WorldWideScience

Sample records for began commercial operation

  1. How nuclear power began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowing, M.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the features of the story of nuclear power, both in nuclear weapons and nuclear power stations, derive from their timing. Usually, in the history of science the precise timing of discovery does not make much difference, but in the case of nuclear fission there was the coincidence that crucial discoveries were made and openly published in the same year, 1939, as the outbreak of the Second World War. It is these events of the 1930s and the early post-war era that are mainly discussed. However, the story began a lot earlier and even in the early 1900s the potential power within the atom had been foreseen by Soddy and Rutherford. In the 1930s Enrico Fermi and his team saw the technological importance of their discoveries and took out a patent on their process to produce artificial radioactivity from slow neutron beams. The need for secrecy because of the war, and the personal trusts and mistrusts run through the story of nuclear power. (UK)

  2. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-15

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project.

  3. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project

  4. Missouri commercial vehicle operations : state business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-15

    This business plan is intended to assist this state in improving its commercial vehicle operation regulation, guide the deployment and installation of intelligent transportation systems and to implement these systems in an efficient and cost effectiv...

  5. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelburn, Bryan H

    2002-01-01

    .... Among those elements susceptible to these vulnerabilities are the operations of commercial air carriers that are essential to the military's ability to wage war and project power wherever needed in the world...

  6. ESSENCE OF ACTIVE OPERATIONS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Irina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Constant changes in the economic situation in the country and in the world give rise to new problems in asset management of commercial banks. This, in turn, requires the timely development and introduction of new and improved mechanisms for active operations of banking institutions. Only the implementation of such adequate mechanisms will allow, on the one hand, to satisfy the needs of consumers of banking services, and on the other – for banking institutions, to obtain the necessary level of profit for the acceptable risk to them. Purpose. Substantiation of theoretical foundations of organization and management of assets of banking institutions and determination of perspective directions of development of active operations in commercial banks. Results. The article provides a list of operations carried out by commercial banks of Ukraine. The essence of the concept of active operations of a banking institution as an important element of its activity for profit is considered. Possible variants of classification of active operations are analyzed, depending on the criterion underlying (risk level, liquidity and term of putting. The definition of a bank loan and its basic principles are given. The purposes and advantages of investment activity of banking institutions are specified, the classification of such activity is carried out. Proposed directions of development of active operations of banking institutions through the use of intermediary operations and unconventional banking services are offered. Conclusions. Currently, banking institutions carry out a large number of different banking operations. Mobilized by carrying out passive operations cash funds of the banking institution are placed through active operations in different directions. The basis of active operations of a commercial bank is its credit and investment operations. A commercial bank’s profits in the future are dependent on their effective conduct. The conduct of

  7. Licensing operators for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    The human element in the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is of utmost importance. Not only must the operators be technically competent in the execution of numerous complicated tasks, they must be capable of working together as a team to diagnose dynamic plant conditions to ensure that their plants are operated safely. The significance of human interaction skills and crew communications has been demonstrated most vividly in TMI and Chernobyl. It follows that the NRC must retain its high standards for licensing operators. This paper discusses activities and initiatives being employed by the NRC to enhance the reliability of its licensing examinations, and to build a highly qualified examiner work force

  8. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial operator...

  9. How newspapers began to blog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    of technologists (project managers, computer programers, information architects, etc.) that are increasingly integral to how legacy media organizations operate in a new and ever more convergent media environment under circumstances of great economic uncertainty, and discuss the wider implications for how we......In this article, I examine how ‘old’ media organizations develop ‘new’ media technologies by analyzing processes of technological innovation in two Danish newspaper companies that integrated blogs into their websites in very different ways in 2007. Drawing on concepts from science and technology...... studies and sociology and building on previous research on blogging by news media organizations, I analyze how the three different communities involved in the development process – journalists and managers, but also the often-overlooked community of technologists – articulated different versions of what...

  10. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  11. Economic consequences of commercial space operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Wood, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The potential economic benefits generated from increased industry involvement and investment in space activities and the subsequent cost implications are discussed. A historical overview of commercial industry involvement in space is given and sources of new economic growth in space are discussed. These include communications satellites, small satellites, positioning and navigation services, space transportation and infrastructure, remote sensing, and materials processing in space such as the manufacturing of protein crystals and zeolites. Macroeconomic trends and principles such as limits on technology trade, eased restrictions on international joint ventures, foreign investments in U.S. firms, and increased foreign competition are discussed. Earth observations and mapping are considered. Opportunities for private sector involvement in building space infrastructure and space transportation are highlighted.

  12. Applying lessons from commercial aviation safety and operations to resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornato, Joseph P; Peberdy, Mary Ann

    2014-02-01

    Both commercial aviation and resuscitation are complex activities in which team members must respond to unexpected emergencies in a consistent, high quality manner. Lives are at stake in both activities and the two disciplines have similar leadership structures, standard setting processes, training methods, and operational tools. Commercial aviation crews operate with remarkable consistency and safety, while resuscitation team performance and outcomes are highly variable. This commentary provides the perspective of two physician-pilots showing how commercial aviation training, operations, and safety principles can be adapted to resuscitation team training and performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pickering NGS end of commercial operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swami, L. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    • Pickering continues as a valued asset for the Province • OPG's current business plan is to continue to operate Pickering to the end of 2020 • Planning its shutdown is underway and includes the following activities to: • Place the units into safe store • Manage the wastes arising • Repurpose the Pickering lands and facilities • Decommissioning will take place in the future and will include appropriate waste management activities. © Copyright 2015 by the Canadian Nuclear Society. All rights reserved.

  14. A gap analysis of meteorological requirements for commercial space operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Nicholas James

    Commercial space companies will soon be the primary method of launching people and supplies into orbit. Among the critical aspects of space launches are the meteorological concerns. Laws and regulations pertaining to meteorological considerations have been created to ensure the safety of the space industry and those living around spaceports; but, are they adequate? Perhaps the commercial space industry can turn to the commercial aviation industry to help answer that question. Throughout its history, the aviation industry has dealt with lessons learned from mishaps due to failures in understanding the significance of weather impacts on operations. Using lessons from the aviation industry, the commercial space industry can preempt such accidents and maintain viability as an industry. Using Lanicci's Strategic Planning Model, this study identified the weather needs of the commercial space industry by conducting three gap analyses. First, a comparative analysis was done between laws and regulations in commercial aviation and those in the commercial space industry pertaining to meteorological support, finding a "legislative gap" between the two industries, as no legal guarantee is in place to ensure weather products remain available to the commercial space industry. A second analysis was conducted between the meteorological services provided for the commercial aviation industry and commercial space industry, finding a gap at facilities not located at an established launch facility or airport. At such facilities, many weather observational technologies would not be present, and would need to be purchased by the company operating the spaceport facility. A third analysis was conducted between the meteorological products and regulations that are currently in existence, and those needed for safe operations within the commercial space industry, finding gaps in predicting lightning, electric field charge, and space weather. Recommendations to address these deficiencies have

  15. The South African commercial abalone Haliotis midae fishery began ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    and 20 m deep, and virtually no abalone occur at ... factories were granted processing rights to a fixed percentage of an overall .... behaviour and temporal change in individual and aggre- ... series, is to gain further information through carefully.

  16. Risk Perception and Communication in Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    2005-12-01

    A number of inventors and entrepreneurs are currently attempting to develop and commercially operate reusable launch vehicles to carry voluntary participants into space. The operation of these launch vehicles, however, produces safety risks to the crew, to the space flight participants, and to the uninvolved public. Risk communication therefore becomes increasingly important to assure that those involved in the flight understand the risk and that those who are not directly involved understand the personal impact of RLV operations on their lives. Those involved in the launch vehicle flight may perceive risk differently from those non-participants, and these differences in perception must be understood to effectively communicate this risk. This paper summarizes existing research in risk perception and communication and applies that research to commercial reusable launch vehicle operations. Risk communication is discussed in the context of requirements of United States law for informed consent from any space flight participants on reusable suborbital launch vehicles.

  17. BANKING SYSTEM STABILITY: COMMERCIAL AND CO-OPERATIVE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Cristian OANEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks and co-operative banks are credit institutions, but there are some differences between the main operations proceeded by each of them. Based on these specific characteristics, we want to identify the manner in which financial crisis affected their activity. As we all know, the financial crisis had a major impact in the United States, the “natal” country of the crisis, because great banks such as Lehman Brothers or Merrill Lynch have bankrupted. Even if the Romanian banking system was not affected by such catastrophic situations, surely the financial crisis had a significant impact on it. This topic is worth to be analysed, because we would be able to identify the risk differences between these two types of business: commercial banks versus co-operative banks.

  18. Recent operating experience and improvement of commercial IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    IGCC has today reached a status where experience is available from first and second generation plants, built in the 1970s/1980s and in the 1990s respectively, as commercial-scale demonstration plants for coal-based applications. These plants feature variations on gasification technology and subsequent environmental controls and in operating them a number of technical and commercial lessons have been learned that will help to improve the next generation of IGCC projects. The report reviews and summarises the state-of-the-art and operating experience of several commercial IGCC plants worldwide, setting out the lessons learned and plans for future development embracing such issues as the changes or modifications to plant made to overcome the operational problems and to improve the reliability and availability of the plant. Since IGCC is considered a 'capture ready' technology for CO2 abatement, the current status with regard to the incorporation of carbon capture and storage systems (CCS) has been reviewed. Finally, the report outlines the issues associated with assessing the risks in commercialising IGCC plant.

  19. Commodity movement tracking (CMT) : bridging operations and commercial transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewyta, M.

    2004-01-01

    Enbridge Pipelines Inc. (EPI) operates a network of interconnected pipelines that facilitate the transport of liquid fuels across North America, with operations centralized in Edmonton, Alberta. This paper addressed the issue of accurately tracking the location of commodities transported on EPI pipelines for billing and payment purposes. The role of integrated information systems in meeting the need for high quality information by customers and by EPI was also addressed. The paper presented the Commodity Movement Tracking (CMT) system that is central to achieving the desired accuracy of commercial and financial transactions. CMT tracks inventories and links products to commercial transactions across the pipeline. Batches are tracked from initial receipt to final delivery, incorporating CMT's operational checks and balances, reconciliation steps, process monitoring, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems data that contribute to inputs equaling outputs. Daily schedules are recorded into the CMT system as events, based on volumetric information derived from the SCADA system. Receipt and delivery events will be electronically recorded into CMT from field flow computers in the near future. CMT modeling considers changes within the line configuration, static pipe diameter changes, as well as packing and draining of the line fill resulting from pressure changes. This paper described the major functional activities of the overall business process, such as nominations, scheduling, commodity movement tracking, leak detection, electronic ticketing, SCADA, and oil accounting. 10 figs.

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on commercial operational amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Luiz H.; Santos, Jose A. dos

    2009-01-01

    The operational amplifiers are widely used in nuclear instrumentation. Their applications span the signal conditioning circuits, analog instrumentation, amplifiers, converters, oscillators and others. If an operational amplifier is used to work in a radiation environment, the device suffers degradation in its performance leading to the bad work in the systems. Some of these devices are designed as rad-hard components and therefore the effects of radiation damage are minimized, however its main disadvantage is the high cost and difficult to find in the market. As an alternative one can use the conventional electronic components available in the market and named COTS (Commercially Available Off-The-Shelf) but they must be tested under a radiation environment. In this work the effect of the radiation damage is studied in two typical operational amplifiers. Some electric parameters of these devices were measured for different gamma radiation doses and they were working at different input signal frequencies. A 60 Co isotopic radiation source was used and the results show that there is a certain degradation of the device depending on the radiation absorbed dose. (author)

  1. Classification of operational characteristics of commercial cup-anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T; Schmidt Paulsen, U [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The present classification of cup-anemometers is based on a procedure for classification of operational characteristics of cup-anemometers that was proposed at the EWEC `97 conference in Dublin 1997. Three definitions of wind speed are considered. The average longitudinal wind speed (ID), the average horizontal wind speed (2D) and the average vector wind speed (3D). The classification is provided in these terms, and additionally, the turbulence intensities, which are defined from the same wind speed definitions. The commercial cup-anemometers have all been calibrated in wind tunnel for the normal calibrations and angular characteristics. Friction was measured by blywheel testing, where the surrounding temperatures were varied over a wide range. The characteristics of the cup-anemometers have been fitted to the heuristic dynamic model, and the response has been calculated in time domain for prescribed ranges of external operational conditions. The results are presented in ranges of maximum deviations of `measured` average wind speed. For each definition of wind speed and turbulence intensity, the cup-anemometers are ranked according to the most precise instrument. Finally, the most important systematic error sources are commented. (au)

  2. interest rate and commercial banks' lending operations in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    statutory liquidity ratio had negative and significant effect on the volume of commercial banks' ... Insurance Corporation (NDIC) jointly sharing the .... affected banks performances in Nigeria and the ... profitability in India and was specified thus:.

  3. Examination of commercial aviation operational energy conservation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    Forty-seven fuel conservation strategies are identified for commercial aviation and the fuel saving potential, costs, constraints, and current implementation levels of these options are examined. This assessment is based on a comprehensive review of published data and discussions with representatives from industry and government. Analyses were performed to quantify the fuel saving potential of each option, and to assess the fuel savings achieved to date by the airline industry. Those options requiring further government support for option implementation were identified, rated, and ranked in accordance with a rating methodology developed in the study. Finally, recommendations are made for future government efforts in the area of fuel conservation in commercial aviation.

  4. 47 CFR 13.201 - Qualifying for a commercial operator license or endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... class of license or endorsement specified below must pass, or otherwise receive credit for, the... endorsement. 13.201 Section 13.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.201 Qualifying for a commercial operator license or endorsement...

  5. Fleet DNA: Commercial Fleet Vehicle Operating Data | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charts Related Studies Learn more about the operation of delivery vans through these studies. Hydraulic beverage delivery trucks ranging in size from class 3 to class 7 with primary vocations of delivering Charts Related Studies Learn more about the operation of delivery trucks through these studies. In-Use

  6. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. Low level-radioactive waste disposal: currently operating commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This publication discusses three commercial facilities that receive and dispose of low-level radioactive waste. The facilities are located in Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington. All three facilities initiated operations in the 1960s. The three facilities have operated without such major problems as those which led to the closure of three other commercial disposal facilities located in the United States. The Beatty site could be closed in 1983 as a result of a Nevada Board of Health ruling that renewal of the site license would be inimical to public health and safety. The site remains open pending federal and state court hearings, which began in January 1983, to resolve the Board of Health ruling. The three sites may also be affected by NRC's 10 CFR Part 61 regulations, but the impact of those regulations, issued in December 1982, has not yet been assessed. This document provides detailed information on the history and current status of each facility. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for, establishing, and managing low-level waste disposal facilities. 12 references

  7. Performance analysis of commercial MOSFET packages in Class E converter operating at 2.56 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, Unnikrishnan Raveendran; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Jørgensen, Asger Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    resistance and high temperature operation over Si devices have aided in the paradigm shift towards wide bandgap devices. The low gate charge requirements of SiC MOSFETs enables use of these devices in radio frequency (RF) converters using resonant topologies operating at MHz frequency range. The RF...... are not commercially available and power modules have to be custom designed for these applications. This work demonstrates performance of various commercial MOSFET packages at frequency of 2.56 MHz. Commercial SiC MOSFETs in TO-247 and D2Pak packs are tested in Class E resonant converter operating at 2.56 MHz...

  8. Economic Experience in Creation and Operation of Commercial Propulsion Nuclear Plants. Annex VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    This annex considers the reduction of capital costs in commercial nuclear power by employing commercial scale production and common technologies of equipment design and fabrication, based on the vast production and operation experience of Russian Federation nuclear propulsion plants. The performed consideration proves the expediency of adopting the most effective engineering solutions and approaches used for production of propulsion nuclear plants in the production of commercial nuclear power plants.

