and shallow-water facies demonstrates that deepwater brachiopods disappeared earlier than shallow-water brachiopods. This indicates that high environmental stress commenced first in deepwater settings and later extended to shallow waters. This environmental stress is attributed to major volcanic eruptions, which first led to formation of a stratified ocean and a chemocline in the outer shelf and deeper water environments, causing the disappearance of deep marine benthos including brachiopods. The chemocline then rapidly migrated upward and extended to shallow waters, causing widespread mass extinction of shallow marine benthos. We predict that the spatial and temporal patterns of earlier onset of disappearance/extinction and ecological crisis in deeper water ecosystems will be recorded during other episodes of rapid global warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Bottle Caps as Prekindergarten Mathematical Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisor, Jill M.; Hudson, Rick A.

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood provides a time of crucial growth in all developmental domains. Prekindergarten is an optimal time for young children to use objects of play as a medium to explore new cognitive concepts, including mathematical structure. Mathematical structure plays an important role in providing students a means to reason about mathematics,…

  2. Fluoride Content of Bottled Waters in Hong Kong and Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Hessa I; Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the F concentration of bottled waters that was available in Hong Kong and Qatar. The F concentrations of bottled waters collected from Hong Kong (n=81) and Qatar (n=32) were analysed. The F ion selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in the samples. Three measurements were obtained for every sample to ensure reproducibility and appropriate statistical analyses were employed. Qatar group: F concentrations ranged from 0.06 ppm to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm. The F concentrations displayed on the labels of the samples (60%) were significantly lower than the measured F concentration (p Qatar. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were not consistent with the measured F concentrations.

  3. Natural radioactivity in Brazilian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J. de; Paci Mazzilli, B.; Costa, P. da; Akiko Tanigava, P.

    2001-01-01

    The natural activity concentration levels of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb were analyzed in 17 brands of bottled mineral waters commercially available in the Southeast region of Brazil. Concentrations up to 647 mBq x l -1 and 741 mBq x l -1 were observed for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, whereas 210 Pb concentrations reached 85 mBq x l -1 . Average committed effective doses of 1.3 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 226 Ra, 3.4 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 228 Ra and 9.4 x 10 -3 mSv x y -1 for 210 Pb were estimated for the ingestion of these waters. A collective dose of 90 manSv was evaluated, considering the annual production of the bottled mineral waters analyzed in this study. (author)

  4. Plutonium solution storage in plastic bottles: Operational experience and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer spread sheet models were developed to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to pressurization and failure of plastic bottles containing plutonium solutions. These models were developed using data obtained from the literature on gas generation rates for plutonium solutions. Leak rates from sealed plastic bottles were obtained from bottle leak tests conducted at Rocky Flats. Results from these bottle leak tests showed that narrow mouth four liter bottles will seal much better than wide mouth four liter bottles. The gas generation rate and leak rate data were used to develop models for predicting the rate of pressurization and maximum pressures expected in sealed bottles of plutonium solution containing various plutonium and acid concentrations. The computer models were used to develop proposed time limits for storing or transporting plutonium solutions in sealed plastic bottles. For plutonium solutions containing 1.5 g/l plutonium, storage in sealed bottles should not be allowed. However, transportation of higher concentration plutonium solution in sealed bottles is required, and safe transportation times of 1 shift to 6 days are proposed

  5. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kaamin, Masiri; Abd. Kadir, Aslila; Sahat, Suhaila; Zaini, Aziza; Raihana Nor Zentan, Siti; Ain Ahmad, Nur; Amran, Wan Haizatul Aisyhah Wan

    2018-03-01

    The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it's indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  6. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadiman Norhayati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE and Modulus of Rupture (MOR. The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it’s indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  7. Are consumers concerned about plastic water bottles environmental impact?

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Orset; Nicolas Barret; Aurélien Lemaire

    2015-01-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic. However, these damages are more or less significant according to the plastic used. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to participants allowing explaining information influence on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a significant effect ...

  8. Polyester Polyols from Waste PET Bottles for Polyurethane Rigid Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Evtimova, Rozeta; Lozeva, Yordanka; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Wotzka, Michael; Wagner, Peter; Behrendt, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified process to produce polyester polyols from PET wastes derived from the “bottle fraction residue” of the German Dual System (DSD) [11] employing a waste oligoester condensate of the polyesterification process with the addition of some glycols of longer chain and occasional modification with further dicarboxylic acids to produce polyester polyols of a broad range of properties which are further reacted to form polyurethane or polyisocyanurate rigid foams for insul...

  9. Concentration of Nitrate in Bottled Drinking Water in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saberi Bidgoli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The global consumption of bottled water is growing with substantial growth in sales volumes on every continent. The highest growth rates are occurring in Asia and South America. Biological and chemical monitoring of these waters is necessary. The aim of current study was determination of nitrate concentration in bottled drinking water in Qom, Iran in 2012. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran. First of all, 18 most frequent brands of bottled drinking waters were purchased in June 2012 randomly. Then concentration of nitrate was measured according to the spectrophotometric method. In next step, experiment data were analyzed by Excel Software and P value was obtained by statistical calculations. Finally data were comprised with written nitrate concentration on labels and recommended permissible values . Results: The median nitrate concentration was 2.1 mg/L with the minimum 0.8 mg/L and maximum 8.1 mg/L. In 66.7 % of the samples, the measured nitrate concentrations were less than the written nitrate concentrations and in 33.3% of samples, the nitrate concentration was higher. The statistical calculation proved the significant difference between the median of written nitrate concentration on the label and investigated nitrate concentration (P value > 0.05. Conclusions: It be concluded that the measured nitrate concentration in all of the water samples is below the recommended permissible level.

  10. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  11. Culture -independent Pathogenic Bacterial Communities in Bottled Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottled mineral water (BMW is an alternative to mains water and consider it to be better and safer. Access to safe BMW from the bacteria involving potential health hazard is essential to health. Cultivation-independent technique PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes was performed using Com primer set targeting the 16S rRNA genes for detection of pathogenic bacteria in bottled mineral water from the final product of six factories for bottled mineral drinking water in Wadi El-natron region- Egypt. These factories use often ozone technology to treat large quantities of water because of its effectiveness in purifying and conditioning water. A total of 27 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR re-amplification and cloning. Sequence analysis of 27 SSCP bands revealed that the 16S rRNA sequences were clustered into seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs and the compositions of the communities of the six samples were all common. The results showed that most communities from phyla Alphaproteobacteria and certainly in the Sphingomonas sp. Culture-independent approaches produced complementary information, thus generating a more accurate view for the bacterial community in the BMW, particularly in the disinfection step, as it constitutes the final barrier before BMW distribution to the consumer

  12. Feasibility study for bottled gas and LPG in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    With a total population of ca. 40 million, Poland has an annual consumption of liquefied petroleum gas amounting to 180,000 tons, used by 2.5 million bottled-gas consumers. The consumer pattern is expected to change, with an increasing market for gas for industrial purposes and for heating. Distribution systems will also change to include tank installations in many sizes and transport with large tank lorries. LPG is estimated to be competitive with other forms of energy, and the market is expected to increase to up to ca. 500,000 tons per year. Restricting factors are shortage of supply and lack of approved applications, transport equipment and tank facilities. A list of existing bottle gas companies and evaluation of the technical facilities in the Polish Oil and Gas Company in Gydnia are included. Bottled gas is currently distributed under normal conditions and, market prices for LPG have remained stable in Poland. Detailed studies of the current distribution network in the Suwalki area are given. It should be possible to extend the existing distribution network. A proposal for the establishment of standard tank installations and the gas supply for the town of Augustow is presented. Considerable investments will have to be made in terminals, tank plants and transport equipment, and international oil companies are expected to play an important role in this market. The European Bank for Restructuring and Development could possibly contribute to the financing of the pipe network. (AB)

  13. Pharmacokinetics of reduced iso-α-acids in volunteers following clear bottled beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-05-01

    Reduced iso-α-acids (reduced IAA) consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-IAA groups (RIAA, TIAA and HIAA, respectively) are ingredient congeners specific to beer and generally found in clear and also occasionally green bottled beer. Concentrations of reduced IAA were determined in the blood and urine of five volunteers over 6h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing each of the reduced IAA. The reduced IAA were absorbed and bioavailable with peak concentrations at 0.5h followed by a drop of generally fivefold by 2h. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small inter-individual differences and an estimated short half-life varying between ∼38 and 46min for the three groups. Comparison of RIAA analyte ratios within the group indicate that some analytes eliminate relatively faster than others and the formation of metabolite products was observed. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified RIAA analytes were detectable throughout 6h and suggests extensive phase I metabolism of TIAA and HIAA analytes. In authentic forensic casework where clear or green bottled beers are consumed, the identification of reduced IAA groups may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion and suggest the type of beer consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Salivary contamination during bonding procedures with a one-bottle adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, U B; Finger, W J; Stean, H

    1998-09-01

    The effect of salivary contamination of enamel and dentin on bonding efficacy of an experimental one-bottle resin adhesive was investigated. The adhesive was a light-curing urethane dimethacrylate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate/4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride mixture dissolved in acetone. Evaluation parameters were shear bond strength and marginal gap width in a dental cavity. Apart from a control group without contamination (group 1), etched enamel and dentin were (2) contaminated with saliva and air dried; (3) contaminated, rinsed, and blot dried; (4) coated with adhesive, contaminated, rinsed, and blot dried; (5) coated with adhesive, light cured, contaminated, rinsed, and air dried; or (6) treated as in group 5, with additional adhesive application after air drying. There was no negative effect in groups 3 and 4, compared with control. Air drying after salivary contamination (group 2) resulted in low shear bond strengths and wide marginal gaps. Contamination of the cured adhesive layer (groups 5 and 6) had no adverse effect on enamel shear bond strengths, but resulted in 50% reduced dentin shear bond strengths and wide marginal gaps. The one-bottle adhesive system is relatively insensitive to salivary contamination, provided that the contamination occurs prior to light curing of the adhesive and is carefully rinsed and blot dried. Salivary contact after adhesive curing must be avoided.

  15. Macro and microelements in bottled and tap waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis between bottled and tap waters as well as its comparison with current Serbian regulations, European Union Directives and World Health Organization standard are shown in this paper. Thirteen bottled waters and fourteen tap waters from the territory of Serbia were analyzed in the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR laboratory in Berlin, for the purpose of the “Geochemistry of European Bottled Water“ project conducted by EuroGeo Survey Geochemistry (EGS. Macrocomponents (main cations and anions of ground waters usually reflect on lithogeochemistry of the aquifer, while microcomponents indicate the circulation of ground water through the different lithological environment. Analyzed bottled waters could be classified as those with low mineral content (M<500 mg/L if HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations were the prevailing ones, or mineral (M>500 mg/L with prevailing HCO3 anion and Na cation. Waters with low mineral content were mainly from limestone and dolomite, while mineral waters mainly originated from magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Higher content of Cs, Li, Ge, Rb and F in bottled waters indicates the importance of the magmatic intrusions influence on their chemical composition. In some waters higher content of B, I, NH4, as well as of Tl and W has been observed which can be attributed to water’s circulation through different lithological complexes. Tap water was mostly obtained from groundwater (from Neogen and alluvial aquifers and karst springs with rest being those of rivers and surface accumulations. Tap waters from Central Serbia were with low mineral content, with prevailing HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations, while waters from Vojvodina, the northern province of Serbia, were with higher mineralization, HCO3-Na. Chemical analyses of the sampled tap waters showed good quality, with exception of waters from the cities of Senta and Zrenjanin in Vojvodina. High values of B (1170 and 895 g/L, As

  16. Bottling Fog? The Quest for Instructional Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph; Neumerski, Christine M.; Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason; Porter, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Elsewhere, the authors have unpacked instructional leadership and have documented that such leadership is associated with more effective schools. Indeed, there has been for a considerable time nearly universal acceptance that learning-centered leadership should provide the central platform on which leadership is enacted. In this paper, a less…

  17. Measuring the significance of pearlescence in real-time bottle forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G.; Yan, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work examines the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles during the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process. PET has a relatively large process window with regards to process parameters, however if the boundaries are pushed, the resultant bottle can become insufficient for consumer requirements. One aspect of this process is the onset of pearlescence in the bottle material, where the bottle becomes opaque due to elevated stress whitening. Experimental trials were carried out using a modified free-stretch-blow machine where the deforming bottle was examined in free air. The strain values of the deformation were measured using digital image correlation (DIC) and the optical properties were measured relative to the initial amorphous PET preform. The results reveal that process parameters can significantly affect pearlescence. The detrimental level of pearlescence may be predicted therefore reducing the probability of poorly formed bottles.

  18. How newspapers began to blog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    of technologists (project managers, computer programers, information architects, etc.) that are increasingly integral to how legacy media organizations operate in a new and ever more convergent media environment under circumstances of great economic uncertainty, and discuss the wider implications for how we......In this article, I examine how ‘old’ media organizations develop ‘new’ media technologies by analyzing processes of technological innovation in two Danish newspaper companies that integrated blogs into their websites in very different ways in 2007. Drawing on concepts from science and technology...... studies and sociology and building on previous research on blogging by news media organizations, I analyze how the three different communities involved in the development process – journalists and managers, but also the often-overlooked community of technologists – articulated different versions of what...

  19. When the atomic age began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    2 December 1942, just twenty-five years ago, is the date most often proclaimed as marking the beginning of the atomic age. On that day Enrico Fermi's atomic 'pile' went critical - man had achieved the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. This achievement is an outstanding example of how modern science can work. It had been predicted in theory, calculated in advance and finally realised through the work of large teams of scientists, headed by some of the most imaginative personalities of our century. The military aspects of man-made nuclear chain reaction still dominate our world today. However, within this quarter of a century, nuclear energy has also become significant as a source of power for peaceful purposes. By the end of another quarter of a century it will, according to the best forecasts we can make today, produce a major part of the electricity in the world. The control of nuclear fission was initiated by Fermi and his collaborators. It had a tremendous impact on politics, on concepts of warfare and finally on scientific progress for man's welfare. Fifteen years afterwards the International Atomic Energy Agency was created to promote the peaceful uses of the new technology and to assist in winning the advantages it offered for improving health and prosperity. Another of its great objects is to ensure, as far as possible, that nuclear materials intended for peaceful purposes shall not be diverted to military ends. The hope of the world must be that this, one day, will include all nuclear materials

  20. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  1. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Helioseismology in a bottle: modal acoustic velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana, Santiago Andrés; Zimmerman, Daniel S; Lathrop, Daniel P; Nataf, Henri-Claude; Thorette, Aurélien; Lekic, Vedran

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the differential rotation of the Sun's interior is one of the great achievements of helioseismology, providing important constraints for stellar physics. The technique relies on observing and analyzing rotationally-induced splittings of p-modes in the star. Here, we demonstrate the first use of the technique in a laboratory setting. We apply it in a spherical cavity with a spinning central core (spherical-Couette flow) to determine the mean azimuthal velocity of the air filling the cavity. We excite a number of acoustic resonances (analogous to p-modes in the Sun) using a speaker and record the response with an array of small microphones on the outer sphere. Many observed acoustic modes show rotationally-induced splittings, which allow us to perform an inversion to determine the air's azimuthal velocity as a function of both radius and latitude. We validate the method by comparing the velocity field obtained through inversion against the velocity profile measured with a calibrated hot film anemometer. This modal acoustic velocimetry technique has great potential for laboratory setups involving rotating fluids in axisymmetric cavities. It will be useful especially in liquid metals where direct optical methods are unsuitable and ultrasonic techniques very challenging at best. (paper)

  3. Thermophilic xylanases: from bench to bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Abdul; Liu, Junquan; Rahim, Kashif; Jiang, Wei; Lou, Huiqiang

    2018-01-17

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a valuable raw material. As technology has evolved, industrial interest in new ways to take advantage of this raw material has grown. Biomass is treated with different microbial cells or enzymes under ideal industrial conditions to produce the desired products. Xylanases are the key enzymes that degrade the xylosidic linkages in the xylan backbone of the biomass, and commercial enzymes are categorized into different glycoside hydrolase families. Thermophilic microorganisms are excellent sources of industrially relevant thermostable enzymes that can withstand the harsh conditions of industrial processing. Thermostable xylanases display high-specific activity at elevated temperatures and distinguish themselves in biochemical properties, structures, and modes of action from their mesophilic counterparts. Natural xylanases can be further improved through genetic engineering. Rapid progress with genome editing, writing, and synthetic biological techniques have provided unlimited potential to produce thermophilic xylanases in their natural hosts or cell factories including bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. This review will discuss the biotechnological potential of xylanases from thermophilic microorganisms and the ways they are being optimized and produced for various industrial applications.

  4. Perceptions on the use of bottled water in restaurants in Harare's Central Business District (CBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juba, Olivia Sakhile; Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai

    2018-06-01

    Bottled water use continues to expand worldwide and in the last two decades, a significant number of consumers have shifted from tap water to bottled water due to Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Bottled water consumption has increased in Harare due to erratic tap water supplies. Since 2011, forty bottled water brands have been banned because of failure to meet safety and quality standards due to contamination, unsuitable packaging, and wrong labelling. Nevertheless, the bottled water industry continues to thrive as local authorities fail to adequately purify municipal water. The study assessed the perceptions on drinking bottled water in restaurants within Harare's CBD. Demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users were established and the role and influence of stakeholders in bottling and distribution of water documented. A field survey through the administration of questionnaires to fifty restaurant users was carried out to assess the perceptions of people on the use of bottled water in terms of its safety and potential health benefits. Key informant interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview with ten local water bottling companies as well as representatives from the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) and Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Standard descriptive statistics were generated, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Consumers used bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceived that tap water was not safe. Perceptions of purity of water, bottled water convenience, and tap water unavailability seemed to determine consumption patterns among users. Females in the 18-48 age groups were more likely to think that bottled water was cleaner, safer, tasted better and was more convenient than tap water. Consumers regularly purchased bottled water for drinking and used bottled water as their primary drinking water

  5. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  6. [India: breast feeding is obsolete, the bottle is modern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, M

    1992-09-07

    In July, 1992 Indian health groups met in New Delhi to demand that the government promote a child nutrition code based on the 1981 code of the WHO which stated that mother's milk is quite sufficient and is the best nourishment for infants. Every day approximately 40,000 children are born in India, but thousands of them die in infancy because of infection caused by the unsanitary mixing of milk powder in unsterile bottles. Indian health activists want the government to regulate the production, access, and distribution of mother's milk substitutes, bottles, and child nutriments. A new law based on internationally recognized codes for marketing mother's milk substitutes could put an end to the present irresponsible marketing. Activists are not opposed to the production of milk powder, but they think it should only be used when the mother has no milk. The turnover of India's child nutrition industry is about $280 million per year with an annual increase of 5%. The use of bottle feeding has infiltrated the whole urban scene, and it is spreading in rural areas. Women consider bottle feeding a modern way of child feeding. 60 million kg of milk powder is produced yearly and sold under 25 different product names. Amul and Nestle command 85% of the growing market. Experts have calculated that 1 billion liters of mother's milk is wasted and replaced by substitute milk every year. Many Indian children get their first substitute milk at health posts where free or subsidized milk is distributed despite notices calling on mothers to breast-feed. According to a national survey sponsored by UNICEF, almost 1/2 of India's mothers give their children milk substitutes at the instigation of doctors or health personnel. 63% of children in the state of West Bengal were undernourished because families did not buy enough milk powder. The activists want the government to launch an offensive against the advertisement of breast milk substitutes in state-owned TV and radio and to promote proper

  7. Insulated Containers for Bottled Water (ICB)-Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Plastic   Wrapped  Cordura  Rubberized traction pad  PE  Plastic   Liner  No  Yes  Yes  No  Safe Tie‐Down  Capability  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Easy Access...mounted Soldiers. The ICBs are lighter, require less storage space, and have more effective tie-down characteristics than coolers often used to carry...bottled water in vehicles. The performance of the ICBs and a commonly used cooler was assessed to determine whether the easier-to-stow ICBs would be as

  8. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2... ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate--Small... an allowable level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). This final rule is effective April 16, 2012...

  9. 27 CFR 19.384 - Preparation of bottling or packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... packaging record. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.384 Preparation of bottling or packaging record. The proprietor shall prepare a record for each batch of spirits...

  10. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli... determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal...

  11. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  12. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komarulzaman, A.; Jong, E. de; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces

  13. Nitrate and nitrite content in bottled beverages by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Chen, Yong-Hong; Chen, Feng; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite levels in six types of beverages--total of 292 individual samples from 73 brands (four bottles each)--from Guangzhou city in China were evaluated by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained nitrate. Nitrate and nitrite ranges were 0.43-46.08 and safety of Chinese bottled beverages.

  14. Effect of chemical preservation on the shelf-life of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six samples of bottled intermediate moisture tomato paste were stored at ambient conditions (33-38°C). Four of the samples were preserved with chemicals. One of the last two samples which was bottled with no chemical preservatives added had palm oil filled onto its headspace. Shelf-like studies conducted for forty weeks ...

  15. Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm wine – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mineral profiles of fresh palm wine and those of seven brands of bottled palm wine were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the values were compared. Three of the bottled samples contained toxic levels of either Pb or Cd or both. Neither metal was detected in fresh palm wine. Zn, Cr and Ni were 2 to ...

  16. suitability of broken bottles as fine aggregate for production of concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The maximum mean compressive strength of 19.0N/mm2 was obtained at 28days when sand and broken bottles were used in equal proportions. Density did not appear to have a discernible trend. For structural concrete, the proportion of broken bottles should be limited to 30% for early strength concrete and 40% when ...

  17. Reotemp Pressure Indicator - Local Pressure Indication to Monitor the SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    1999-01-01

    These 0-3000 psig range pressure indicators are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. These accident monitoring local pressure indicators monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure. There is one pressure indicator for each SCHe supply (4)

  18. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; de Jong, Eelke; Smits, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and 'other' sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

  19. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  20. Optical vault: a reconfigurable bottle beam based on conical refraction of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, A; Shvedov, V; Hnatovsky, C; Loiko, Yu V; Mompart, J; Krolikowski, W

    2013-11-04

    We employ conical refraction of light in a biaxial crystal to create an optical bottle for photophoretic trapping and manipulation of particles in gaseous media. We show that by only varying the polarization state of the input light beam the optical bottle can be opened and closed in order to load and unload particles in a highly controllable manner.

  1. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for early identification of bacteria grown in blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabbe, Jean-Benoît; Zanardo, Laura; Mégraud, Francis; Bessède, Emilie

    2015-08-01

    This note reports an interesting way to rapidly identify bacteria grown from blood culture bottles. Chocolate agar plates were inoculated with 1 drop of the positive blood bottle medium. After a 3-hour incubation, the growth veil was submitted to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: 77% of the bacteria present have been correctly identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 27 CFR 19.402 - Inventories of bottled and packaged spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of bottled and... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Inventories § 19.402 Inventories of bottled and packaged...

  3. Color sorter for waste bottles; Hai garasu bin no iro senbetsu sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, M. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-08-12

    The recycling business about glass bottles having extended widely, ratio of recycled materials has come up to 55% out of all raw materials for bottle manufacturing. For the purpose of effective reuse, sorting by color into colorless, brown, green, etc. is indispensable. But, at present, this sorting work relies solely upon manpower. In response to the demand for automation of the above work, automatic color sorting system has been developed. In the first place, a pre-sorter can divide bottles into large ones (larger than 10cm in diameter), small ones and cullets. Bottles from the pre-sorter are arranged horizontally on a conveyer, and then light is shined in the direction from each bottle neck. By a color camera, each light permeated through a bottle bottom is caught. Next, by means of an image processing unit, bottles are gathered by color. Cullets are put on several conveyers and are separated by means of color sensors and air nozzles. Disposing capacity of one unit is 5,000 bottles/hr by each size, and one ton of cullets/hr. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa. Marthie M Ehlers, Walda B Van Zyl, Dobromir N Pavlov, Etienne E Muller. Abstract. Due to the increased demand and consumption of bottled water in South Africa, there has been a growing concern about the microbiological quality of this product.

  5. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total and faecal coliform bacteria, enterococci, C. perfringens, bacteriophages or enteric viruses were not detected in any of the ten bottled water samples analysed. It can be concluded that the microbial quality of eight of the ten selected bottled water samples analysed was within the acceptable limits set by the SABS ...

  6. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    .... FDA 1993-N-0259 (Formerly Docket No. 1993N-0085)] Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard... evidence from two studies puts previous concerns to rest concerning the effects of DEHP consumption in... increase costs for consumers for beverages packaged in plastic bottles. However, this rule does not...

  7. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one...

  8. Design of combined magnetic field system for magnetic-bottle time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Tian Jinshou; Zhang Meizhi; Kang Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the primary requirement for the magnetic field system in magnetic-bottle time-of-flight spectrometer, an appropriate combined inhomogeneous magnetic field system is designed. The inhomogeneous higher magnetic field part, with the highest field of 1.2 T, is produced by the combination of a permanent magnet and a pole piece with optimized shape. The magnet,known as NdFeB magnet,is one of rare earth permanent magnets in N52. The guiding uniform magnetic field of 1.0 x 10 -3 T is provided by solenoid, with length of 3 m and radius of 3 cm. The pitch between the pole piece and the near end of used solenoid is determined to be 5 cm, which can satisfy the actual engineering needs. (authors)

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J-S; Kim, C K; Park, S H; Hirschi, K D; Mok, I- G

    2005-03-01

    We describe a procedure for producing transgenic bottle gourd plants by inoculating cotyledon explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 that carries the binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing a glufosinate ammonium-resistance (bar) gene and the beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The most effective bacterial infection was observed when cotyledon explants of 4-day-old seedlings were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 6-8 days on co-cultivation medium supplemented with 0.1-0.001 mg/l L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine (AVG). The putatively transformed shoots directly emerged at the proximal end of cotyledon explants after 2-3 weeks of culturing on selection medium containing 2 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. These shoots were rooted after 3 weeks of culturing on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l indole acetic acid and 1 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. Transgenic plants were obtained at frequencies of 1.9%. Stable integration and transmission of the transgenes in T1 generation plants were confirmed by a histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses. Genetic segregation analysis of T1 progenies showed that transgenes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in bottle gourd.

  10. Plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles by pulsed corona discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    A pulsed power supply was used to generate a corona discharge on a polyethylene terephthalate bottle, to conduct plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure. Before generating such a discharge, minute quantities of water were attached to the inner surface of the bottle and to the surface of a high voltage (HV) electrode inserted into the bottle. Next, high-voltage pulses of electricity were discharged between electrodes for 6.0s, while rotating the bottle. The resulting spore log reduction values of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger on the inner surface of the bottle were 5.5 and 6 or higher, respectively, and those on the HV electrode surface were each 6 or higher for both strains. The presence of the by-products gaseous ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric ions resulting from the electrical discharge was confirmed.