  9. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  10. Start-up and commercial operation of the Laguna Verde power plants, unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres R, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The main features of the unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Power Plant is presented as well as the phases of the start-up process. The process includes various steps and tests up to start the commercial operation. (author)

  11. State of Montana ITS/CVO business plan : intelligent transportation system commercial vehicle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This plans purpose is to encourage coordinated, efficient and safe commercial vehicle operations throughout Montana, and to promote inter-agency and regional cooperation as ITS/CVO projects are developed and deployed. The Plan discusses Montana...

  12. Operating experience feedback report: Technical specifications: Commercial power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, P.D.; Plumlee, G.L. III.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a trends and patterns analysis of technical specification (TS)-related licensee event reports (LERs) conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). The objectives of this analysis were (1) to identify and catalog technical specification-related LERs, (2) to categorize and evaluate the events reported in these a LERs, (3) to identify any issues arising from the evaluation which appear to have generic safety significance, or which relate to the on-going Technical Specification Improvement Program, and (4) to trend the results obtained from the analysis of the data obtained in (1) through (3). 9 refs., 9 figs., 22 tabs

  13. Operational Characteristics of Four Commercially Available Personal Cooling Vests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests, and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 11 male and 10 female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.21 C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a URI Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' rectal and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (Pcooling and recovery periods. These results show that all vest configurations elicit a similar thermal response in both male and female subject groups. However, subject population variance was rather large and may have masked differences between the vests. One vest may prove more effective than another for a given individual, and experience is the only means of determining this.

  14. 76 FR 67480 - Standard on Commercial Diving Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...] Standard on Commercial Diving Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval... Commercial Diving Operations Standard (29 CFR part 1910, subpart T). DATES: Comments must be submitted... existing Standard on Commercial Diving Operations (29 CFR part 1910, Subpart [[Page 67481

  15. A comprehensive framework to quantify energy savings potential from improved operations of commercial building stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Elie; Menassa, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    While studies highlight the significant impact of actions performed by occupants and facility managers on building energy performance, current policies ignore the importance of human actions and the potential energy savings from a more efficient operation of building systems. This is mainly attributed to the lack of methods that evaluate non-technological drivers of energy use for large stocks of commercial buildings to support policy making efforts. Therefore, this study proposes a scientific approach to quantifying the energy savings potential due to improved operations of any stock of commercial buildings. The proposed framework combines energy modeling techniques, studies on human actions in buildings, and surveying and sampling methods. The contributions of this study to energy policy are significant as they reinforce the role of human actions in energy conservation, and support efforts to integrate operation-focused solutions in energy conservation policy frameworks. The framework's capabilities are illustrated in a case study performed on the stock of office buildings in the United States (US). Results indicate a potential 21 percent reduction in the current energy use levels of these buildings through realistic changes in current building operation patterns. - Highlights: • Human actions highly influence energy performance of commercial building stocks. • It is challenging to quantify operation-related energy savings potential. • The proposed framework quantifies potential energy savings from improved operations. • The framework can be applied on any stock of commercial buildings. • Applications include support for operation-focused solutions in energy policies

  16. Business-Level Strategy for the Foreign Commercial Banks operating within Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasool Khan, Mohamed Rizal

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic positioning and use of Porter’s (1980) generic strategy framework within the foreign commercial banks operating in Malaysia. It was found that two distinct strategic groups were formed by the foreign commercial banks. Performance analysis conducted suggests that banks with clearer strategic direction managed to outperform its peers in its strategic group. Furthermore, the performance of one strategic group was significantly lower than that of the second.

  17. Minimum radwaste system to support commercial operation-what equipment can be deferred

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.W.; Tafazzoli, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Because of cash flow problems being experienced by utilities as nuclear power stations approach completion, areas of the plant for which the completion of the construction effort could be deferred past commercial operation should be reviewed. The radwaste treatment systems are prime candidates for such a deferral because of the availability, either temporary or permanent, of alternative treatment methods for the waste streams expected to be produced. In order to identify the radwaste equipment, components and associated hardware in the radwaste building which could be deferred past commercial operation, a study was performed by Impell Corporation to evaluate the existing radwaste treatment system and determine the minimum system necessary to support commercial operation of a typical BWR. The study identified the minimum-installed radwaste treatment system which, in combination with portable temporary equipment, would accommodate the waste types and quantities likely to be produced in the first few years of operation. In addition, the minimum-installed system had to be licensable and excessive radiation exposures should not be incurred during the construction of the deferred portions of the system after commercial operation. From this study, it was concluded that a significant quantity of radwaste processing equipment and the associated piping, valves and instrumentation could be deferred. The estimated savings, in construction manhours (excluding field distributables) alone, was over 102,000 M-H

  18. Economic benefits of the Space Station to commercial communication satellite operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Dixson, John E.; Weyandt, Charles J.

    1987-01-01

    The economic and financial aspects of newly defined space-based activities, procedures, and operations (APOs) and associated satellite system designs are presented that have the potential to improve economic performance of future geostationary communications satellites. Launch insurance, launch costs, and the economics of APOs are examined. Retrieval missions and various Space Station scenarios are addressed. The potential benefits of the new APOs to the commercial communications satellite system operator are quantified.

  19. New York State intelligent transportation system commercial vehicle operations (CVO) : business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this Business Plan is to describe the major Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) initiatives and projects in the area of Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) that have recently been or are planned to be undertaken in New York State b...

  20. Analysis of gross error rates in operation of commercial nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, D.W.; Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Experience in operation of US commercial nuclear power plants is reviewed over a 25-month period. The reports accumulated in that period on events of human error and component failure are examined to evaluate gross operator error rates. The impact of such errors on plant operation and safety is examined through the use of proper taxonomies of error, tasks and failures. Four categories of human errors are considered; namely, operator, maintenance, installation and administrative. The computed error rates are used to examine appropriate operator models for evaluation of operator reliability. Human error rates are found to be significant to a varying degree in both BWR and PWR. This emphasizes the import of considering human factors in safety and reliability analysis of nuclear systems. The results also indicate that human errors, and especially operator errors, do indeed follow the exponential reliability model. (Auth.)

  1. Before time began the Big Bang and the emerging universe

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    What is the origin of the universe? What was there before the universe appeared? We are currently witnessing a second Copernican revolution: neither our Earth and Sun, nor our galaxy, nor even our universe, are the end of all things. Beyond our world, in an endless multiverse, are innumerable other universes, coming and going, like ours or different. Fourteen billion years ago, one of the many bubbles constantly appearing and vanishing in the multiverse exploded to form our universe. The energy liberated in the explosion provided the basis for all the matter our universe now contains. But how could this hot, primordial plasma eventually produce the complex structure of our present world? Does not order eventually always lead to disorder, to an increase of entropy? Modern cosmology is beginning to find out how it all came about and where it all might lead. Before Time Began tells that story.

  2. 76 FR 9817 - Standard on Commercial Diving Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...] Standard on Commercial Diving Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval... Commercial Diving Operations Standard (29 CFR part 1910, subpart T). DATES: Comments must be submitted... obtaining information (29 U.S.C. 657). Subpart T applies to diving and related support operations conducted...

  3. The effects of ionizing radiation on commercial power MOSFETs operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.H.; Kemp, W.T.; Ackermann, M.R.; Pugh, R.D.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F.

    1994-01-01

    This is the first report of commercial n- and p-channel power MOSFETs exposed to ionizing radiation while operating in a cryogenic environment. The transistors were exposed to low energy x-rays while placed in a liquid nitrogen-cooled dewar. Results demonstrate significant performance and survivability advantages for space-borne power MOSFETs operated at cryogenic temperatures. The key advantages for low-temperature operation of power MOSFET's in an ionizing radiation environment are: (1) steeper subthreshold current slope before and after irradiation; (2) lower off-state leakage currents before and after irradiation; and (3) larger prerad threshold voltage for n-channel devices. The first two points are also beneficial for devices that are not irradiated, but the advantages are more significant in radiation environments. The third point is only an advantage for commercial devices operated in radiation environments. Results also demonstrate that commercial off-the-shelf power MOSFETs can be used for low-temperature operations in a limited total dose environment (i.e., many space applications)

  4. Commercialization of DOE isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the business structure and operations of MAC Isotopes (MACI) L.L.C., a newly created business resulting from the commercialization of a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). MACI began its commercial operations on October 1, 1996, and is the first U.S. commercial isotope production business to result from the commercialization of DOE facilities or programs. The commercialization was the culmination of an -2-yr competitive procurement process by the DOE and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). MACI was selected from this competitive process as the commercial business of choice on the basis of providing the best value to the DOE/LMITCO and having the greatest potential for commercial success

  5. Education and training of operators and maintenance staff at commercial nuclear power stations in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Kataoka, H.

    1998-01-01

    Safe and stable operation of a nuclear power station requires personnel fostering. In Japan, with the objectives of systematically securing qualified people for a long period of time, and maintaining and improving their skills and knowledge, the utilities have created strict personnel training plans, for continuous education and training. Concrete examples of education and training for operators and maintenance personnel at commercial nuclear power stations in Japan, such as education systems training, facility and contents of curriculum, are detailed including some related matters. Recent activities to catch up with environment changes surrounding education and training of operators and maintenance staff are also mentioned. (author)

  6. Evaluation of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf autopilot systems for SUAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Calvin Thomas

    With this increase in unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations, there is a need for a structured process to evaluate different commercially available systems, particularly autopilots. The Remotely Operated Aircraft Management, Interpretation, and Navigation from Ground or ROAMING scale was developed to meet this need. This scale is a modification of the widely accepted Handling Qualities Rating scale developed by George Cooper and Robert Harper Jr. The Cooper-Harper scale allows pilots to rate a vehicle's performance in completing some task. Similarly, the ROAMING scale allows UAS operators to evaluate the management and observability of UAS in completing some task. The standardized evaluative process consists of cost, size, weight, and power (SWAP) analysis, ease of implementation through procedural description of setup, ROAMING scale rating, a slightly modified NASA TLX rating, and comparison of manual operation to autonomous operation of the task. This standard for evaluation of autopilots and their software will lead to better understanding of the workload placed on UAS operators and indicate where improvements to design and operational procedures can be made. An assortment of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) autopilots were selected for use in the development of the evaluation and results of these tests demonstrate the commonalities and differences in these systems.

  7. 75 FR 62639 - Air Ambulance and Commercial Helicopter Operations, Part 91 Helicopter Operations, and Part 135...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... helicopter air ambulance operators implement a safety management system program that includes sound risk... partially address NTSB Safety Recommendation A-09-89 regarding the implementation of sound risk management... documents. Authority for This Rulemaking The FAA's authority to issue rules on aviation safety is found in...

  8. The importance of interpreting the commercial contract in scheduling the production of a Romanian business operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUREŞAN (POŢINCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Part of scheduling the production is complying with the conditions of the commercial contract, which is the foundation of the relation between the client and the business operator that performs its activity in the area of the industrial production. In case the compliance with the contractual obligations raises issues, it is required to interpret the commercial contract according to the provisions of the Romanian Civil Code. This work aims at presenting and analyzing these rules of interpreting the commercial contract, which are not provided in the special stipulations of the law applied to the business field, so that one shall consider the rules common to the private law, i.e. the juridical norms provided by the legislation of the civil law.

  9. Operation of commercially-based microcomputer technology in a space radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelverton, J. N.

    This paper focuses on detection and recovery techniques that should enable the reliable operation of commercially-based microprocessor technology in the harsh radiation environment of space and at high altitudes. This approach is especially significant in light of the current shift in emphasis (due to cost) from space hardened Class-S parts qualification to a more direct use of commercial parts. The method should offset some of the concern that the newer high density state-of-the-art RISC and CISC microprocessors can be used in future space applications. Also, commercial aviation, should benefit, since radiation induced transients are a new issue arising from the increased quantities of microcomputers used in aircraft avionics.

  10. Efficient Storage and Querying of Horizontal Tables Using a PIVOT Operation in Commercial Relational DBMSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Hyun; Moon, Yang-Sae; Kim, Jinho; Kim, Sang-Wook

    In recent years, a horizontal table with a large number of attributes is widely used in OLAP or e-business applications to analyze multidimensional data efficiently. For efficient storing and querying of horizontal tables, recent works have tried to transform a horizontal table to a traditional vertical table. Existing works, however, have the drawback of not considering an optimized PIVOT operation provided (or to be provided) in recent commercial RDBMSs. In this paper we propose a formal approach that exploits the optimized PIVOT operation of commercial RDBMSs for storing and querying of horizontal tables. To achieve this goal, we first provide an overall framework that stores and queries a horizontal table using an equivalent vertical table. Under the proposed framework, we then formally define 1) a method that stores a horizontal table in an equivalent vertical table and 2) a PIVOT operation that converts a stored vertical table to an equivalent horizontal view. Next, we propose a novel method that transforms a user-specified query on horizontal tables to an equivalent PIVOT-included query on vertical tables. In particular, by providing transformation rules for all five elementary operations in relational algebra as theorems, we prove our method is theoretically applicable to commercial RDBMSs. Experimental results show that, compared with the earlier work, our method reduces storage space significantly and also improves average performance by several orders of magnitude. These results indicate that our method provides an excellent framework to maximize performance in handling horizontal tables by exploiting the optimized PIVOT operation in commercial RDBMSs.

  11. Project Management Plan/Progress Report UT/GTKS Training Program Development for Commercial Building Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-03-31

    Universidad del Turabo (UT), in a collaborative effort with Global Turn Key Services, Inc. (GTKS), proposed to develop a training program and a commercialization plan for the development of Commercial Building Operators (CBOs). The CBOs will operate energy efficient buildings to help maintain existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance level, and ensure that net-zero-energy buildings continuously operate at design specifications, thus helping achieve progress towards meeting BTP Strategic Goals of creating technologies and design approaches that enable net-zero-energy buildings at low incremental costs by 2025. The proposed objectives were then: (1) Develop a Commercial Building Operator (CBO) training program and accreditation that will in turn provide a certification to participants recognized by Accreditation Boards such as the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP) and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Designs (LEED). (2) Develop and implement a commercialization and sustainability plan that details marketing, deployment, financial characterization, job placement, and other goals required for long-term sustainability of the project after the funding period. (3) After program development and deployment, provide potential candidates with the knowledge and skill sets to obtain employment in the commercial building green energy (net-zero-energy building) job market. The developed CBO training program will focus on providing skills for participants, such as displaced and unemployed workers, to enter the commercial building green energy (net-zeroenergy building) job market. This course was designed to allow a participant with minimal to no experience in commercial building green technology to obtain the required skill sets to enter the job market in as little as 12 weeks of intensive multi-faceted learning. After completion of the course, the CBO staff concluded the participant will meet minimum established accreditation

  12. Surveillance strategy for an extended operating cycle in commercial nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, R.S.; Moore, T.J.; Maurer, J.H.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    The impetus for improved economic performance of commercial nuclear power plants can be partially satisfied by increasing plant capacity factors through operating cycle extension. One aspect of an operating cycle extension effort is the modification of plant surveillance programs to complete required regulatory and investment protection surveillance activities within the extended planned outage schedule. The goal is to introduce a general strategy for existing power plants to transition their surveillance programs to an extended operating cycle up to 48 months in length, and to test the feasibility of this strategy through the complete analysis of the surveillance programs at operating BWR and PWR case study plants. The reconciliation of surveillances at these plants demonstrates that surveillance performance will not preclude 48 month operating cycles. Those surveillance activities that could not be resolved to an extended cycle are identified for further study. Finally, a number of general issues are presented that should be considered before implementing a cycle extension effort

  13. Surveillance strategy for an extended operating cycle in commercial nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, R.S.; Moore, T.J.; Maurer, J.H.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    The impetus for improved economic performance of commercial nuclear power plants can be partially satisfied by increasing plant capacity factors through operating cycle extension. One aspect of an operating cycle extension effort is the modification of plant surveillance programs to complete required regulatory and investment protection surveillance activities within the extended planned outage schedule. The goal of this paper is to introduce a general strategy for existing power plants to transition their surveillance programs to an extended operating cycle up to 48 months in length, and to test the feasibility of this strategy through the complete analysis of the surveillance programs at operating BWR and PWR case study plants. The reconciliation of surveillances at these plants demonstrates that surveillance performance will not preclude 48 month operating cycles. Those surveillance activities that could not be resolved to an extended cycle are identified for further study. Finally, a number of general issues are presented that should be considered before implementing a cycle extension effort

  14. Change-management. From commercial power operation to post power operation and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasinger, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Transition from power generation to decommissioning challenges utilities. Power generation is mainly characterized by a stable working environment and constant workload, decommissioning and dismantling, however, by transformation and change. Also, changing requirements for the workforce's skills challenge the organization and its senior management. Ensuring effective and efficient performance, while maintaining motivation of staff, requires adjustment of management processes as well as of operational organization and human resources management. AREVA has more than 20 years of experience in decommissioning of own nuclear fuel cycle plants in France, as well as of other large plants and power reactors in Germany, the United Kingdom and the US. Therefore, the group has developed and successfully implemented integrated change management processes. The implementation of well-established and proven methods, developed by the productive industry and adjusted to the nuclear regulatory requirements, significantly improves the performance and efficiency of means and methods in use. The AREVA Performance Improvement Process defines concrete approaches to identify and improve potential deficits of productivity in six main areas (decommissioning scenarios and stra-tegies, waste treatment and logistics, operations management, supply chain, regulatory monitoring and controls as well as dismantling operation). Nuclear plant and facility owners around the world benefit from AREVA experts well experienced in execution of large and complex decommissioning projects.

  15. Optimising the design and operation of semi-continuous affinity chromatography for clinical and commercial manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Bolton, Glen; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V; Bracewell, Daniel G; Farid, Suzanne S

    2013-04-05

    This paper presents an integrated experimental and modelling approach to evaluate the potential of semi-continuous chromatography for the capture of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in clinical and commercial manufacture. Small-scale single-column experimental breakthrough studies were used to derive design equations for the semi-continuous affinity chromatography system. Verification runs with the semi-continuous 3-column and 4-column periodic counter current (PCC) chromatography system indicated the robustness of the design approach. The product quality profiles and step yields (after wash step optimisation) achieved were comparable to the standard batch process. The experimentally-derived design equations were incorporated into a decisional tool comprising dynamic simulation, process economics and sizing optimisation. The decisional tool was used to evaluate the economic and operational feasibility of whole mAb bioprocesses employing PCC affinity capture chromatography versus standard batch chromatography across a product's lifecycle from clinical to commercial manufacture. The tool predicted that PCC capture chromatography would offer more significant savings in direct costs for early-stage clinical manufacture (proof-of-concept) (∼30%) than for late-stage clinical (∼10-15%) or commercial (∼5%) manufacture. The evaluation also highlighted the potential facility fit issues that could arise with a capture resin (MabSelect) that experiences losses in binding capacity when operated in continuous mode over lengthy commercial campaigns. Consequently, the analysis explored the scenario of adopting the PCC system for clinical manufacture and switching to the standard batch process following product launch. The tool determined the PCC system design required to operate at commercial scale without facility fit issues and with similar costs to the standard batch process whilst pursuing a process change application. A retrofitting analysis established that the direct cost

  16. Enhanced Vision Flight Deck Technology for Commercial Aircraft Low-Visibility Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Norman, R. Michael; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. Ray

    2013-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) air field during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and mini cation effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  17. Enhanced vision flight deck technology for commercial aircraft low-visibility surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J.; Norman, R. M.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawerence J.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) airfield during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and minification effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  18. Development of 80- and 100- Mile Work Day Cycles Representative of Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kresse, John [Cummins; Li, Ke [Cummins

    2018-04-03

    When developing and designing new technology for integrated vehicle systems deployment, standard cycles have long existed for chassis dynamometer testing and tuning of the powertrain. However, to this day with recent developments and advancements in plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle technology, no true 'work day' cycles exist with which to tune and measure energy storage control and thermal management systems. To address these issues and in support of development of a range-extended pickup and delivery Class 6 commercial vehicle, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in collaboration with Cummins analyzed 78,000 days of operational data captured from more than 260 vehicles operating across the United States to characterize the typical daily performance requirements associated with Class 6 commercial pickup and delivery operation. In total, over 2.5 million miles of real-world vehicle operation were condensed into a pair of duty cycles, an 80-mile cycle and a 100-mile cycle representative of the daily operation of U.S. class 3-6 commercial pickup and delivery trucks. Using novel machine learning clustering methods combined with mileage-based weighting, these composite representative cycles correspond to 90th and 95th percentiles for daily vehicle miles traveled by the vehicles observed. In addition to including vehicle speed vs time drive cycles, in an effort to better represent the environmental factors encountered by pickup and delivery vehicles operating across the United States, a nationally representative grade profile and key status information were also appended to the speed vs. time profiles to produce a 'work day' cycle that captures the effects of vehicle dynamics, geography, and driver behavior which can be used for future design, development, and validation of technology.

  19. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff's evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements

  20. The trail to Leduc began in the North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    2000-06-01

    A milestone event in the history of the petroleum industry in Canada occurred in 1914 with the expedition down the Mackenzie River by Dr. T. O. Bosworth, a British geologist, which rivals in importance two better known events, namely the Dingman No. 1 discovery which began disgorging wet gas at Turner Valley in 1914, and the beginning of the modern era with the discovery of oil at Leduc, Alberta in 1947. The Bosworth expedition was commissioned by two Calgary businessmen to investigate the petroleum potential of northern Alberta and beyond, and to stake the most promising claims. That Dr. Bosworth did not disappoint his sponsors is evident from his 70-page long report which he produced upon his return, indicating excellent exploration prospects in three general regions, namely the Mackenzie River between Old Fort Good Hope and Fort Norman, the Tar Springs District on the Great Slave Lake, and the Tar Sand District on the Athabasca River. Exploration was postponed by the exigencies of World War I, but Imperial Oil drilled on one of Bosworth's claims after the war ended and oil was found in 1920. Because of lack of infrastructure to get the oil to major markets, development was lagging until after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, when Norman Wells was developed with American help, primarily to supply oil to the Pacific Fleet. Imperial drilled, while construction crews built a 1,000-km oil pipeline over the Mackenzie Mountains to a newly constructed refiner in Whitehorse. Despite a total cost to the U.S. taxpayers of $134 million, the Canol project (as it was known) contributed little to the war effort. Total production was 1.98 million barrels of oil, of which 46,000 barrels were spilled along the poorly constructed pipeline. Refined petroleum product output was just 866,670 barrels. The appalling disposal and clean up practices eventually led to having the Whitehorse site declared an environmentally contaminated site in 1998. The Maxwell Tar Pit is

  1. Zero Gravity Flights as the Most Effective Embryonic Operation for Planned Commercial Spaceport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Samah, Shamsul Kamar; Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Nasrun, Nasri; Abu, Jalaluddin; Muszaphar Shukor, Dato'Sheikh

    2013-09-01

    From the experience gained by the management team of Spaceport Malaysia, a popular service that can be provided by a planned commercial spaceport in a country without existing space travel infrastructure are zero gravity flights. Zero gravity flights range from parabolic flights using aerobatic airplane to suborbital flights using rockets, and in the near future using suborbital rocketplanes. Therefore, zero gravity flights can be operated from a certified runway or planned for operation at a future commercial spaceport. With such range of operation, zero gravity flights provide a natural link between a low cost operation of small airplane to exclusive high profile operation of suborbital rocketplane, and this attracts the attention of individuals and organizations that are planning for the establishment of a commercial spaceport. This is the approach chosen by the planners and developers of Spaceport Malaysia. A significant factor in zero gravity flight is the zero gravity time, the period where the payload onboard the airplane or rocketplane will experience zero gravity. Based on the momentum of the airplane or rocketplane, the zero gravity time may vary from few seconds to few minutes and that determines the quality of the zero gravity flight. To achieve zero gravity, the airplane or rocketplane will fly with a steady velocity for a significant time as a gravity control flight, accelerate upwards with an angle producing hypergravity and perform parabolic flight with natural momentum producing zero gravity and followed by dive that will result in another hypergravity flight. 2 zero gravity platforms being considered for operation at and by Spaceport Malaysia are F-5E Tiger II and Airbus A300, since both platforms have been successfully used by a partner of Spaceport Malaysia in performing zero gravity flights. An F-5E fighter jet owned by Royal Malaysian Air Force is being planned to be converted into a zero gravity platform to be operated at and by Spaceport

  2. Leibstadt: a 950-MW(e) BWR/6 Mark-III in commercial operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.U.

    1985-01-01

    It may be somewhat premature to report on a plant that started up in 1984 as the first of General Electric's (GE's) BWR/6 Mark-III plants in the Western Hemisphere and commenced commercial operation on December 15, 1984. The theme of the session certainly applies to the overall Swiss nuclear program and the search for excellence has been our ambition out of economic and energy supply necessities. Leibstadt came on line just in time to cover the needs of the Swiss consumers during the winter of 84/85. It has provided reliable service from the outset and operated during the extreme European cold wave in January 1985 without interruption. In 1985 the plant is expected to cover approx.15% of the electricity needs of Switzerland. The encouraging start of commercial operation gives hope that with time Leibstadt will be able to approach the capacity factors of the other four Swiss nuclear power stations, which in 1984 were between 88.4 and 90.3%

  3. Pre-Study Walkthrough with a Commercial Pilot for a Preliminary Single Pilot Operations Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Dreher, Ryan; Roberts, Z.; Ziccardi, J.; Vu, K-P. L.; Strybel, T.; Koteskey, Robert William; Lachter, Joel B.; Vi Dao, Quang; Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, V.

    2013-01-01

    The number of crew members in commercial flights has decreased to two members, down from the five-member crew required 50 years ago. One question of interest is whether the crew should be reduced to one pilot. In order to determine the critical factors involved in safely transitioning to a single pilot, research must examine whether any performance deficits arise with the loss of a crew member. With a concrete understanding of the cognitive and behavioral role of a co-pilot, aeronautical technologies and procedures can be developed that make up for the removal of the second aircrew member. The current project describes a pre-study walkthrough process that can be used to help in the development of scenarios for testing future concepts and technologies for single pilot operations. Qualitative information regarding the tasks performed by the pilots can be extracted with this technique and adapted for future investigations of single pilot operations.

  4. Condition-based dynamic maintenance operations planning and grouping. Application to commercial heavy vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvard, K., E-mail: keomany.bouvard@volvo.co [Volvo Technology, 99 route de Lyon, 69806 Saint Priest cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Automatique de Genie Informatique et Signal - FRE3303 - Polytech' Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Artus, S., E-mail: samuel.artus@volvo.co [Volvo Technology, 99 route de Lyon, 69806 Saint Priest cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes - Institut Charles Delaunay and UMR CNRS 6279 - 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Cocquempot, V., E-mail: vincent.cocquempot@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire d' Automatique de Genie Informatique et Signal - FRE3303 - Polytech' Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-06-15

    This paper aims at presenting a method to optimize the maintenance planning for a commercial heavy vehicle. Such a vehicle may be considered as a multi-components system. Grouping maintenance operations related to each component reduces the global maintenance cost of the system. Classically, the optimization problem is solved using a priori reliability characteristics of components. Two types of methods may be used, i.e. static or dynamic methods. Static methods provide a fixed maintenance planning, whereas dynamic methods redefine the groups of maintenance operations at each decision time. Dynamic procedures can incorporate component information such as component states or detected failures. For deteriorating systems, reliability characteristics of each component may be estimated thanks to deterioration models and may be updated when a degradation measure is available. This additional information on degradation features allows to better follow the real state of each component and to improve the maintenance planning.

  5. Operating experience feedback report: Progress in scram reduction: Commercial power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.G.; O'Reilly, P.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents the results of a trends and patterns analysis of unplanned reactor scrams at commercial US nuclear power reactors from January 1, 1984 to January 1, 1988. Major objectives of this report prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) are to: (1) provide feedback of operational experience regarding reactor scram trends in support of the Commission's Strategic Goals, (2) examine the causes of unplanned scrams, and (3) examine the relationship between the causes of unplanned scrams and industry initiatives undertaken to reduce the frequency of unplanned scrams, especially with a view to the potential for future scram rate reduction. 31 refs., 14 figs., 49 tabs

  6. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms to Improve Small- and Medium-Size Commercial Building Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Small- and medium-sized (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically utilize packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the U.S. for many reasons, chief among them is to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short-cycling, where an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and lead to premature failure of the compressor or its components. The short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Also, SMBs use a time-of-day scheduling is to start the RTUs before the building will be occupied and shut it off when unoccupied. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this report describes three algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature, RTU cycling rate and occupancy schedule detection that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using

  7. Integrated continuous bioprocessing: Economic, operational, and environmental feasibility for clinical and commercial antibody manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systems approach to evaluating the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing for monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacture across a product's lifecycle from preclinical to commercial manufacture. The economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of alternative continuous manufacturing strategies were evaluated holistically using a prototype UCL decisional tool that integrated process economics, discrete‐event simulation, environmental impact analysis, operational risk analysis, and multiattribute decision‐making. The case study focused on comparing whole bioprocesses that used either batch, continuous or a hybrid combination of batch and continuous technologies for cell culture, capture chromatography, and polishing chromatography steps. The cost of goods per gram (COG/g), E‐factor, and operational risk scores of each strategy were established across a matrix of scenarios with differing combinations of clinical development phase and company portfolio size. The tool outputs predict that the optimal strategy for early phase production and small/medium‐sized companies is the integrated continuous strategy (alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) perfusion, continuous capture, continuous polishing). However, the top ranking strategy changes for commercial production and companies with large portfolios to the hybrid strategy with fed‐batch culture, continuous capture and batch polishing from a COG/g perspective. The multiattribute decision‐making analysis highlighted that if the operational feasibility was considered more important than the economic benefits, the hybrid strategy would be preferred for all company scales. Further considerations outside the scope of this work include the process development costs required to adopt continuous processing. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:854–866, 2017

  8. Integrated continuous bioprocessing: Economic, operational, and environmental feasibility for clinical and commercial antibody manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a systems approach to evaluating the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing for monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacture across a product's lifecycle from preclinical to commercial manufacture. The economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of alternative continuous manufacturing strategies were evaluated holistically using a prototype UCL decisional tool that integrated process economics, discrete-event simulation, environmental impact analysis, operational risk analysis, and multiattribute decision-making. The case study focused on comparing whole bioprocesses that used either batch, continuous or a hybrid combination of batch and continuous technologies for cell culture, capture chromatography, and polishing chromatography steps. The cost of goods per gram (COG/g), E-factor, and operational risk scores of each strategy were established across a matrix of scenarios with differing combinations of clinical development phase and company portfolio size. The tool outputs predict that the optimal strategy for early phase production and small/medium-sized companies is the integrated continuous strategy (alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) perfusion, continuous capture, continuous polishing). However, the top ranking strategy changes for commercial production and companies with large portfolios to the hybrid strategy with fed-batch culture, continuous capture and batch polishing from a COG/g perspective. The multiattribute decision-making analysis highlighted that if the operational feasibility was considered more important than the economic benefits, the hybrid strategy would be preferred for all company scales. Further considerations outside the scope of this work include the process development costs required to adopt continuous processing. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:854-866, 2017. © 2017 The

  9. 50 CFR 23.46 - What are the requirements for registering a commercial breeding operation for Appendix-I wildlife...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for registering a commercial breeding operation for Appendix-I wildlife and commercially exporting specimens? 23.46 Section 23.46 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  10. Present and future of vision systems technologies in commercial flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jim

    2016-05-01

    The development of systems to enable pilots of all types of aircraft to see through fog, clouds, and sandstorms and land in low visibility has been widely discussed and researched across aviation. For military applications, the goal has been to operate in a Degraded Visual Environment (DVE), using sensors to enable flight crews to see and operate without concern to weather that limits human visibility. These military DVE goals are mainly oriented to the off-field landing environment. For commercial aviation, the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) implemented operational regulations in 2004 that allow the flight crew to see the runway environment using an Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) and continue the approach below the normal landing decision height. The FAA is expanding the current use and economic benefit of EFVS technology and will soon permit landing without any natural vision using real-time weather-penetrating sensors. The operational goals of both of these efforts, DVE and EFVS, have been the stimulus for development of new sensors and vision displays to create the modern flight deck.