  11. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  12. [A norovirus-borne outbreak caused by contaminated bottled spring water in a school, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-chuan; Lin, Jun-fen; Gao, Jie; Yao, Wen-ting; Wen, Dong; Liu, Guang-tao; Han, Jian-kang; Ma, Hui-lai; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-08-01

    To study a local hospital reported acute gastroenteritis in a boarding school on its source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors of the infection. A suspected case was defined as who had developed diarrhea (≥ 3 times/day) or vomiting among teachers or students of the school, during April 19 - 30, 2010. A confirmed case was from a probable case plus tested positive for norovirus in stool specimens by using RT-PCR. Stool specimens of cases and environmental specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis. In a case-control study, we compared exposures to sources of bottled water, consumption of bottled water, and hygienic habits of 220 probable or confirmed cases from April 21 - 23 in the peak of the outbreak, together with another 220 controls, with frequency-matched by school grade. 20.3% of the 1536 students but none of the teachers developed the disease. 98.6% of the cases (n = 217) and 85.5% (n = 188) of the controls had drunk bottled water in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 12.3, 95%CI: 3.7 - 40.9). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 41.5% (n = 78) of the controls had drunk unboiled bottled water in classroom (OR(M-H) = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.6). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 48.4% (n = 91) of the controls had drunk bottled mixed water (boiled and unboiled) in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.1 - 7.0). Stool specimens from 3 cases and one bottle of uncovered bottled water in classroom showed positive of having norovirus genotype II. Coliforms was cultured much higher rates than standard deviations in the bottled water. The factory making the bottled water was not licensed or having strict disinfection facilities. Bottled spring water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this outbreak.

  13. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  14. Noise risk assessment in a bottling line of a modern Sicilian winery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Vallone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In wine industry, bottling is a phase of the production cycle characterized by high levels of noise mostly due to repeated collisions between the bottles. In Italy the Law Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk, identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This study aims at evaluating the equivalent and peak noise level inside the bottling plant area of a modern Sicilian winery. In particular, the influence of the working capacity (number of bottles produced per hour on noise levels was evaluated. We considered three test conditions: T1 with working capacity of 4,000 bottles per hour, T2 with working capacity of 5,000 bottles per hour and T3 with working capacity of 6,000 bottles per hour. Fifteen measurement points were identified inside the bottling area. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. The tests were performed in compliance with ISO 9612 and ISO 9432 regulations. The results show that as bottling plant working capacity increases, noise level increases. The measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 95 dB(A in test T3. In this case, the operator working along the bottling line is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  15. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending... test procedure for energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines shall...

  16. Study of the influence of the protective covering from contamination on the radiopharmaceutical bottle in measurement of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of the use of a plastic covering on the bottle used to supply radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the feasibility of its use at the time of manufacture, in order to avoid contamination in the activity meter well chamber. For that were held several measured with liquid 137 Cs source with and without this envelope and the activity meters of the calibration laboratory. Tests showed a small variation in the percentage of measures with the plastic covering, value considerably low, which will not cause injury in providing radiopharmaceuticals for the Service Nuclear Medicine

  17. Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2010-06-01

    An attempt to substitute in concrete the 5% by weight of fine aggregate (natural sand) with an equal weight of PET aggregates manufactured from the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET), is presented. The WPET particles possessed a granulometry similar to that of the substituted sand. Specimens with different cement content and water/cement ratio were manufactured. Rheological characterization on fresh concrete and mechanical tests at the ages of 28 and 365days were performed on the WPET/concretes as well as on reference concretes containing only natural fine aggregate in order to investigate the influence of the substitution of WPET to the fine aggregate in concrete. It was found that the WPET concretes display similar workability characteristics, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength slightly lower that the reference concrete and a moderately higher ductility. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 226Ra and natural uranium in egyptian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Concentration levels of 226 Ra and natural uranium have been analysed bottled mineral water commercially available in egypt. 226 Ra was determined by applying a chemical procedure in which Ra was coprecipitated with Ba as sulphate. The precipitate was then dissolved with EDTA and then measured by liquid scintillation system, after mixing with a scintillation cocktail. Natural uranium was determined by applying a chemical procedure for uranium extraction using MIBK and then measured using laser fluorimeter system. The concentration values obtained were compared with concentrations reported by other countries and with reference values accepted for drinking water. Based on the consumption rate and the measured concentrations, the collective committed effective doses were calculated. In addition, Ca, Mg and Na were measured using Icp system and compared with some worldwide values

  19. Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2010-01-01

    An attempt to substitute in concrete the 5% by weight of fine aggregate (natural sand) with an equal weight of PET aggregates manufactured from the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET), is presented. The WPET particles possessed a granulometry similar to that of the substituted sand. Specimens with different cement content and water/cement ratio were manufactured. Rheological characterization on fresh concrete and mechanical tests at the ages of 28 and 365 days were performed on the WPET/concretes as well as on reference concretes containing only natural fine aggregate in order to investigate the influence of the substitution of WPET to the fine aggregate in concrete. It was found that the WPET concretes display similar workability characteristics, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength slightly lower that the reference concrete and a moderately higher ductility.

  20. Growth of Scytalidium sp. in a counterfeit bevacizumab bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After drawing a dose from an closed bevacizumab (Avastin bottle, a fungus-like foreign body was observed inside. Samples from the vial were cultured in Sabouraud Emmons media. Growth of multiple light brown colonies with dark pigment was observed after 10 days. The species was identified as Scytalidium sp.Vial, analysis reported that the seal was lacking proper identification measures and that the label, batch number and expiry date did not correspond to a genuine product. Chemical analysis showed no protein, but 3% of polyethylene glycol, citrate and ethanol. Counterfeit bevacizumab is a real situation that poses a significant risk for ophthalmology and oncology patients. The medical community should be aware of this situation in order to enforce adequate preventive measures.

  1. Biochemical monitoring of sweet fruit flavoured glass bottled soft drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watto, M.H.S.; Kazi, T.G.; Bhanger, M.I.; Jakhrani, M.A.; Iqbal, J.; Porgar, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flavored glass bottled soft drinks are widely used in developing countries including Pakistan. People suffer greatly both in terms of health and economy if soft drinks are contaminated with microbes and toxic metals. Samples of sixteen different brands of soft drinks were analyzed for microbial and trace elemental study. Microbial study included identification of different coliforms like E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Klebsiela, and total Coliforms. Only seven samples were found to be free from investigated microbes. Contamination in other samples was probably due to improper handling and storage and could be dangerous to human health. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry following improved ash digestion method. The level of Al, Fe, Na, K, Ni, Pb and Cd was found to be higher in investigated samples than the international safety limits of WHO. Other elements investigated in all the samples were below the WHO maximum allowable concentration for drinking water. (author)

  2. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora.

  3. Effect of textured eye drop bottles on the photostability of pranoprofen 0.1% ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuka, Kinya; Inada, Katsuhiro; Ueoka, Hiroki; Otsuka, Tadashi; Maeda, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Yasueda, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic solutions are usually filled in a plastic bottle due to its durability and disposability. In Japan, photostability is one of the concerns for the quality control because an eye drop bottle must be a transparent container. The present work studied the effect of textured eye drop bottles on its light blocking to improve the photostability of ophthalmic solutions. We investigated the photostability of Pranoprofen ophthalmic solution filled in a variety of textured eye drop bottles. Pranoprofen content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and surface structure of textured eye drop bottles was evaluated by transmittance, calculated average roughness (Ra) and haze intensity. We observed that eye drop bottle which had greater than Ra value of 1.0 µm and haze intensity 62% clearly showed photostability improvement. This report is the first one which shows that photostability of ophthalmic solution is improved by using textured eye drop bottle. Moreover, this approach is a simple and effective method to improve the photostability. This method is available for not only various ophthalmic applications but also other liquid pharmaceuticals or food products.

  4. Estrogenic activity, selected plasticizers and potential health risks associated with bottled water in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneck-Hahn, Natalie H; Van Zijl, Magdalena C; Swart, Pieter; Truebody, Barry; Genthe, Bettina; Charmier, Jessica; Jager, Christiaan De

    2018-04-01

    Potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in bottled water from various countries. In South Africa (SA), increased bottled water consumption and concomitant increases in plastic packaging create important consequences for public health. This study aimed to screen SA bottled water for estrogenic activity, selected target chemicals and assessing potential health risks. Ten bottled water brands were exposed to 20 °C and 40 °C over 10 days. Estrogenic activity was assessed using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. Solid phase extracts of samples were analyzed for bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), selected phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. Using a scenario-based health risk assessment, human health risks associated with bottled water consumption were evaluated. Estrogenic activity was detected at 20 °C (n = 2) and at 40 °C (n = 8). Estradiol equivalent (EEq) values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 ng/L. BPA concentrations ranged from 0.9 ng/L to 10.06 ng/L. Although EEqs and BPA concentrations were higher in bottled water stored at 40 °C compared to 20 °C, samples posed an acceptable risk for a lifetime of exposure. Irrespective of temperature, bottled water from SA contained chemicals with acceptable health risks.

  5. Design, Development and Testing of Inconel Alloy IN718 Spherical Gas Bottle for Oxygen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenna Krishna, S.; Agilan, M.; Sudarshan Rao, G.; Singh, Satish Kumar; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Venkata Narayana, Ganji; Beena, A. P.; Rajesh, L.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the details of design, manufacture and testing of 200 mm diameter spherical gas bottle of Inconel 718 (IN718) with nominal wall thickness of 2.3 mm. Gas bottle was designed for the specified internal pressure loading with a thickness of 2.9 mm at the circumferential weld which was brought down to 2.3 mm at the membrane locations. Hemispherical forgings produced through closed-die hammer forging were machined and electron beam welded to produce a spherical gas bottle. Duly welded gas bottle was subjected to standard aging treatment to achieve the required tensile strength. Aged gas bottle was inspected for dimensions and other stringent quality requirements using various nondestructive testing techniques. After inspection, gas bottle was subjected to pressure test for maximum expected operating pressure and proof pressure of 25 and 37.5 MPa, respectively. Strain gauges were bonded at different locations on the gas bottle to monitor the strains during the pressure test and correlated with the predicted values. The predicted strain matched well with the experimental strain confirming the design and structural integrity.

  6. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  7. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  8. Controlling the Filling and Capping Operation of a Bottling Plant using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Chakraborty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic stages of operation of a bottling plant, i.e. the filling and capping process. The main aim of our paper is to control the filling and capping section of a bottling plant simultaneously. At first a set of empty bottle is run by using a conveyer towards filling section, after the operation, the filled bottles are sent towards the capping section. After successful capping operation, the sealed bottles terminate towards exit and a new set of empty bottle arrive, in this way the process continues. This paper includes the method using which, a bunch of bottles can be filled and capped at one instant of time. This method has made the operation more flexible and time saving. The filling and capping operations are controlled using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, as the PLC’s are very much user-efficient, cost-effective and easy to control. By using PLC automation the whole process is kept under control. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is used to monitor the process by means of a display system.

  9. White HDPE bottles as source of serious contamination of water samples with Ba and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; Grimstvedt, Andreas; Frengstad, Bjørn; Finne, Tor Erik

    2007-03-15

    During a recent study of surface water quality factory new white high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles were used for collecting the water samples. According to the established field protocol of the Geological Survey of Norway the bottles were twice carefully rinsed with water in the field prior to sampling. Several blank samples using milli-Q (ELGA) water (>18.2 MOmega) were also prepared. On checking the analytical results the blanks returned values of Ag, Ba, Sr, V, Zn and Zr. For Ba and Zn the values (c. 300 microg/l and 95 microg/l) were about 10 times above the concentrations that can be expected in natural waters. A laboratory test of the bottles demonstrated that the bottles contaminate the samples with significant amounts of Ba and Zn and some Sr. Simple acid washing of the bottles prior to use did not solve the contamination problem for Ba and Zn. The results suggest that there may exist "clean" and "dirty" HDPE bottles depending on manufacturer/production process. When collecting water samples it is mandatory to check bottles regularly as a possible source of contamination.

  10. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariya, Patsuda; Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada

    2016-08-01

    To compare blood culture bottles and conventional media for the vitreous culture in patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Retrospective comparative study at KKU Eye Center, Khon Kaen University. There were 342 patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis participated in the study. The vitreous specimens were inoculated in both blood culture bottles and on conventional culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar and thioglycolate broth). The number of positive culture yields in both blood culture bottles and conventional media. Positive culture yields in both methods were found in 151 eyes (49.5%). There were 136 of 151 eyes (90.1%) with positive culture in blood culture bottles, whereas 99 of 151 eyes (65.6%) yielded positive cultures in conventional media. These findings were different with a statistical significance (P culture bottles and conventional media improved the yield. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture in clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Vitreous culture using blood culture bottles should be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis. A combination of both methods further improves the positive culture yield. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  12. Ceramic balsamaria-bottles: The example of Viminacium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The earliest balsamaria to appear in the Hellenistic and Early Roman periods are ceramic and seldom over 10 cm in height. On the Southern Necropolis of Viminacium (sites Više grobalja and Pećine 21 vessels of this type have been found. The features they have in common are a long slender neck and the absence of handles. Based on the shape of their bodies nine groups have been identified. Although they are similar to glass balsamaria, the term bottle seems more appropriate chiefly on account of their size. Of several proposed suggestions about their basic function, the most plausible seems to be that their primary use was as containers for products packed in small amounts. Although most published finds come from burials, the question of their significance and use in funerary rituals remains inadequately elucidated. It is impossible to say with certainty whether the larger-sized vessels of a later date had the same function as the smaller Hellenistic and Early Roman ones. What is certain is that they are usually found in cremation burials, as shown by both Viminacium's Southern Necropolis, the necropolises of Poetovio and Emona, and individual graves on other sites. To judge from the clay fabric and colour and the manner of manufacture, the ceramic bottles from Viminacium come from different and as yet unidentified production centres. From the stratigraphic data and the grave goods they were found in association with they can be dated to the end of the first and first half of the second century, tentatively regarded as a later phase in their production.

  13. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe; Deniak, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  14. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.

  15. Recovery of Pu from PVC vials and bottles used for sample storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Paru; Bhide, M.K.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Kumar, Mithlesh; Adya, V.C.; Hon, N.S.; Kadam, R.M.; Nathaniel, Newton; Natarajan, V.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium in the form of oxide is stored in plastic vials and bottles during its analysis for trace metal as say. Due to radiation damage and moisture, small amount of oxide samples were found to be adhering to surface of vials/ bottles. This required methods for safe disposal. Methods involving wet chemical and dry cleaning procedures were evaluated for effective removal of sticking α active plutonium oxide powder from these vials for their safe disposal. Dry cleaning method for removal of plutonium activity was found to be effective method for disposal of storage vial, while wet chemical method was found to be more suitable for removal of plutonium from damaged PVC bottles. (author)

  16. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  17. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2017-01-01

    -stageprocess, where the wood fibers are first thermoformed in the desired shape followed by drying of theformed geometry [2]. To ensure the robustness of the bottle and to avoid shrinkage of cellulose fibers,the wet-formed bottle is pressurized using a silicone core. The core is inserted inside the drying tooland......). To simulate the inflation action of the core, Yeoh’s model is used for modelling of W. Thestrength of the GFB is correlated with the pressure the bottle can hold and the cut off burst pressurefrom experiments is also reported in this work....

  18. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  19. Alimentação do recém-nascido pré-termo: aleitamento materno, copo e mamadeira Feeding preterm infants: breast, cup and bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Monteiro Correia Medeiros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a oferta de seio materno em bebês nascidos pré-termos, internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital e Maternidade Neomater, relacionando este dado com a forma de oferecer a dieta (copo ou mamadeira, na ausência da mãe, e a estimulação fonoaudiológica realizada. MÉTODOS: Participaram 48 recém-nascidos prematuros, com idade gestacional inferior ou igual a 36 6/7 semanas, com peso PURPOSE: To assess the offer of the maternal breast in preterm babies hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital and Maternity Neomater, linking this datum with the manner to feed them (cup or bottle in the absence of the mother, and the speech-language stimulation carried out. METHODS: Forty-eight newborn preterm infants with gestational age less than or equal to 36 6/7 weeks, weighting <2500 grams and with stable respiratory pattern participated in this study. The newborns were divided into two groups: group A (35 newborns with bottle feeding, and group B (13 newborns with cup feeding. Speech-Language Pathology monitoring was organized in Stage 1 (non-nutritive sucking in "gloved finger" or "empty breast" concomitant with enteral feeding; Stage 2 (oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup - with complement provided by enteral feeding; Stage 3 (exclusive oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup; Stage 4 (effective breastfeeding offer. A comparison was carried out between the groups regarding the number of days in each phase. Data were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the studied parameters. Breast feeding was equally accepted by newborns in the cup and the bottle groups. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding can be equally accepted, regardless the alternative feeding form used (cup or bottle, provided that there is adequate Speech-Language Pathology monitoring and encouragement to

  20. From Baby Bottle to Cup: Choose Training Cups Carefully, Use Them Temporarily

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... From baby bottle to cup Choose training cups carefully, use them temporarily T ooth decay can ... should encourage their children to drink from a cup by their first birthday. As you make the ...

  1. Chemical messages in 170-year-old champagne bottles from the Baltic Sea: Revealing tastes from the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandet, Philippe; Heinzmann, Silke S; Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Cilindre, Clara; Aron, Alissa; Deville, Marie Alice; Moritz, Franco; Karbowiak, Thomas; Demarville, Dominique; Brun, Cyril; Moreau, Fabienne; Michalke, Bernhard; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Witting, Michael; Lucio, Marianna; Steyer, Damien; Gougeon, Régis D; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-05-12

    Archaeochemistry as the application of the most recent analytical techniques to ancient samples now provides an unprecedented understanding of human culture throughout history. In this paper, we report on a multiplatform analytical investigation of 170-y-old champagne bottles found in a shipwreck at the bottom of the Baltic Sea, which provides insight into winemaking practices used at the time. Organic spectroscopy-based nontargeted metabolomics and metallomics give access to the detailed composition of these wines, revealing, for instance, unexpected chemical characteristics in terms of small ion, sugar, and acid contents as well as markers of barrel aging and Maillard reaction products. The distinct aroma composition of these ancient champagne samples, first revealed during tasting sessions, was later confirmed using state-of-the-art aroma analysis techniques. After 170 y of deep sea aging in close-to-perfect conditions, these sleeping champagne bottles awoke to tell us a chapter of the story of winemaking and to reveal their extraordinary archaeometabolome and elemental diversity in the form of chemical signatures related to each individual step of champagne production.

  2. Ability of Bottle Cap Color to Facilitate Accurate Patient-Physician Communication Regarding Medication Identity in Patients with Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Pujan; Villarreal, Guadalupe; Friedman, David S; Kahook, Malik Y; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2015-12-01

    To determine the accuracy of patient-physician communication regarding topical ophthalmic medication use based on bottle cap color, particularly among individuals who may have acquired color vision deficiency from glaucoma. Cross-sectional, clinical study. Patients aged ≥18 years with primary open-angle, primary angle-closure, pseudoexfoliation, or pigment dispersion glaucoma, bilateral visual acuity of ≥20/400, and no concurrent conditions that may affect color vision. A total of 100 patients provided color descriptions of 11 distinct medication bottle caps. Color descriptors were then presented to 3 physicians. Physicians matched each color descriptor to the medication they thought the descriptor was describing. Frequency of patient-physician agreement, occurring when all 3 physicians accurately matched the color descriptor to the correct medication. Multivariate regression models evaluated whether patient-physician agreement decreased with degree of better-eye visual field (VF) damage, color descriptor heterogeneity, or color vision deficiency, as determined by the Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) score and Lanthony D15 color confusion index (D15 CCI). Subjects had a mean age of 69 (±11) years, with VF mean deviation of -4.7 (±6.0) and -10.9 (±8.4) decibels (dB) in the better- and worse-seeing eyes, respectively. Patients produced 102 unique color descriptors to describe the colors of the 11 bottle caps. Among individual patients, the mean number of medications demonstrating agreement was 6.1/11 (55.5%). Agreement was less than 15% for 4 medications (prednisolone acetate [generic], betaxolol HCl [Betoptic; Alcon Laboratories Inc., Fort Worth, TX], brinzolamide/brimonidine [Simbrinza; Alcon Laboratories Inc.], and latanoprost [Xalatan; Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY]). Lower HRR scores and higher D15 CCI (both indicating worse color vision) were associated with greater VF damage (P communication using bottle cap color alone may be common and could lead to confusion

  3. Pengaruh Implementasi CSR Yang Dilakukan Oleh PT. Coca-cola Bottling Indonesia Terhadap Pengembangan Masyarakat Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Zulfizar Syahputra

    2013-01-01

    Formulation of the problem in this research is: Is CSR Implementation conducted by PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia Significant Impact on Community Development. The purpose of this research is to study and analyze how CSR Implementation conducted by PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia Significant Impact on Community Development. This study is associative, ie research that connects two or more variables to see the effect of these variables. The data used in this study is primary data and secon...

  4. Bottle & Can Recycling in Denmark: addressing issues and optimizing the recycling rate

    OpenAIRE

    Carnevale, Alessandro; Larsen, Lucas; Tetens, Simon W.

    2015-01-01

    The research is conducted in the landscape of environmental care and consumer behaviour. This paper explores the different dynamics revolving around the recycling of plastic bottles and aluminium cans in Denmark. The aim is to shed light on the possible impediments people might encounter when attempting to hand back their deposit marked bottle to the allocated facilities as well as illuminating what the main forces involved in encouraging or inhibiting people from recycling are. The ultimate ...

  5. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  6. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Alvaro; Smith, Bruce D; Gifford, John A; Green, Richard E; Newsom, Lee A; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-02-25

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315-18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication.

  7. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Álvaro; Smith, Bruce D.; Gifford, John A.; Green, Richard E.; Newsom, Lee A.; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315–18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication. PMID:24516122

  9. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camperos, E; Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Diaz Tapia, E

    2004-01-01

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to the bottle pre-rinse and pre-washing cycles. This work presents the characterization of the final bottle washing rinse discharge and the treatability study for the most appropriate treatment system for recycling. Average characteristics of the final bottle wash rinse were as follows: Turbidity 40.46 NTU, COD 47.7 mg/L, TSS 56 mg/L, TS 693.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity 1,194 microS/cm. The results of the treatability tests showed that the final rinse water can be used in the pre-rinse and pre-washing after removing the totality of the suspended solids, 80% of the COD and 75% of the dissolved solids. This can be done using the following treatment systems: filtration-adsorption-reverse osmosis, or filtration-adsorption-ion exchange. The installation of these treatment techniques in the soft drink industry would decrease bottle washing water consumption by 50%.

  10. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  11. Using waste plastic bottles as additive for stone mastic asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Zargar, Majid; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez; Shafigh, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The PET increased the stiffness level of the mixture improving its resistance level against permanent deformation. → The effects of waste PET on Marshall Stability, air void and bulk specific gravity of the mixture are significant. → The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. -- Abstract: Currently, polymer modified asphalt mixture is a relatively costly mixture for paving roads. One way to reduce the cost of such constructions and rendering them more convenient is by using inexpensive polymers, i.e. waste polymers. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. The volumetric and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes that include various percentages of PET (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. The outcomes were statistically analysed and the determination of the significance at certain confidence limits was performed with the two factor variance analysis (ANOVA). Moreover, some studies conducted on polyethylene modified asphalt mixture have also been taken into consideration in this paper. The results show that the addition of PET has a significant positive effect on the properties of SMA and it can promote the re-use of waste material in industry in an environmentally friendly and economical way.

  12. Determination of Perchlorate in Bottled Water from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Iannece

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perchlorate is regarded as an emerging persistent inorganic contaminant. It is widely known that perchlorate is an endocrine disruptor as it competitively inhibits iodide transport in the thyroid gland. As drinking water is the major source of human exposure to perchlorate, its occurrence in commercially available bottled waters purchased in different regions of Italy was investigated. Perchlorate was measured using the rapid, sensitive, and selective LC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM of the transition 98.8→82.8, which corresponds to the loss of one oxygen atom in the perchlorate ion (ClO4−→ClO3−. The chlorine isotope ratio (35Cl/37Cl was used as a confirmation tool. The limit of quantification (LOQ for this method was 5 ng/L, and the recovery ranged from 94% to 108%. Perchlorate was detected in 44 of the 62 drinking waters tested, with concentrations ranging from <5 to 75 ng/L. These values are similar in magnitude to those reported in drinking water from the USA and do not pose an immediate health concern.

  13. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  14. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  15. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  16. Direct identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS from positive blood culture bottles: An opportunity to customize growth conditions for fastidious organisms causing bloodstream infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture-negative bacteraemia has been an enigmatic entity with respect to its aetiological agents. In an attempt to actively identify those positive blood cultures that escape isolation and detection on routine workflow, an additional step of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based detection was carried out directly from the flagged blood culture bottles. Blood samples from 200 blood culture bottles that beeped positive with automated (BACTEC system and showed no growth of organism on routine culture media, were subjected to analysis by MALDI-TOF MS. Forty seven of the 200 (23.5% bacterial aetiology could be established by bottle-based method. Based on these results, growth on culture medium could be achieved for the isolates by providing special growth conditions to the fastidious organisms. Direct identification by MALDI-TOF MS from BACTEC-positive bottles provided an opportunity to isolate those fastidious organisms that failed to grow on routine culture medium by providing them with necessary alterations in growth environment.

  17. Direct identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) from positive blood culture bottles: An opportunity to customize growth conditions for fastidious organisms causing bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Megha; Gautam, Vikas; Mahajan, Monika; Rana, Sudesh; Majumdar, Manasi; Ray, Pallab

    2017-10-01

    Culture-negative bacteraemia has been an enigmatic entity with respect to its aetiological agents. In an attempt to actively identify those positive blood cultures that escape isolation and detection on routine workflow, an additional step of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) based detection was carried out directly from the flagged blood culture bottles. Blood samples from 200 blood culture bottles that beeped positive with automated (BACTEC) system and showed no growth of organism on routine culture media, were subjected to analysis by MALDI-TOF MS. Forty seven of the 200 (23.5%) bacterial aetiology could be established by bottle-based method. Based on these results, growth on culture medium could be achieved for the isolates by providing special growth conditions to the fastidious organisms. Direct identification by MALDI-TOF MS from BACTEC-positive bottles provided an opportunity to isolate those fastidious organisms that failed to grow on routine culture medium by providing them with necessary alterations in growth environment.

  18. A survey of the microbiological quality of bottled water sold in Peshawar city of north west frontier province of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, M.N.; Abid, H.; Ali, J.; Ibrahim, M.

    2010-01-01

    Nine brands of domestic bottled water purchased from various locations of Peshawar City were microbiological analysed with in three hours of collection for the test (i.e.) Total Coliforms, Total Fecal Coliform, E,coli and Total Plant Count. The results indicated that 33.3% of bottled water was within the acceptable limit set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) guideline whereas 66.6% bottled water samples were unsafe for human consumption. (author)

  19. Blood culture bottles are superior to lysis-centrifugation tubes for bacteriological diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Siersema, P D; de Marie, S; van Zeijl, J H; Bac, D J; Wilson, J H

    1992-01-01

    The conventional method of ascitic fluid culturing was compared with the bedside inoculation of ascites into blood culture bottles and into lysis-centrifugation tubes. The conventional culture method was compared with the blood culture bottle method in 31 episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Cultures were positive with the conventional culture method in 11 (35%) episodes and with the blood culture bottle method in 26 (84%) episodes (P less than 0.001). The lysis-centrifugation...

  20. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo

    2014-11-28

    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  1. Liquid chromatographic determination of the cyanobacterial toxin beta-n-methylamino-L-alanine in algae food supplements, freshwater fish, and bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter M; Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Lau, Ben P-Y

    2009-08-01

    Beta-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxin originally found in cycad seeds and now known to be produced by many species of freshwater and marine cyanobacteria. We developed a method for its determination in blue-green algae (BGA) food supplements, freshwater fish, and bottled water by using a strong cation-exchange, solid-phase extraction column for cleanup after 0.3 M trichloroacetic acid extraction of BGA supplements and fish. Bottled water was applied directly onto the solid-phase extraction column. For analysis of carbonated water, sonication and pH adjustment to 1.5 were needed. To determine protein-bound BMAA, the protein pellet left after extraction of the BGA supplement and fish was hydrolyzed by boiling with 6 M hydrochloric acid; BMAA was cleaned up on a C18 column and a strong cation-exchange, solid-phase extraction column. Determination of BMAA was by liquid chromatography of the fluorescent derivative formed with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate. The method was validated by recovery experiments using spiking levels of 1.0 to 10 microg/g for BGA supplements, 0.5 to 5.0 microg/g for fish, and 0.002 microg/g for bottled water; mean recoveries were in the range of 67 to 89% for BGA supplements and fish, and 59 to 92% for bottled water. Recoveries of BMAA from spiked extracts of hydrolyzed protein from BGA supplements and fish ranged from 66 to 83%. The cleanup developed provides a useful method for surveying foods and supplements for BMAA and protein-bound BMAA.

  2. Physicochemical properties and the concentration of anions, major and trace elements in groundwater, treated drinking water and bottled drinking water in Najran area, KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brima, Eid I.

    2017-03-01

    Basic information about major elements in bottled drinking water is provided on product labels. However, more information is needed about trace elements in bottled drinking water and other sources of drinking water to assess its quality and suitability for drinking. This is the first such study to be carried out in Najran city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 48 water samples were collected from different sources comprising wells, stations for drinking water treatment and bottled drinking water (purchased from local supermarkets). The concentrations of 24 elements [aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molydenum (Mo), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)] were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anions (chlorine (Cl-), fluoride (F-), sulfate (SO4 2-) and nitrate (NO3 -) were determined by ion chromatography (IC). Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved salts (TDS) and total hardness (TH) were also measured. All parameters of treated drinking water and bottled drinking water samples did not exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA 2009), Gulf Cooperation Council Standardization Organization (GSO) 2008 and Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) 1984 recommended guidelines. It is noteworthy that groundwater samples were not used for drinking purpose. This study is important to raise public knowledge about drinking water, and to promote public health.

  3. Diagnostic doses and times for Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) using the CDC bottle bioassay to assess insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Creswell, Joseph A; Anderson, J Laine; Reese, Conor K; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2016-04-15

    Insecticide resistance to synthetic chemical insecticides is a worldwide concern in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vectors of Leishmania spp. parasites. The CDC bottle bioassay assesses resistance by testing populations against verified diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for an insecticide, but the assay has been used limitedly with sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to ten insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and DDT, that are used worldwide to control vectors. Bioassays were conducted in 1,000-ml glass bottles each containing 10-25 sand flies from laboratory colonies of L. longipalpis or P. papatasi. Four pyrethroids, three organophosphates, two carbamates and one organochlorine, were evaluated. A series of concentrations were tested for each insecticide, and four replicates were conducted for each concentration. Diagnostic doses were determined only during the exposure bioassay for the organophosphates and carbamates. For the pyrethroids and DDT, diagnostic doses were determined for both the exposure bioassay and after a 24-hour recovery period. Both species are highly susceptible to the carbamates as their diagnostic doses are under 7.0 μg/ml. Both species are also highly susceptible to DDT during the exposure assay as their diagnostic doses are 7.5 μg/ml, yet their diagnostic doses for the 24-h recovery period are 650.0 μg/ml for Lu. longipalpis and 470.0 μg/ml for P. papatasi. Diagnostic doses and diagnostic times can now be incorporated into vector management programs that use the CDC bottle bioassay to assess insecticide resistance in field populations of Lu. longipalpis and P. papatasi. These findings provide initial starting points for determining diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for other sand fly vector species and wild populations using the CDC

  4. A differential centrifugation protocol and validation criterion for enhancing mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) results in microbial identification using blood culture growth bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March-Rosselló, G A; Muñoz-Moreno, M F; García-Loygorri-Jordán de Urriés, M C; Bratos-Pérez, M A

    2013-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) is a widely used tool in clinical microbiology for rapidly identifying microorganisms. This technique can be applied directly on positive blood cultures without the need for its culturing, thereby, reducing the time required for microbiological diagnosis. The present study proposes an innovative identification protocol applied to positive blood culture bottles using MALDI-TOF. We have processed 100 positive blood culture bottles, of which 36 of 37 Gram-negative bacteria (97.3 %) were correctly identified directly with 100 % of Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-negative rods and 87.5 % of non-fermenting Gram-negative rods. We also correctly identified directly 62 of 63 of Gram-positive bacteria (98.4 %) with 100 % of Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Gram-positive bacilli and 98 % of Staphylococcus. Applying the differential centrifugation protocol at the moment the automatic blood culture incubation system gives a positive reading together with the proposed validation criterion offers 98 % sensitivity (95 % confidence interval: 95.2-100 %). The MALDI-TOF system, thus, provides a rapid and reliable system for identifying microorganisms from blood culture growth bottles.

  5. Relieving Dry Mouth: Varying Levels of pH Found in Bottled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bailey Jean; Spencer, Angela; Haywood, Van; Konchady, Gayathri

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that 30% of people older than 60 years suffer from hyposalivation or dry mouth. Drinking water frequently has been recommended as a safe, non-pharmacologic way to combat hyposalivation. The saliva in patients with dry mouth is acidic. Beverages consumed daily may have an erosive potential on teeth. The pH and the mineral content of the beverage determine its erosive potential. An acidic beverage, therefore, may have harmful effects on mineralized tooth structures, causing erosion of enamel, dentin, and cementum. Because bottled water is both convenient and easily available, the authors tested the pH of eight common brands of bottled water. (One brand included two different bottle types, for a total of nine bottled waters tested.) To standardize the pH electrode, pH buffers of 4.7 and 10 were used. The pH was measured using the Denver Instruments basic pH meter. Six recordings were used for each brand and then averaged to report the pH. Two of the bottled water samples tested were below the critical level of 5.2 pH to 5.5 pH, the level at which erosion of enamel occurs. Six of the samples tested were below the critical pH of 6.8, at which erosion of root dentin occurs. The authors conclude that both patients and clinicians incorrectly presume bottled water to be innocuous. Clinicians should be cognizant of the erosive potential of different brands of bottled water to both educate patients and to recommend water with neutral or alkaline pH for patients with symptoms of dry mouth to prevent further deterioration and demineralization of tooth structure.

  6. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  7. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  8. Concentration of ions in selected bottled water samples sold in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Kam, Ryan Chuan Yang; Lim, Ai Phing; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2013-03-01

    Many consumers around the world, including Malaysians, have turned to bottled water as their main source of drinking water. The aim of this study is to determine the physical and chemical properties of bottled water samples sold in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 20 bottled water brands consisting of `natural mineral (NM)' and `packaged drinking (PD)' types were randomly collected and analyzed for their physical-chemical characteristics: hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), selected major ions: calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na), and minor trace constituents: copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) to ascertain their suitability for human consumption. The results obtained were compared with guideline values recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malaysian Ministry of Health (MMOH), respectively. It was found that all bottled water samples were in accordance with the guidelines set by WHO and MMOH except for one sample (D3) which was below the pH limit of 6.5. Both NM and PD bottled water were dominated by Na + K > Ca > Mg. Low values for EC and TDS in the bottled water samples showed that water was deficient in essential elements, likely an indication that these were removed by water treatment. Minerals like major ions were present in very low concentrations which could pose a risk to individuals who consume this water on a regular basis. Generally, the overall quality of the supplied bottled water was in accordance to standards and guidelines set by WHO and MMOH and safe for consumption.

  9. Laboratory Workflow Analysis of Culture of Periprosthetic Tissues in Blood Culture Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Sedarski, John A; Dylla, Brenda L; Shannon, Samantha K; Amirahmadi, Fazlollaah; Hughes, John G; Cheng, Allen C; Patel, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than conventional techniques, but the impact on laboratory workflow has yet to be addressed. Herein, we examined the impact of culture of periprosthetic tissues in blood culture bottles on laboratory workflow and cost. The workflow was process mapped, decision tree models were constructed using probabilities of positive and negative cultures drawn from our published study (T. N. Peel, B. L. Dylla, J. G. Hughes, D. T. Lynch, K. E. Greenwood-Quaintance, A. C. Cheng, J. N. Mandrekar, and R. Patel, mBio 7:e01776-15, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01776-15), and the processing times and resource costs from the laboratory staff time viewpoint were used to compare periprosthetic tissues culture processes using conventional techniques with culture in blood culture bottles. Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of positive cultures. Annualized labor savings were estimated based on salary costs from the U.S. Labor Bureau for Laboratory staff. The model demonstrated a 60.1% reduction in mean total staff time with the adoption of tissue inoculation into blood culture bottles compared to conventional techniques (mean ± standard deviation, 30.7 ± 27.6 versus 77.0 ± 35.3 h per month, respectively; P < 0.001). The estimated annualized labor cost savings of culture using blood culture bottles was $10,876.83 (±$337.16). Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of culture positivity (5 to 50%). Culture in blood culture bottles was cost-effective, based on the estimated labor cost savings of $2,132.71 for each percent increase in test accuracy. In conclusion, culture of periprosthetic tissue in blood culture bottles is not only more accurate than but is also cost-saving compared to conventional culture methods. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Infant bottle propping among a low-income urban population in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Segura-Millán, S; Dewey, K G

    1995-06-01

    The prevalence of bottle propping (permitting an infant to drink from a bottle unattended) and the determinants of this practice at 1 week and 4 months of life were studied in a selected sample of urban women in Hermosillo, Mexico. The sample (n = 165) consisted of mothers planning to breast-feed who gave birth to healthy infants at one of two public hospitals. Data were obtained by interviewing women shortly before they were discharged from the hospital and at about 1 week and 4 months postpartum. Among those mothers giving liquid breast milk substitutes to their infants, the percentage practicing bottle propping increased from 27% at 1 week (n = 20/74) to 67% at 4 months (n = 87/130). Women who practiced bottle propping at 1 week were significantly more likely to continue this practice at 4 months. Bottle propping was significantly more common, both at 1 week and 4 months, among women who had completely weaned their infants than among those who were still combining breast and formula feeding. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that 1-week risk factors for bottle propping were low socioeconomic status, being a multiparous single mother, and being a young mother (< or = 18 years old) with a female infant, while 4-month risk factors were complete weaning, delivery in a "nursery" (versus a "rooming-in") hospital, and lack of support by the mother's partner for breast-feeding. While the possible health risks associated with early bottle propping have not been well defined, the extent of the practice observed in this study suggests that such risks deserve further investigation.

  11. Survey on Heterotrophic Bacterial Contamination in Bottled Mineral Water by Culture Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essmaeel Ghorbanalinezhad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This project focuses on the level of heterotrophic baceria in bottled mineral water which could be a health concern for the elderly, infants, pregnant women and immuno-compromised patients. Materials and Methods: Different brands of bottled water samples were selected randomly and evaluated for their bacteriological quality, using different specific culture media and biochemical tests. Water samples were analyzed within 24 hours of their purchase/collection. Samples were filtered with 0.45 micron and filters were plated in different media. Then media were incubated at 37˚C for 24-48 hours. Results: Morphological study and biochemical tests revealed a number of bacteria in different   brands of  bottled water. Heterotrophic bacteria(Gram positive cocci, Spore forming gram positive bacilli, non spore forming gram positive bacilli, gram negative bacilli, and gram negative coccobacilli; Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas counted in 70% of bottled water samples. There were no cases of fecal contamination or the presence of E.coli. Conclusions: Bottled water is not sterile and contains trace amounts of bacteria naturally present or introduced during processing. Testing drinking water for all possible pathogens is complex, time-consuming, and expensive. If only total coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source is probably environmental. Since the significance of non-pathogenic heterotrophic bacteria in relation to health and diseases is not understood, there is an urgent need to establish a maximum limit for the heterotrophic count in the bottled mineral water. Growth conditions play a critical role in the recovery of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled drinking water.

  12. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  13. Physicochemical and bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water in three sites of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tessema, Belay; Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh; Huruy, Kahsay; Anagaw, Belay; Mulu, Andargachew

    2009-10-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking water is becoming increasing in Ethiopia. As a result there has been a growing concern about the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of this product. Studies on the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of bottled water is quite scarce in Ethiopia. This study was therefore aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of three factories of bottled drinking water products produced in Amhara region. A Laboratory based comparative study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of three factories of bottled drinking water produced in Amhara region. Analysis on the quality of bottled drinking water from the sources, wholesalers and retailers were made with World Health Organization and Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia recommendations. Triplicate samples from three types of bottled drinking water were randomly collected and analyzed from June, 2006 to December, 2006. A total of 108 commercial bottled drinking water samples were analyzed. The result showed that except pH of factory A all the physicochemical parameters analyzed were with in the recommended limits. The pH value of factory A tested from sources is 5.3 and from wholesalers and retailers is 5.5 and 5.3, respectively, which is below the normal value set by World Health Organization (6.5-8.0) and Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia (6.0-8.5). Our analyses also demonstrated that 2 (16.7%) of the samples tested from sources and 1 (8.3%) from wholesalers of factory B were contaminated with total coliforms, where as 2 (16.7%) samples from retailers were also contaminated with total coliforms. On the other hand, 1 (8.3%) of the samples tested from wholesalers and 2 (16.7%) of the samples tested from retailers of factory A were also contaminated with total coliforms. Total coliforms were not detected from all samples of factory C, fecal coliforms were not also isolated from all samples

  14. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-01-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  15. Preference for tap, bottled, and recycled water: Relations to PTC taste sensitivity and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Daniel; Gauvain, Mary; Z Reisz; Arthur, Isaac; Story, S Drew

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source. Results indicate a preference for water treated with Reverse Osmosis (RO) (bottled and IDR water) over groundwater-sourced water, which had higher pH levels and lower concentrations of Ca and HCO 3 - . PTC taste sensitivity did not predict preferences, while Openness to Experience and Neuroticism predicted preference for IDR water. Positive relations between Openness to Experience and preferences for bottled and IDR water were moderated by gender and were stronger among females. Participants described water primarily by its taste and texture. Findings suggest that (1) tap water treated by RO is equally preferable to some bottled water, (2) personality traits may affect water preferences, and (3) prior findings of gender differences in preferences for bottled water may reflect personality characteristics. Efforts to increase acceptance for sustainable water alternatives, such as IDR, may be more successful by assuring consumers about taste and addressing personality traits that encourage or inhibit use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W. [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  17. Applicability study of deuterium excess in bottled water life cycle analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper explores the possible use of d‑excess in the investigation of bottled water. Based on the data set from Brencic and Vreca’s paper (2006. Identification of sources and production processes of bottled waters by stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, d‑excess values were statistically analysed and compared among different bottled water groups and different bottlers. The bottled water life cycle in relation to d‑excess values was also theoretically identified. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences among the groups. Differences were detected in the shape of empirical distributions. Groups of still and flavoured waters have similar shapes, but sparkling waters differed to the others. Two distinctive groups of bottlers could be discerned. The first group is represented by bottlers with a high range of d‑excess (from 7.7 ‰ to 18.6 ‰ with average of 12.0 ‰ exploring waters originating from the aquifers rich in highly mineralised groundwater and relatively high concentrations of CO2 gas. The second group is represented by bottlers using groundwater from relatively shallow aquifers. Their d‑excess values have characteristics similar to the local precipitation (from 7.8 ‰ to 14.3 ‰ with average of 10.3 ‰. More frequent sampling and better knowledge of production phases are needed to improve usage of isotope fingerprint for authentication of bottled waters.

  18. Microbial assessment of un-bottled synthetic juices sold in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Ali, J.; Hussain, A.

    2010-01-01

    Un-bottled synthetic juices are sold by street vendors and hawkers raising the concern about their safety. To examine the quality of un-bottled synthetic beverages from different locations of Peshawar city using Standard techniques. A total of 56 samples of un-bottled synthetic juices were collected from 8 different locations of Peshawar City and analyzed for Total Plate Count, Total Coliform Bacteria, Total Fecal Coliform bacteria E. coli, Yeast and Mould. In all localities, the street vended un-bottled synthetic juices were found hygienically of poor quality as all had high total plate count which ranged from 2 x 102 to 5 x 107 and total coliform bacteria ranged from 110 MPN/ml. Total Fecal Coliform ranged from < 0.3 to 110M PN/ml. The presence of E coli, contamination was found in (25) 44 % Samples, while all the analyzed samples were contaminated with yeasts and moulds. All un-bottled synthetic juices sold on roadside were highly contaminated with disease causing microorganisms. Policy message: Periodic monitoring of street beverage should be carried out to make them safe for consumption. (author)

  19. How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2005-01-01

    How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF THE THREAT OF REUSING PET BOTTLES FOR THE STORAGE OF DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to a sociological survey of about 86% of Kharkiv (Ukraine residents reuse PET bottles for a drinking water storing. This type of reuse of PET bottles isn't safe and the results of numerous research unequivocally confirm this assertion. The largest hazard of plastic bottles reuse for drinking water storage is biological film on the internally surface of bottle. This biofilm may contain pathogenic microorganisms which can migrate from biofilm to fresh water. Human, who drinking contaminated water, may drink microorganisms in common with this water. It's very dangerous, because the numerous strains of pathogens may migration in water and infect from gastric-bowel tract to the humans. Scientists from National technical university "Kharkiv polytechnic institute" in common with experts from Mechnikov institute of microbiology and immunology explored this problem and devised the apparatus, which can destroy a biofilm on polymer or another surface. Materials & Methods. The tested apparatus was the electrical device consisting of a block with electrodes, an electronic control, a water pump and a sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant. The electrode was made of 925˚ silver (sterling silver. Water for the preparation of a disinfectant was tap water and wasn't treated additionally. The sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant was placed in the neck of the infected bottle. Disinfectant solution was sprayed inside the bottle for 4 seconds. The water pressure was about 1.5 atmospheres. After that, the sprinkler was removed and the disinfectant was drained. A smear for microbiological composition was taken from three parts of the bottle - the neck, the middle part and the bottom. Growth of microorganisms and their detections was fixed by classic microbiological methods. Results & Discussion. In the article the scheme of the most probable and widespread way of infection of PET-bottles by pathogens and the way of minimization of this

  1. SCADA based radioactive sample bottle delivery system for fuel reprocessing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Subrat; Munj, Niket; Chauhan, R.K.; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive samples of process streams need to be analyzed in centralized control lab for measuring concentration of heavy elements as well as activity at various stages of re-processing plants. The sample is taken from biologically shielded process cells remotely through sampling blisters in sample bottles. These are then transferred to control lab located about 50 meters using vacuum transfer system. The bottle movement is tracked from origin to destination in rich HMI SCADA system using Infra-red non contact type proximity sensors located along sampling line and these sensors are connected to PLC in a fail-safe mode. The sample bottle travels at a speed of 10 m/s under vacuum motive force and the detection time is of the order of 1 mS. The contact time Flow meters have been used to know the air flow in sampling line

  2. Using Virtual Reality in K-12 Education: A Simulation of Shooting Bottle Rockets for Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nippert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, it is often more challenging to shoot bottle rockets for distance instead of shooting them straight up and measuring altitude, as is often done.Using a device made from pipe and wood to launch bottle rockets and control the launch angle creates a much more interesting problem for students who are attempting to optimize launch conditions.Plans are presented for a launcher that allow students to adjust the launch angle. To help embellish the exercise, we supplement the bottle rocket with a model using virtual reality and a photorealistic simulation of the launch that allows the students to appreciate the optimization problems associated with water and air pressure and launch angle. Our usage data indicates that students easily adapt to the virtual reality simulation and use our simulation for intuitive experiments on their own to optimize launch conditions.

  3. PROFILE OF PLASTIC WATER BOTTLES WASTES PROCESSING BUSINESS UNIT FOR WASTE PICKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herijanto P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Used plastic water bottles waste pickers can be categorized as one of the informal sector’s component. They work for themselves by picking up used water bottles and selling them to the waste collectors. The problem to be solved in this research is How the Most Appropriate Used Plastic Water Bottles Business Model for Waste Pickers Is that enables them to be categorized as formal sector. From the result of the interview with 120 waste pickers, 96 results were qualified to be analyzed. The interview was located in several waste collectors, which were visited by waste pickers at certain hours. The data were analyzed descriptively based on six business aspects. Specifically for production facilities, Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE analysis were performed. The results of the analysis indicate that the business is practicable for waste pickers and has the potential to enable them run a formal business sector.

  4. SCADA based radioactive sample bottle delivery system for fuel reprocessing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Subrat; Munj, Niket; Chauhan, R.K.; Jayaram, M.N.; Haneef, K.K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive samples of process streams need to be analyzed in centralized control lab for measuring concentration of heavy elements as well as activity at various stages of re-processing plants. The sample is taken from biologically shielded process cells remotely through sampling blisters in sample bottles. These are then transferred to control lab located about 50 meters using vacuum transfer system. The bottle movement is tracked from origin to destination in rich HMI SCADA system using Infra-red non contact type proximity sensors located along sampling line and these sensors are connected to PLC in a fail-safe mode. The sample bottle travels at a speed of 10 m/s under vacuum motive force and the detection time is of the order of 1 mS. The flow meters have been used to know the air flow in sampling line. The system has been designed, developed, tested and commissioned and in use for four years. (author)

  5. Will bottle-grade PET demand lure fiber-grade capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    As demand for bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate (PET) continues strong and new capacity hastens to meet it, some industry observers wonder if conversions to bottle-grade from fiber-grade capacity will become an industry trend. Taiwan's Nan Ya Plastics was recently said to be considering such a switch, but company sources say it has no such plans. Peter Driscoll, senior partner at PCI Fibres ampersand Raw Materials (Crawley, UK), says that while it is true that demand for the bottle-grade material remains unsatisfied, he doubts that many conversions will take place. You must remember, says Driscoll, that it is not always possible to switch, and that even where it is possible there are limitations

  6. A survey of the inorganic chemistry of bottled mineral waters from the British Isles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, Pauline L.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bottled waters from the UK have major-ion compositions that broadly reflect the compositions of groundwaters abstracted directly from the corresponding host aquifers. → Many trace elements differ in composition from in situ groundwaters due to post-abstraction modifying processes. → All parameters analysed comply with European and national limits for drinking water and with WHO guideline values; elements that most closely approach the limits include U, Ba. → Bottled water compositions clearly show the influence of contamination with Sb from PET bottles, although concentrations do not exceed drinking-water limits. - Abstract: The inorganic chemistry of 85 samples of bottled natural mineral waters and spring waters has been investigated from 67 sources across the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland). Sources include boreholes, springs and wells. Waters are from a diverse range of aquifer lithologies and are disproportionately derived from comparatively minor aquifers, the most represented being Lower Palaeozoic (10 sources), Devonian Sandstone (10 sources) and Carboniferous Limestone (9 sources). The waters show correspondingly variable major-ion compositions, ranging from Ca-HCO 3 , through mixed-cation-mixed-anion to Na-HCO 3 types. Concentrations of total dissolved solids are mostly low to very low (range 58-800 mg/L). All samples analysed in the study had concentrations of inorganic constituents well within the limits for compliance with European and national standards for bottled waters. Concentrations of NO 3 -N reached up to half the limit of 11.3 mg/L, although 62% of samples had concentrations 10 μg/L, both being from the Welsh Devonian Sandstone. The highest observed U concentration was 13.6 μg/L. Solute concentrations in waters contained in glass bottles compared with waters in PET showed slightly though significantly higher concentrations of Al, Ce, Cu, La, Nd, Mn, Sn, W, Zn and

  7. Thermal Jacket Design Using Cellulose Aerogels for Heat Insulation Application of Water Bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai M. Duong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal jacket design using eco-friendly cellulose fibers from recycled paper waste is developed in this report. Neoprene as an outmost layer, cellulose aerogels in the middle and Nylon as an innermost layer can form the best sandwiched laminate using the zigzag stitching method for thermal jacket development. The temperature of the ice slurry inside the water bottle covered with the designed thermal jackets remains at 0.1 °C even after 4 h, which is the average duration of an outfield exercise. Interestingly, the insulation performance of the designed thermal jackets is much better than the commercial insulated water bottles like FLOE bottles and is very competition to that of vacuum flasks for a same period of 4 h and ambient conditions.