  11. Commercial operation and outage experience of ABWR at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa units Nos. 6 and 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anahara, N.; Yamada, M.; Kataoka, H.

    2000-01-01

    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Units Nos. 6 and 7, the world's first ABWRs (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor), started commercial operation on November 7, 1996 and July 2, 1997, respectively, and continued their commercial operation with a high capacity factor, low occupational radiation exposure and radioactive waste. Units 6 and 7 were in their 3rd cycle operation until 25th April 1999 and 1st November 1999, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 35.4-35.8% (design thermal efficiency: 34.5%) during these period, demonstrating better performance than that of BWR-5 (design thermal efficiency: 33.4%). Nos. 6 and 7 have experienced 2 annual outages. The first outage of unit No. 6 started on November 20, 1997 and was completed within 61 days (including 6 New Year holidays), and the second outage started on March 13, 1999 and was completed within 44 days. The first annual outage of unit No. 7 started on May 27, 1998, earlier than it would normally have been, to avoid an annual outage during the summer, and was completed within 55 days, and the second outage started on September 18th, 1999 and was completed within 45 days, All annual outages were carried out within a very short time period without any severe malfunctions, including newly designed ABWR systems and equipment. As the first outage in Japan, 55 days is a very short period, despite the fact that the Nos. 6 and 7 are the first ABWRs in the world and the largest capacity units in Japan. The total occupational radiation exposure of No. 6 was 300 man-mSv (1st outage) and 331 man-mSv (2nd outage). That of Unit 7 was 153 man-mSv (1st outage) Those of unit No. 6 were at the same level as those of unit No. 3, which is the latest design 1100MW(e) BWR-5. That of unit No. 7 was the lowest ever at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station. The drums of radioactive waste discharged during the annual outage numbered 54 (1st outage) for No. 6 and 62 (1st outage) for No. 7, which was less than the design target of 100

  12. SEU blending project, concept to commercial operation, Part 4: engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingalls, D.G.; Ioffe, M.S.; Oliver, A.J.; Smith, T.P.; Ozberk, E.

    2005-01-01

    The process development test program for production of Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) dioxide powder and Blend of Dysprosium and Uranium (BDU) oxide powder was initiated almost simultaneously with the conceptual engineering study for the commercial plant in 2001. During the very early phases of the project it was recognized that meeting the challenging requirements would necessitate wide expertise from different departments within the Cameco operations as well as consultants from outside the Company. The project team formed reflected this recognition. The conceptual engineering study was the lead into preparation of the engineering design study in 2003, which provided the process description based on the research and development program being carried out at Cameco Technology Development (CTD), project description, and project cost estimates. The detailed engineering phase commenced in June 2004 and was in progress at the the time when this paper was presented. The detailed engineering phase is addressing all aspects of the commercial plant including all health and safety, environment and security related issues, nuclear safety, training program, all product quality assurance issues, quality management issues, powder and fuel bundle transportation issues, all regulatory requirements, establishing project execution plans and budget, and strategies to control the costs. At the end of the detailed engineering phase, construction packages will be ready for tender, and major pieces of equipment will be selected and procured. (author)

  13. Start up and commercial operation of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Ramirez, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Prior to start up of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant preoperational tests and start tests were performed and they are described in its more eminent aspects. In relation to commercial operation of nuclear station a series of indicator were set to which allow the measurement of performance in unit 1, in areas of plant efficiency and personal safety. Antecedents. Laguna Verde station is located in Alto Lucero municipality in Veracruz state, 70 kilometers north-northeast from port of Veracruz and a 290 kilometers east-northeast from Mexico city. The station consist of two units manufactured by General Electric, with a nuclear system of vapor supply also called boiling water (BWR/5), and with a system turbine-generator manufactured by Mitsubishi. Each unit has a nominal power of 1931 MWt and a level design power of 675 Mwe and a net power of 654 Electric Megawatts

  14. NRC/FEMA operational response procedures for response to a commercial nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    Procedures have been developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which provide the response teams of both agencies with the steps to be taken in responding to an emergency at a commercial nuclear power plant. The emphasis of these procedures is mainly on the interface between NRC and FEMA at their respective Headquarters and Regional Offices and at the various sites at which such an emergency could occur. Detailed procedures are presented that cover for both agencies, notification schemes and manner of activation, organizations at Headquaters and the site, interface procedures, coordination of onsite and offsite operations, the role of the Senior FEMA Official, and the cooperative efforts of each agency's public information staff

  15. NRC/FEMA operational response procedures for response to a commercial nuclear reactor accident. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    Procedures have been developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which provide the response teams of both agencies with the steps to be taken in responding to an emergency at a commercial nuclear power plant. The emphasis of these procedures is mainly on the interface between NRC and FEMA at their respective Headquarters and Regional Offices and at the various sites at which such an emergency could occur. Detailed procedures are presented that cover for both agencies, notification schemes and manner of activation, organizations at Headquarters and the site, interface procedures, coordination of onsite and offsite operations, the role of the Senior FEMA Official, and the cooperative efforts of each agency's public information staff

  16. 77 FR 67399 - Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,393] Trim Systems Operating..., applicable to workers and former workers of Trim Systems Operating Corp., a subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle.... The amended notice applicable to TA-W-81,393 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Trim Systems...

  17. SEU blending project concept to commercial operation. Part 1: process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, M.S.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Oliver, A.J.; Ozberk, E.

    2004-01-01

    The process development test program for production of Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) dioxide powder had started with 100 g Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) dioxide powder samples obtained from different suppliers. Encouraging results obtained in the initial test program established a basis for working with 9.5 kg LEU powder samples and production of larger quantities of SEU powder for characterization to meet the target quality and ensuring development of process design criteria for the commercial scale plant design. Similarly, the process development test program for production of Blended Dysprosium and Uranium (BDU) oxide powders was initiated using different Dy 2 O 3 powder samples from different suppliers. The variability of the quality of Dy 2 O 3 powder samples received from different suppliers resulted in substantial investigation in characterization of Dy 2 O 3 powders. The test program for both products required forming a cross-functional project team from several departments within Cameco with the focus of the development work to be carried out at the Cameco Technology Development. Many aspects of developing two new products were addressed. These included developing design criteria for preparation of SEU and BDU powders for a Demonstration Irradiation (DI) program and commercial scale plant, Quality Assurance program (including specifications for SEU and BDU powder products, SEU and BDU scraps, Cameco Quality Specifications for purchasing LEU and Dy 2 O 3 powders, and Inspection and Test Plan for SEU and BDU powder production), accurate uranium accountability, enhanced safety requirements, bench and laboratory test safety and operability manuals and procedures for analysis. (author)

  18. Deploying a Route Optimization EFB Application for Commercial Airline Operational Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, David A.; Vivona, Robert A.; Woods, Sharon E.; Karr, David A.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), developed for NASA Langley Research Center to support the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) project, is a flight-efficiency software application developed for an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). Tested in two flight trials and planned for operational testing by two commercial airlines, TAP is a real-time trajectory optimization application that leverages connectivity with onboard avionics and broadband Internet sources to compute and recommend route modifications to flight crews to improve fuel and time performance. The application utilizes a wide range of data, including Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) traffic, Flight Management System (FMS) guidance and intent, on-board sensors, published winds and weather, and Special Use Airspace (SUA) schedules. This paper discusses the challenges of developing and deploying TAP to various EFB platforms, our solutions to some of these challenges, and lessons learned, to assist commercial software developers and hardware manufacturers in their efforts to implement and extend TAP functionality in their environments. EFB applications (such as TAP) typically access avionics data via an ARINC 834 Simple Text Avionics Protocol (STAP) server hosted by an Aircraft Interface Device (AID) or other installed hardware. While the protocol is standardized, the data sources, content, and transmission rates can vary from aircraft to aircraft. Additionally, the method of communicating with the AID may vary depending on EFB hardware and/or the availability of onboard networking services, such as Ethernet, WIFI, Bluetooth, or other mechanisms. EFBs with portable and installed components can be implemented using a variety of operating systems, and cockpits are increasingly incorporating tablet-based technologies, further expanding the number of platforms the application may need to support. Supporting multiple EFB platforms, AIDs, avionics datasets, and user interfaces presents a

  19. 77 FR 34971 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... automation, informed compliance and compliance assessment, account-based processing, commercial enforcement... professional biography or resume; Home address and telephone number; Work address, telephone number, and email...

  20. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF RAILWAYS BOLSTER-BEAM UNDER COMMERCIAL OPERATION CONDITIONS: OVER-TRACTION AND OVER-BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. MARTINOD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the operation of railway systems are closely related to the increase of the commercial demand; as a consequence, the performance of the structural elements of railways changes. The present paper focuses on a study of the structural behaviour of bolster-beams under commercial operation conditions of railway systems, specifically in the dynamic conditions generated in events of over-traction and over-braking on the vehicle running. The proposed work is constructed based on the following phases: (i analysis of the kinematics of the vehicle; (ii development of numerical models, a model based on the multibody theory, and a Finite Elements model; (iii development of experimental field tests; and (iv development of simulations for a detailed analysis of the structural behaviour for a study of the strain distribution in the main bolster-beam. This study is applied to a particular case of a railway system that provides commercial service to passengers.

  1. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National... Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce DOC). ACTION... seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Recreational Diving, Oil...

  2. 40 CFR 73.18 - Submittal procedures for units commencing commercial operation during the period from January 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commencing commercial operation during the period from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1995. 73.18 Section 73.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.18 Submittal procedures for units...

  3. Statistical summary of commercial jet aircraft accidents : worldwide operations, 1959-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The accident statistics presented in this summary are confined to worldwide commercial jet airplanes that are heavier than 60,000 pounds maximum gross weight. Within that set of airplanes, there are two groups excluded: : 1) Airplanes manufactured in...

  4. Comparison of 3D reconstruction of mandible for pre-operative planning using commercial and open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Johari Yap; Omar, Marzuki; Pritam, Helmi Mohd Hadi; Husein, Adam; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    3D printing of mandible is important for pre-operative planning, diagnostic purposes, as well as for education and training. Currently, the processing of CT data is routinely performed with commercial software which increases the cost of operation and patient management for a small clinical setting. Usage of open-source software as an alternative to commercial software for 3D reconstruction of the mandible from CT data is scarce. The aim of this study is to compare two methods of 3D reconstruction of the mandible using commercial Materialise Mimics software and open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) software. Head CT images with a slice thickness of 1 mm and a matrix of 512x512 pixels each were retrieved from the server located at the Radiology Department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The CT data were analysed and the 3D models of mandible were reconstructed using both commercial Materialise Mimics and open-source MITK software. Both virtual 3D models were saved in STL format and exported to 3matic and MeshLab software for morphometric and image analyses. Both models were compared using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Hausdorff Distance. No significant differences were obtained between the 3D models of the mandible produced using Mimics and MITK software. The 3D model of the mandible produced using MITK open-source software is comparable to the commercial MIMICS software. Therefore, open-source software could be used in clinical setting for pre-operative planning to minimise the operational cost.

  5. Ministerial Decree of 13 November 1964 concerning approval of the model of the register for commercial operations covering source materials, ores and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the procedure to be complied with for entering information in the special register for commercial operations concerning source materials, ores and radioactive materials. (NEA) [fr

  6. Vibration analysis of the sulky accessory for a commercial walk-behind lawn mower to determine operator comfort and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrailkill, Elizabeth A; Lowndes, Bethany R; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2013-01-01

    A sulky is a single-wheeled platform attachment on which the operator of a commercial walk-behind lawn mower rides while standing. The effects of sulky vibration on operator comfort and health have not been investigated. In this study, tri-axial accelerometers measured sulky vibration during mower use by two commercial mowers on varied terrain and 12 volunteer mowers over a controlled course. The accelerometer data were processed according to methods established in ISO 2631. Results indicate the mean frequency-weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration sums fall into the 'very uncomfortable' range for vibration of standing persons (1.9 ± 0.48 m s⁻²). Additionally, vibration dose values indicated that the mean vibration dosages exceeded the daily exposure limit values established in Directive 2002 /44/EC (z-axis A(8) value of 1.30 ± 34 m s⁻²; VDV(exp) value of 28.1 ± 6.25 m s⁻¹·⁷⁵). This information suggests that modifications including vibration damping should be added to the sulky to reduce rider discomfort and health risks. This study investigated the effects of vibration during use of a commercial lawn mowing sulky. Findings from accelerometer data suggest that the vibration experienced by sulky operators is significant enough to cause discomfort and health risks which may lead to personnel turnover or long-term effects for the operator.

  7. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country''s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today''s standards. This report summarizes each site''s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US

  8. 76 FR 42082 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...). Small circle hooks are also generally weaker (i.e., straighten with less force) than the Japanese-style... technology, and existing state or regional fishery management plans. Scope of the Plan Commercial Fisheries... consider additional conservation and management measures if warranted by the information developed. The...

  9. 76 FR 46312 - Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. USCBP-2011-0024] Advisory Committee on Commercial... Homeland Security (DHS). ACTION: Committee management; notice of Federal Advisory Committee meeting...-of-business on August 12, 2011. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Westin Long Beach Hotel...

  10. 78 FR 1188 - Commercial Operations in the 3550-3650 MHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... sharing in this context refers to the use of automated techniques to facilitate the coexistence of... interference. Such coexistence may happen, for example, by authorizing targeted use of new commercial systems... ``governments of cities, counties, towns, townships, villages, school districts, or special districts, with a...

  11. Two Thermoeconomic Diagnosis Methods Applied to Representative Operating Data of a Commercial Transcritical Refrigeration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Elmegaard, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate options for improving the maintenance protocol of commercial refrigeration plants, two thermoeconomic diagnosis methods were evaluated on a state-of-the-art refrigeration plant. A common relative indicator was proposed for the two methods in order to directly compare the q...

  12. Managing the Private Spies: Use of Commercial Augmentation for Intelligence Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voelz, Glenn J

    2006-01-01

    The extensive use of contractor personnel to augment military intelligence operations is now an established fact of life and any effective and efficient design for intelligence support to operating...

  13. An investigation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Wireless in support of Complex Humanitarian Disaster Operations in the Argentine Army

    OpenAIRE

    Perfetti, Marcelo R.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Since the beginning of this century, the Argentine Army has used Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) wireless products, equipment, and communication systems to support Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HA/DR) operations. The participation of Military, Governmental, and Non-Governmental Organizations in these activities requires more wireless coverage area. These communication systems are an integration of several subsystems that...

  14. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial nea-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste disposal standards and techniques in the United States have evolved significantly since the early 1960's. Six commercial LLW disposal facilities(Barnwell, Richland, Ward Valley, Sierra Blanca, Wake County and Boyd County) operated and proposed between 1962 and 1997. This report summarizes each site's design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. These new standards and mitigating efforts at closed facilities (Sheffield, Maxey Flats, Beatty and West Valley) have helped to ensure that the public has been safely protected from LLW. 15 refs

  15. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF OPERATING SYSTEM OF TAX PLANNING IN THE COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy A. Samsonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present clause is devoted to scientific judgement and estimations of efficiency of stimulating mechanisms (tools of application of system of tax planning in the commercial organizations which allow to estimate разнонаправленное influence of taxes on final financial result of the organization, and also to predict change of business activity of the organization depending on tax loading. The big attention is given to complicated questions of features of management by the taxation and the order of reflection in the tax account of the facts of the economic activities arising between the state, on the one hand, and managing subjects - the commercial organizations - with another.

  16. Integrated real-time information to use in commercial, logistics and operational activities provide by the national control center operation of Transpetro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniceto, Hello A. R. [National Control Center Operation Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    TRANSPETRO needed real time computational tools to manage its commercial, logistics and operational activities more efficiently. TRANSPETRO's National Control Center Operation developed an information site that provides information in real time on the process plans involved in each operation, using a Plant Information Management System (PIMS). SCADA systems were introduced during 2009 and 2010. This paper reports on the global introduction of the site and its basic architecture. Every screen displays the overall data in real time on movement in volume in pipeline operated by TRANSPETRO. The products transported are tracked for each infrastructure and are shown on dynamic geographic maps. Applications have been developed to improve the quality of information available to customers. It was found that the development of this site using PIMS technology brought gains in support to decision-making at the strategic and tactical levels for TRANSPETRO.