  8. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  9. [Development of a screening scale for children at risk of baby bottle tooth decay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra-Eid, J; Baudet, D; Fourny, M; Sellier, E; Brun, C; François, P

    2012-03-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a severe form of early childhood caries. This study aims to elaborate a screening tool for at risk children in order to facilitate primary prevention. A case-control study was conducted among children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and children with no dental caries. Cases were children aged 5 years or less at diagnosis who experienced at least four caries with one or more affecting maxillary incisors. Controls were children matched for age and sex. Parents were interviewed by phone about their child's exposure to potential risk factors. We included 88 children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and 88 children with no dental caries. In multivariate analysis, low social class (OR 6.39 [95% CI, 1.45-28.11]), prolonged bottle feeding or bedtime feeding (OR 153.2 [95% CI, 11.77-1994.96]), and snacking (OR 5.94 [95% CI, 1.35-26.2]) were significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay. Regular dental visits were a significant protecting factor (OR 0.13 [95% CI, 0.02-0.77]). A score was developed using these significant risk factors and tested on the survey population. The mean score was 13/20 for cases and 4/20 for controls. These results are in accordance with the literature, except for brushing teeth, which was not significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay in our study. A screening scale with a score of 20 points was proposed. Future validation is required. Pediatricians and general practitioners should encourage parents to change their habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Preconcentration and Determination of Antimony in Drinking Water Bottled by Modified Nano-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Zakizade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 has been utilized as a catalyst in polyethylene terephtalate (PET production, and the studies conducted on the bottled water has demonstrated that antimony can be leached from PET bottles into drinking water. Methods: In this study, a simple method was applied in order to determine the trace amount of antimony in bottled drinking water based on preconcentration /solid phase extraction. The nano alumina modified with Schiff base ligand was used in regard with Sb preconcentration. The experiments were performed in a continuous system and HCI was used as eluent of Sb ion. Several chemical and flow variables were optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of Sb ion. The atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine Sb ion concentration. In order to study the keeping conditions on the leaching of Sb ion from PET plastic, drinking water bottles were kept in different conditions(room temperature, sunny light and -18˚C. Results: The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5 to 15.0 ppm Sb with detection limit of 0.055 ppm. The flow rate of sample was optimized in range of 1.0-9.0 mLmin-1 and Sb ion can be quantitatively eluted at 90 Vsample: Veluent retio. Conclusion: The study results revealed that the modified nano alumina is an effective sorbent in regard with absorbing Sb ion from water and HCI 1M can be used as an appropriate eluent. Maximum leaching of Sb ion is observed when the bottled drinking water was exposed to the sun light. Keywords: Antimony; Bottled drinking water; Modified alumina; Preconcentration

  11. Optimization of fixed titanium dioxide film on PET bottles and visual indicator for water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Munoz, Manuel Antonio

    Water is perhaps the most important resource that sustains human life. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), almost two billion people do not have access to the required water that is needed to satisfy their daily needs and one billion do not have access to clean sources of water for consumption, most of them living in isolated and poor areas around the globe. Poor quality water increases the risk of cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery, and other water-borne illness making this problem a real crisis that humankind is facing. Several water disinfection technologies have been proposed as solutions for this problem. Solar water disinfection using TiO2 coated PET bottles was the alternative that is studied in this work. This technology does not only inactivate bacteria but also disintegrates organic chemicals that can be present in water. The objectives of this work address the optimization of the TiO 2 coated PET bottles technologies. The improvement on the bottle coating process, using two coats of 10% W/V of TiO2 in a solution of vinegar and sodium bicarbonate to form the TiO2 film, the use of a different indigo carmine (1.25 X 10-1mg/pill) concentration in the pill indicator of contamination, the increase of the disinfection rate through shaking the bottles, degradation under intermittent UV radiation and the effect of bottle size on photocatalytic water disinfection were among the most important findings. A new mathematical model that describes better photocatalytic water disinfection in TiO2 coated bottles and simulates water disinfection under different working conditions was another important achievement. These results can now be used to design a strategy for disseminating this technology in areas where it is required and, in that way, generate the greatest positive impact on the people needing safe drinking water.

  12. Comparison of different concentration methods for the detection of hepatitis A virus and calicivirus from bottled natural mineral waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pasquale, S.; Paniconi, M; Auricchio, B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of different recovery methods of viral RNA from bottled water, a comparison was made of 2 positively and 2 negatively charged membranes that were used for absorbing and releasing HAV virus particles during the filtration of viral spiked bottled water. All the 4 membrane...

  13. Story-telling, women's authority and the "Old Wife's Tale": "The Story of the Bottle of Medicine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is a single personal narrative – a Shetland woman's telling of a story about two girls on a journey to fetch a cure for a sick relative from a wise woman. The story is treated as a cultural document which offers the historian a conduit to a past that is respectful of indigenous woman-centred interpretations of how that past was experienced and understood. The "story of the bottle of medicine" is more than a skilful telling of a local tale; it is a memory practice that provides a path to a deeper and more nuanced understanding of a culture. Applying perspectives from anthropology, oral history and narrative analysis, three sets of questions are addressed: the issue of authenticity; the significance of the narrative structure and storytelling strategies employed; and the nature of the female performance. Ultimately the article asks what this story can tell us about women's interpretation of their own history.

  14. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  15. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging...... from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1...

  16. Investigating the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Bottled Water and Comparing with its Standard: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Salmani

    2017-09-01

    Results: Brand No. 1, the concentration of zinc ion was larger in Brand 2 while in Brand No. 2 had larger copper, nickel, and aluminum ions. The results indicated that the concentration of the measured metal ions were below the allowable limit of drinking water standard across all of the studied samples. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results from the investigated parameters, it can be concluded that the bottled water of both brands poses no health issue and is drinkable. Considering the changes in the concentration of ions and the increasing trend of consumption of bottled waters, their monitoring and qualitative control of pollutants are very crucial in terms of public health.

  17. PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY OF BOTTLED QUALITY WHITE WINE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel SYROVÁTKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the supply of the Czech producers of bottled quality white wine. Namely, a dependence of their sales of this wine category on the market price of bottled quality white wine was examined. Monthly data from the CZSO and SZIF database, years 2004–2012, were used for the price-supply analysis. Price-supply reactions of the Czech wine producers were investigated through two-stage cointegration method developed by Engle and Granger. Short-term and long-term price elasticity of studied market supply was based on the error correction model designed and statistically verified by the authors.

  18. Evaluating radon loss from water during storage in standard PET, bio-based PET, and PLA bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchetti, Carlo; De Simone, Gabriele; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles were tested to evaluate radon loss from water during 15 days of storage. PET bottles (lower surface/volume-ratio vials) lost 0.4–7.1% of initial radon, whereas PLA bottles lost 3.7% of it. PET bottles with volume of 0.5 L, lower surface/weight ratio, and hence higher thickness display proportionally reduced radon loss. Corrections for dissolved radium are needed during analyses. Formulas for calculating degassing efficiency and water interference on electrostatic collections are developed. - Highlights: • Radon loss from water during storage in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles was evaluated. • Surface/volume ratio and thickness of plastic materials were studied. • A correction for dissolved radium concentration was applied to estimate gas loss. • Proper corrections for degassing efficiency of aerators were developed. • The interference of H 2 O on radon daughter electrostatic collection was quantified.

  19. Improving accuracy of medication identification in an older population using a medication bottle color symbol label system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Roberto; Mann, Christopher; Fulda, Kimberly G; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Espinoza, Anna; Lurie, Sue

    2011-12-29

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate and refine an adjuvant system of color-specific symbols that are added to medication bottles and to assess whether this system would increase the ability of patients 65 years of age or older in matching their medication to the indication for which it was prescribed. This study was conducted in two phases, consisting of three focus groups of patients from a family medicine clinic (n = 25) and a pre-post medication identification test in a second group of patient participants (n = 100). Results of focus group discussions were used to refine the medication label symbols according to themes and messages identified through qualitative triangulation mechanisms and data analysis techniques. A pre-post medication identification test was conducted in the second phase of the study to assess differences between standard labeling alone and the addition of the refined color-specific symbols. The pre-post test examined the impact of the added labels on participants' ability to accurately match their medication to the indication for which it was prescribed when placed in front of participants and then at a distance of two feet. Participants appreciated the addition of a visual aid on existing medication labels because it would not be necessary to learn a completely new system of labeling, and generally found the colors and symbols used in the proposed labeling system easy to understand and relevant. Concerns were raised about space constraints on medication bottles, having too much information on the bottle, and having to remember what the colors meant. Symbols and colors were modified if they were found unclear or inappropriate by focus group participants. Pre-post medication identification test results in a second set of participants demonstrated that the addition of the symbol label significantly improved the ability of participants to match their medication to the appropriate medical indication at a distance of two feet (p

  20. Penerapan Diagram Kontrol D^2 Mahalanobis Pada Proses Produksi Minuman Kemasan Returnable Glass Bottle (Studi Kasus Di PT. Coca-cola Bottling Indonesia Central Java)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhyidin, Muhammad Abid; Safitri, Diah; Rahmawati, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Quality being one of the basic factors in choosing a product consumers. Therefore, an industry or a company should always maintain the quality of their products in order to get loyal customers and are able to survive in the competitive market. Coca-cola Bottling Indonesia Central Java Limited Compay is one of the manufacturing company engaged in the beverage packaging industry and always trying to improve the quality for customer satisfaction. Although it has been to improve the quality, the...

  1. An investigation on the use of shredded waste PET bottles as aggregate in lightweight concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcaoezoglu, Semiha; Atis, Cengiz Duran; Akcaoezoglu, Kubilay

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the utilization of shredded waste Poly-ethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle granules as a lightweight aggregate in mortar was investigated. Investigation was carried out on two groups of mortar samples, one made with only PET aggregates and, second made with PET and sand aggregates together. Additionally, blast-furnace slag was also used as the replacement of cement on mass basis at the replacement ratio of 50% to reduce the amount of cement used and provide savings. The water-binder (w/b) ratio and PET-binder (PET/b) ratio used in the mixtures were 0.45 and 0.50, respectively. The size of shredded PET granules used in the preparation of mortar mixtures were between 0 and 4 mm. The results of the laboratory study and testing carried out showed that mortar containing only PET aggregate, mortar containing PET and sand aggregate, and mortars modified with slag as cement replacement can be drop into structural lightweight concrete category in terms of unit weight and strength properties. Therefore, it was concluded that there is a potential for the use of shredded waste PET granules as aggregate in the production of structural lightweight concrete. The use of shredded waste PET granules due to its low unit weight reduces the unit weight of concrete which results in a reduction in the death weight of a structural concrete member of a building. Reduction in the death weight of a building will help to reduce the seismic risk of the building since the earthquake forces linearly dependant on the dead-weight. Furthermore, it was also concluded that the use of industrial wastes such as PET granules and blast-furnace slag in concrete provides some advantages, i.e., reduction in the use of natural resources, disposal of wastes, prevention of environmental pollution, and energy saving.

  2. An investigation on the use of shredded waste PET bottles as aggregate in lightweight concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçaözoğlu, Semiha; Atiş, Cengiz Duran; Akçaözoğlu, Kubilay

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the utilization of shredded waste Poly-ethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle granules as a lightweight aggregate in mortar was investigated. Investigation was carried out on two groups of mortar samples, one made with only PET aggregates and, second made with PET and sand aggregates together. Additionally, blast-furnace slag was also used as the replacement of cement on mass basis at the replacement ratio of 50% to reduce the amount of cement used and provide savings. The water-binder (w/b) ratio and PET-binder (PET/b) ratio used in the mixtures were 0.45 and 0.50, respectively. The size of shredded PET granules used in the preparation of mortar mixtures were between 0 and 4 mm. The results of the laboratory study and testing carried out showed that mortar containing only PET aggregate, mortar containing PET and sand aggregate, and mortars modified with slag as cement replacement can be drop into structural lightweight concrete category in terms of unit weight and strength properties. Therefore, it was concluded that there is a potential for the use of shredded waste PET granules as aggregate in the production of structural lightweight concrete. The use of shredded waste PET granules due to its low unit weight reduces the unit weight of concrete which results in a reduction in the death weight of a structural concrete member of a building. Reduction in the death weight of a building will help to reduce the seismic risk of the building since the earthquake forces linearly dependent on the dead-weight. Furthermore, it was also concluded that the use of industrial wastes such as PET granules and blast-furnace slag in concrete provides some advantages, i.e., reduction in the use of natural resources, disposal of wastes, prevention of environmental pollution, and energy saving.

  3. Effect of infusion bottle height on lens power after lens refilling with and without a plug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC; Barkhof, J

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of intraoperative infusion bottle height on the power of refilled pig lenses. Setting: Research Laboratory, Pharmacia Intraocular Lens Manufacturing Plant, Groningen, The Netherlands. Methods: This study comprised 2 groups of pig eyes. In 1 group, the lens was

  4. Stochastic Optimization in The Power Management of Bottled Water Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoro, Budi; Nababan, Esther; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    This paper review a model developed to minimize production costs on bottled water production planning through stochastic optimization. As we know, that planning a management means to achieve the goal that have been applied, since each management level in the organization need a planning activities. The built models is a two-stage stochastic models that aims to minimize the cost on production of bottled water by observing that during the production process, neither interfernce nor vice versa occurs. The models were develop to minimaze production cost, assuming the availability of packing raw materials used considered to meet for each kind of bottles. The minimum cost for each kind production of bottled water are expressed in the expectation of each production with a scenario probability. The probability of uncertainly is a representation of the number of productions and the timing of power supply interruption. This is to ensure that the number of interruption that occur does not exceed the limit of the contract agreement that has been made by the company with power suppliers.

  5. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  6. Measurement of the 226Ra-concentration in bottled Austrian mineral waters and table beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.; Hernegger, F.

    1978-01-01

    226 Ra being regarded nowadays as a toxic trace element, a systementic examination of bottled Austrian mineral waters and table beverages has been carried out. Only in one case was the maximum allowable concentration of 3.3 pCi/l, a value set up by the WHO, clearly exceeded. (orig.) [de

  7. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Resources for You Consumers FDA Regulates the Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages ... addition, the flavorings and nutrients added to these beverages must comply with all applicable FDA safety requirements and they must be identified in the ...

  8. Influence of yeast strain, priming solution and temperature on beer bottle conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Ombretta; Rossi, Serena; Galgano, Fernanda; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of microbreweries. Usually, craft beers are bottle conditioned; however, few studies have investigated beer refermentation. One of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the impacts of different experimental conditions, specifically yeast strain, priming solution and temperature, on the standard quality attributes, the volatile compounds and the sensory profile of the bottle-conditioned beer. The other aim was to monitor the evolution of volatile compounds and amino acids consumption throughout the refermentation process to check if it is possible to reduce the time necessary for bottle conditioning. The results indicate that the volatile profile was mainly influenced by the strain of yeast, and this may have obscured the possible impacts of the other parameters. Our results also confirm that the two yeast strains showed different metabolic activity, particularly with respect to esters production. Moreover, we found the Safbrew S-33® strain when primed with Siromix® and refermented at 30 °C yielded the fastest formation of higher alcohols while maintaining low production of off-flavours. These results suggest a formulation that may reduce the time needed for bottle conditioning without affecting the quality of the final beer which may simultaneously improve efficiency and economic profits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Changes in Isotopic Composition of Bottled Natural Waters Due to Different Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferjan, T. [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Brencic, M. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, and Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vreca, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    To establish the influence of environmental conditions on processes affecting the stable isotopic composition of bottled water during storage, various brands of bottled water were exposed for 2 years in different conditions. Selected low mineralized natural mineral water of one particular brand stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was placed at three different locations with different physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, exposure to sunlight). For comparison, bottles of three other low mineralized natural mineral water brands, each from a different aquifer source, were placed in parallel at one of the locations. Each location was characterized by temperature, relative humidity and air pressure measurements. pH, conductivity and stable isotopic composition of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) were measured in regular intervals for nearly two years. Preliminary results from each location show noticeable changes in isotopic composition as well as the physical parameters of water with time of storage.

  10. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design and performance of a vacuum-bottle solid-state calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, D.S.; Biddle, R.; Cech, R.

    1997-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies calorimetry personnel have developed a small, thermos-bottle solid-state calorimeter, which is now undergoing performance testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The thermos-bottle solid-state calorimeter is an evaluation prototype for characterizing the heat output of small heat standards and other homogeneous heat sources. The current maximum sample size is 3.5 in. long with a diameter of 0.8 in. The overall size of the thermos bottle and thermoelectric cooling device is 9.25 in. high by 3.75 in. diameter and less than 3 lb. Coupling this unit with compact electronics and a laptop computer makes this calorimeter easily hand carried by a single individual. This compactness was achieved by servo controlling the reference temperature below room temperature and replacing the water bath used in conventional calorimeter design with the thermos-bottle insulator. Other design features will also be discussed. The performance of the calorimeter will be presented

  12. Demonstration of Hydrostatic Paradox with Plastic Bottles and LabQuest Vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodejška, Cenek

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the experimental demonstration of the hydrostatic paradox using simple tools in the form of plastic bottles and plastic syringes with a thread. For the evaluation of the results obtained the data logger Lab Quest Vernier was used. The construction of the device is presented in the first part of this paper. The second part…

  13. Message in a Bottle: Basic Business Lessons for Entrepreneurs Using Only a Soft Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Blaine; Gray, Van

    2011-01-01

    Coca-Cola is available in more than 200 countries and territories. As such, it stands as a readily available resource for teaching business lessons in developing countries. This article presents the use of a bottle of Coke to teach 12 basic business lessons. Designed for minimally educated entrepreneurs starting or running microenterprises, each…

  14. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  15. 27 CFR 4.38a - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements... written, printed, graphic, or other matter accompanying the bottle to the consumer buyer shall not contain any statement, design, device, or graphic, pictorial, or emblematic representation that is prohibited...

  16. Sustainable Contract in the Bottled Tawalis Value Chain in Taal, Batangas, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almazan, C.V.; Trienekens, J.H.; Bijman, J.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conceptualized to investigate the potential impact of contracts on the sustainability of the bottled tawilis supply chain, i.e. sustainability in terms of environmental protection, well-being of the people whose livelihood depends on tawilis production, processing and marketing;

  17. 27 CFR 5.47 - Standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980). 5.47 Section 5.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF...

  18. In vitro evaluation of influence of salivary contamination on the dentin bond strength of one-bottle adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nujella B.P Suryakumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of salivary contamination on the bond strength of one-bottle adhesive systems - (the V generation at various stages during the bonding procedure and to investigate the effect of the contaminant removing treatments on the recovery of bond strengths. Materials and Methods: In this study the V generation one-bottle system - (Adper Single Bond was tested. Fifty caries-free human molars with flat dentin surfaces were randomly divided into five groups of ten teeth each: Group I had 15 second etching with 35% Ortho Phosphoric acid, 15 second rinse and blot dried (Uncontaminated; Group II contaminated and blot dried; Group III contaminated and completely dried; Group IV contaminated, washed, blot dried; Group V contaminated, retched washed, and blot dried. The bonding agent was applied and resin composite (Z-100 3M ESPE was bonded to the treated surfaces using the Teflon mold. The specimens in each group were then subjected to shear bond strength testing in an Instron Universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm / minute and the data were subjected to one way ANOVA for comparison among the groups (P<0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between the group that was dried with strong oil-free air after contamination (Group III and the other groups. When the etched surface was contaminated by saliva, there was no statistical difference between the just blot dry, wash, or the re-etching groups (Groups II, IV, V if the dentin surface was kept wet before priming. When the etched dentin surface was dried (Group III the shear bond strength decreased considerably. Conclusion: The bond strengths to the tooth structure of the recent dentin bonding agents are less sensitive to common forms of contamination than assumed. Re-etching without additional mechanical preparation is sufficient to provide or achieve the expected bond strength.

  19. Draft environmental impact report. California Department of Water Resources, Bottle Rock geothermal power plant, Lake County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) proposes to construct the Bottle Rock power plant, a 55 MW geothermal power plant, at The Geysers Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). The plant is projected to begin operation in April of 1983, and will be located in Lake County near the Sonoma County line on approximately 7.2 acres of the Francisco leasehold. The steam to operate the power plant, approximately 1,000,000 pounds/h, will be provided by McCulloch Geothermal Corporation. The power plant's appearance and operation will be basically the same as the units in operation or under construction in the KGRA. The power plant and related facilities will consist of a 55 MW turbine generator, a 1.1 mile (1.81 km) long transmission line, a condensing system, cooling tower, electrical switchyard, gas storage facility, cistern, and an atmospheric emission control system. DWR plans to abate hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions through the use of the Stretford Process which scrubs the H/sub 2/S from the condenser vent gas stream and catalytically oxides the gas to elemental sulfur. If the Stretford Process does not meet emission limitations, a secondary H/sub 2/S abatement system using hydrogen peroxide/iron catalyst is proposed. The Bottle Rock project and other existing and future geothermal projects in the KGRA may result in cumulative impacts to soils, biological resources, water quality, geothermal steam resources, air quality, public health, land use, recreation, cultural resources, and aesthetics.

  20. Ressenya a Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Expósito i Amagat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ressenya a Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015, 302 pp., 80 il·ls., ISBN: 978-84-608-3423-6 Review to  Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015, 302 pp., 80 il·ls., ISBN: 978-84-608-3423-6

  1. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  2. The frequency of using different types of pacifier and bottle nipple among 1-24 months old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Poureslami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sucking of some types of a pacifier may be a risk factor for mal-development of orofacial structures and malocclusion. This study assessed the prevalence of using of different types of pacifier and bottle nipple among 1-24 months old children in Kerman, Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 300 mothers interviewed at 20 specialized private pediatric offices in Kerman. The mothers had 1-24 months old children. A checklist includes items about pacifier sucking, bottle feeding habits, as well as mothers’ ability to recognize different kinds of available pacifier and bottle nipple was used. RESULTS: The rate of pacifier-sucking was 37.3%, and use of bottle feeding was 42.3%, and among of the users, 24.0 and 35.7% were used orthodontic (functional types of pacifier and bottle nipple respectively. However, only 28.7% of mothers had adequate ability to recognize orthodontic pacifier and bottle nipple. CONCLUSION: The rates of using orthodontic kind of pacifier and bottle nipple were low, and a few mothers had adequate ability to recognize their differences.

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF BOTTLED MINERAL AND DRINKING WATERS SOLD IN ESKİŞEHİR (TURKEY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih KIVANC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of bottled natural spring and mineral water, purchased at different markets in Eskişehir (Turkey markets, was investigated. Applying the membrane filtration method, the aliquots of water samples were analyzed for the presence and enumeration of total coliforms, Es- cherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Aeromonas hydrophila. Aerobic bacteria were counted as Heterotrophic Bacteria Count (HPC ml-¹ by incubation at 22 and 37 ⁰C. While Bacillus species in bottled mineral water samples have also been determined, any bacteria or contamination in bottled drinking water samples have not found.

  4. Comparison of BacT/Alert FAN and FAN Plus Bottles with Conventional Medium for Culturing Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, In Young; Chun, Sejong; Song, Dong Joon; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong

    2016-11-01

    We compared the BacT/Alert system FAN and FAN Plus media to conventional media for culturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with 2,545 samples. FAN/FAN Plus bottles showed better performance for isolating microorganisms in CSF than conventional media (positive rate, 7.2% [182/2,545] versus 3.1% [80/2,545]). The incremental recovery rate of Cryptococcus neoformans from FAN Plus bottles was higher than that from FAN bottles. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. MAIN PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN RESPECT OF ITS ENTRY TO INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Nikitenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Belarus has significant reserves of ground fresh and mineral water. Consumption of bottled water in the world has a tendency of steady growth. In this regard, Belarus can increase production and sale of bottled water on the external  and domestic markets as well. The paper  describes main tendencies prevailing on the world market;  it contains an analysis of the normative and legal foundation on regulation of production and sale of bottled water in the Republic and abroad; the paper also estimates the possibilities to increase volume of export water. 

  6. A method for improving reliability and relevance of LCA reviews: the case of life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of tap and bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, Valentina; Scalbi, Simona; Ottaviano, Giuseppe; Masoni, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method for harmonising Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) literature studies on the same product or on different products fulfilling the same function for a reliable and meaningful comparison of their life-cycle environmental impacts. The method is divided in six main steps which aim to rationalize and quicken the efforts needed to carry out the comparison. The steps include: 1) a clear definition of the goal and scope of the review; 2) critical review of the references; 3) identification of significant parameters that have to be harmonised; 4) harmonisation of the parameters; 5) statistical analysis to support the comparison; 6) results and discussion. This approach was then applied to the comparative analysis of the published LCA studies on tap and bottled water production, focussing on Global Warming Potential (GWP) results, with the aim to identify the environmental preferable alternative. A statistical analysis with Wilcoxon's test confirmed that the difference between harmonised GWP values of tap and bottled water was significant. The results obtained from the comparison of the harmonised mean GWP results showed that tap water always has the best environmental performance, even in case of high energy-consuming technologies for drinking water treatments. The strength of the method is that it enables both performing a deep analysis of the LCA literature and obtaining more consistent comparisons across the published LCAs. For these reasons, it can be a valuable tool which provides useful information for both practitioners and decision makers. Finally, its application to the case study allowed both to supply a description of systems variability and to evaluate the importance of several key parameters for tap and bottled water production. The comparative review of LCA studies, with the inclusion of a statistical decision test, can validate and strengthen the final statements of the comparison. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Evaluating the efficacy of biological and conventional insecticides with the new 'MCD bottle' bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Waite, Jessica L; Thomas, Matthew B

    2014-12-16

    Control of mosquitoes requires the ability to evaluate new insecticides and to monitor resistance to existing insecticides. Monitoring tools should be flexible and low cost so that they can be deployed in remote, resource poor areas. Ideally, a bioassay should be able to simulate transient contact between mosquitoes and insecticides, and it should allow for excito-repellency and avoidance behaviour in mosquitoes. Presented here is a new bioassay, which has been designed to meet these criteria. This bioassay was developed as part of the Mosquito Contamination Device (MCD) project and, therefore, is referred to as the MCD bottle bioassay. Presented here are two experiments that serve as a proof-of-concept for the MCD bottle bioassay. The experiments used four insecticide products, ranging from fast-acting, permethrin-treated, long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) that are already widely used for malaria vector control, to the slower acting entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, that is currently being evaluated as a prospective biological insecticide. The first experiment used the MCD bottle to test the effect of four different insecticides on Anopheles stephensi with a range of exposure times (1 minute, 3 minutes, 1 hour). The second experiment is a direct comparison of the MCD bottle and World Health Organization (WHO) cone bioassay that tests a subset of the insecticides (a piece of LLIN and a piece of netting coated with B. bassiana spores) and a further reduced exposure time (5 seconds) against both An. stephensi and Anopheles gambiae. Immediate knockdown and mortality after 24 hours were assessed using logistic regression and daily survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Across both experiments, fungus performed much more consistently than the chemical insecticides but measuring the effect of fungus required monitoring of mosquito mortality over several days to a week. Qualitatively, the MCD bottle and WHO cone performed comparably

  8. Satisfying story of how it all began

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddle, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    {sup N}ow this 'Big Bang' idea seemed to me to be unsatisfactory...for it is an irrational process that cannot be described in scientific terms.' With this rather derisory remark (or at least so intended) in a 1950 radio broadcast, Fred Hoyle named the theory that rivalled his steady-state theory. The Big Bang has subsequently become the dominant paradigm in attempts to understand our universe. It is also one of the dominant ways in which popular-science writing seeks to persuade people to part with their cash. Simon Singh has rapidly made a name for himself as one of the leading popularizers of science, with his previous books Fermat's Last Theorem and The Code Book bringing accessible science to a wide audience . Big Bang brings him to a much busier marketplace, where he must compete both with other science writers and with working scientists. (U.K.)

  9. The day the Internet age began

    CERN Multimedia

    Cerf, Vinton G

    2009-01-01

    Forty years ago today the first message was sent between computers on the ARPANET. Vinto G. Cerf, who was a principal programmer on the project, reflects on how our online world was shaped by its innovative origins. (2 pages)

  10. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of grafting-responsive mRNA in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Fu, Xinxing; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kai; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Hu, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-04-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used to improve plant growth, yield, and adaptation to either biotic or abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Grafting technique is commonly used in watermelon production for improving its tolerance to stresses, especially to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of scions from watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks. Our transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling data provided insights into the molecular aspects of gene regulation in grafted watermelon. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, there were 787 and 3485 genes differentially expressed in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks, respectively. These genes were associated with primary and secondary metabolism, hormone signaling, transcription factors, transporters, and response to stimuli. Grafting led to changes in expression of these genes, suggesting that they may play important roles in mediating the physiological processes of grafted seedlings. The potential roles of the grafting-responsive mRNAs in diverse biological and metabolic processes were discussed. Obviously, the data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the mechanisms of candidate genes function in diverse biological processes and in environmental adaptation in a graft system.