  17. Chemistry control at Bruce NGS 'B' from constructed to commercial operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pre-operational storage chemistry and flushing of the secondary side is described. The approach devised for Bruce NGS 'B' Unit 6 was unique for an Ontario Hydro Nuclear Unit. The significance of the improved Construction installation and Quality Assurance procedures, combined with those of Operations is identified. Secondary side chemistry during both commissioning and later operation is reported. It will be shown that the application of ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) concept has resulted in tighter chemical specifications being met

  18. Operational Risk Measurement of Chinese Commercial Banks Based on Extreme Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiashan; Li, Yong; Ji, Feng; Peng, Cheng

    The financial institutions and supervision institutions have all agreed on strengthening the measurement and management of operational risks. This paper attempts to build a model on the loss of operational risks basing on Peak Over Threshold model, emphasizing on weighted least square, which improved Hill’s estimation method, while discussing the situation of small sample, and fix the sample threshold more objectively basing on the media-published data of primary banks loss on operational risk from 1994 to 2007.

  19. Operational and regulatory impacts of regional management on transportation of commercial low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, C.G.; Wilmot, E.L.; Shepherd, E.W.

    1981-09-01

    The 96th Congress of the United States, as part of the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), instructed the Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a report on the current US low-level waste management situation and the conditions and requirements for management on a regional basis. The Transportation Technology Center has compared the transportation requirement and regional management scenarios for commercial low-level radioactive waste in support of the DOE response to this instruction. Using 1979 low-level waste volumes shipped to commercial burial grounds and six management regions postulated by DOE, transportation requirements were estimated and compared for the two management scenarios in terms of cumulative shipping distance and transportation cost. Effects of these results on the demand for transportation services and equipment and on population risks were considered. Finally, current regulatory issues and the potential effects of regional management on regulation of low-level waste transportation were reviewed

  20. Medium Energy Industrial Electron Beam Accelerator (ILU-EBA) at Navi Mumbai for technology demonstration and commercial operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny, P.G.; Khader, S.A.; Sarma, K.S.S.

    2017-01-01

    BARC in early nineties installed a unique high pulse-powered electron beam accelerator of energy 2 MeV, (for the first time in India), in Trombay for developing industrial applications. The accelerator was capable of delivering powered electron beams up to 20kW average beam power (with 1200kW peak pulse power) with energy range from 1 to 2 MeV. Several applications have been developed and commercially exploited in the field of polymer cross linking, degradation, crystalline alterations etc. In addition, applications pertaining to the environmental remediation using electron beams were also worked out. The facility has been relocated at Navi Mumbai a decade ago operated under BARC safety regulatory body and was developed into a technology demonstration cum commercial plant with several product handling gadgets to evaluate the feasibility of different EB treatment processes for the industry viz. waste water treatment, polymer modifications, recycling to name a few

  1. Commercial Fast Freight Ferry Designs and Their Application to Operational Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIntyre, Ian

    2000-01-01

    .... As we enter the era of Network Centric Warfare (NCW), where Speed of Command is often measured in seconds, theater operational logistics must keep pace with an increased demand for speed in the battlespace...

  2. Lagisza, world's largest CFB boiler, begins commercial operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuortimo, K. [Foster Wheeler, Varkaus (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Early operating experience with the Lagisza circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler in Poland - the world's largest such boiler to date, and also the first one with supercritical steam conditions - has been positive. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Flight Dynamics Operations Management of the Large and Heterogeneous Eutelsat Fleet of Commercial Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, E.

    The EUTELSAT FDU (Flight Dynamics Unit) manages the resources to perform the typical activities of the large satellite operators and faces the usual difficulties raising from a vast and heterogeneous fleet. At present 20 satellites from 9 different platforms/sub-platforms are controlled from our Satellite Control Centre. The FDU was created in 2002 with the aim to respond to the operational needs of a growing fleet in terms of number of satellites and activities. It is at present composed of 6 engineering staff with the objective to provide operations service covering the whole lifecycle of the satellites from the procurement phase till the decommissioning. The most demanding activity is the daily operations, which must ensure maximum safety and continuity of service with the highest efficiency. Solutions have been applied from different areas: management, structure, operations organisation, processes, facilities, quality standards, etc. In addition to this, EUTELSAT is a growing communications operator and the FDU needs to contribute to the global objectives of the company. This paper covers our approach.

  4. Operating experience feedback report -- turbine-generator overspeed protection systems: Commercial power reactors. Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornstein, H.L.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) review of operating experience of main turbine-generator overspeed and overspeed protection systems. It includes an indepth examination of the turbine overspeed event which occurred on November 9, 1991, at the Salem Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. It also provides information concerning actions taken by other utilities and the turbine manufacturers as a result of the Salem overspeed event. AEOD's study reviewed operating procedures and plant practices. It noted differences between turbine manufacturer designs and recommendations for operations, maintenance, and testing, and also identified significant variations in the manner that individual plants maintain and test their turbine overspeed protection systems. AEOD's study provides insight into the shortcomings in the design, operation, maintenance, testing, and human factors associated with turbine overspeed protection systems. Operating experience indicates that the frequency of turbine overspeed events is higher than previously thought and that the bases for demonstrating compliance with NRC's General Design Criterion (GDC) 4, Environmental and dynamic effects design bases, may be nonconservative with respect to the assumed frequency

  5. Impacts of Reinsurance Operations on Significant Items of the Financial Statements of Commercial Insurance Companies According to Czech Accounting Legislation and International Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Gláserová; Eva Vávrová

    2015-01-01

    The principal aim of the paper is to determine the impact of reinsurance operations in commercial insurance companies, in accordance with the relevant accounting legislation, for certain significant items of the financial statements. In actual fact, the reinsurance operations affect the profit of a commercial insurance company, following the financial statements. The prerequisite for fulfilling the objective of the paper is to analyse the accounting legislation for reinsurance operations in c...

  6. The usage of ratio analysis in the assessing of the operation of commercial entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušić Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers both the financial analysis and the analysis of net working capital that are most commonly used in assessing the operations of economic entities. It is of sig- nificant importance to analyze the operations of each corporate entity through financial aspect (assessment of liquidity and credit worthiness, economic phenomena, reputation and inner strength. The analysis of the operational assessment of the economic entity is of significant importance for the management as it is taken as one of the necessary para- meters in decision – making. Thus gained results can greatly affect and guide managers towards future steps in the process of decision making. On the other hand, by the insight into the financial analysis, the attitude of both the investitors and creditors towards busi- ness entity is determined and therefore they can become interested for various forms of cooperation, including joint ventures. The aim of this paper is to determine, through financial analysis, the status, operation and also the financial situation of the company Sog Line L.T.D. Belgrade, as well as to highlight the important business segments and pos- sibly propose the measures for the improvement of the operation of the entity.

  7. Behaviors and Conditions that Challenge Teamwork: An Assessment of Operating Events at U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desaulniers, David R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of its regulatory activities, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews events and routine activities at commercial nuclear power facilities throughout the United States. Frequently, these reviews have highlighted team performance as an important factor in either the initiation or mitigation of significant events and conditions at these facilities. This paper summarizes operating experience relevant to the understanding of teamwork at U.S. nuclear power plants during recent years, describes the specific behaviors that were considered detrimental to team performance, and discusses the conditions that were identified as contributing to these behaviors. (author)

  8. TCV software test and validation tools and technique. [Terminal Configured Vehicle program for commercial transport aircraft operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.

  9. 78 FR 13607 - Minimum Training Requirements for Entry-Level Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... analyses, including cost/benefit considerations. The entire day's proceedings will be webcast. DATES: The... Vehicle Operators; Public Listening Session AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public listening session. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that it will hold a public...

  10. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  11. Flavour generation during commercial barley and malt roasting operations: a time course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Hafiza; Linforth, Robert S T; Cook, David J

    2014-02-15

    The roasting of barley and malt products generates colour and flavour, controlled principally by the time course of product temperature and moisture content. Samples were taken throughout the industrial manufacture of three classes of roasted product (roasted barley, crystal malt and black malt) and analysed for moisture content, colour and flavour volatiles. Despite having distinct flavour characteristics, the three products contained many compounds in common. The product concentrations through manufacture of 15 flavour compounds are used to consider the mechanisms (Maillard reaction, caramelisation, pyrolysis) by which they were formed. The use of water sprays resulted in transient increases in formation of certain compounds (e.g., 2-cyclopentene-1,4-dione) and a decrease in others (e.g., pyrrole). The study highlights rapid changes in colour and particularly flavour which occur at the end of roasting and onwards to the cooling floor. This highlights the need for commercial maltsters to ensure consistency of procedures from batch to batch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Changes in Market Shares of Commercial Banks Operating in Turkey Using Computational Intelligence Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Amasyali, M. Fatih; Demırhan, Ayse; Bal, Mert

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to model the change in market share of 30 domestic and foreign banks, which have been operating between the years 1990 and 2009 in Turkey by taking into consideration 20 financial ratios of those banks. Due to the fragile structure of the banking sector in Turkey, this study plays an important role for determining the changes in market share of banks and taking the necessary measures promptly. For this reason, computational intelligence methods have been used in the study. Acc...

  13. Operational experience with Dragon reactor experiment of relevance to commercial reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.; Simon, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    An important part of the experience gained during the first ten years of successful power operation of the Dragon Reactor is relevant to the design and operation of future High Temperature Reactors (HTRs). The aspects presented in this paper have been chosen as being particularly applicable to larger HTR systems. Core performance under a variety of conditions is surveyed with particular emphasis on a technique developed for the identification and location of unpurged releasing fuel and the presence of activation and fission products in the core area. The lessons learned during the reflector block replacement are presented. Operating experience with the primary circuit identifies the lack of mixing of gas streams within the hot plenum and the problems of gas streaming in ducts. Helium leakage from the circuit is often greater than the optimum 0.1%/d. Virtually all the leakage problems are associated with the small bore instrument pipework essential for the many experiments associated with the Dragon Reactor Experiment (DRE). Primary circuit maintenance work confirms the generally clean state of the DRE circuit but identifies 137 Cs and 110 Agsup(m) as possible hazards if fuel emitting these isotopes is irradiated. (author)

  14. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  15. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    OpenAIRE

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-01-01

    Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure) out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  16. The corporate governance contribution as a creation of value for commercial partnerships between service providers and logistic operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical research identified the possibility that Governance factors contribute as evidence of value in the relationships of commercial partnerships between Logistic Operators and service providers. The data analysis allowed to identify three possible levels of grouping due to the variables of facilitators of proximity of partnerships that showed that it is possible to have a relationship with transparence between the client company and its suppliers. Most of these groups of suppliers were characterized by the intention to share operating profits with the client company, with little tolerance to financial risks of joint investments and a tendency to sign future supply contracts. Transparency, ethics and corporate responsibility have contributed to the consolidation of these groupings of partnerships among companies, as well as creating a mutual and evolutionary process of full confidence in such a way that Corporate Governance becomes the main value factor for this relationship.

  17. Saving lives or saving dollars: The Trump administration rescinds plans to require sleep apnea testing in commercial transportation operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. In another move favoring business interests and against the common good, the Trump administration’s Department of Transportation announced recently that they are rescinding plans to require testing for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in train and commercial motor vehicle operators (1. As exemplified by its withdrawal from the Paris climate accords, this decision is another example of how the current administration disregards scientific findings and present-day events in establishing policy that will be detrimental to Americans. Let us step back for a moment and briefly review the evidence that the Trump administration has ignored. •\tIt is well established that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA can result in daytime sleepiness (2 and that sleepiness is detrimental to safe operation of a train or motor vehicle. •\tMany studies have established that persons with OSA have an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes (3. •\tStudies in commercial truck drivers have observed that this population has …

  18. Santa Maria de Garona: ten years of experience under commercial operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.L.

    1981-10-01

    The problems encountered during the operation of this Spanish nuclear power plant are in the author's view similar to those in other counters. The great development in nuclear technology has not always been reflected in the applicable legislation. Also, the diversity of provisions on transport, the environment, public health etc. must be closely studied for correct application. The lengthy procedure for obtaining licences is also described as are problems of supply contracts with foreign firms. Finally, nuclear third party liability questions in the context of the Paris Convention and domestic regulations on transport are analysed in details. (NEA) [fr

  19. Microplastics in the context of regulation of commercial shellfish aquaculture operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Rosalind A; DeNike, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    Shellfish aquaculture in the Salish Sea (encompassing the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, and the Georgia Strait) is a major source of clams, oysters, and mussels in the United States and Canada. Plastic gear is necessary for the viability of many of these operations. During the past few years, shellfish farm permits issued in Washington State have been challenged on various bases that have included allegations that the plastic gear is releasing microplastics, commonly defined as particles less than 5 mm in diameter. Published survey data on sources of marine plastic debris demonstrate the very limited contribution of aquaculture gear. Both permits and industry codes of practice provide procedures to minimize loss of gear to the marine environment. Plastic gear is also designed specifically to maintain its integrity and not degrade in the marine environment. Plastic degradation is greatest on beaches with high UV exposure, whereas aquaculture gear is mostly underwater and/or covered by biofoulants. Available data for microplastics in water, sediment, and biota of the Salish Sea do not suggest significant release of microplastics from shellfish aquaculture operations. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:522-527. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. Technically-oriented operation management systems in conjunction with commercial DB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lex, M.; Heselmann, B. [GiS mbH, Erlangen (Germany); Eschbach, P. [BASF Consult GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Due to the liberalization of the electricity market, the efficiency and competitiveness of a power plant is increasingly measured at the cost per amount of energy generated. Thus, aspects of market-orientation and clearly cheaper electricity generation are in the foreground. Technically-oriented DP systems are necessary to save operating cost. These systems have structures differing from the mere business-oriented systems, because of the different frame conditions and operators' desire to stand out against rivalling competitors by technical and organizational measures. (orig.) [German] Die Effektivitaet und damit Konkurrenzfaehigkeit eines Kraftwerkes wird mit der Liberalisierung des Strommarktes verstaerkt an den Kosten je erzeugter Energieeinheit gemessen. Fuer den Betrieb ruecken damit Aspekte einer marktgerechten und somit deutlich kostenguenstigeren Stromerzeugung verstaerkt in den Vordergrund. Wer Betriebskosten sparen will, braucht technisch orientierte DV-Systeme, die aufgrund der unterschiedlichen Rahmenbedingungen und des Wunsches aller Anlagenbetreiber, sich durch technisch-organisatorische Massnahmen vom Wettbewerb vorteilhaft abzuheben, voellig andere Strukturen aufweisen als die betriebswirtschaftlich orientierten Systeme. (orig.)

  1. Important radiation protection aspects of the operation of a commercial medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1997-01-01

    Since July 1991 the Radiopharmaceutical Division of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a 30 MeV H'- ion Medical Cyclotron (Model; CYCLONE 30, Manufacturer: Ion Beam Applications, Louvain La Neuve, Belgium). During routine isotope production operations at the cyclotron a thick copper substrate plate electroplated with thin layer of selected enriched target material are bombarded with 30 MeV proton beam current up to 450 μA. The nuclear reaction of protons with the copper atoms result in the reduction of prompt evaporation neutrons with a peak energy of ∼ 1.8 MeV. These evaporation neutrons slow down via multiple collisions with the concrete shielding walls of the target cave, bounce back to the,interior space of the cave activating the cyclotron parts, beam tube components and other utilities installed in the irradiation cave. After the completion of 60 hour isotope production run, gamma dose equivalent rates of ∼10 5 μSvh -1 were measured at contact with the target irradiation stations and beam collimators. Evidently, these gamma rays emitted from the activated cyclotron components impose crucial radiation exposure hazard problems for the cyclotron maintenance technicians. Experiments had been carried out in order to identify the specific pathways of cyclotron component activation and to assess the probable personnel radiation exposure during handling of the activated cyclotron parts. The cool-down (radioactive decay) of the activated cyclotron components was estimated experimentally at different target bombardment conditions using the wall mounted gamma area monitors interfaced to the Health Physics Data Acquisition System. The gamma dose equivalent rates at contact with various locations of interest at the target irradiation station and at the typical work areas of the maintenance personnel were carefully recorded with a radiation (gamma) survey instrument during the three years operation period of the cyclotron. A

  2. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of pressurized water reactors during commercial operation. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procaccia, H.; David, J.; Wazzan, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Measured downcomer water and metal shell temperatures in the steam generator No. 20 of the PWR Tricastin 1 show that the downcomer flows is of the swirling type, just as found previously in Bugey 4. A comparison of results for Tricastin 1 and Bugey 4 shows that the addition in Tricastin 1 of a flow distribution baffle plate, between the tube sheet and the first cross plate, while reducing the height of the opening between the tube sheet and the shell surrounding the bundle, may have resulted in the observed reduction (by a factor one half) of sludge deposit upon the tube sheet in Tricastin 1, and in fixing, with extended period of operation, the boiling zone in the cold leg (a desired event) and near the tube-free tube lane. (orig.)

  3. Use of commercial radon monitors for low level radon measurements in dynamically operated VOC emission test chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, M.; Richter, M.; Jann, O.

    2017-01-01

    Compared to the intended EU reference level of 300 Bq m -3 for indoor radon concentrations, the contribution of building materials appears to be low. Considering the recommended limit of 100 Bq m -3 by WHO, their contribution is supposed to be relevant, especially at low air exchange rates. This study as part of a two-part research project investigated the suitability of direct low level 222 Rn measurement under simulated indoor conditions with commercial radon monitors and dynamically operated emission test chambers. Active measuring devices based on ionisation or scintillation chambers with 1-σ uncertainties below 8.6% at 20 Bq m -3 were found to be best suitable for a practical test procedure for the determination of radon exhalation rates of building materials. For the measurement of such low concentrations, the knowledge of the accurate device background level is essential. (authors)

  4. And so it all began: A personal tribute to the man behind the scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marialuisa

    2018-01-01

    At the time I began my scientific career as a PhD student under the supervision of Claudio Spitaleri, the Trojan Horse Method was still in its infancy. Like with any new-born idea, it took time and passion and effort to plant the early seeds that would eventually develop into a now well-established method in nuclear astrophysics research. Here, I offer my own recollection of those early years as a personal homage to Claudio's unique mix of human traits that shaped our professional relationship for many years since.

  5. Impacts of Reinsurance Operations on Significant Items of the Financial Statements of Commercial Insurance Companies According to Czech Accounting Legislation and International Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of the paper is to determine the impact of reinsurance operations in commercial insurance companies, in accordance with the relevant accounting legislation, for certain significant items of the financial statements. In actual fact, the reinsurance operations affect the profit of a commercial insurance company, following the financial statements. The prerequisite for fulfilling the objective of the paper is to analyse the accounting legislation for reinsurance operations in commercial insurance companies. Attention will be devoted also to the method of accounting for reinsurance operations and their specific reporting in various parts of the financial statements of commercial insurance companies. The partial aim of this paper is to identify significant differences in the area of accounting of commercial insurance companies, based on the comparison of accounting practices of the issues examined in accordance with IAS/IFRS. In the conclusion, the authors will address the latest development of necessary steps in adopting the concept of IFRS 4 Phase II and accomplishing the process of the application of IFRS 4 Phase II to the accounts of commercial insurance companies.

  6. The current revolution in column technology: how it began, where is it going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2012-03-09

    This work revisits the exceptionally rapid evolution of the technology of chromatographic columns and the important progress in speed of analysis and resolution power that was achieved over the last ten years. Whereas columns packed with 10 and 5 μm fully porous particles dominated the field for nearly thirty years (1975-2000), it took barely six years to see the commercialization of monolithic silica rods (2000), their raise to fame and decay to oblivion, the development of finer fully porous particles with size down to 1.7 μm (2006), and of sub-3 μm superficially porous particles (2006). Analysis times and plate heights delivered by columns packed with these recent packing materials have then been improved by more than one order of magnitude in this short period of time. This progress has rendered practically obsolete the age-old design of LC instruments. For low molecular weight compounds, analysts can now achieve peak capacities of 40 peaks in about 15s with a hold-up time of the order of 1.5s , in gradient elution, by operating columns packed with sub-3 μm shell particles at elevated temperatures, provided that they use optimized high pressure liquid chromatographs. This is the ultimate limit allowed by modern instruments, which have an extra-column band broadening contribution of 7 μL² at 4.0 mL/min and data acquisition rate of 160 Hz. The best 2.1 mm × 50 mm narrow-bore columns packed with 1.7 μm silica core-shell particles provide peaks that have a variance of 2.1 μL² for k=1. Finally, this work discusses possible ways to accelerate separations and, in the same time perform these separations at the same level of efficiency as they have today. It seems possible to pack columns with smaller particles, probably down to 1 μm and operate them with current vHPLC equipments for separations of biochemicals. Analyses of low molecular weight compounds will require new micro-HPLC systems able to operate 1mm I.D. columns at pressures up to 5 kbar, which

  7. Costs and Operating Dynamics of Integrating Distributed Energy Resources in Commercial and Industrial Buildings with Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Robert Joseph

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions have increased the pressure to shift energy conversion paradigms from current forms to more sustainable methods, such as through the use of distributed energy resources (DER) at industrial and commercial buildings. This dissertation is concerned with the optimal design and dispatch of a DER system installed at an industrial or commercial building. An optimization model that accurately captures typical utility costs and the physical constraints of a combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is designed to size and operate a DER system at a building. The optimization model is then used with cooperative game theory to evaluate the financial performance of a CCHP investment. The CCHP model is then modified to include energy storage, solar powered generators, alternative fuel sources, carbon emission limits, and building interactions with public and fleet PEVs. Then, a separate plugin electric vehicle (PEV) refueling model is developed to determine the cost to operate a public Level 3 fast charging station. The CCHP design and dispatch results show the size of the building load and consistency of the thermal loads are critical to positive financial performance. While using the CCHP system to produce cooling can provide savings, heat production drives positive financial performance. When designing the DER system to reduce carbon emissions, the use of renewable fuels can allow for a gas turbine system with heat recovery to reduce carbon emissions for a large university by 67%. Further reductions require large photovoltaic installations coupled with energy storage or the ability to export electricity back to the grid if costs are to remain relatively low. When considering Level 3 fast charging equipment, demand charges at low PEV travel levels are sufficiently high to discourage adoption. Integration of the equipment can reduce demand charge costs only if the building maximum demand does not coincide

  8. NASA Enterprise Managed Cloud Computing (EMCC): Delivering an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for NASA use of Commercial Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, Ames supported the NASA CIO in delivering an initial operating capability for Agency use of commercial cloud computing. This presentation provides an overview of the project, the services approach followed, and the major components of the capability that was delivered. The presentation is being given at the request of Amazon Web Services to a contingent representing the Brazilian Federal Government and Defense Organization that is interested in the use of Amazon Web Services (AWS). NASA is currently a customer of AWS and delivered the Initial Operating Capability using AWS as its first commercial cloud provider. The IOC, however, designed to also support other cloud providers in the future.

  9. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  10. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  11. Formation flying as an innovative air transportation system for long-haul commercial flight : A focus on operational feasibility and potential gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herinckx, L.E.; Gutleb, T.L.M.; Van Nunen, R.; Van Rompuy, E.; Bos, D.A.; Dijkers, H.P.A.; De Wit, J.; Radfar, H.; Sahin, S.E.; Beelarts van Blokland, W.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Formation flying is introduced as a new and innovative air transportation system for long-haul commercial flight. With this paper the operational feasibility of formation flying is addressed, both from a market demand and economic, as well as an air traffic control perspective. Preliminary results

  12. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  13. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  14. Feasibility study of the commercial production of densified biomass fuel at Klamath Falls, Oregon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    The project began with assessments of local biomass resources which could serve as feedstock for a DBF plant, and the potential customer markets for DBF. Based on these analyses, a pilot densification plant was designed and installed for purposes of trial operations and evaluation. In addition, exploration for geothermal resources was conducted in order to confirm a suitable feedstock dehydration heat source. The results of this exploration, and of the pilot plant's trial operations, were then used to determine requirements for a commercial-scale DBF plant, and the feasibility of upgrading the pilot plant for commercial-scale operations.

  15. 75 FR 6214 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    .... Air Cargo Security Subcommittee 6. Automation Subcommittee 7. ACE/ITDS (Automated Commercial...-4290. Information on Services for Individuals With Disabilities For information on facilities or services for individuals with disabilities or to request special assistance at the meeting, contact Ms...

  16. An Examination of How the Availability of State-backed Terrorism Insurance Programs and Commercial Terrorism Insurance Affects the Operational Decisions of Multinational Companies.

    OpenAIRE

    GREY, William / WJG

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores the extent to which the operational decisions of multinational companies (MNCs) are affected by the availability of State-backed terrorism insurance programs and commercial terrorism insurance. The initial hypothesis made is that MNCs will be reluctant to invest in zones or countries with high terrorism or political risks, especially when insurance for these risks may be limited or unavailable. This investigation finds that the availability of State-backed terrorism...

  17. Use of New Commercial, Off-the-Shelf, High-Definition Structure Scanning Fathometer/Depth Finder For Coastal Current Survey Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenstein, E. B.; Gray, G.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (COOPS) manages three national observing system programs. These are the National Water level Observation Network (NWLON) (210 stations), the 23 NOAA/Physical Oceanographic Real-Time Systems (PORTS), and National Currents Observing Program (NCOP) (approximately 70 deployments/year). In support of its mission COOPS operates and maintains a number of small boats. During vessel operations, side-scan sonar data are at times needed to provide information about bottom structure for future work in the area. For example, potential hazards, obstructions, or bottom morphology features that have not been identified on localized charts for a given area could be used to inform decisions on planned installations. Side-scan sonar capability is also important when attempting to reacquire bottom mounts that fail to surface at the conclusion of a current meter survey. Structure mapping and side-scan capabilities have been added to recent consumer-level, commercial, off-the-shelf fathometers, generally intended for recreational, commercial fishing, and diving applications. We are proposing to investigate these systems' viability for meeting survey requirements. We assess their ability to provide a flexible alternative to research/commercial oceanographic level side-scan system at a significant cost savings. Such systems could provide important information to support scientific missions that require qualitative seafloor imagery.

  18. Crowding-in: how Indian civil society organizations began mobilizing around climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Swarnakar, Pradip

    2017-06-01

    This paper argues that periodic waves of crowding-in to 'hot' issue fields are a recurring feature of how globally networked civil society organizations operate, especially in countries of the Global South. We elaborate on this argument through a study of Indian civil society mobilization around climate change. Five key mechanisms contribute to crowding-in processes: (1) the expansion of discursive opportunities; (2) the event effects of global climate change conferences; (3) the network effects created by expanding global civil society networks; (4) the adoption and innovation of action repertoires; and (5) global pressure effects creating new opportunities for civil society. Our findings contribute to the world society literature, with an account of the social mechanisms through which global institutions and political events affect national civil societies, and to the social movements literature by showing that developments in world society are essential contributors to national mobilization processes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  19. PROVING THE CAPABILITY FOR LARGE SCALE REGIONAL LAND-COVER DATA PRODUCTION BY SELF-FUNDED COMMERCIAL OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Thompson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For service providers developing commercial value-added data content based on remote sensing technologies, the focus is to typically create commercially appropriate geospatial information which has downstream business value. The primary aim being to link locational intelligence with business intelligence in order to better make informed decisions. From a geospatial perspective this locational information must be relevant, informative, and most importantly current; with the ability to maintain the information timeously into the future for change detection purposes. Aligned with this, GeoTerraImage has successfully embarked on the production of land-cover/land-use content over southern Africa. The ability for a private company to successfully implement and complete such an exercise has been the capability to leverage the combined advantages of cutting edge data processing technologies and methodologies, with emphasis on processing repeatability and speed, and the use of a wide range of readily available imagery. These production workflows utilise a wide range of integrated procedures including machine learning algorithms, innovative use of non-specialists for sourcing of reference data, and conventional pixel and object-based image classification routines, and experienced/expert landscape interpretation. This multi-faceted approach to data produce development demonstrates the capability for SMME level commercial entities such as GeoTerraImage to generate industry applicable large data content, in this case, wide area coverage land-cover and land-use data across the sub-continent. Within this development, the emphasis has been placed on the key land-use information, such as mining, human settlements, and agriculture, given the importance of this geo-spatial land-use information in business and socio-economic applications and decision making.

  20. Commercial photovoltaic units: behavior to different conditions of operation; Modulos fotovoltaicos comerciales: comportamiento a diferentes condiciones de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, N.; Fabero, F.; Chenlo, F.

    2008-07-01

    Due to the increasing number of photovoltaic (PV) plants in Spain for the last years, PV market offers a wide range of novelty products: large-size cells, modules with a high number of connected cells, new designs, new materials, etc. to perform this work, I-V curve acquisition at different irradiance and temperature conditions have been obtained from a sample of 8 different commercial PV module that accomplish one or more of these novelty characteristics have been characterised. The experimental tests have been performed at Centro Nacional de Energias Renovables (CENER). Results include determination of temperature coefficients and variation with irradiance, linearity and other cell parameters. (Author)

  1. Inductive Double-Contingency Analysis of UO2 Powder Bulk Blending Operations at a Commercial Fuel Plant (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiles, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    An inductive double-contingency analysis (DCA) method developed by the criticality safety function at the Savannah River Site, was applied in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) of five major plant process systems at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation's Commercial Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant in Columbia, South Carolina (WEC-Cola.). The method emphasizes a thorough evaluation of the controls intended to provide barriers against criticality for postulated initiating events, and has been demonstrated effective at identifying common mode failure potential and interdependence among multiple controls. A description of the method and an example of its application is provided

  2. The influence of currency risk upon the market value of commercial banks operating in the Polish banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Korzeb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyse the impact of the Swiss Nati onal Bank’s decision to introduce the floating exchange rate of the franc on January 15th, 2015, upon the market value of commercial banks operatingin the Polish banking sector. The analysis involved twelve commercial banks quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The results are inconclusive. The predicted reducti on of the banks’ market value was less significant than indicated by market investors’ reaction on the day after the announcement of the decision to introduce the floating exchange rate of the franc. The banks most prone to granting credit denominated in CHF did experience the largest reducti on of their share quotations. However, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient calculated for the correlation between the average cumulative abnormal returns on shares for the entire analysed sample, and the proportion of credits denominated in Swiss francs in the total credit portfolio, indicated only a moderate correlation between both variables.

  3. Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures

  4. Design and operating experience of the first commercial 0.4-5.0 MW fluidized bed boilers in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodulya, V.A.; Dobkin, S.M.; Telegin, E.M. [Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus). A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute

    1995-12-31

    The present paper describes the development of AFBC systems for industrial and district heating in the range of capacities less than 5 MWth. The main goal is a plant which can be operated automatically and which meets the severe emission standards burning various kinds of coals including combustible wastes. First operating results of a 0.4 MWth plant are presented and demonstrate the basic feasibility of the concept. 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Impact of a commercial peat moss operation on water quality and biota in a small tributary of the Richibucto River, Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surette, C; Brun, G L; Mallet, V N

    2002-05-01

    The St-Charles Plain (Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada) commercial peat moss operation has been ongoing since 1983. To process the peat, a dry extraction method is used that requires extensive drainage of the peat bog. The water is directed toward sedimentation ponds, where it drains into a small brook, which feeds into a river affected by tidal salt water. Water discharge from the bog contains large amounts of peat particles that deposit in the surrounding watershed. As a result, the pH of the freshwater sites that receive the drainage water from the commercial operation, is fairly acidic (pH 3.9-4.7). Water samples from or near the peat moss operation have a higher concentration of total phosphorous and total organic carbon. The peat particles contain relatively high levels of total mercury, as reflected by analysis of peat sediments. However, the water samples contained low levels of dissolved mercury. Indigenous samples of biota-namely, sand shrimps (Crangon septemspinosa) and mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus)-did not contain mercury levels higher in the impacted sites than in the reference sites. Introduced blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) did not accumulate significant amounts of mercury during a 62-day exposure in the study area. Overall, the data suggest that although relatively large amounts of mercury-containing peat particles are discharged into the ecosystem, bioaccumulation of mercury in the biota does not occur.