  11. Rapid identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Martin; Rohde, Holger; Wolters, Manuel; Sobottka, Ingo; Wegscheider, Karl; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Early and adequate antimicrobial therapy has been shown to improve the clinical outcome in bloodstream infections (BSI). To provide rapid pathogen identification for targeted treatment, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry fingerprinting to bacteria directly recovered from blood culture bottles. A total of 304 aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures, reported positive by a Bactec 9240 system, were subjected in parallel to differential centrifugation with subsequent mass spectrometry fingerprinting and reference identification using established microbiological methods. A representative spectrum of bloodstream pathogens was recovered from 277 samples that grew a single bacterial isolate. Species identification by direct mass spectrometry fingerprinting matched reference identification in 95% of these samples and worked equally well for aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles. Application of commonly used score cutoffs to classify the fingerprinting results led to an identification rate of 87%. Mismatching mostly resulted from insufficient bacterial numbers and preferentially occurred with Gram-positive samples. The respective spectra showed low concordance to database references and were effectively rejected by score thresholds. Spiking experiments and examination of the respective study samples even suggested applicability of the method to mixed cultures. With turnaround times around 100 min, the approach allowed for reliable pathogen identification at the day of blood culture positivity, providing treatment-relevant information within the critical phase of septic illness.

  12. PERCEPTION ABOUT BOTTLE FEEDING AMONG MOTHERS IN SELECTED HEALTH CARE SETTINGS IN ABA SOUTH LGA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Achema.G.; Chigbo.R

    2011-01-01

    The study determined the perception of bottle feeding among mothers attending child welfare clinic in selected health centers in Aba South LGA. It also ascertained the knowledge of mothers about the breast feeding and factors responsible for chosen bottle feeding. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study where a total survey of 45 mothers who were selected systematically from the centers were interviewed as a method of data collection. The findings of the study showed that 93% ...

  13. Clinical Significance of the Champagne Bottle Neck Sign in the Extracranial Carotid Arteries of Patients with Moyamoya Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, C; Arakawa, S; Shimogawa, T; Kanazawa, Y; Sayama, T; Haga, S; Morioka, T

    2016-05-26

    The champagne bottle neck sign represents a rapid reduction in the extracranial ICA diameters and is a characteristic feature of Moyamoya disease. However, the clinical significance of the champagne bottle neck sign is unclear. We investigated the relationship between the champagne bottle neck sign and the clinical and hemodynamic stages of Moyamoya disease. We analyzed 14 patients with Moyamoya disease before revascularization (5 men, 9 women; age, 43.2 ± 19.3 years). The ratio of the extracranial ICA and common carotid artery diameters was determined using carotid ultrasonography or cerebral angiography; a ratio of champagne bottle neck sign-positive. The clinical disease stage was determined using the Suzuki angiographic grading system. CBF and cerebral vasoreactivity also were measured. The ICA/common carotid artery ratio (expressed as median [interquartile range]) decreased as the clinical stage advanced (stages I-II, 0.71 [0.60-0.77]; stages III-IV, 0.49 [0.45-0.57]; stages V-VI, 0.38 [0.34-0.47]; P champagne bottle neck sign-positive arteries were classified as Suzuki stage ≥III, 73% were symptomatic, and 89% exhibited reduced cerebral vasoreactivity. In contrast, all champagne bottle neck sign-negative arteries were Suzuki stage ≤III, 67% were asymptomatic, and all showed preserved cerebral vasoreactivity. The champagne bottle neck sign was related to advanced clinical stage, clinical symptoms, and impaired cerebral vasoreactivity. Thus, detection of the champagne bottle neck sign might be useful in determining the clinical and hemodynamic stages of Moyamoya disease. © 2016 American Society of Neuroradiology.

  14. Collaborative validation of a rapid method for efficient virus concentration in bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Perelle, Sylvie; Di Pasquale, Simona

    2011-01-01

    . Three newly developed methods, A, B and C, for virus concentration in bottled water were compared against the reference method D: (A) Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monolithic chromatography; filtration of viruses followed by (B) direct lysis of viruses on membrane; (C) concentration of viruses......Enteric viruses, including norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have emerged as a major cause of waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Due to their low infectious doses and low concentrations in water samples, an efficient and rapid virus concentration method is required for routine control...... by ultracentrifugation; and (D) concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration, for each methods' (A, B and C) efficacy to recover 10-fold dilutions of HAV and feline calicivirus (FCV) spiked in bottles of 1.5L of mineral water. Within the tested characteristics, all the new methods showed better performance than method D...

  15. Platelets in blood stored in untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F.; Madsen, C. B.; Nedergaard, Jytte

    1961-01-01

    Platelet survival was determined using untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags (Fenwal) for collecting and storing blood. The platelets were tagged in vivo with P32 in six polycythaemic patients undergoing treatment with P32. The results showed that fresh ACD blood collected in untreated glass, siliconed glass, and plastic gave the same recovery of platelets in the recipients. The use of EDTA (Fenwal formula) as anticoagulant gave results inferior to those obtained with blood using ACD as anticoagulant. Even after storage up to 24 hours in untreated glass bottles (ordinary bank blood) a satisfactory recovery of platelets was observed. After storage for 72 hours the recovery was less but not negligible. PMID:14456481

  16. Baby bottle steam sterilizers for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, D; Callan, D A; Lamprea, C; Murray, T S

    2016-03-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMb), present in environmental water sources, can contribute to respiratory infection in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of respiratory infection. Treatment with baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfects home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial pathogens but whether this method works for disinfection of NTMb is unclear. Baby bottle steam sterilization was compared with vigorous water washing for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with NTMb mixed with cystic fibrosis sputum. No NTMb was recovered from any nebulizers after steam treatment whereas viable NTMb grew after water washing, demonstrating that steam sterilization effectively disinfects NTMb-inoculated nebulizers. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfect home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Dana; Callan, Deborah A; Farrel, Patricia A; Egan, Marie E; Murray, Thomas S

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of bacterial infection but no single method is universally accepted for disinfection. We hypothesized that baby-bottle steam sterilizers effectively disinfect home nebulizers. Home nebulizers were inoculated with the common CF respiratory pathogens methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, mucoid and non mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The nebulizers were swabbed for bacterial growth, treated with either the AVENT (Philips), the NUK Quick & Ready (Gerber) or DRY-POD (Camera Baby) baby bottle steam sterilizer and reswabbed for bacterial growth. All steam sterilizers were effective at disinfecting all home nebulizers. Viable bacteria were not recovered from any inoculated site after steam treatment, under any conditions tested. Steam treatment is an effective disinfection method. Additional studies are needed to confirm whether these results are applicable to the clinical setting. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting consumer preferences for mineral composition of bottled and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanov, Stefan; Hernández, Alejandra; González, Susana; Luis Cortina, Jose; Tauler, Roma; Devesa, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    The overall liking for taste of water was correlated with the mineral composition of selected bottled and tap waters. Sixty-nine untrained volunteers assessed and rated twenty-five different commercial bottled and tap waters from. Water samples were physicochemical characterised by analysing conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major anions and cations: HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Cl - , NO 3 - , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , and K + . Residual chlorine levels were also analysed in the tap water samples. Globally, volunteers preferred waters rich in calcium bicarbonate and sulfate, rather than in sodium chloride. This study also demonstrated that it was possible to accurately predict the overall liking by a Partial Least Squares regression using either all measured physicochemical parameters or a reduced number of them. These results were in agreement with previously published results using trained panellists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental impact of an Italian wine bottle: Carbon and water footprint assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamente, Emanuele; Scrucca, Flavio; Rinaldi, Sara; Merico, Maria Cleofe; Asdrubali, Francesco; Lamastra, Lucrezia

    2016-08-01

    The food sector represents one of the major impacting sectors from an environmental point of view and, among all the products, wine emerges as one of the most studied by the literature. Single-issue approaches are commonly used, but a more comprehensive analysis is desirable, since a single indicator does not properly track the pressure on the environment. This paper presents a combined carbon and water footprint assessment, with a cradle to grave approach, for a protected designation of origin Italian red wine, and suggests a correlation among the two indicators across the life cycle phases. A total CF equal to 1.07±0.09kgCO2eq/bottle and a total WF equal to 580±30l/bottle were calculated for the studied product and a direct proportionality was found between the total CF and the sum of WFgrey(indirect) and WFblue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hazards of Healthy Living: Bottled Water and Salad Vegetables as Risk Factors for Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. Donald; Salmon, Roland L.

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, yet the etiology of this infection remains only partly explained. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared 213 sporadic campylobacter case-patients with 1,144 patients with negative fecal samples. Information was obtained on food history, animal contact, foreign travel, leisure activities, medical conditions, and medication use. Eating chicken, eating food from a fried chicken outlet, eating salad vegetables, drinking bottled water, and direct contact with cows or calves were all independently associated with infection. The population-attributable fractions for these risk factors explained nearly 70% of sporadic campylobacter infections. Eating chicken is a well-established risk factor, but consuming salad and bottled water are not. The association with salad may be explained by cross-contamination of food within the home, but the possibility that natural mineral water is a risk factor for campylobacter infection could have wide public health implications. PMID:14609455

  1. Analysis of reverse logistics management for glass bottles at a spirits company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Augusto Luna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to reverse logistics demonstrate increasing relevance as a set of factors such as those of a strategic, competitive, economic and ecological nature become relevant in the current context. Organizations are finding opportunities in reverse logistics for differentiating products offered to its customers and consumers. This article aims to analyze the process of reverse logistics of bottles in a spirits manufacturing company. For this study, we used a case study method, where company logistics executives were interviewed. As a result of the research, we identify current reverse logistics processes and their drivers, in order to support the understanding of problems and actions taken by the company to be deployed the reverse logistics process for bottles.

  2. Stability of aspartame and neotame in pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anuradha; Choudhary, Sonika; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were standardized along with the isolation procedure for separation of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk (pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk). The recovery of the method was approximately 98% for both aspartame and neotame. The proposed HPLC method can be successfully used for the routine determination of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk. Pasteurization (90 °C/20 min) resulted in approximately 40% loss of aspartame and only 8% of neotame was degraded. On storage (4-7°C/7 days) aspartame and neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame; however, 50.50% of neotame remained intact. During storage (30 °C/60 days) neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame in both pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular and Macromolecular Changes in Bottle-Aged White Wines Reflect Oxidative Evolution–Impact of Must Clarification and Bottle Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Coelho

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chardonnay wines from Burgundy, obtained from musts with three levels of clarification (Low, Medium and High during two consecutive vintages (2009 and 2010 and for two kinds of closures (screw caps and synthetic coextruded closures were analyzed chemically and sensorially. Three bottles per turbidity level were opened in 2015 in order to assess the intensity of the reductive and/or oxidative aromas (REDOX sensory scores by a trained sensory panel. The chemical analyses consisted in polyphenols and colloids quantification, followed by a proteomic characterization. For the two vintages, the REDOX sensory scores appeared to be driven both by the type of closure and to a lesser extent by the level of must clarification. Vintages and must racking prefermentative operations were also distinguished by chemical analyses. All white wines from the lowest must turbidity had the lowest REDOX sensory scores. Such wines exhibited lower concentrations in tyrosol and grape reaction product and higher concentrations in colloids with relatively low molecular weights. Among these macromolecules, grape proteins were also quantified, two of them exhibiting concentrations in bottled wines, which were statistically correlated to oxidative evolution in white wines.

  4. Molecular and macromolecular changes in bottle-aged white wines reflect oxidative evolution – Impact of must clarification and bottle closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Christian; Julien, Perrine; Nikolantonaki, Maria; Noret, Laurence; Magne, Mathilde; Ballester, Jordi; Gougeon, Régis D.

    2018-04-01

    Chardonnay wines from Burgundy, obtained from musts with three levels of clarification (Low, Medium and High) during two consecutive vintages (2009 and 2010) and for two kinds of closures (screw caps and synthetic coextruded closures) were analyzed chemically and sensorially. Three bottles per turbidity level were opened in 2015 in order to assess the intensity of the reductive and/or oxidative aromas (REDOX sensory scores) by a trained sensory panel. The chemical analyses consisted in polyphenols and colloids quantification, followed by a proteomic characterization. For the two vintages, the REDOX sensory scores appeared to be driven both by the type of closure and to a lesser extent by the level of must clarification. Vintages and must racking prefermentative operations were also distinguished by chemical analyses. All white wines from the lowest must turbidity had the lowest REDOX sensory scores. Such wines exhibited lower concentrations in tyrosol and grape reaction product and higher concentrations in colloids with relatively low molecular weights. Among these macromolecules, grape proteins were also quantified, two of them exhibiting concentrations in bottled wines, which were statistically correlated to oxidative evolution in white wines

  5. Selling Local Modernization through the Global Corporation: Coca-Cola Bottling in Colombia, 1927-1944

    OpenAIRE

    Ciafone, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Coca-Cola Company sold drink concentrates and licensed rights to its trade-marked brands to contracted bottlers who produced and sold bottled drinks in designated geographic areas around the world, including Colombia, beginning in 1927. The franchise system enabled international expansion without large corporate growth or direct local employment allowing the company to externalize liability and financial risk. The franchise system helped the company situate the production of Coca...

  6. Selling Local Modernization through the Global Corporation: Coca-Cola Bottling in Colombia, 1927-1944

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Ciafone

    2018-01-01

    The Coca-Cola Company sold drink concentrates and licensed rights to its trademarked brands to contracted bottlers who produced and sold bottled drinks in designated geographic areas around the world, including Colombia, beginning in 1927. The franchise system enabled international expansion without large corporate growth or direct local employment allowing the company to externalize liability and financial risk. The franchise system helped the company situate the production of Coca-Cola with...

  7. Silica hollow bottle resonators for use as whispering gallery mode based chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Razvan-Ionut; Bui, Khoa V.; Rosenberger, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    A simple three-step method for making silica hollow bottle resonators (HBRs) was developed. This procedure is advantageous because it uses commercially available materials, is cost effective, and is easy to implement. Additionally, the use of these HBRs as whispering gallery mode based chemical sensors is demonstrated by preliminary absorption sensing results in the near infrared (1580-1660 nm) using a trace gas (CH4) in air at atmospheric pressure and a dye (SDA2072) in methanol solution.

  8. Silica hollow bottle resonators for use as whispering gallery mode based chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoian, Razvan-Ionut; Bui, Khoa V; Rosenberger, A T

    2015-01-01

    A simple three-step method for making silica hollow bottle resonators (HBRs) was developed. This procedure is advantageous because it uses commercially available materials, is cost effective, and is easy to implement. Additionally, the use of these HBRs as whispering gallery mode based chemical sensors is demonstrated by preliminary absorption sensing results in the near infrared (1580–1660 nm) using a trace gas (CH 4 ) in air at atmospheric pressure and a dye (SDA2072) in methanol solution. (paper)

  9. Concentration of Selected Anions in Bottled Water in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yehia Z. Abouleish

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown concern over nitrate and nitrite contamination of prepared infant formula used by infants less than six months old, as it may lead to methemoglobinemia and death. One possible source of contamination is through the use of improperly treated drinking water. Contamination of water could result from fertilizers and manure runoff, not fully treated and released human and industrial waste, or from disinfection processes. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE, bottled water is the major source of drinking water and may be used for the preparation of infant formula. Therefore, in this study, several bottled water brands that are sold on the UAE market, and could be used for preparation of infant formula, were tested for nitrate and nitrite and other anions to show their compatibility with the permissible levels of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, United States Food and Drug Administration/Code of Federal Regulations (U.S. FDA/CFR, and other international organizations. All the bottled water samples demonstrated nitrate, nitrite, and other anions levels below the permissible levels accepted by U.S. EPA, U.S. FDA/CFR, and other international organizations, except for one sample that showed nitrite levels exceeding the European Commission and Drinking Water Directive (EC/DWD permissible levels. Such study sheds light on the quality of bottled water sold not only in the UAE and the region, but also in other countries, such as France, since some of them are imported. In addition, the results shed light on the effectiveness of the treatment processes and possible sources of infant formula contamination that can affect the health of infants.

  10. Glass bottle sampling solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry for breath analysis of drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Niu, Wenqi; Zou, Xue; Shen, Chengyin; Xia, Lei; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2017-05-05

    Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach which may be applied to disease diagnosis and pharmacokinetic study. In the case of offline analysis, the exhaled gas needs to be collected and the sampling bag is often used as the storage vessel. However, the sampling bag usually releases some extra compounds, which may interfere with the result of the breath test. In this study, a novel breath sampling glass bottle was developed with a syringe needle sampling port for solid phase microextraction (SPME). Such a glass bottle scarcely liberates compounds and can be used to collect exhaled gas for ensuing analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The glass bottle sampling SPME-GC-MS analysis was carried out to investigate the breath metabolites of myrtol, a multicompound drug normally used in the treatment of bronchitis and sinusitis. Four compounds, α-pinene, 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole were found in the exhaled breath of all eight volunteers who had taken the myrtol. While for other ten subjects who had not used the myrtol, these compounds were undetectable. In the SPME-GC-MS analysis of the headspace of myrtol, three compounds were detected including α-pinene, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole. Comparing the results of breath and headspace analysis, it indicates that 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole in the breath is the metabolite of 1,8-cineole. It is the first time that this metabolite was identified in human breath. The study demonstrates that the glass bottle sampling SPME-GC-MS method is applicable to exhaled gas analysis including breath metabolites investigation of drugs like myrtol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of New Crack Monitoring Technique for Victoria Class High-Pressure Air Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada Validation of new crack monitoring technique for Victoria ...Validation of new crack monitoring technique for Victoria class high-pressure air bottles Ian Thompson John R. MacKay Defence Research and Development...Canada Scientific Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-R81 June 2014 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (Department of National Defence), 2014 © Sa Majesté

  12. Evaluation of Using Waste of Bottles in Concrete as Sustainable Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Hasan Abdulabbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study attention was focused on effects of using wastes of plastic and glass of juices and soft drink bottles in concrete, and the optimum percent's of the wastes were detected giving the best properties of concrete. Total number of concrete mixes was (12, which have different wastes additions details. These mixes included: three mixes have plastic fibers (1, 2, 3% by cement weight, three mixes have glass with ratios of (10, 15, 20% as a replacement of sand volume, three mixes have pieces of plastic bottle caps with ratios of (15, 20, 25% as a replacement of gravel volume. The mix that has the optimum properties in these three groups, was selected to merge these types of wastes in one mix. Therefore, two additional mixes were prepared; one mix contains addition of 2% plastic fibers and 15% glass; and the other mix contains 20% plastic bottle caps and 15% glass, in addition to the reference mix without any waste additions. The achieved tests comprise; compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, density, absorption and fire resistance. Tests results give good indications about using these waste in concrete; when two types of wastes are added to the mixes (plastic fiber with glass C11 or pieces of bottle caps and glass C12 the compressive strength is improved noticeably, the residual compressive strength is about (75% and 83% with total ratio of wastes about 35% at age of 7 and 28 days, respectively, in mix C12, and (76 .7% and 70.5% with total ratio of wastes about 17% at age of 7 and28 days, respectively, in mix C11.

  13. Sensory characteristics changes of red Grenache wines submitted to different oxygen exposures pre and post bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillé, Soline; Samson, Alain; Wirth, Jérémie; Diéval, Jean-Baptiste; Vidal, Stéphane; Cheynier, Véronique

    2010-02-15

    It is widely accepted that oxygen contributes to wine development by impacting its colour, aromatic bouquet, and mouth-feel properties. The wine industry can now also take advantage of engineered solutions to deliver known amounts of oxygen into bottles through the closures. This study was aimed at monitoring the influence of oxygen pick-up, before (micro-oxygenation, Mox) and after (nano-oxygenation) bottling, on wine sensory evolution. Red Grenache wines were prepared either by flash release (FR) or traditional soaking (Trad) and with or without Mox during elevage (FR+noMox, FR+Mox, Trad+noMox, Trad+Mox). The rate of nano oxygenation was controlled by combining consistent oxygen transfer rate (OTR) closures and different oxygen controlled storage conditions. Wine sensory characteristics were analyzed by sensory profile, at bottling (T0) and after 5 and 10 months of ageing, by a panel of trained judges. Effects of winemaking techniques and OTR were analyzed by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering) and analysis of variance. Results showed that, at bottling, Trad wines were perceived more animal and FR wines more bitter and astringent. Mox wines showed more orange shade. At 5 and 10 months, visual and olfactory differences were observed according to the OTR levels: modalities with higher oxygen ingress were darker and fruitier but also perceived significantly less animal than modalities with lower oxygen. Along the 10 months of ageing, the influence of OTR became more important as shown by increased significance levels of the observed differences. As the mouth-feel properties of the wines were mainly dictated by winemaking techniques, OTR had only little impact on "in mouth" attributes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of bottle height and aspiration rate on postocclusion surge in Infiniti and Millennium peristaltic phacoemulsification machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Matthew S; Georgescu, Dan; Olson, Randall J

    2008-08-01

    To assess how flow and bottle height affect postocclusion surge in the Infiniti (Alcon, Inc.) and Millennium (Bausch & Lomb) peristaltic machines. John A. Moran Eye Center Clinical Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. Postocclusion anterior chamber depth changes were measured in human eye-bank eyes using A-scan. Surge was simulated by clamping the aspiration tubing and releasing it at maximum vacuum. In both machines, surge was measured (1) with aspiration held constant at 12 mL/min and bottle heights at 60, 120, and 180 cm and (2) with bottle height held constant at 60 cm and aspiration rates at 12, 24, and 36 mL/min. Surge decreased approximately 40% with each 60 cm increase in bottle height in the Infiniti. It was constant at all bottle heights in the Millennium. At 12 and 24 mL/min aspiration rates, surge in the Millennium was less than half that in the Infiniti (PInfiniti system and was relatively constant with increasing bottle height in the Millennium system. The Millennium may offer a more stable phacoemulsification platform with respect to surge at a higher aspiration rate.

  15. Gamma dose mapping studies at various locations from bottled up activity in RCB of PFBR following CDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskar, S.; Rajagopal, V.; Indira, R.; Sunil Sunny, C.; Subbaiah, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    In the event of a Core Disruptive Accident (CDA), large amounts of radioactivity from the core gets released into the Reactor Containment Building (RCB) and bottled up. This acts as a huge volume source, which results in high gamma exposure to the plant personnel at various locations. The dose mapping at various locations in the nuclear island of PFBR under a CDA is essential for the following reasons: (1) To identify the high dose rate areas and locations which are to be avoided during emergency evacuation of plant personnel, (2) To provide suitable emergency exits and identify suitable assembly areas for plant personnel, (3) To provide a realistic estimate of the dose rates and cumulative doses to the essential plant personnel and (4) To provide necessary modifications in the design of the reactor at the design stage itself for minimizing exposure to the plant personnel. The RCB is made up of thick walls of concrete with large penetrations in the form of airlocks like Personnel Airlock (PAL), Material Airlock (MAL) and Emergency Airlock (EAL), to facilitate personnel and material movement, resulting in reduced shielding and higher dose rates. Computations of gamma dose rates have been performed using the point kernel code QADCG-GP at various locations around the RCB of a Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) by actual modeling of the RCB and the auxiliary buildings. The highest dose rates are seen in the vicinity of the airlocks, as expected. (author)

  16. Foam separation of Rhodamine-G and Evans Blue using a simple separatory bottle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasarathy, Dhweeja; Ito, Yoichiro

    2017-09-29

    A simple separatory glass bottle was used to improve separation effectiveness and cost efficiency while simultaneously creating a simpler system for separating biological compounds. Additionally, it was important to develop a scalable separation method so this would be applicable to both analytical and preparative separations. Compared to conventional foam separation methods, this method easily forms stable dry foam which ensures high purity of yielded fractions. A negatively charged surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was used as the ligand to carry a positively charged Rhodamine-G, leaving a negatively charged Evans Blue in the bottle. The performance of the separatory bottle was tested for separating Rhodamine-G from Evans Blue with sample sizes ranged from 1 to 12mg in preparative separations and 1-20μg in analytical separations under optimum conditions. These conditions including N 2 gas pressure, spinning speed of contents with a magnetic stirrer, concentration of the ligand, volume of the solvent, and concentration of the sample, were all modified and optimized. Based on the calculations at their peak absorbances, Rhodamine-G and Evans Blue were efficiently separated in times ranging from 1h to 3h, depending on sample volume. Optimal conditions were found to be 60psi N 2 pressure and 2mM SDS for the affinity ligand. This novel separation method will allow for rapid separation of biological compounds while simultaneously being scalable and cost effective. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Algal growth inhibition test in filled, closed bottles for volatile and sorptive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nyholm, Niels; Verbruggen, Eric M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure concentrations of many hydrophobic substances are difficult to maintain in algal growth inhibition tests performed in open agitated flasks. This is partly because such compounds tend to volatilize from aqueous solution and partly because of sorption to the algal biomass as well as to the......Exposure concentrations of many hydrophobic substances are difficult to maintain in algal growth inhibition tests performed in open agitated flasks. This is partly because such compounds tend to volatilize from aqueous solution and partly because of sorption to the algal biomass as well......, and the resulting dissolved CO2 concentration supported maximum algal growth rates without pH drift for algal densities up to 4 mg dry weight/L. Two-day toxicity tests with kerosene were performed with this new test design and compared with an open bottle test and with a closed bottle test with headspace. Exposure...... concentrations of the volatile fraction of kerosene decreased by 99% in the open test, by 77% in the closed flask test with headspace, and by 16% in the filled closed bottle test. Algal growth inhibition was observed at much lower additions of kerosene in the new test design because of the improved maintenance...

  18. Heavy Metals in Spring and Bottled Drinking Waters of Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal concentrations (cadmium, lead, and copper) in spring, tap, and bottled waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (central Italy) were investigated using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry from 2004 to 2011. The mean (±SD) concentrations detected (1.3 ± 0.4 ng L -1 cadmium, 14 ± 6 ng L -1 lead, and 0.16 ± 0.10 μg L -1 copper) were below the limits stipulated by Italian and European legislation for drinking and natural mineral water. In the three studied areas of the park (Mount Bove north, Mount Bove south, and springs of River Nera) with very few exceptions, both mineral waters bottled in the area and aqueduct waters from public fountains had approximately the same metal concentrations as did the spring waters from which they were derived. Conversely, substantially higher metal concentrations were found at some sites in private houses, which may be due to release of metals from old metal pipes. At the time of this study, waters of Sibylline Mountains National Park were of good quality, and no influence of the bottling process on heavy metal concentrations was found.

  19. Predictors of Drinking Water Boiling and Bottled Water Consumption in Rural China: A Hierarchical Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Qing; Tao, Yong; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2017-06-20

    Approximately two billion people drink unsafe water. Boiling is the most commonly used household water treatment (HWT) method globally and in China. HWT can make water safer, but sustained adoption is rare and bottled water consumption is growing. To successfully promote HWT, an understanding of associated socioeconomic factors is critical. We collected survey data and water samples from 450 rural households in Guangxi Province, China. Covariates were grouped into blocks to hierarchically construct modified Poisson models and estimate risk ratios (RR) associated with boiling methods, bottled water, and untreated water. Female-headed households were most likely to boil (RR = 1.36, p water, or use electric kettles if they boiled. Our findings show that boiling is not an undifferentiated practice, but one with different methods of varying effectiveness, environmental impact, and adoption across socioeconomic strata. Our results can inform programs to promote safer and more efficient boiling using electric kettles, and suggest that if rural China's economy continues to grow then bottled water use will increase.