  6. Comparison of Commercial Aircraft Fuel Requirements in Regards to FAR, Flight Profile Simulation, and Flight Operational Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzman, Nicholas

    There are significant fuel consumption consequences for non-optimal flight operations. This study is intended to analyze and highlight areas of interest that affect fuel consumption in typical flight operations. By gathering information from actual flight operators (pilots, dispatch, performance engineers, and air traffic controllers), real performance issues can be addressed and analyzed. A series of interviews were performed with various individuals in the industry and organizations. The wide range of insight directed this study to focus on FAA regulations, airline policy, the ATC system, weather, and flight planning. The goal is to highlight where operational performance differs from design intent in order to better connect optimization with actual flight operations. After further investigation and consensus from the experienced participants, the FAA regulations do not need any serious attention until newer technologies and capabilities are implemented. The ATC system is severely out of date and is one of the largest limiting factors in current flight operations. Although participants are pessimistic about its timely implementation, the FAA's NextGen program for a future National Airspace System should help improve the efficiency of flight operations. This includes situational awareness, weather monitoring, communication, information management, optimized routing, and cleaner flight profiles like Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Continuous Descent Approach (CDA). Working off the interview results, trade-studies were performed using an in-house flight profile simulation of a Boeing 737-300, integrating NASA legacy codes EDET and NPSS with a custom written mission performance and point-performance "Skymap" calculator. From these trade-studies, it was found that certain flight conditions affect flight operations more than others. With weather, traffic, and unforeseeable risks, flight planning is still limited by its high level of precaution. From this

  7. Tomorrow Began Yesterday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sixtiers was prepared by the previous historical period. The period after the World War II comprises a fundamental change of the world order – from a multipolar world to a confrontation of two superpowers and two ideological systems, and, at the same time, formation of a complex of international organizations on a global scale. In this context, the Soviet architecture made a sharp turn from Stalin’s Empire style to an extreme ascetism – the continuation of constructivism of the early XXth century. The Irkutsk architectural school, unlike the main flow of the 1960s, developed the style of Neo-Brutalism. The article draws parallels between Neo-Brutalism of the Irkutsk school and “a severe style” of the Soviet pictorial art of the same period.

  8. How life began.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, P

    1986-11-01

    Study of the origin of life has become a legitimate scientific inquiry, with an international, multidisciplinary membership and a cogent body of data. Experiments involving plausible early Earth conditions and biogeochemical analyses of carbonaceous meteorites imply a variety of available starting molecules. Biogeological evidence indicates microbial beginnings about 3800 million years (3.8 aeons) ago. By then the known universe had been in existence for perhaps 15 aeons and galaxies abundant for ten. Conditions suitable for the origin of life may require a long prior cosmic evolution. The natural origin of life on the early Earth is now widely agreed upon but not the pathways. The beginnings of catalysis, replication and a functional cell remain moot. Much discussion has centered on the templating role that crystals such as clays and zeolites might have played in prebiotic evolution. Recent discovery of the catalytic and replicative functions of RNA recommend it as the key molecule in the transition from chemical to biological evolution. Copyright © 1986. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. How nonimaging optics began

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Classical optics was traditionally the mapping of point sources by lenses, mirrors and occasionally holograms , i.e. making an image. The subject has had many famous scientists associated with it; Fermat, Huygens, Descartes, Hamilton just to name a few. By the mid 20th Century it was a well-developed field as exemplified by such luminaries as Walter T. Welford, Emil Wolf and many others. The theory of aberrations which addresses the imperfections of the mapping codified the state of the art. Then arose the need to collect energy, not just images. To the author's knowledge it can be traced back to WWII Germany with collection of infra-red radiation (the work by D. E. Williamson, was not published until 1952). The radiation collector, a simple right-circular cone, was a harbinger of things to come.

  10. Design and dosimetry characteristics of a commercial applicator system for intra-operative electron beam therapy utilizing ELEKTA Precise accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevelsky, Alexander; Bernstein, Zvi; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Kuten, Abraham; Orion, Itzhak

    2010-07-19

    The design concept and dosimetric characteristics of a new applicator system for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) are presented in this work. A new hard-docking commercial system includes polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) applicators with different diameters and applicator end angles and a set of secondary lead collimators. A telescopic device allows changing of source-to-surface distance (SSD). All measurements were performed for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron energies. Output factors and percentage depth doses (PDD) were measured in a water phantom using a plane-parallel ion chamber. Isodose contours and radiation leakage were measured using a solid water phantom and radiographic films. The dependence of PDD on SSD was checked for the applicators with the smallest and the biggest diameters. SSD dependence of the output factors was measured. Hardcopies of PDD and isodose contours were prepared to help the team during the procedure on deciding applicator size and energy to be chosen. Applicator output factors are a function of energy, applicator size and applicator type. Dependence of SSD correction factors on applicator size and applicator type was found to be weak. The same SSD correction will be applied for all applicators in use for each energy. The radiation leakage through the applicators is clinically acceptable. The applicator system enables effective collimation of electron beams for IORT. The data presented are sufficient for applicator, energy and monitor unit selection for IORT treatment of a patient.

  11. Machinability assessment of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) during turning operation: Application potential of GRA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar; Maity, Kalipada

    2018-03-01

    This paper explores some of the vital machinability characteristics of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) grade 2. Experiments were conducted based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The selected material was machined on a heavy duty lathe (Model: HMT NH26) using uncoated carbide inserts in dry cutting environment. The selected inserts were designated by ISO as SNMG 120408 (Model: K313) and manufactured by Kennametal. These inserts were rigidly mounted on a right handed tool holder PSBNR 2020K12. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were selected as three input variables whereas tool wear (VBc) and surface roughness (Ra) were the major attentions. In order to confirm an appreciable machinability of the work part, an optimal parametric combination was attained with the help of grey relational analysis (GRA) approach. Finally, a mathematical model was developed to exhibit the accuracy and acceptability of the proposed methodology using multiple regression equations. The results indicated that, the suggested model is capable of predicting overall grey relational grade within acceptable range.

  12. Commercial development of the Battelle/FERCO biomass gasification process - initial operation of the McNeil gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paisley, M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Farris, G. [Future Energy Resources Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Slack, W. [Zurn-Nepco, South Portland, Maine (United States); Irving, J. [Burlington Electric Dept., Burlington, Vermont (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Restructuring in the utility industry has increased the emphasis on renewable energy supplies. To meet this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has focused on a number of high efficiency power generation technologies that can effectively utilize biomass. One of these promising power generation technologies is biomass gasification coupled with either a gas turbine in a combined cycle system or a fuel cell. The gasification of biomass from renewable energy crops can efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel, suitable for use in these high efficiency power systems, or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development and first commercial-scale application at the Burlington Electric Department's McNeil Station of the Battelle/FERCO high-throughput gasification process for gas turbine based power generation system. Projected process economics for a gas turbine combined cycle plant are presented. (author)

  13. Generation of transgenic goats by pronuclear microinjection: a retrospective analysis of a commercial operation (1995-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, W; Blash, S; Buzzell, N; Pollock, D; Chen, L; Hawkins, N; Howe, J; Miner, K; Pollock, J; Porter, C; Schofield, M; Echelard, Y; Meade, H

    2018-02-01

    Production of transgenic founder goats involves introducing and stably integrating an engineered piece of DNA into the genome of the animal. At LFB USA, the ultimate use of these transgenic goats is for the production of recombinant human protein therapeutics in the milk of these dairy animals. The transgene or construct typically links a milk protein specific promoter sequence, the coding sequence for the gene of interest, and the necessary downstream regulatory sequences thereby directing expression of the recombinant protein in the milk during the lactation period. Over the time period indicated (1995-2012), pronuclear microinjection was used in a number of programs to insert transgenes into 18,120, 1- or 2- cell stage fertilized embryos. These embryos were transferred into 4180 synchronized recipient females with 1934 (47%) recipients becoming pregnant, 2594 offspring generated, and a 109 (4.2%) of those offspring determined to be transgenic. Even with new and improving genome editing tools now available, pronuclear microinjection is still the predominant and proven technology used in this commercial setting supporting regulatory filings and market authorizations when producing founder transgenic animals with large transgenes (> 10 kb) such as those necessary for directing monoclonal antibody production in milk.

  14. Commercial Flight Crew Decision-Making during Low-Visibility Approach Operations Using Fused Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2007-01-01

    NASA is investigating revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next-generation air transportation system. A fixed-based piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck on the crew's decision-making process during low-visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were neither improved nor adversely impacted by the display concepts. The addition of Enhanced Vision may not, unto itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection without being specifically tailored for this application. Existing enhanced vision system procedures were effectively used in the crew decision-making process during approach and missed approach operations but having to forcibly transition from an excellent FLIR image to natural vision by 100 ft above field level was awkward for the pilot-flying.

  15. An analysis of the impacts of economic incentive programs on commercial nuclear power plant operations and maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanaugh, D.C.; Monroe, W.H.; Wood, R.S.

    1996-02-01

    Operations and Maintenance (O and M) expenditures by nuclear power plant owner/operators possess a very logical and vital link in considerations relating to plant safety and reliability. Since the determinants of O and M outlays are considerable and varied, the potential linkages to plant safety, both directly and indirectly, can likewise be substantial. One significant issue before the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the impact, if any, on O and M spending from state programs that attempt to improve plant operating performance, and how and to what extent these programs may affect plant safety and pose public health risks. The purpose of this study is to examine the role and degree of impacts from state promulgated economic incentive programs (EIPs) on plant O and M spending. A multivariate regression framework is specified, and the model is estimated on industry data over a five-year period, 1986--1990. Explanatory variables for the O and M spending model include plant characteristics, regulatory effects, financial strength factors, replacement power costs, and the performance incentive programs. EIPs are found to have statistically significant effects on plant O and M outlays, albeit small in relation to other factors. Moreover, the results indicate that the relatively financially weaker firms are more sensitive in their O and M spending to the presence of such programs. Formulations for linking spending behavior and EIPs with plant safety performance remains for future analysis

  16. Liquid-Phase Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol over Mo2C Supported on Commercial CNF. Effects of Operating Conditions on Conversion and Product Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Moreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Mo2C catalyst that was supported on commercial carbon nanofibers (CNF was synthetized and tested in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol. The effects of operating conditions (temperature and pressure and reaction time (2 and 4 h on the conversion of guaiacol and products selectivity were studied. The major reaction products were cresol and phenol, followed by xylenols and toluene. The use of more severe operating conditions during the HDO of guaiacol caused a diversification in the reaction pathways, and consequently in the selectivity to products. The formation of phenol may have occurred by demethylation of guaiacol, followed by dehydroxylation of catechol, together with other reaction pathways, including direct guaiacol demethoxylation, and demethylation of cresols. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis of spent catalysts did not reveal any significant changes as compared to the fresh catalyst.

  17. Commercialization of a DOE Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Barry A.

    2008-01-01

    On April 1, 1998, Materials and Chemistry Laboratory, Inc. (MCLinc) began business as an employee-owned, commercial, applied research laboratory offering services to both government and commercial clients. The laboratory had previously been a support laboratory to DoE's gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge (K-25). When uranium enrichment was halted at the site, the laboratory was expanded to as an environmental demonstration center and served from 1992 until 1997 as a DOE Environmental User Facility. In 1997, after the laboratory was declared surplus, it was made available to the employee group who operated the laboratory for DOE as a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. This paper describes briefly the process of establishing the business. Attributes that contributed to the success of MCLinc are described. Some attention is given to lessons learned and to changes that could facilitate future attempts to make similar transitions. Lessons learnt: as with any business venture, operation over time has revealed that some actions taken by the laboratory founders have contributed to its successful operation while others were not so successful. Observations are offered in hopes that lessons learned may suggest actions that will facilitate future attempts to make similar transitions. First, the decision to vest significant ownership of the business in the core group of professionals operating the business is key to its success. Employee-owners of the laboratory have consistently provided a high level of service to its customers while conducting business in a cost-efficient manner. Secondly, an early decision to provide business support services in-house rather than purchasing them from support contractors on site have proven cost-effective. Laboratory employees do multiple tasks and perform overhead tasks in addition to their chargeable technical responsibilities. Thirdly, assessment of technical capabilities in view of market needs and a decision to offer these

  18. Entrainment, retention, and transport of freely swimming fish in junction gaps between commercial barges operating on the Illinois Waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeremiah J.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Engel, Frank; LeRoy, Jessica Z.; Neeley, Rebecca N.; Finney, Samuel T.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Large Electric Dispersal Barriers were constructed in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) to prevent the transfer of invasive fish species between the Mississippi River Basin and the Great Lakes Basin while simultaneously allowing the passage of commercial barge traffic. We investigated the potential for entrainment, retention, and transport of freely swimming fish within large gaps (> 50 m3) created at junction points between barges. Modified mark and capture trials were employed to assess fish entrainment, retention, and transport by barge tows. A multi-beam sonar system enabled estimation of fish abundance within barge junction gaps. Barges were also instrumented with acoustic Doppler velocity meters to map the velocity distribution in the water surrounding the barge and in the gap formed at the junction of two barges. Results indicate that the water inside the gap can move upstream with a barge tow at speeds near the barge tow travel speed. Water within 1 m to the side of the barge junction gaps was observed to move upstream with the barge tow. Observed transverse and vertical water velocities suggest pathways by which fish may potentially be entrained into barge junction gaps. Results of mark and capture trials provide direct evidence that small fish can become entrained by barges, retained within junction gaps, and transported over distances of at least 15.5 km. Fish entrained within the barge junction gap were retained in that space as the barge tow transited through locks and the Electric Dispersal Barriers, which would be expected to impede fish movement upstream.