  20. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  1. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Yun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children’s ages ranging from 2 to 7 years in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children’s wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08, and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.2 were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children’s ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  2. Is container type the biggest predictor of trace element and BPA leaching from drinking water bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Preud'Homme, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    The knowledge-base of bottled water leachate is highly contradictory due to varying methodologies and limited multi-elemental and/or molecular analyses; understanding the range of contaminants and their pathways is required. This study determined the leaching potential and leaching kinetics of trace elements, using consistent comprehensive quantitative and semi-quantitative (79 elements total) analyses, and BPA, using isotopic dilution and MEPS pre-concentration with UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. Statistical methods were used to determine confounders and predictors of leaching and human health risk throughout 12days of UV exposure and after exposure to elevated temperature. Various types of water were used to assess the impact of water quality. Results suggest Sb leaching is primarily dependent upon water quality, not container type. Bottle type is a predictor of elemental leaching for Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr; BPA was detected in samples from polycarbonate containers. Health risks from the consumption of bottled water increase after UV exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bottle-Brush Brushes: Cylindrical Molecular Brushes of Poly(2-oxazoline) on Glassy Carbon

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning; Steenackers, Marin; Luxenhofer, Robert; Jordan, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of brushes of bottle-brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s on polished glassy carbon (GC) substrates. First, homogeneous and stable poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) brush layers with thicknesses up to 160 nm were created directly onto GC by the self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP) of 2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline (IPOx). Kinetic studies reveal a linear increase in thickness with the polymerization time. In a second reaction, the pendant 2-oxazoline ring of the PIPOx brushes were used for the living cationic ring-opening polymerization (LCROP) with different substituted 2-oxazoline monomers to form the side chains. Also for the second surface-initiatedLCROPfrom the surface-bound macroinitiator brushes, the thickness increase with the polymerization time was found to be linear and reproducible. Characterization of the resulting bottle-brush brushes by FTIR spectroscopy,contact angle, and AFM indicates a high side chain grafting density and quantitative reactions. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility of functionalizing the bottle-brush brushes side chain end groups with sterically demanding molecules. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. EXPERIMENT BASED FAULT DIAGNOSIS ON BOTTLE FILLING PLANT WITH LVQ ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa DEMETGÜL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an artificial neural network is developed to find an error rapidly on pneumatic system. Also the ANN prevents the system versus the failure. The error on the experimental bottle filling plant can be defined without any interference using analog values taken from pressure sensors and linear potentiometers. The sensors and potentiometers are placed on different places of the plant. Neural network diagnosis faults on plant, where no bottle, cap closing cylinder B is not working, bottle cap closing cylinder C is not working, air pressure is not sufficient, water is not filling and low air pressure faults. The fault is diagnosed by artificial neural network with LVQ. It is possible to find an failure by using normal programming or PLC. The reason offing Artificial Neural Network is to give a information where the fault is. However, ANN can be used for different systems. The aim is to find the fault by using ANN simultaneously. In this situation, the error taken place on the pneumatic system is collected by a data acquisition card. It is observed that the algorithm is very capable program for many industrial plants which have mechatronic systems.

  5. Effect of wine pH and bottle closure on tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kassara, Stella; Kennedy, James A; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2013-11-27

    The impact of wine pH and closure type on color, tannin concentration, and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH was adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, and the wines were bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin (ST) or Saranex (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin percent yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds), and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening of wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less percent (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, whereas the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in percent yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine color of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps.

  6. Hydrogeochemical approach to estimate the quality of bottled waters in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćuk Marina D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottled waters were analyzed for different chemical parameters and activity concentrations of radionuclides. The hydrocarbonate ion was dominant in all samples, while the major cation composition was a combination of Ca-Mg-Na ions. Physicochemical properties of bottled water samples are influenced by underlying geology. The sum of trace element concentrations varied from 79.7 to 9349.7 μg/l. The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI system was applied and contributions of some essential elements were calculated according to age group and gender. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA grouped bottled water samples into four clusters based on the similarities of the groundwater quality and essential elements concentrations. The origin of radioactivity is natural and could be traced to minerals in felsic igneous rocks. Two brands exhibited elevated beta activity (1.087±0.134 Bq/l; 1.242±0.146 Bq/l. Effective doses were found to be below the reference level of 0.1 mSv/yr. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  7. Evaluation of commercial nickel-phosphorus coating for ultracold neutron guides using a pinhole bottling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattie, R. W.; Adamek, E. R.; Brenner, T.; Brandt, A.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S. A.; Geltenbort, P.; Ito, T. M.; Lauer, T.; Liu, C. Y.; Majewski, J.; Makela, M.; Masuda, Y.; Morris, C. L.; Ramsey, J. C.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Schroffenegger, J.; Tang, Z.; Wei, W.; Wang, Z.; Watkins, E.; Young, A. R.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-11-01

    We report on the evaluation of commercial electroless nickel phosphorus (NiP) coatings for ultracold neutron (UCN) transport and storage. The material potential of 50 μm thick NiP coatings on stainless steel and aluminum substrates was measured to be VF = 213(5 . 2) neV using the time-of-flight spectrometer ASTERIX at the Lujan Center. The loss per bounce probability was measured in pinhole bottling experiments carried out at ultracold neutron sources at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center and the Institut Laue-Langevin. For these tests a new guide coupling design was used to minimize gaps between the guide sections. The observed UCN loss in the bottle was interpreted in terms of an energy independent effective loss per bounce, which is the appropriate model when gaps in the system and upscattering are the dominate loss mechanisms, yielding a loss per bounce of 1 . 3(1) × 10-4. We also present a detailed discussion of the pinhole bottling methodology and an energy dependent analysis of the experimental results.

  8. Estimates concentrations in bottled 222Rn of the dose due to mineral waters in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadi, M. R.; Esmaealnejad, M.; Rahmatinejad, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Radon is a radionuclide that has the main role in exposure. Radon in water causes exposure in whole body but the largest dose being received by the stomach, as EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) estimates that radon in drinking water causes about 168 cancer deaths per year: 89 p ercent f rom lung cancer caused by breathing released to the indoor air from water and 11 p ercent f rom stomach cancer caused by consuming water containing radon. Now days the consumption of bottled mineral waters has become very popular. As is known, some kinds of mineral waters contain naturally occurring radionuclides in higher concentration than the usual drinking (tap) water. Surveys and reports on radon in most surface waters is low compared with radon level in groundwater and mineral water. In our work, the concentration of Rn(222) was determined in some bottled mineral waters available in Iran , and in next step the dose contribution ; due to ingestion ; for 1 l d -1 bottled mineral water consumption.

  9. Effects of waste PET bottles aggregate on the properties of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun-Wang; Moon, Dae-Joong; Chung, Jee-Seung; Cho, Sun-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the surface microstructure of waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles lightweight aggregate (WPLA) to examine the effect of granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) on WPLA. The WPLA was made from the waste PET bottles and GBFS, and experimental tests were conducted on compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, slump, and density of waste PET bottles lightweight aggregate concrete (WPLAC). The 28-day compressive strength of WPLAC with the replacement ratio of 75% reduces about 33% compared to the control concrete in the water-cement ratio of 45%. The density of WPLAC varies from 1940 to 2260 kg/m 3 by the influence of WPLA. The structural efficiency of WPLAC decreases as the replacement ratio increases. The workability of concrete with 75% WPLA improves about 123% compared to that of the normal concrete in the water-cement ratio of 53%. The adhered GBFS is able to strengthen the surface of WPLA and to narrow the transition zone owing to the reaction with calcium hydroxide

  10. Tap versus bottled water consumption: The influence of social norms, affect and image on consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etale, Anita; Jobin, Marilou; Siegrist, Michael

    2018-02-01

    What drives consumers to choose bottled water instead of tap water where the latter is safe, accessible, costs far less, and in spite of its environmental impacts? This research investigates the influence of hitherto unexplored psychological drivers in an attempt to generate a more holistic understanding of the phenomenon, and strategies for designing more effective consumption reduction campaigns. Using data from an internet survey of Swiss and German respondents (N = 849) we investigated the role of, social norms, affect and image on water consumption. Results suggest that these psychological factors play a role in water consumption choice. Convenience was the only contextual predictor - the inconvenience of transporting bottled water has a negative effect on its consumption, and a positive effect on tap water consumption. Although concern about the effect of bottled water on the environment was not a significant predictor of tap water consumption, we found that for some people, a link exists between environmental concern and consumption choice. Ways through which consumers may be more effectively influenced towards environmentally-friendly consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bottle-Brush Brushes: Cylindrical Molecular Brushes of Poly(2-oxazoline) on Glassy Carbon

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning

    2009-07-28

    We report on the synthesis of brushes of bottle-brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s on polished glassy carbon (GC) substrates. First, homogeneous and stable poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) brush layers with thicknesses up to 160 nm were created directly onto GC by the self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP) of 2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline (IPOx). Kinetic studies reveal a linear increase in thickness with the polymerization time. In a second reaction, the pendant 2-oxazoline ring of the PIPOx brushes were used for the living cationic ring-opening polymerization (LCROP) with different substituted 2-oxazoline monomers to form the side chains. Also for the second surface-initiatedLCROPfrom the surface-bound macroinitiator brushes, the thickness increase with the polymerization time was found to be linear and reproducible. Characterization of the resulting bottle-brush brushes by FTIR spectroscopy,contact angle, and AFM indicates a high side chain grafting density and quantitative reactions. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility of functionalizing the bottle-brush brushes side chain end groups with sterically demanding molecules. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  12. Prediction of ethanol in bottled Chinese rice wine by NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yibin; Yu, Haiyan; Pan, Xingxiang; Lin, Tao

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the applicability of non-invasive visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for determining ethanol concentration of Chinese rice wine in square brown glass bottle, transmission spectra of 100 bottled Chinese rice wine samples were collected in the spectral range of 350-1200 nm. Statistical equations were established between the reference data and VIS-NIR spectra by partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Performance of three kinds of mathematical treatment of spectra (original spectra, first derivative spectra and second derivative spectra) were also discussed. The PLS models of original spectra turned out better results, with higher correlation coefficient in calibration (R cal) of 0.89, lower root mean standard error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.165, and lower root mean standard error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.179. Using original spectra, PLS models for ethanol concentration prediction were developed. The R cal and the correlation coefficient in validation (R val) were 0.928 and 0.875, respectively; and the RMSEC and the root mean standard error of validation (RMSEP) were 0.135 (%, v v -1) and 0.177 (%, v v -1), respectively. The results demonstrated that VIS-NIR spectroscopy could be used to predict ethanol concentration in bottled Chinese rice wine.

  13. Age determination of bottled Chinese rice wine by VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Lin, Tao; Ying, Yibin; Pan, Xingxiang

    2006-10-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for determining wine age (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years) of Chinese rice wine was investigated. Samples of Chinese rice wine were analyzed in 600 mL square brown glass bottles with side length of approximately 64 mm at room temperature. VIS-NIR spectra of 100 bottled Chinese rice wine samples were collected in transmission mode in the wavelength range of 350-1200 nm by a fiber spectrometer system. Discriminant models were developed based on discriminant analysis (DA) together with raw, first and second derivative spectra. The concentration of alcoholic degree, total acid, and °Brix was determined to validate the NIR results. The calibration result for raw spectra was better than that for first and second derivative spectra. The percentage of samples correctly classified for raw spectra was 98%. For 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old sample groups, the sample were all correctly classified, and for 4- and 5-year-old sample groups, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 92.9%, respectively. In validation analysis, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 100%. The results demonstrated that VIS-NIR spectroscopic technique could be used as a non-invasive, rapid and reliable method for predicting wine age of bottled Chinese rice wine.

  14. Psychological factors in breast feeding versus bottle feeding in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B

    1982-06-01

    The increasing use of bottle feeding rather than traditional breastfeeding among mothers in developing countries is causing great concern. The feeding bottle is a powerful symbol of westernization, and it can be very difficult for mothers caught in the transitional period between traditional culture and western culture to understand that the feeding bottle can be, under improper hygienic conditions, dangerous to the health of the baby. The importance of breastfeeding in developing countries lies not only in its nutritional value, but in its effect on fertility, since, in many societies, among them the Yoruba of Nigeria, women used to avoid intercourse during breastfeeding. These traditional customs are breaking down, especially among urban and more educated women, or among those holding jobs; a study conducted in Nigeria reports that more education and modern occupations are dramatically changing feeding patterns; in 1976 80% of moderately educated women, i.e. above primary school level, had stopped breastfeeding by the time their children were 1 year old, compared to only 18% of uneducated women. Moreover, many mothers believe that artificial formula is better than breast milk for babies, and view it as medicine, or as being good for children's health. It seems that a reversal to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding will be impossible in most developing countries.

  15. Presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Gonzalez, Gilberto Díaz; Vega y León, Salvador

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two sizes (1.5 and 19 L), using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. PCBs 28 (0.018-0.042 μg/L), 52 (0.006-0.015 μg/L) and 101 (0.001-0.039 μg/L) were the most commonly found and were present in the majority of the samples. However, total concentrations of PCBs in bottled drinking water (0.035-0.039 μg/L) were below the maximum permissible level of 0.50 μg/L stated in Mexican regulations and probably do not represent a hazard to human health. PCBs were detectable in all samples and we recommend a monitoring program be established to better understand the quality of drinking bottled water over time; this may help in producing solutions for reducing the presence of organic contaminants.

  16. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Borde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communities living in developing countries as well as populations affected by natural or man-made disasters can be left at great risk from water related diseases, especially those spread through the faecal-oral route. Conventional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove costly for impoverished communities. Solar water disinfection (SODIS has been shown to be a cheap and effective way for communities to treat their water. The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l. Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities. Recent work has shown 19-L plastic water dispenser containers to be effective SODIS reactors, comparable in efficacy to PET bottles. In this paper we outline the need for studying SODIS in large volumes and discuss 4 main associated challenges. Discussion Apart from clean water needed for consumption, access to adequate water is essential for sanitation and hygiene. Contamination of treated water through unwashed hands or vessels contributes heavily to the spread of water borne pathogens in communities. Traditional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove financially burdensome for low income communities. SODIS in large vessels could be used as a simple method to meet water requirements in low income and disaster affected populations. However, there have been some concerns associated with the conventional SODIS method; we identify the main ones to be: (1 cold or cloudy weather; (2 the fear of leaching in plastic bottles; (3 water turbidity, and; (4 community acceptance. Summary The application of SODIS in large bottles like WDCs has the potential to be an efficient and cost effective method of disinfecting water, either for consumption until more rigorous water treatments can be put in place, or for

  17. Sheltered Workshops and Transition: Old Bottles, New Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Edmund

    This paper provides a historical overview of sheltered workshops and presents information about service innovations and mission expansion. The first workshop in the United States was the Perkins Institute, opened in 1837 for individuals with visual handicaps. This workshop was typical of "categorical" workshops that were established during this…

  18. "Breastfeeding" but not at the breast: Mothers' descriptions of providing pumped human milk to their infants via other containers and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Julia P; Geraghty, Sheela R; Quaglieri, Caroline W; Yamada, Rei; Wong, Adriana J; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2017-07-01

    As pumping has become more prevalent among American women, pumped human milk (HM) is on the rise in their infants' diets in place of some or all feeding at the breast. We aimed to fill a gap in knowledge about mothers' motivations, practices and perceptions related to pumping, and about mothers' and other caregivers' motivations, practices, and perceptions related to feeding pumped HM. Results related to providing pumped HM are reported here, and results related to pumping are reported elsewhere. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews among a diverse sample of mothers whose infants were fed pumped HM (n = 20), following each up to 1 year postpartum. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis with Atlas.ti. Nearly all mothers felt bottles were necessary to meet infant HM-feeding goals. Nearly all pumped HM was fed by other caregivers because mothers typically preferred and prioritized feeding at the breast for convenience and maintaining their milk supply. Infants were bottle-fed HM for several reasons that changed over time, such as mother's absence, latch difficulty, or desire to share the burden and bonding of feeding. Feeding practices differed between feeds from bottles versus at the breast; some infants were bottle-fed on schedules but fed at the breast on demand. Mothers' methods for storing, transporting, and preparing HM varied substantially and included practices associated with loss of nutrients and microbial contamination. Mothers' reasons for bottle-feeding HM may affect how much their infants are bottle-fed. Consumption of pumped HM may not provide the same benefits to infants as feeding at the breast. These findings highlight important avenues for future research into the relationships between bottle-feeding HM and infant health, growth, and developmental outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Van den Eede, L; Valzacchi, S

    2012-01-01

    The results of a study on the analytical identification and quantification of migration of chemicals from plastics baby bottles found in the European Union market made of materials that are now present as substitutes for polycarbonate (PC) are reported. A total of 449 baby bottles with a focus on first age or sets of bottles were purchased from 26 European Union countries, Canada, Switzerland and the USA. From this collection, which contained several duplicates, a total of 277 baby bottles were analysed. The materials included different types of plastic such as PC, polyamide (PA), polyethersulphone (PES), polypropylene (PP), but also silicone, and from the United States a co-polyester marketed under the trade name Tritan™. The bottles were subjected to the conventional migration test for hot fill conditions, i.e. 2 h at 70°C. The simulant used was that specified in European Union legislation (2007/19/EC) for milk, i.e. 50% ethanol. In a first phase 1, migration was conducted since the scope of this investigation was a screening rather than a true compliance testing check. Second and third migrations were performed on selected articles when migrated substances exceeded limits specified in the legislation. In order to verify some materials, a portion of the bottle was cut to run an FT-IR fingerprint to confirm the nature of the polymer. The migration solutions in general showed a low release of substances. Results showed that bottles made of PP and silicones showed a greater number of substances in the migration solutions and in greater quantity. Chemicals from PP included alkanes, which could be found in >65% of the bottles at levels up to 3500 µg kg⁻¹; and benzene derivatives in 17% of the baby bottles and found at levels up to 113 µg kg⁻¹. Some substances were found on a regular basis such as plasticisers, esters and antioxidants (e.g. tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate, known as Irgafos 168. Some substances found were not included in the

  20. Heat and mass transfer during the warming of a bottle of beer - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i2.8273

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Cláudio Vinicius Barbosa; UEM; Righetto, Aderson Roberto; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Souza, Leonardo César de; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Paraíso, Paulo Roberto; UEM; Jorge, Luiz Mario de Matos; UEM

    2010-01-01

    The warming of a bottle of beer during a Friday evening happy hour directly involves transport phenomena, such as mass transfer due to condensation of air humidity on the bottle surface and heat transfer from the ambient to the bottle, which occurs by free convection and water condensation. Both processes happen simultaneously and are directly associated with the heat and mass transfer coefficients involved, which are affected by the ambient humidity and temperature. Several runs were made in...

  1. Screening of hormone-like activities in bottled waters available in Southern Spain using receptor-specific bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Macarena; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Jiménez-Díaz, Inmaculada; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Sáenz, José-María; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Bottled water consumption is a putative source of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Research has been conducted on the presence of chemicals with estrogen-like activity in bottled waters and on their estrogenicity, but few data are available on the presence of hormonal activities associated with other nuclear receptors (NRs). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of endocrine activities dependent on the activation of human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and/or androgen receptor (hAR) in water in glass or plastic bottles sold to consumers in Southern Spain. Hormone-like activities were evaluated in 29 bottled waters using receptor-specific bioassays based on reporter gene expression in PALM cells [(anti-)androgenicity] and cell proliferation assessment in MCF-7 cells [(anti-)estrogenicity] after optimized solid phase extraction (SPE). All of the water samples analyzed showed hormonal activity. This was estrogenic in 79.3% and anti-estrogenic in 37.9% of samples and was androgenic in 27.5% and anti-androgenic in 41.3%, with mean concentrations per liter of 0.113pM 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalent units (E2Eq), 11.01pM anti-estrogen (ICI 182780) equivalent units (ICI 182780Eq), 0.33pM methyltrienolone (R1881) equivalent units (R1881Eq), and 0.18nM procymidone equivalent units (ProcEq). Bottled water consumption contributes to EDC exposure. Hormone-like activities observed in waters from both plastic and glass bottles suggest that plastic packaging is not the sole source of contamination and that the source of the water and bottling process may play a role, among other factors. Further research is warranted on the cumulative effects of long-term exposure to low doses of EDCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ancient water bottle use and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure among California Indians: a prehistoric health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Smith, Kevin; Wallin, Cecilia; Ahmed, Trifa M; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-06-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main toxic compounds in natural bitumen, a fossil material used by modern and ancient societies around the world. The adverse health effects of PAHs on modern humans are well established, but their health impacts on past populations are unclear. It has previously been suggested that a prehistoric health decline among the native people living on the California Channel Islands may have been related to PAH exposure. Here, we assess the potential health risks of PAH exposure from the use and manufacture of bitumen-coated water bottles by ancient California Indian societies. We replicated prehistoric bitumen-coated water bottles with traditional materials and techniques of California Indians, based on ethnographic and archaeological evidence. In order to estimate PAH exposure related to water bottle manufacture and use, we conducted controlled experiments to measure PAH contamination 1) in air during the manufacturing process and 2) in water and olive oil stored in a completed bottle for varying periods of time. Samples were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for concentrations of the 16 PAHs identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants. Eight PAHs were detected in concentrations of 1-10 μg/m 3 in air during bottle production and 50-900 ng/L in water after 2 months of storage, ranging from two-ring (naphthalene and methylnaphthalene) to four-ring (fluoranthene) molecules. All 16 PAHs analyzed were detected in olive oil after 2 days (2 to 35 μg/kg), 2 weeks (3 to 66 μg/kg), and 2 months (5 to 140 μg/kg) of storage. For ancient California Indians, water stored in bitumen-coated water bottles was not a significant source of PAH exposure, but production of such bottles could have resulted in harmful airborne PAH exposure.

  3. Does a time constraint modify results from rating-based conjoint analysis? Case study with orange/pomegranate juice bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Felipe; Machín, Leandro; Rosenthal, Amauri; Deliza, Rosires; Ares, Gastón

    2016-12-01

    People do not usually process all the available information on packages for making their food choices and rely on heuristics for making their decisions, particularly when having limited time. However, in most consumer studies encourage participants to invest a lot of time for making their choices. Therefore, imposing a time-constraint in consumer studies may increase their ecological validity. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of a time-constraint on consumer evaluation of pomegranate/orange juice bottles using rating-based conjoint task. A consumer study with 100 participants was carried out, in which they had to evaluate 16 pomegranate/orange fruit juice bottles, differing in bottle design, front-of-pack nutritional information, nutrition claim and processing claim, and to rate their intention to purchase. Half of the participants evaluated the bottle images without time constraint and the other half had a time-constraint of 3s for evaluating each image. Eye-movements were recorded during the evaluation. Results showed that time-constraint when evaluating intention to purchase did not largely modify the way in which consumers visually processed bottle images. Regardless of the experimental condition (with or without time constraint), they tended to evaluate the same product characteristics and to give them the same relative importance. However, a trend towards a more superficial evaluation of the bottles that skipped complex information was observed. Regarding the influence of product characteristics on consumer intention to purchase, bottle design was the variable with the largest relative importance in both conditions, overriding the influence of nutritional or processing characteristics, which stresses the importance of graphic design in shaping consumer perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV) Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Peter; Fleet, Jack E H; Riseley, Anthony S; Janeva, Elena; Marcella, Anastasia S; Farinea, Chiara; Kuptsova, Maria; Conde Pueyo, Núria; Howe, Christopher J; Bombelli, Paolo; Parker, Brenda M

    2018-04-17

    Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana . We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV) device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 , which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 . The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 ). The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  5. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  6. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  7. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Understanding Molecular Conduction: Old Wine in a New Bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Avik

    2007-03-01

    Molecules provide an opportunity to test our understanding of fundamental non-equilibrium transport processes, as well as explore new device possibilities. We have developed a unified approach to nanoscale conduction, coupling bandstructure and electrostatics of the channel and contacts with a quantum kinetic theory of current flow. This allows us to describe molecular conduction at various levels of detail, -- from quantum corrected compact models, to semi-empirical models for quick physical insights, and `first-principles' calculations of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with no adjustable parameters. Using this suite of tools, we can quantitatively explain various experimental I-Vs, including complex reconstructed silicon substrates. We find that conduction in most molecules is contact dominated, and limited by fundamental electrostatic and thermodynamic restrictions quite analogous to those faced by the silicon industry, barring a few interesting exceptions. The distinction between molecular and silicon electronics must therefore be probed at a more fundamental level. Ultra-short molecules are unique in that they possess large Coulomb energies as well as anomalous vibronic couplings with current flow -- in other words, strong non-equilibrium electron-electron and electron-phonon correlations. These effects yield prominent experimental signatures, but require a completely different modeling approach -- in fact, popular approaches to include correlation typically do not work for non-equilibrium. Molecules exhibit rich physics, including the ability to function both as weakly interacting current conduits (quantum wires) as well as strongly correlated charge storage centers (quantum dots). Theoretical treatment of the intermediate coupling regime is particularly challenging, with a large `fine structure constant' for transport that negates orthodox theories of Coulomb Blockade and phonon-assisted tunneling. It is in this regime that the scientific and

  9. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Guimarães ABREU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to search for scientific evidence concerning the association between breastfeeding and bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions. An electronic search was performed in eight databases up to February 2015. Additionally, a gray literature search and hand searches of the reference lists of the selected studies were also carried out. There were no restrictions on language or on year of publication. The methodology of the included articles was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Out of the 817 identified citations, six studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. One study showed that children with mixed and permanent dentitions breastfed for more than 6 months presented greater mean protrusion of mandibular incisors and inclination of maxillary incisors compared with those breastfed for less than 6 months or those who were bottle-fed (p < 0.05. One study revealed that breastfeeding and bruxism were associated with Class II [OR = 3.14 (1.28 - 7.66] and Class III [OR = 2.78 (1.21 - 6.36] malocclusion in children with permanent dentition, while another study showed that an increase in breastfeeding duration was associated with a lower risk of malocclusion in children with both mixed and permanent dentitions (p < 0.001. Three studies did not report any significant association. Risk of bias was high in most selected articles. These findings do not support an association between breastfeeding and bottle feeding and the occurrence of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions.

  10. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha N. Peel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32% met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively; this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003. The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001, with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster.

  11. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Dylla, Brenda L; Hughes, John G; Lynch, David T; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Cheng, Allen C; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin

    2016-01-05

    Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs) is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM) in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014) at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32%) met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively); this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003). The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P Prosthetic joint infections are a devastating complication of arthroplasty surgery. Despite this, current microbiological techniques to detect and diagnose infections are imperfect. This study examined a new approach to diagnosing infections, through the inoculation of tissue samples from around the prosthetic joint into blood culture bottles. This study demonstrated that, compared to current laboratory practices, this new technique increased the detection of infection. These findings are important for patient care to allow timely and accurate diagnosis of infection. Copyright © 2016 Peel et al.

  12. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  13. Study of leak detection using tracers in a bottling plant in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizuet Gonzalez, Jorge; Reyes Jimenez, Jose Luis; Molina, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Mexico, promoted the application of different techniques, involving the use of radioactive materials. Among them is the use of radioactive material as a medium tracer in the industry. Below is a study of locating leaks in ducts collectors of process water of a bottling plant which had several problems, one was not able to stop production, and most important, having to disassemble a large amount of machinery and equipment, in order to open the floor and locate the leak

  14. Bottle-Neck Feature Extraction Structures for Multilingual Training and Porting (Pub Version, Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-03

    set Language HA LA ZU LLP hours 7.9 8.1 8.4 LM sentences 9861 11577 10644 LM words 93131 93328 60832 dictionary 5333 3856 14962 # tied states 1257 1453... monolingual NNs, and having a (large) hidden layer between Bottle-Neck and output layers – we need to change the 149 František Grézl and Martin...In both cases the monolingual SBN hierarchy with desired DNN topology is obtained. Lower WER was achieved by the first variant which uses the tied

  15. Yeasts and filamentous fungi in bottled mineral water and tap water from municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of yeasts and filamentous fungi in drinking water as well as to investigate their correlation with the indicator bacteria of faecal pollution. Yeasts were detected in 36.6% and 11.6% of the bottled mineral on water dispensers and tap water samples from municipal system, respectively. Twenty-one (35.0% of bottled mineral water and two (3.3% of tap water samples were positive for filamentous fungi. For bottled mineral water 12 (20.0% of 60 samples were positive for total coliform, compared with 3(5.0%out of 60 samples from tap water. The mineral water from dispensers was more contaminated than tap water. Strains belonging to the genera Candida identified to the species level were C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. albicans. Thus, bottled mineral water from water dispensers and tap water could be considered a possible transmission route for filamentous fungi and yeasts, and could constitute a potential health hazard, mainly to immunocompromised indivuals.O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em água potável, bem como investigar suas correlações com bactérias indicadoras de contaminação fecal. Leveduras foram detectadas em 36,6% e 11,6% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão em dispensadores de água e água de torneira do sistema municipal, respectivamente. Vinte e uma (35,5% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão e duas (3,3% das amostras de água de torneira foram positivas para fungos filamentosos. Para água mineral de garrafão, 12 (20.0% das 60 amostras foram positivas para coliforme total, comparado com 3 (5.0% das 60 amostras de água de torneira. A água coletada de garrafões de água mineral dos dispensadores foi marcadamente mais contaminada que as amostras de água de torneira. Candida spp identificadas ao nível de espécie foram C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. albicans. Como está sendo

  16. Determination of trace elements in bottled water in Greece by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soupioni, M.J.; Symeopoulos, B.D.; Papaefthymiou, H.V.

    2006-01-01

    Four different bottled water brands sold in Greece in the winter of 2001-2002 were analyzed for a wide range of chemical elements, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The elements Na and Br were determined instrumentally (INAA), whereas the other metals and trace elements radiochemically (RNAA). The results indicated that the mean level of all the elements determined in the samples were well within the European Union (EU) directive on drinking water and accomplish the drinking water standards of the World Health Organisation (WHO) as well as of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  17. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: −1 –0.2 μg L −1 , −1 –0.8 μg L −1 , −1 –0.1 μg L −1 and −1 –1.7 μg L −1 , respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters

  18. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  19. Disposal of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: comparison of five disposal alternatives in the small island state of Mauritius using a life cycle assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-01-01

    Used polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) dumped indiscriminately onto bare lands and water bodies constitute an eyesore. This problem is viewed as a serious impediment to the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius. Currently, over 100 million PET bottles are generated annually and the only fully operational disposal route is through the sole sanitary landfill. There is no formal segregation of waste and therefore used PET bottles are disposed of commingled with domestic waste. Despite a satisfactory waste collection system, a considerable amount of used PET bottles unfortunately end up in water bodies and on bare lands. An appreciable amount of PET bottles is now being collected separately for flake production prior to export to South Africa. This paper investigated the environmental impact of five waste management scenarios (100% landfill; 100% incineration with energy recovery; 50% incineration and 50% landfill; 34% flake production and 66% landfill; 100% flake production) for used PET bottles in Mauritius. Comparison of the five scenarios was based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. SimaPro 7.1 software was used to analyse the data. Comparison of the five scenarios showed that the highest environmental impacts occurred when 100% of used PET bottles were sent to the landfill. The comparison also indicated that there were least impacts on the environment when all used PET bottles were incinerated with energy recovery.

  20. Preparation of value-added metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) using waste PET bottles as source of acid linker

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dyosiba, Xoliswa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available of Value-added Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) Using Waste PET Bottles as Source of Acid Linker Xoliswa Dyosiba, Jianwei Ren, Nicholas M. Musyoka, Henrietta W. Langmi, Mkhulu Mathe, Maurice S. Onyango PII: S2214-9937(16)30053-7 DOI: doi:10.1016/j..., Hen- rietta W. Langmi, Mkhulu Mathe, Maurice S. Onyango, Preparation of Value-added Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) Using Waste PET Bottles as Source of Acid Linker, Sustainable Materials and Technologies (2016), doi:10.1016/j.susmat.2016...

  1. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-01-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected...

  2. Six-month storage-time evaluation of one-bottle adhesive systems to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Marcelo; Seixas, Carla Alessandra Marcelino; Reis, Andre Figueiredo; Pimenta, Luiz André Freire

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the 1-week, 3-month, and 6-month performance of eight commercially available one-bottle adhesive systems to dentin. Lingual and buccal surfaces from human third molars were ground wet on 600-grit SiC paper to obtain a flat dentinal surface. The specimens were randomly divided into 24 groups (n = 10), which were established to measure the shear bond strengths of Bond-1 (B1), ONE-STEP (OS), OptiBond SOLO (OP), Prime & Bond 2.1 (PB), Single Bond (SB), STAE (ST), Syntac Sprint (SS), and Tenure Quick (TQ) after 1-week, 3-month, and 6-month water storage at 37 degrees C. One-bottle adhesives were applied according to manufacturers' instructions and Z100 composite cylinders were applied on the bonded dentinal surfaces. The 3-month water-storage groups were thermocycled for 1500 cycles at 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C and 6-month groups for 3000 cycles. After storage periods, specimens were tested in shear in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test. Results: The changes in shear bond strengths were not uniform over time. Over the test period, OS, PB, SB, and SS exhibited bond strength stability, however, SS presented low bond strengths on all tested periods. A significant decrease in bond strength was observed for B1, OP, ST, and TQ after the 6-month storage period.

  3. Composite Bonding to Stainless Steel Crowns Using a New Universal Bonding and Single-Bottle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hattan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of nanocomposite to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding system. Material and Methods. Eighty (80 stainless steel crowns (SSCs were divided into four groups (20 each. Packable nanocomposite was bonded to the lingual surface of the crowns in the following methods: Group A without adhesive (control group, Group B using a new universal adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany, and Group C and Group D using two different brands of single-bottle adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were calculated and the types of failure also were recorded. Results. The shear strength of Group B was significantly greater than that of other groups. No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of Groups C and D. The control group had significantly lower shear bond strength ( to composite than the groups that utilized bonding agents. Conclusion. Composites bonding to stainless steel crowns using the new universal bonding agent (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany show significantly greater shear bond strengths and fewer adhesive failures when compared to traditional single-bottle systems.

  4. Composite bonding to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding and single-bottle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattan, Mohammad Ali; Pani, Sharat Chandra; Alomari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of nanocomposite to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding system. Material and Methods. Eighty (80) stainless steel crowns (SSCs) were divided into four groups (20 each). Packable nanocomposite was bonded to the lingual surface of the crowns in the following methods: Group A without adhesive (control group), Group B using a new universal adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), and Group C and Group D using two different brands of single-bottle adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were calculated and the types of failure also were recorded. Results. The shear strength of Group B was significantly greater than that of other groups. No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of Groups C and D. The control group had significantly lower shear bond strength (P universal bonding agent (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) show significantly greater shear bond strengths and fewer adhesive failures when compared to traditional single-bottle systems.

  5. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards.

  6. Assessment of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K contents in the Egyptian bottled natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Afifi, E.M.; Hilal, M.A.; Khalifa, S.M.; Aly, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 28Ra and 4 0 and k in different brands of the bottled egyptian natural water of different origins obtained from four regions, have been analyzed nondestructively by gamma- ray spectrometry. The study covers nine brands of natural water commonly used mainly for drinking in egypt. The results showed, concentrations up to 184, 156 and 1700 mBq I - 1 for 2 26Ra, 2 28Ra and 4 0K, respectively, in one brand of the natural water from water from Siwa oasis. Whereas, lower activity concentrations of 2 26Ra and 2 28Ra were found in one brand of these natural waters from El sadat region. The activity concentration of 4 0K was found to be in the background range in the brands from El sadat, kafr El arbein and beilbeis regions. The committed effective doses reached 1.9 x 10 - 2 m Sy Y - 1 for ingestion of 2 26Ra and 2 28Ra for one liter per day, respectively, which are lower than the standard permissible limit by the WHO and IAEA. However, it is recommended to moderate drinking of bottled natural water to avoid the accumulation effect of radioactive nuclides especially radium

  7. Natural uranium and 226Ra in bottled potable waters of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, Ana M.; Palacios, Miguel A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained of the measurement of the natural uranium and 226 Ra concentrations carried out on 345 drinking water samples coming from different provinces of Argentina. The samples were collected from tap water systems and private wells. Six bottled mineral waters samples, selected from those most extensively consumed, were also analyzed. The natural uranium concentration was determined by a fluorimetric procedure and 226 Ra by the 222 Rn emanation technique and liquid scintillation counting. Values ranging from 0,03 to 50 μg L -1 of natural uranium and concentrations up to 22 mBq L -1 were found in the drinking water samples analyzed. Natural uranium concentrations from 0,04 to 3,8 μg L -1 and 226 Ra concentrations up to 2,4 mBq L -1 were measured in the bottled mineral waters samples. Based on the water intake rate and the measured concentrations of both radionuclides analyzed, an annual collective effective dose of 1,5 man Sv and an average committed effective dose of 0,5 μSv a -1 , were calculated for the City of Buenos Aires inhabitants. (author)

  8. Ion-beam analysis of a medieval glass bottle excavated in Gyoer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzonyi, I.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kertesz, Zs.; Simon, A.; Kiss, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. To the east of the historical downtown of Gyoer on the place of the former Wagon Factory an archaeological excavation lead by P. Tomka and E. Szoenyi was carried out in the years 2004-2005. At the site remnants from the Roman Period (1st-2nd c.), and from various periods of the Middle Ages (10th-15th c.) came to light. From a storage pit (feature Nr. 259.) pieces of a glass bottle were saved. The bottle was completely restored. It is 18 cm tall, transparent: the well preserved material has a greenish tint (see fig. 1.). Intact or complete pieces of medieval glass bottles are almost unknown in Hungary. Similar bottlenecks were unearthed in Buda not only on the territory of the former Royal Castle but also in the town. A depot-found, which could be a ware stock of a merchant perished in a fire, was saved in Fortuna Street, Buda. The sloping shoulder and biconical body of these bottles are different from the bottle from Gyoer. The 'goiter necked' glass bottles were spread in large areas of Southern and Central Europe. The closest parallels to the piece from Gyoer can be found in Austria (Vienna) in Moravia (Brno) and a piece with unknown provenience (Milano). Further analogies can be cited from the Balkan Peninsula (Panik in Bosnia, Korinthos in Greece), from Italy (Cividale), from Germany (Landshut and Baunschweig) and from Switzerland (Basel). The find spots suggest that producing centres lay in Central Europe, but one has to keep in mind that luxury goods were transported pretty far in medieval times. According to the latest theories the predominance of early Byzantine glasses can be questioned and Italian production seems to be more important. The find from Gyoer can be dated with great probability to the 2nd half or to the end of the 13th century. Analytical characterization of the glass bottle was performed in ATOMKI. For the determination of the elemental concentrations two non-destructive ion beam analytical (IBA

  9. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  10. Smart sustainable bottle (SSB) system for E. coli based recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaopeng; Carstensen, Bettina; Rinas, Ursula

    2014-11-05

    Recombinant proteins are usually required in laboratories interested in the protein but not in the production process itself. Thus, technical equipment which is easy to handle and straight forward protein production procedures are of great benefit to those laboratories. Companies selling single use cultivation bags and bioreactors are trying to satisfy at least part of these needs. However, single-use systems can contribute to major costs which might be acceptable when "good manufacturing practices" are required but not acceptable for most laboratories facing tight funding. The assembly and application of a simple self-made "smart sustainable bottle" (SSB) system for E. coli based protein production is presented. The core of the SSB system is a 2-L glass bottle which is operated at constant temperature, air flow, and stirrer speed without measurement and control of pH and dissolved oxygen. Oxygen transfer capacities are in the range as in conventional bioreactors operated at intermediate aeration rates and by far exceed those found in conventional shaking flasks and disposable bioreactors. The SSB system was applied for the production of various recombinant proteins using T7-based expression systems and a defined autoinduction medium. The production performance regarding amount and solubility of proteins with robust and delicate properties was as good as in state-of-the-art stirred tank commercial bioreactors. The SSB system represents a low cost protein production device applicable for easy, effective, and reproducible recombinant protein production.

  11. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  12. Generation of volatile compounds in litchi wine during winemaking and short-term bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuwen; Zhu, Baoqing; Tu, Cui; Duan, Changqing; Pan, Qiuhong

    2011-05-11

    Evolution of volatile components during litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) winemaking was monitored, and aroma profiles of litchi wines bottle aged for 5 months at ambient temperature (25-28 °C) and low temperature (8-10 °C) were compared via headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The majority of terpenoids deriving from litchi juice decreased, even disappeared along with alcoholic fermentation, while terpenol oxides, ethers, and acetates came into being and increased. Ethyl octanote, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, cis-rose oxide, and trans-rose oxide had the highest odor activity values (OAVs) in young litchi wines. Six aromatic series were obtained by grouping OAVs of odor-active compounds with similar odor descriptions to establish the aroma profile for young litchi wines, and floral and fruity attributes were two major aroma series. Compared to ambient temperature when bottle aging, lower temperature benefited key aroma retention and expectantly extended the shelf life of young litchi wines.

  13. Ionizing radiations in aseptic bottling: a comparison between technologies and safety requirements [beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottani, E.; Rizzo, R.; Vignali, G.

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiations, commonly adopted in the medical field, are recently experiencing a wide diffusion in industrials applications. One of the most widespread uses of ionizing radiations refers to foodstuffs and packaging sterilization. In the aseptic bottling area, the application of this technology on polymeric caps is quickly developing. In such application, sterilization could be obtained with beta-rays, generated by an electron beam, or with gamma-rays, emitted by a radioactive source. After a brief explanation of physical properties of ionizing radiations, the aim of this paper is to discuss the use of radiations in aseptic bottling. Based on results available in literature, radiations effects on treated materials are discussed, as well as safety requirements aiming at reducing risks related to radiation exposure. Finally, sterilization plants with gamma and beta radiation are compared, with the aim of examining functioning principles and management complexity. As a result of the comparison between the two technologies, the electron beam (beta-rays) adoption for caps sterilization process proves to be preferable [it

  14. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

  15. HPLC study of migration of terephthalic acid and isophthalic acid from PET bottles into edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Limbo, Sara; Shoeibi, Shahram; Mazinani, Somayeh

    2014-08-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers for food oil packaging were evaluated with a newly established determination method for terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA). The analysis of monomers, TPA and IPA that migrate from PET bottles into oils was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Three types of commercial oils (sunflower oil, canola oil and blended oil which included sunflower oil, soy bean oil and cottonseed oil) were bottled in PET containers. These samples were incubated for 10 days at 49 °C as accelerated test condition. The means of recovery for this method varied from 70% to 72% and from 101% to 111% for TPA and IPA, respectively. The results showed that the amounts of specific migration of TPA and IPA into the samples conform to European Union legislation that identifies specific migration limits. More important, the results highlighted a different behavior of migration as a function of the fatty acid profile. Previous investigations have been performed with food simulants such as HB307 or 20% ethanol but our study used real food samples and determined trace amounts of the migrated compounds. Further investigation will be needed to better explain the influence of fatty acid conformation on migration of PET monomers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Process qualification and testing of LENS deposited AY1E0125 D-bottle brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, Clinton J.; Smugeresky, John E.; Jew, Michael; Gill, David Dennis; Scheffel, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The LENS Qualification team had the goal of performing a process qualification for the Laser Engineered Net Shaping(trademark)(LENS(reg s ign)) process. Process Qualification requires that a part be selected for process demonstration. The AY1E0125 D-Bottle Bracket from the W80-3 was selected for this work. The repeatability of the LENS process was baselined to determine process parameters. Six D-Bottle brackets were deposited using LENS, machined to final dimensions, and tested in comparison to conventionally processed brackets. The tests, taken from ES1E0003, included a mass analysis and structural dynamic testing including free-free and assembly-level modal tests, and Haversine shock tests. The LENS brackets performed with very similar characteristics to the conventionally processed brackets. Based on the results of the testing, it was concluded that the performance of the brackets made them eligible for parallel path testing in subsystem level tests. The testing results and process rigor qualified the LENS process as detailed in EER200638525A

  17. Hydrocarbons derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramírez, Maria de Lourdes; Pérez, José Jesus

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two bottle sizes (1.5 and 19 L), all brought in supermarkets. The analysis was by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. -Concentrations of AHs (9.26-1.74 μg/L) were greater than PAHs (20.15-12.78 ng/L). Individual concentrations of PAHs such as fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were comparable with data reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total concentrations of PAHs for all samples (BDW1: 12.78 μg/L, BDW2: 16.72 μg/L, BDW3: 14.62 μg/L, BDW4: 20.15 μg/L and BDW5: 13.23 ng/L) were below the maximum permissible European level of 100 ng/L; no regulations exist for AHs although their values were greater than PAHs (BDW1: 3.11 μg/L, BDW2: 8.45 μg/L, BDW3: 1.74 μg/L, BDW4: 4.75 μg/L and BDW5: 9.26 μg/L).

  18. Regulating Abortion: Impact on Patients and Providers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Silvie; Joyce, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The State of Texas began enforcement of the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act on January 1, 2004. The law requires that all abortions at or after 16 weeks' gestation be performed in an ambulatory surgical center (ASC). In the month the law went into effect, not one of Texas's 54 nonhospital abortion providers met the requirements of a surgical…

  19. Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heil Daniel P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid™, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. Methods Thirty-eight subjects were matched by gender and self-reported physical activity (SRPA, hrs/week and then split into Control (12 women, 7 men; Mean +/- SD: 23 +/- 2 yrs; 7.2 +/- 3.6 hrs/week SRPA and Experimental (13 women, 6 men; 22 +/- 2 yrs; 6.4 +/- 4.0 hrs/week SRPA groups. The Control group consumed non-mineralized placebo bottled water over a 4-week period while the Experimental group consumed the placebo water during the 1st and 4th weeks and the AK water during the middle 2-week treatment period. Fingertip blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected three times each week for subsequent measures of blood and urine osmolality and pH, as well as total urine volume. Dependent variables were analyzed using multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc focused on evaluating changes over time within Control and Experimental groups (alpha = 0.05. Results There were no significant changes in any of the dependent variables for the Control group. The Experimental group, however, showed significant increases in both the blood and urine pH (6.23 to 7.07 and 7.52 to 7.69, respectively, a decreased blood and increased urine osmolality, and a decreased urine output (2.51 to 2.05 L/day, all during the second week of the treatment period (P Conclusions Consumption of AK water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the

  20. Transferability of Cucurbita SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment of Turkish bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...

  1. Effects of storage temperature and time of antimony release from PET bottles into drinking water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fei; Lei, Kun; Li, Zicheng; Liu, Qing; Wei, Zhanliang; An, Lihui; Qi, Hongli; Cui, Song

    2018-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) concentrations were measured in 10 brands of PET bottled drinking water available in supermarkets in China. To simulate general storage habits based on market research, these PET bottles with drinking water were stored for 4 weeks in a lab or a car trunk during the summer. Although the PET package material of brand A had the lowest Sb level (142.71 ± 29.81 μg/g), it showed a significant increase in Sb concentrations when stored in both the car trunk and the lab. There was significant release of Sb from the PET bottles into the water following 24 h of incubation at ≥ 40 °C (40, 50, 60, and 70 °C), especially at 70 °C. The potential health risk of Sb release from PET bottles was calculated based on daily intake values and determined to be acceptable for consumers under normal storage conditions.

  2. 77 FR 5864 - BluePoint Linux Software Corp., China Bottles Inc., Long-e International, Inc., and Nano...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] BluePoint Linux Software Corp., China Bottles Inc., Long-e International, Inc., and Nano Superlattice Technology, Inc.; Order of Suspension of... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Nano Superlattice...

  3. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias

    Full Text Available Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  4. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  5. Training of panellists for the sensory control of bottled natural mineral water in connection with water chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Gosálbez-García, Aitana; Pérez-Lamela, Concepción; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Falqué-López, Elena

    2013-11-01

    As bottled mineral water market is increasing in the world (especially in emergent and developed countries), the development of a simple protocol to train a panel to evaluate sensory properties would be a useful tool for natural drinking water industry. A sensory protocol was developed to evaluate bottled natural mineral water (17 still and 10 carbonated trademarks). The tasting questionnaire included 13 attributes for still water plus overall impression and they were sorted by: colour hues, transparency and brightness, odour/aroma and taste/flavour/texture and 2 more for carbonated waters (bubbles and effervescence). The training lasted two months with, at least, 10 sessions, was adequate to evaluate bottled natural mineral water. To confirm the efficiency of the sensory training procedure two sensory groups formed the whole panel. One trained panel (6 persons) and one professional panel (6 sommeliers) and both participated simultaneously in the water tasting evaluation of 3 sample lots. Similar average scores obtained from trained and professional judges, with the same water trademarks, confirmed the usefulness of the training protocol. The differences obtained for trained panel in the first lot confirm the necessity to train always before a sensory procedure. A sensory water wheel is proposed to guide the training in bottled mineral water used for drinking, in connection with their chemical mineral content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greifenstein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Greifenstein@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); White, Duvel W., E-mail: duvel.white@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Stubner, Alex, E-mail: alex.stubner@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Hout, Joseph, E-mail: joseph.hout@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Whelton, Andrew J., E-mail: ajwhelton@southalabama.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, 3021 Shelby Hall, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25 mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0 mg/L and < 0.05 μg/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 μg/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 μg/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 μg/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 μg/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 μg/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 μg/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine. - Highlights: • Temperature and storage time impacted military bottled water quality up to 60 °C. • The chemical quality of water bottled in California and Afghanistan was affected. • Drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also

  7. ANALISIS TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE PADA LINE 8/CARBONATED SOFT DRINK PT COCA-COLA BOTTLING INDONESIA CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto Pujotomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI Central Java merupakan salah satu perusahaan produsen minuman ringan yang terkemuka di Indonesia, dengan dua jenis kelompok produk yang dihasilkan yaitu minuman karbonasi/Carbonated Soft Drink (Coca-Cola, Sprite, dan Fanta dan non-karbonasi (Frestea dan Ades. Dalam usaha untuk mempertahankan mutu dan meningkatkan produktifitas, salah satu faktor yang harus diperhatikan adalah masalah perawatan fasilitas/mesin produksi.  Makalah ini membahas mengenai penyebab dan akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh breakdown mesin terjadi pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink, khususnya pada conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine. Untuk mendapatkan mesin yang dapat terjaga keterandalannya dibutuhkan suatu konsep yang baik. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM merupakan sebuah konsep yang baik untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut. Konsep ini, selain melibatkan semua personil dalam perusahaan, juga bertujuan untuk merawat semua fasilitas produksi yang dimiliki perusahaan.Data yang digunakan merupakan data breakdown conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine dari ME Monthly Report PT.CCBI selama bulan Januari-Desember 2005 khususnya line 8. Selain itu makalah ini juga membahas performance maintenance PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia-Central Java, dengan memperhitungkan nilai Mean Time Beetwen Failure (MTBF, Mean Time To Repair (MTTR, serta Availability mesin, dengan menggunakan data record Line 8 selama bulan Mei 2006 sampai bulan Juli 2006. Sehingga nantinya akan diketahui informasi keadaan aktual dari perusahaan tentang sistem perawatannya, khususnya pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink apakah baik atau buruk. Kata kunci : Total Production Maintenance, Conveyor, Filler Machine, Bottle Washer Machine, Performance Maintenance   PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI-Central Java represent one of notable light beverage producer company in Indonesia, with two product group type yielded is carbonated beverage/Carbonated Soft

  8. Drought tolerance of selected bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] landraces assessed by leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashilo, Jacob; Odindo, Alfred O; Shimelis, Hussein A; Musenge, Pearl; Tesfay, Samson Z; Magwaza, Lembe S

    2017-11-01

    Successful cultivation of bottle gourd in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa and globally requires the identification of drought tolerant parents for developing superior genotypes with increased drought resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the level of drought tolerance among genetically diverse South African bottle gourd landraces based on leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency and identify promising genotypes for breeding. The responses of 12 bottle gourd landraces grown in glasshouse under non-stressed (NS) and drought-stressed (DS) conditions were studied. A significant genotype x water regime interaction was observed for gs, T, A, A/C i , IWUE, WUE ins , F m ', F v '/F m ', Ф PSII , qP, qN, ETR, ETR/A and AES indicating variability in response among the studied bottle gourd landraces under NS and DS conditions. Principal component analysis identified three principal components (PC's) under drought stress condition contributing to 82.9% of total variation among leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters measured. PC1 explained 36% of total variation contributed by gs, T, F 0 ', F m ', F v '/F m ' and qN, while PC2 explained 28% of the variation and highly correlated with A, A/C i , IWUE, WUE ins ETR/A and AES. PC3 explained 14% of total variation contributed by Ф PSII , qP and ETR. Principal biplot analysis allowed the identification of drought tolerant genotypes such as BG-27, BG-48, BG-58, BG-79, BG-70 and BG-78 which were grouped based on high gs, A, F m 'F v '/F m ', qN, ETR/A and AES under DS condition. The study suggests that the identified physiological traits could be useful indicators in the selection of bottle gourd genotypes for increased drought tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure assessment of Bisphenol A intake from polymeric baby bottles in formula-fed infants aged less than one year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BisphenolA (BPA or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenylpropanepresent in polycarbonate baby bottles may have harmful effects for formula-fed infants. This study evaluated the risks associated with exposure to BPA among Iranian formula-fed infants in an urban society in Isfahan. New and used baby bottles (n = 7 and 8, respectively as well as BPA-free marked bottles (n = 2 were collected from a retail outlet, and leaching of BPA was examined by conducting a migration test. Concentrations of BPA released from the new and used baby bottles were in the range of 0.49–8.58 and 0.63–2.47 μg/l, respectively. Next, probabilistic exposure estimation was performed. In all, 200 mothers registered with 11 health centres in Isfahan were interviewed. Data on feeding pattern, washing and sterilization practices, bottles types and manufacturers as well as the sex and weight of the infants were collected using a questionnaire. The results showed that majority of the surveyed infants were exposed to 0.1–0.3 μg/kg body weight (bw/d of BPA, which corresponded to approximately 2–7.5% of the defined t-TDI (4 μg/kgbw/d. These results suggested that the risk of the adverse effects caused by exposure to BPA was very low in formula-fed Iranian infants even in the worst-case scenario.

  10. Simulation on the Effect of Bottle Wall Thickness Distribution using Blow Moulding Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraya, S; Azman, M D; Fatchurrohman, N; Jaafar, A A; Yusoff, A R

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the deformation behavior of a polymeric material during a blow moulding process. Transient computations of two dimensional model of a PP bottle were performed using ANSYS Polyflow computer code to predict the wall thickness distribution at four different parison's diameter; 8mm, 10mm, 18mm, and 20mm. Effects on the final wall thickness diameter and time step are studied. The simulated data shows that the inflation performance degrades with increasing parison diameter. It is concluded that the blow moulding process using 10mm parison successfully meet the product processing requirements. Factors that contribute to the variation in deformation behaviour of the plastic during the manufacturing process are discussed. (paper)

  11. The relationship between health risks and health and productivity costs among employees at Pepsi Bottling Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Rachel M; Carls, Ginger S; Short, Meghan E; Pei, Xiaofei; Wang, Shaohung; Moley, Susan; Sullivan, Mark; Goetzel, Ron Z

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate relationships between modifiable health risks and costs and measure potential cost savings from risk reduction programs. Health risk information from active Pepsi Bottling Group employees who completed health risk assessments between 2004 and 2006 (N = 11,217) were linked to medical care, workers' compensation, and short-term disability cost data. Ten health risks were examined. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate costs associated with having high risk, holding demographics, and other risks constant. Potential savings from risk reduction were estimated. High risk for weight, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol had the greatest impact on total costs. A one-percentage point annual reduction in the health risks assessed would yield annual per capita savings of $83.02 to $103.39. Targeted programs that address modifiable health risks are expected to produce substantial cost reductions in multiple benefit categories.

  12. Conservation genetics of the critically endangered Round Island bottle palm, Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Maunder, Michael; Fay, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to examine genetic variation among old and newly emerged individuals of Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (the Round Island bottle palm) on Round Island to assess surviving levels of diversity in the wild population and to evaluate...... monomorphic bands. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and Shannon’s indices showed a high level of genetic variation within the wild population on Round Island and a smaller amount of genetic variation among cultivated individuals. A neighbor joining analysis resulted in an unrooted network of genetic...... distances in which the five Hyophorbe spp. were separated and much variation within H. lagenicaulis was recovered. The Round Island populations of H. lagenicaulis contain representatives of the genetic variation found within the species as a whole. However, a few individuals, both wild and cultivated...

  13. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  14. Radon and radium concentrations in bottled waters: An estimate of ingestion doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    1997-01-01

    Concentration levels of Ra-226 and Rn-222 have been analysed in most of the bottled waters commercially available in Spain. Concentrations up to about 600 Bq/m 3 with a geometric mean of 12 Bq/m 3 were observed for Ra-226. For Rn-222 a geometric mean of 1200 Bq/m 3 with values ranging from 52000 to 1400 Bq/m 3 were measured. Doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The effective dose equivalents due to the intake of Ra-226 present in these waters are expected to range from about 102 to 2 μSv·y -1 . Dose equivalents to the stomach due to Rn-222 intake through water consumption are estimated to reach values around 30 μSv·y -1 . (author)

  15. Economic Impact of Imposing Excise Tax on Plastic Bottles of Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mardanugraha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research simulates the effect of imposing excise tax on plastic container of drinks towards economic performance of beverage industry in Indonesia and governmentâ˘A ´Zs tax revenue. The results showed that by imposing excise tax on plastic cups and plastic bottles the government would lose tax revenue from value added tax (PPN and corporate income tax (PPh badan more than they gain additional revenue from excise tax. Hence, imposing excise tax on drink containers should serve a clear purpose and an undeniable reason. This paper recommends the government to develop proper excise infrastructure to extend the goods or services to be taxed. This paper also recommends the required stages for extending the excise tax.

  16. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  17. Sustainable Contracts in the Bottled Tawilis Value Chain in Taal, Batangas, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia V. Almazan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was conceptualized to investigate the potential impact of contracts on the sustainability of the bottled tawilis supply chain, i.e. sustainability in terms of environmental protection, well-being of the people whose livelihood depends on tawilis production, processing and marketing; and enhanced economic gains from the chain. A survey amongst fishermen, middlemen and processors was performed in the lake Taal area. The study concludes that formal contracts, with specific demands to gear used and the handling of fish, may stimulate the catch of minimum and uniform sized fish. Such contracts may also stimulate delivery of higher quality fish by fishermen. These contracts thereby enhance sustainable fishing and increase in fishermen’s income. Direct (win-win contracts between processors and fishermen seem to be the best way to stimulate delivery of sustainably catched fish. Government should strongly increase enforcement of sustainable fishing practices and stimulate contracting for sustainable fishing in this chain.

  18. Severe pediatric ocular injury due to explosion of a firecracker inside a soda bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A Shazly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A ShazlyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: This case report describes a penetrating ocular injury, followed by endophthalmitis, in a four-year-old girl, resulting from explosion of a small K0201 match-cracker inside a soda bottle. The patient presented with two corneal lacerations, ruptured crystalline lens, multiple intraocular foreign bodies, and hyphema of the right eye, for which immediate surgical exploration and repair was performed. The patient developed aggressive endophthalmitis that led to atrophy of the eye within a few weeks. Severe ocular injuries can result from small, relatively “safe” firecrackers. Therefore, this type of firework should not be used, especially by minors.Keywords: pediatric trauma, endophthalmitis, firecracker

  19. Changes in sparkling wine aroma during the second fermentation under CO2 pressure in sealed bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Rafael; García-Martínez, Teresa; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2017-12-15

    High quality sparkling wine made by the traditional method requires a second alcoholic fermentation of a base wine in sealed bottles, followed by an aging time in contact with yeast lees. The CO 2 overpressure released during this second fermentation has an important effect on the yeast metabolism and therefore on the wine aroma composition. This study focuses on the changes in chemical composition and 43 aroma compounds released by yeast during this fermentation carried out under two pressure conditions. The data were subjected to statistical analysis allowing differentiating between the base wine and the wine samples taken in the middle and at the end of fermentation. The differentiation among wines obtained to the end of fermentation with or without CO 2 pressure is only achieved by a principal component analysis of 15 selected minor compounds (mainly ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradecanoate, hexyl acetate, ethyl butanoate and ethyl isobutanoate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative evolution of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfites during storage of a rosé wine bottled in PET and glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Marie; Vidal, Jean-Claude; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-02

    The management of dissolved and headspace gases during bottling and the choice of packaging are both key factors for the shelf life of wine. Two kinds of 75 cL polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles (with or without recycled PET) were compared to glass bottles filled with a rosé wine, closed with the same screwcaps and stored upright at 20 °C in light or in the dark. Analytical monitoring (aphrometric pressure, headspace volume, O2, N2, CO2, and SO2) was carried out for 372 days. After the consumption of O2 trapped during bottling, the total O2 content in glass bottles remained stable. A substantial decrease of CO2 and SO2 concentration and an increase of O2 concentration were observed in the PET bottles after 6 months because of the considerable gas permeability of monolayer PET. Light accelerated O2 consumption during the early months. Finally, the kinetic monitoring of partial pressures in gas and liquid phases in bottles showed contrasting behavior of O2 and N2 in comparison with CO2.

  1. Radiation dose to the Malaysian populace via the consumption of bottled mineral water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Nasir, Noor Liyana Mohd; Zakirin, Nur Syahira; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Bradley, D. A.; Zulkifli, M. Y.; Hayyan, Adeeb

    2017-11-01

    Due to the geological makeup of the various water bodies, mineral- and groundwater can be expected to contain levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exceeding that of tap and surface water. Acknowledging mineral water to form a vital component of the intake in maintaining the healthy life of an individual, it nevertheless remains important to study the associated radiological implications of NORM content, especially in regard to the consumption of bottled mineral water, the presence of which is prevalent in modern urban society. In present study, various brands of bottled mineral waters that are commonly available in Malaysia were obtained from local markets, the presence of NORM subsequently being assessed by HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides of particular interest, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, were found to be within the respective ranges of 1.45±0.28‒3.30±0.43, 0.65±0.18‒3.39±0.38 and 21.12±1.74‒25.31±1.84 Bq/L. The concentrations of 226Ra, of central importance in radiological risk assessment, exceed the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2011) recommended maximum permissible limit of 1.0 Bq/L; for all three radionuclides taken together, the annual effective doses are greater than the WHO recommended limit of 0.1 mSv/y, a matter of especial concern for those in the developmental stages of life.

  2. Stability of diclofenac sodium oral suspensions packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Régis

    2010-01-01

    Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23°C) or under refrigeration (5°C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to

  3. Psychological factors in breast feeding versus bottle feeding in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, N; Mccullough, M

    1982-09-01

    Some readers may be aware of the sociopolitical and moral issues associated with the theme of Brenda Meldrum's article (Bulletin, June 1982) about breast and bottle feeding in the 3rd world. For over a decade many groups (e.g. War on Want; World Development Movement) have been concerned that unnecessary bottle feeding has almost certainly resulted in considerable infant disease and mortality in the 3rd world. Morever, such groups have been well aware of the high psychological value of formula foods; and have attributed this mainly to the aggressive and fundamentally dishonest way in which food companies promote their breastmilk substitutes. In 1979, in response to the bad publicity resulting from the campaigning of 3rd world agencies, Nestle and others agreed to adopt a voluntary code of practice proposed by World Health Organization and UNICEF. However, commercial interests have prevailed--baby food sales in 3rd world account for 2 1/2% of 1 transnational group's turnover--and the malpractices have continued. In view of this we feel that it is appropriate to amend Brenda Meldrum's conclusion to: While transnational corporations continue to actively promote their baby food products in the 3rd world, there can be no reversal to the old, exclusive breastfeeding of traditional practice, and that infants that would otherwise have lived will continue to die. The boycott campaign is continuing and might we suggest that BPS members who organize conferences give some thought to the possibility of requesting that their caterers do not use products of these companies. A list of companies may be obtained from New Internationalist (February 1982) or from us. full text

  4. Peroxide alkaline for cleansing the baby bottle nipple to prevent oral thrush relaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent opportunistic infection affecting the oral mucosa. A number of predisposing factors have the capacity to convert Candida from the normal commensal flora to a pathogenic organism. Oral candidiasis is divided into primary and secondary infection. The primary infections are restricted to the oral and perioral sites, where as secondary infections are accompanied by sistemic mucocutaneous manifestation. Oral thrush is one of the candidiasis primary infection. Some presdiposing factors of oral thrush are neonatal, old people, or where oral microflora is disturbed by the treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics. Final diagnosis is determined by fungal culture examination, although through clinical examination oral thrush can be determined by swabbing the white pseudomembran. Purpose: This case report presents about the importance of using the antiseptic cleanser for baby bottle nipple to prevent oral thrush relaps and shows about peroxide alkaline as the alternatif of antiseptic cleanser for baby bottle nipple that can substitute chlorhexidine gluconat 0.2%. Case: A baby girl, 15 months old, when she was suffering influenza the pediatry gave amoxycillin 125 mg three times a day for ten days. Then the white plaque appeared on her dorsum of tongue. The therapy was Gentian Violet 1% four times a day for ten days was applied on dorsum of the tongue. The patient was suspected to suffer alergy reaction after using nistatin oral suspension four times a day had applied for 1 day. The instruction was doing sterilization for the baby bottle nipple in boiling water. Three days after the baby was cured, the white plaque was appeared on upper n lower lips mucous. Case management: The diagnosis was Oral thrush. The therapy was Gentian violet 1% four times a day for ten days that applied on upper and lower lips mucous. The instruction was doing the sterilization for baby bottle nipple in denture cleanser contain

  5. Impact of bottle size on in-home consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzari, Eleni; Hollands, Gareth J; Pechey, Rachel; Jebb, Susan; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-04-07

    Consumption of sugars-sweetened beverages (SSB) increases energy intake and the risk of obesity. Large packages increase consumption of food, implying that smaller bottle sizes may help curb SSB consumption, but there is a lack of relevant evidence relating to these products. This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of different bottle sizes on SSB consumption at home. Households in Cambridge, England, which purchased at least 2 l of regular cola drinks per week, received a set amount of cola each week for four weeks, in bottles of one of four sizes (1500 ml, 1000 ml, 500 ml, or 250 ml) in random order. The total volume received consisted of a modest excess of households' typical weekly purchasing, but was further increased for half the study households to avoid ceiling effects. Consumption was measured by recording the number of empty bottles at the end of each week. Eligible households were invited to complete a run-in period to assess levels of active participation. Thirty-seven of 111 eligible households with an interest in the study completed the run-in period. The study procedures proved feasible. The target for recruitment (n = 16 households) was exceeded. Measuring consumption was feasible: over three quarters (n = 30/37) of households returned all bottles on the majority (n = 88/101) of the study weeks completed across households. The validity of this measure was compromised by guests from outside the household who drank the study cola (n = 18/37 households on 48/101 study weeks) and consumption of the study cola outside the home. Supplying enhanced volumes of cola to nine households was associated with higher consumption (11,592 ml vs 7869 ml). The intervention and study procedures were considered acceptable. Thirteen households correctly identified the study aims. The findings support the feasibility and acceptability of running a randomised controlled trial to

  6. Impact of bottle size on in-home consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages: a feasibility and acceptability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Mantzari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of sugars-sweetened beverages (SSB increases energy intake and the risk of obesity. Large packages increase consumption of food, implying that smaller bottle sizes may help curb SSB consumption, but there is a lack of relevant evidence relating to these products. This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of different bottle sizes on SSB consumption at home. Methods Households in Cambridge, England, which purchased at least 2 l of regular cola drinks per week, received a set amount of cola each week for four weeks, in bottles of one of four sizes (1500 ml, 1000 ml, 500 ml, or 250 ml in random order. The total volume received consisted of a modest excess of households’ typical weekly purchasing, but was further increased for half the study households to avoid ceiling effects. Consumption was measured by recording the number of empty bottles at the end of each week. Eligible households were invited to complete a run-in period to assess levels of active participation. Results Thirty-seven of 111 eligible households with an interest in the study completed the run-in period. The study procedures proved feasible. The target for recruitment (n = 16 households was exceeded. Measuring consumption was feasible: over three quarters (n = 30/37 of households returned all bottles on the majority (n = 88/101 of the study weeks completed across households. The validity of this measure was compromised by guests from outside the household who drank the study cola (n = 18/37 households on 48/101 study weeks and consumption of the study cola outside the home. Supplying enhanced volumes of cola to nine households was associated with higher consumption (11,592 ml vs 7869 ml. The intervention and study procedures were considered acceptable. Thirteen households correctly identified the study aims. Conclusion The findings support the feasibility

  7. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  8. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2 3 factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  9. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  10. Chlorophyll, temperature, depth, and irradiance data from bottle in a world-wide distribution from 28 February 1964 to 02 April 1994 (NODC Accession 0000268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chlorophyll, temperature, depth, and irradiance data were collected using bottle from multiple vessels in a world-wide distribution from 28 February 1964 to 02 April...

  11. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients measurements collected using bottle from the Iselin Columbus in the Indian Ocean (Somalia Coast) (NODC Accession 0002225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN in the Indian Ocean. Data were collected from 26 February 1979 to...

  12. Physical, chemical, and other data collected using moored bottle casts at the Coastal waters of California from 01 August 1999 to 01 October 1999 (NODC Accession 0000220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, physical, chemical, and other data were collected using moored bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of California from the SAMPSON from August...

  13. Physical and chemical data collected from AXBT and bottle casts from AIRCRAFT in Mediterranean Sea from 30 September 1985 to 31 July 1992 (NODC Accession 9600058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using AXBT and bottle casts in the Mediterranean Sea from AIRCRAFT. Data were collected from 30 September 1985 to 31 July...

  14. Oceanographic profile Temperature, Salinity, Phosphate collected using bottle from the PROFESSOR VIZE, SMOLNIY, PROFESSOR ZUBOV and other platforms in the Atlantic from 1942 to 1983 (NODC Accession 0002021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the SUCHAN and other platforms in the North/South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected...

  15. Chemical, physical, and temperature data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 30 October 1936 to 17 May 1938 (NODC Accession 0000328)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, and temperature data were collected from the ATLANTIS 1931-9/63 from October 30, 1936 to May 17, 1938. These data were collected using bottle...

  16. Salinity and temperature data collected by bottle from multiple cruises from 8/9/1926 - 11/02/1989 (NODC Accession 0000048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from PERSEY in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 09 August 1926 to 02 November 1989....

  17. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1976 through 1982 (NODC Accession 0002126)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1976...

  18. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients measurements collected using bottle and MBT from the A.I. VOEIKOV in the Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 0002214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle and MBT casts from the A.I. VOEIKOV in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected...

  19. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from CTD and bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 01 April 1969 to 31 August 1995 (NODC Accession 0000426)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the CHARLES DARWIN and other vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from 01 April 1969 to 31 August 199. CTD data include...

  20. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in Monterey Bay, California, January 1972 to April 1973 (NODC Accession 0014018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 19 January 1972 to 20 April 1973. Data were...

  1. Bottle profile data collected aboard the USCGC SENECA in the Atlantic Ocean from 2 April 1915 to 20 May 1915 (NODC Accession 9700096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 9700096 contains temperature and salinity profile data from bottle casts collected aboard the USCGC Seneca in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and...

  2. Historical bottle temperature and salinity data collected globally by multiple platforms from 1868 to 1959, submitted by the German Data Center (BSH) (NODC Accession 0071062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical bottle temperature and salinity data from the German data center, Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) in Hamburg. The data contain...

  3. Chemical, temperature, and other data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 04 July 1966 to 17 June 1985 (NODC Accession 0000369)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, temperature, and other data were collected from HUDSON, SIGMA-T, and HOH from July 4, 1966 to June 17, 1985. These data were collected using bottle casts...

  4. Study of the efficacy of a Wheaton coated bottle with permethrin and deltamethrin in laboratory conditions and a WHO impregnated paper with bendiocarb in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaire Aïzoun

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: The day storage and the number of times that a WHO impregnated paper and a CDC coated bottle maintained their efficacy are useful in the assessment of insecticide vectors susceptibility tests.

  5. Temperature, salinity and other parameters from bottle casts in the northeast Pacific Ocean from SWAN from 1965-10-30 to 1966-09-18 (NODC Accession 7000633)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data, barometric pressure, air temperature and surface winds measurements were collected during nine bottle cast at six stations in...

  6. Temperature profile and nutrients data from bottle casts in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 19 April 1971 to 30 March 1994 (NODC Accession 0000225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ORION and EASTWARD in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 19...

  7. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from FIXED PLATFORM from 26 April 1972 to 06 December 1972 (NODC Accession 7400880)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from MULTIPLE SHIPS from 26 April 1972 to 06 December 1972. Data were submitted by Edgerton,...

  8. Chemical data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON using CTD and bottle casts in Arabian Sea from 08 January 1995 to 26 November 1995 (NODC Accession 9800161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical data were collected using CTD and bottle casts in the Arabian Sea from THOMAS G. THOMPSON. Data were collected from 08 January 1995 to 26 November 1995 by...

  9. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the ASTOR and other platforms from 03 January 1958 to 17 November 1961 (NODC Accession 6800201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the ASTOR and other platforms from 03 January 1958 to 17 November 1961. Data were submitted by...

  10. Nutrient Hydrography Database from bottle casts from the Gulf of Maine from 02 August 1932 to 13 July 1991 (NODC Accession 9600089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and nutrients data were collected from bottle casts from the Gulf of Maine. Data were collected in support of the Gulf of Maine Regional Marine Research...

  11. Physical, nutrients, and other data from CTD, MBT, XBT, and bottle casts from the Indian Ocean from 01 January 1976 to 31 December 1996 (NODC Accession 0000462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, nutrients, and other data were collected from CTD, MBT, XBT, and bottle casts from the Indian Ocean. Data were collected from 01 January 1976 to 31...

  12. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1970 through 1975 (NODC Accession 0002125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1970...

  13. Chemical, temperature, and other data from bottle casts in a world-wide distribution from 04 October 1961 to 24 August 1990 (NODC Accession 0000231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, temperature, and other data were collected using bottle casts in a world-wide distribution from multiple ships from October 4, 1961 to August 24, 1990....

  14. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the BLUE FIN from 1976-02-26 to 1976-05-26 (NODC Accession 7800050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the BLUE FIN from 26 February 1976 to 26 May 1976. Data were submitted by the Skidaway...

  15. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from the SNP-1 in the Coastal South Pacific and South Pacific in 1976 (NODC Accession 0001483)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts from the SNP-1 in the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 24...

  16. Oceanographic profile plankton, Temperature Salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from various platforms in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997 to 1998 (NODC Accession 0014651)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and other measurements found in the bottle dataset taken from the SNP-1, HUAMANGA (fishing boat) and other platforms in the...

  17. Oceanographic profile data using bottle, collected during CalCOFI cruises, North Pacific Ocean, 2012-03 to 2013-01 (NODC Accession 0117293)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottle data collected during CalCOFI cruises 1203, 1207, 1210, and 1301, March 2012 - January 2013. The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations...

  18. Oceanographic profile data using bottle collected during CalCOFI cruises, North Pacific Ocean, 2015-04 to 2015-11 (NCEI Accession 0162193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottle data collected during CalCOFI cruises 1504, 1507, and 1511, April 2015 - November 2015. The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI)...

  19. Oceanographic profile data using bottle collected during CalCOFI cruises, North Pacific Ocean, 2013-04 to 2014-02 (NCEI Accession 0126651)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottle data collected during CalCOFI cruises 1304, 1307, 1311, and 1402, April 2013 - February 2014. The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations...

  20. Temperature profile data collected using bottle casts from the YANTAR in the Black Sea from 27 June 1980 to 15 July 2000 (NODC Accession 0000781)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts in the Black Sea from the YANTAR and others. Data were collected from 27 June 1980 to 15 July 2000. Data...

  1. Temperature and other data bottle and CTD casts and other instruments in the Mediterranean Sea from 01 January 1901 - 31 December 1995 (NODC Accession 9900172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, pressure, salinity, and dissolved oxygen were collected using theromsalinograph, bathythermograph (XBT and MBT), CTD, and bottle casts in the...

  2. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990 (NODC Accession 0002717)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990

  3. Oxygen, salinity, and other data from bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 25 February 1973 to 04 May 1981 (NODC Accession 0000344)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data were collected using bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from February 25, 1973 to May 4, 1981. Data were...

  4. Temperature profile, pressure, and nutrients data from bottle in South Atlantic Ocean from 24 November 1987 to 12 March 1989 (NODC Accession 0000196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, pressure, and nutrients data were collected using bottle in the South Atlantic Ocean from 24 November 1987 to 12 March 1989. Data were collected...

  5. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the TAGE from 08 May 1969 to 30 December 1969 (NODC Accession 7100605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the TAGE from 08 May 1969 to 30 December 1969. Data were submitted by the Stanford University;...

  6. Oceanographic profile data using bottle collected during CalCOFI cruises, North Pacific Ocean, 2014-03 to 2015-02 (NCEI Accession 0145016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottle data collected during CalCOFI cruises 1404, 1407, 1411, and 1501, March 2014 - February 2015. The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations...

  7. Phytoplankton, chemical, and other data from bottle and CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 04 August 1989 to 07 September 1989 (NODC Accession 0000399)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton, chemical, nutrients, salinity, and other data from August 4, 1989 to September 7, 1989. Data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the North...

  8. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and other measurements collected using bottle and high resolution CTD from the POLARSTERN in the Antarctic and South Atlantic in 1992 (NODC Accession 0000463)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using plankton net, bottle, and CTD casts from the POLARSTERN in the Southern Oceans. Data were...

  9. Depth, chlorophyll, and total pigment data were collected using bottle casts in a world-wide distribution from 16 March 1997 to 30 January 1998 (NODC Accession 0000292)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth, chlorophyll, and total pigment data were collected using bottle casts from TIOGA and other platforms in a world-wide distribution from March 16, 1997 to...

  10. Temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients bottle and CTD data collected in the northern North Atlantic, Nordic and Arctic Seas from 1901 to 2011 (NODC Accession 0105532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients bottle and CTD data collected in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, Kara Sea, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  11. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, primary production, and meteorological data collected by bottle in the South Pacific Ocean from 1/16/1962 - 8/2/1964 (NODC Accession 0000092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using net and bottle casts from the HUAYAIPE and ST JUDE in the South Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  12. Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 05 February 1973 to 19 August 1980 (NODC Accession 0000289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from February 5, 1973 to August 19, 1980. These...

  13. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, and ammonia profiles collected by bottle in the Black Sea from 5/5/1955 - 4/16/1989 (NODC Accession 0000131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from the FIOLENT and other platforms in the Black Sea. Data were collected from 05 May 1955...

  14. Physical, nutrients, biological, meteorological, and other data from bottle casts, CTD casts, and divers, from FIXED PLATFORMS from 06 February 1989 to 12 March 1998 (NODC Accession 9800185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, biological, meteorological, and other data were collected from bottle casts, CTD casts, and divers from FIXED PLATFORMS. Data were collected by...

  15. Biological profile and meteorological data collected by bottle and net in the Western Pacific Ocean from 6/5/1973 - 11/7/1973 (NODC Accession 0000151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological profile and meteorological data were collected using bottle and net casts from the RYOFU MARU in the Northwest / Southwest Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  16. Zooplankton and other data collected in Northwest Atlantic Ocean from CTD, bottle casts, and other instruments from 10 September 1963 to 24 August 1964 (NODC Accession 7101509)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected using CTD, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 10 September 1963...

  17. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the MAURY and other platforms from 01 July 1949 to 13 August 1982 (NODC Accession 8500022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the MAURY and other platforms from 01 July 1949 to 13 August 1982. Data were submitted by...

  18. Dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen data collected using bottle in a world wide distribution from 02 September 1998 to 02 November 2003 (NODC Accession 0002403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) data were collected using bottle casts in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 02...

  19. Temperature profile and oxygen data from bottle casts in the Barents Sea from 04 January 1899 to 04 December 1992 (NODC Accession 0000379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — temperature profile and oxygen data were collected from multiple ships from January 4, 1899 to December 4, 1992. These data were collected using bottle in the...

  20. Oceanographic profile Biomass, temperature salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from Alpha Helix in the Pacific Ocean from 1976 (NODC Accession 0002070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts from the ALPHA HELIX in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 06...