  19. The relative importance of real-time in-cab and external feedback in managing fatigue in real-world commercial transport operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Michael; Liu, Sara; Stephens, Amanda N; Lenné, Michael G

    2017-05-29

    Real-time driver monitoring systems represent a solution to address key behavioral risks as they occur, particularly distraction and fatigue. The efficacy of these systems in real-world settings is largely unknown. This article has three objectives: (1) to document the incidence and duration of fatigue in real-world commercial truck-driving operations, (2) to determine the reduction, if any, in the incidence of fatigue episodes associated with providing feedback, and (3) to tease apart the relative contribution of in-cab warnings from 24/7 monitoring and feedback to employers. Data collected from a commercially available in-vehicle camera-based driver monitoring system installed in a commercial truck fleet operating in Australia were analyzed. The real-time driver monitoring system makes continuous assessments of driver drowsiness based on eyelid position and other factors. Data were collected in a baseline period where no feedback was provided to drivers. Real-time feedback to drivers then occurred via in-cab auditory and haptic warnings, which were further enhanced by direct feedback by company management when fatigue events were detected by external 24/7 monitors. Fatigue incidence rates and their timing of occurrence across the three time periods were compared. Relative to no feedback being provided to drivers when fatigue events were detected, in-cab warnings resulted in a 66% reduction in fatigue events, with a 95% reduction achieved by the real-time provision of direct feedback in addition to in-cab warnings (p safety culture of the company in terms of how the information is used. Data were analysed on a per-truck trip basis, and the findings are indicative of fatigue events in a large-scale commercial transport fleet. Future research ought to account for individual driver performance, which was not possible with the available data in this retrospective analysis. Evidence that real-time driver monitoring feedback is effective in reducing fatigue events is

  20. Operational experience with a commercial plant for stabilisation Of radioactive sludge and other materials in the United Kingdom - 16042

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, M.; Cornell, R.M.; Riley, B.; Ware, B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, Nuvia Limited was contracted to design, build and commission a waste treatment plant (WETP) to stabilise the active sludge stored in the External Active Storage Tanks (EAST) at UKAEA Winfrith, UK. The sludge was generated during the operational period of the prototype Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR), which is now in the process of being decommissioned. This work supports UKAEA's mission, which is to carry out environmental restoration of its nuclear sites and to put them to alternative uses wherever possible. Recently UKAEA has been reorganised and responsibility for the site lies with Research Sites Restoration Limited (RSRL) with funding provided by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The process of stabilisation of the SGHWR sludge from the EAST tanks within 500 litre stainless steel drums in the Winfrith EAST Treatment Plant (WETP) using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blast furnace slag (BFS) is now almost complete. At this stage it was planned to decommission and demolish the WETP facilities but RSRL have introduced a further stabilisation project involving thorium metal waste ahead of the start of the planned decommissioning. As a result, the facilities are to be revised to provide for the encapsulation of bars of thorium metal within modified 500 litre drums together with a number of necessary changes to the plant control system. The cell line used for stabilisation consists of five operational cells separated by shield doors designed to maintain strict contamination control. There is a wet cell where the drums are filled with sludge and powder, a cell with stations for curing and grouting the drums, a cell for lidding, bolting and QA inspection, a maintenance and gamma monitoring cell and a buffer store to hold the completed drums. After completion, drums are moved in a shielded overpack to the Treated Radwaste Store located on a different part of the Winfrith site. In the revised cell line configuration the wet cell will

  1. Evaluation of commercially available seat suspensions to reduce whole body vibration exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Marin, Luz S; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2018-09-01

    As mining vehicle operators are exposed to high level of Whole body vibration (WBV) for prolonged periods of time, approaches to reduce this exposure are needed for the specific types of exposures in mining. Although various engineering controls (i.e. seat suspension systems) have been developed to address WBV, there has been lack of research to systematically evaluate these systems in reducing WBV exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle settings. Therefore, this laboratory-based study evaluated the efficacy of different combinations of fore-aft (x-axis), lateral (y-axis), and vertical (z-axis) suspensions in reducing WBV exposures. The results showed that the active vertical suspension more effectively reduced the vertical vibration (∼50%; p's suspension (10%; p's suspension systems did not attenuate the corresponding axis vibration (p's > 0.06) and sometimes amplified the floor vibration, especially when the non-vertical vibration was predominant (p's suspensions to address non-vertical WBV exposures, especially because these non-vertical WBV exposures can increase risks for adverse health effects including musculoskeletal loading, discomfort, and impaired visual acuity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SEU blending project, concept to commercial operation, Part 3: production of powder for demonstration irradiation fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, M.S.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Oliver, A.J.; Ozberk, E.

    2005-01-01

    The processes for production of Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) dioxide powder and Blended Dysprosium and Uranium (BDU) oxide powder that were developed at laboratory scale at Cameco Technology Development (CTD), were implemented and further optimized to supply to Zircatec Precision Industries (ZPI) the quantities required for manufacturing twenty six Low Void Reactivity (LVRF) CANFLEX fuel bundles. The production of this new fuel was a challenge for CTD and involved significant amount of work to prepare and review documentation, develop and approve new analytical procedures, and go through numerous internal reviews and audits by Bruce Power, CNSC and third parties independent consultants that verified the process and product quality. The audits were conducted by Quality Assurance specialists as well as by Human Factor Engineering experts with the objective to systematically address the role of human errors in the manufacturing of New Fuel and confirm whether or not a credible basis had been established for preventing human errors. The project team successfully passed through these audits. The project management structure that was established during the SEU and BDU blending process development, which included a cross-functional project team from several departments within Cameco, maintained its functionality when Cameco Technology Development was producing the powder for manufacturing Demonstration Irradiation fuel bundles. Special emphasis was placed on the consistency of operating steps and product quality certification, independent quality surveillance, materials segregation protocol, enhanced safety requirements, and accurate uranium accountability. (author)

  3. Commercial lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  4. Duane Arnold Energy Center, Unit 1. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial reactor criticality was achieved March 23, 1974 and commercial generation of power began February 1, 1975. A narrative summary describes plant operations. Information is presented concerning outages and forced power reductions, radioactivity releases and radiation exposures, failed fuel inspections, changes in plant design and procedures, and special tests performed

  5. Assessment of the Middle Administrative Leadership's Awareness of the Implementation of the Concept of Total Quality Management (TQM in Commercial Banks operating in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Mohammed Al Rawashdeh, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the role of the modern concept of total quality management (TQM and how it is applied by the middle management that links between senior management and clients in the most important service sector: banks. It also aims to identify the middle management's awareness and understanding of the concept and importance of applying total quality management in commercial banks operating in Jordan. In general, the study found that there is a high awareness and understanding of the concept of total quality management. Middle management is also fully aware of the meaning and importance of total quality, but the role of middle management in the application of total quality management in commercial banks was very low. There are obstacles hindering the application of Total Quality Management. Therefore, the study recommended that middle management should be given the opportunity to apply Total Quality Management, because the role of this management is executive and has an important role in this area. There should be therefore a training plan with a timetable for all levels of management in the bank, and the banks should provide effective communication channels to identify customers’ needs, and create distinguished human relations among the staff. The workers should also be involved in the formulation of the vision and message of the bank. The researcher also recommended that there should be specialized administrative units interested in total quality management.

  6. Sulfur impact on NO{sub x} storage, oxygen storage, and ammonia breakthrough during cyclic lean/rich operation of a commercial lean NO{sub x} trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Partridge, William P.; Daw, C. Stuart [Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6472, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6472 (United States)

    2007-11-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop an improved understanding of how sulfur affects the spatiotemporal distribution of reactions and temperature inside a monolithic lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT). These spatiotemporal distributions are believed to be major factors in LNT function, and thus, we expect that a better understanding of these phenomena can benefit the design and operation of commercial LNTs. In our study, we experimentally evaluated a commercial LNT monolith installed in a bench-flow reactor with simulated engine exhaust. The reactor feed gas composition was cycled to simulate fast lean/rich LNT operation at 325 C, and spatiotemporal species and temperature profiles were monitored along the LNT axis at different sulfur loadings. Reactor outlet NO{sub x}, NO, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were also measured. Sulfur tended to accumulate in a plug-like fashion in the reactor and progressively inhibited NO{sub x} storage capacity along the axis. The NO{sub x} storage/reduction (NSR) reactions occurred over a relatively short portion of the reactor (NSR zone) under the conditions used in this study, and thus, net NO{sub x} conversion was only significantly reduced at high sulfur loading. Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) was poisoned by sulfur also in a progressive manner but to a lesser extent than the NO{sub x} storage capacity. Global selectivity for N{sub 2}O remained low at all sulfur loadings, but NH{sub 3} selectivity increased significantly with sulfur loading. We conjecture that NH{sub 3} breakthrough increased because of decreasing oxidation of NH{sub 3}, slipping from the NSR zone, by downstream stored oxygen. The NSR and oxygen storage/reduction (OSR) generated distinctive exotherms during the rich phase and at the rich/lean transition. Exotherm locations shifted downstream with sulfur accumulation in a manner that was consistent with the progressive poisoning of NSR and OSR sites. (author)

  7. Characterization of a WESF [Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility] cesium chloride capsule after fifteen months service in a dry operation/wet storage commercial irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjarmo, H.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1988-08-01

    After 15 months of service, a Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) 137 Cs gamma source capsule was removed for examination from a commercial irradiator at Radiation Sterilizers Incorporated (RSI), Westerville, Ohio. The examination was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and was the first study of a 137 Cs source capsule after use in a commercial dry operation/wet storage (dry/wet) irradiator. The capsule was cycled 3327 times during the 15-month period with steady-state temperature differences ranging from 70 to 82/degree/C during the air-to-water cycle. The capsule was examined to determine the amount of corrosion that had occurred during this period and to determine if any degradation of the container was evident as the result of thermal cycling. Metallographic examinations were performed on sections that were removed from the inner capsule wall and bottom end cap and the outer capsule bottom end cap weld. The three regions of the inner capsule that were examined for corrosion were the salt/void interface, midwall, and bottom (including the end cap weld). The amount of corrosion measured (0.0002 to 0.0007 in.) is comparable to the corrosion produced (about 0.001 in.) during the melt-cast filling of a capsule. No observable effects of irradiator operation were found during this examination. Consequently, based on this examination, no degradation of WESF 137 Cs capsules is expected when they are used in irradiators similar to the RSI irradiator. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Towards commercial aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, Harry W.; Knaus, Ulrich; Appelbaum, Samuel; Goddek, Simon; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Vermeulen, Tycho; Haїssam Jijakli, M.; Kotzen, Benz

    2018-01-01

    Aquaponics is rapidly developing as the need for sustainable food production increases and freshwater and phosphorous reserves shrink. Starting from small-scale operations, aquaponics is at the brink of commercialization, attracting investment. Arising from integrated freshwater aquaculture, a

  9. Assessing the probability of introduction and spread of avian influenza (AI) virus in commercial Australian poultry operations using an expert opinion elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mini; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Scott, Angela Bullanday; Groves, Peter; Barnes, Belinda; Glass, Kathryn; Moloney, Barbara; Black, Amanda; Hernandez-Jover, Marta

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elicit experts' opinions and gather estimates on the perceived probability of introduction and spread of avian influenza (AI) virus in the Australian broiler and layer industry. Using a modified Delphi method and a 4-step elicitation process, 11 experts were asked to give initial individual estimates for the various pathways and practices in the presented scenarios using a questionnaire. Following this, a workshop was conducted to present group averages of estimates and discussion was facilitated to obtain final individual estimates. For each question, estimates for all experts were combined using a discrete distribution, with weights allocated representing the level of expertise. Indirect contact with wild birds either via a contaminated water source or fomites was considered the most likely pathway of introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) on poultry farms. Presence of a water body near the poultry farm was considered a potential pathway for introduction only when the operation type was free range and the water body was within 500m distance from the shed. The probability that LPAI will mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was considered to be higher in layer farms. Shared personnel, equipment and aerosol dispersion were the most likely pathways of shed to shed spread of the virus. For LPAI and HPAI spread from farm to farm, shared pick-up trucks for broiler and shared egg trays and egg pallets for layer farms were considered the most likely pathways. Findings from this study provide an insight on most influential practices on the introduction and spread of AI virus among commercial poultry farms in Australia, as elicited from opinions of experts. These findings will be used to support parameterization of a modelling study assessing the risk of AI introduction and spread among commercial poultry farms in Australia.

  10. Commercialization of nuclear fuel cycle business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakabe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Japan depends on foreign countries almost for establishing nuclear fuel cycle. Accordingly, uranium enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive waste in Japan is important for securing energy. By these means, the stable supply of enriched uranium, the rise of utilization efficiency of uranium and making nuclear power into home-produced energy can be realized. Also this contributes to the protection of earth resources and the preservation of environment. Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. operates four business commercially in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, aiming at the completion of nuclear fuel cycle by the technologies developed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the introduction of technologies from foreign countries. The conditions of location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the course of the location in Rokkasho are described. In the site of about 740 hectares area, uranium enrichment, burying of low level radioactive waste, fuel reprocessing and high level waste control have been carried out, and three businesses except reprocessing already began the operation. The state of operation of these businesses is reported. Hereafter, efforts will be exerted to the securing of safety through trouble-free operation and cost reduction. (K.I.)

  11. Influence of operational condition on lithium plating for commercial lithium-ion batteries – Electrochemical experiments and post-mortem-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Shafiei Sabet, Pouyan; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Investigation of lithium plating to support reliable system integration. •Influence of operational conditions at low temperature on lithium plating. •Comparison of different lithium-ion battery technologies. •Large differences in low-temperature behaviour for different technologies. •Post-mortem analysis reveals inhomogeneous deposition of metallic lithium. -- Abstract: The lifetime and safety of lithium-ion batteries are key requirements for successful market introduction of electro mobility. Especially charging at low temperature and fast charging, known to provoke lithium plating, is an important issue for automotive engineers. Lithium plating, leading both to ageing as well as safety risks, is known to play a crucial role in system design of the application. To gain knowledge of different influence factors on lithium plating, low-temperature ageing tests are performed in this work. Commercial lithium-ion batteries of various types are tested under various operational conditions such as temperature, current, state of charge, charging strategy as well as state of health. To analyse the ageing behaviour, capacity fade and resistance increase are tracked over lifetime. The results of this large experimental survey on lithium plating provide support for the design of operation strategies for the implementation in battery management systems. To further investigate the underlying degradation mechanisms, differential voltage curves and impedance spectra are analysed and a post-mortem analysis of anode degradation is performed for a selected technology. The results confirm the deposition of metallic lithium or lithium compounds in the porous structure and suggest a strongly inhomogeneous deposition over the electrode thickness with a dense deposition layer close to the separator for the considered cell. It is shown that this inhomogeneous deposition can even lead to loss of active material. The plurality of the investigated technologies

  12. Introduction to Commercial Cooking Equipment. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 4.1. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 4: Equipment Handling, Operation and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the workings of and equipment found in commercial kitchens. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided on each of the following…

  13. 78 FR 51559 - Commercial Operations in the 1695-1710 MHz, 1755-1780 MHz, and 2155-2180 MHz Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...-profit entities, not-for-profit institutions, and state, local, or tribal government. Number of... options available for maximizing access to the spectrum for commercial services while protecting incumbent... the spectrum. We encourage commenters to suggest alternative approaches for maximizing the commercial...

  14. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... used in connection with any business. (b) The use of government roads within park areas by commercial...

  15. Ministerial Decree of 15 June 1966 determining the activity of radioactive substances for purposes of classification of commercial operations under Section 32 of the Decree of the President of the Republic No. 185 of 13 February 1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This Decree was made to determine the quantity of radioactivity which constitutes the threshold for classifying commercial operations into a less or more hazardous category, namely A and B categories respectively. The IAEA criteria in this field were used as a basis for this classification. (NEA) [fr

  16. Commercial Toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether you are looking to reduce water use in a new facility or replace old, inefficient toilets in commercial restrooms, a WaterSense labeled flushometer-valve toilet is a high-performance, water-efficient option worth considering.

  17. Common Elements in Operational Events across Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, Dennis C.; Wreathall, John; Cooper, Susan E.

    1998-01-01

    The ATHEANA project, sponsored by the US NRC, began as a study of operational events during low power and shutdown conditions at US commercial nuclear power plants. The purpose was to develop an approach for human reliability analysis that is supported by the experience; i.e., with the history of operational events. As the analysis of operational events progressed, a multidisciplinary framework evolved that can structure the analysis, highlighting significant aspects of each event. The ATHEANA multidisciplinary framework has been used as the basis for retrospective analysis of human performance in operational events in the nuclear power, chemical process, aviation, and medical technologies. The results of these analyses are exemplified by three operational events from different industries. Attention is drawn to those common elements in serious operational events that have negative impacts on human performance. (authors)

  18. Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting The Business Operating Model and How-To Manual for 450 Specific Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maasberg, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting is the first proprietary manual for cleaning and rehabilitation through pressure-washing, hydro-blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting (UHP).   It examines the cleaning, restoration and rehabilitation of statuary and historical structures; manufacturing hardware; and application technologies for residential, commercial and industrial areas, structures and buildings. Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting contains over 450 applications from agricultural, marine, municipal, food processing, paper-pulp, pharmaceutical and cosmetic, industrial and power generating maintenance areas. It includes gear lists to help readers easily identify the appropriate tooling and equipment for each specific application and industry.   Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting supplies readers with the tools to create a successful business model for re...

  19. Operating experience on radiation reduction in the latest BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, K.; Uchida, S.; Aizawa, M.; Takagi, K.; Amano, O.; Yamashita, K.

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, BWR plants have been operated commercially since 1970, and the reduction of radiation exposure has been an important concern. The application of the procedure for reducing occupational exposure is incorporated in Japanese Improvement and Standardization Program for LWRs. No.2 and No.4 plants in Fukushima No.2 Nuclear Power Station were designed and constructed as the latest 1,100 MWe BWRs in conformity with the Improvement and Standardization Program. No.2 plant began the commercial operation in February, 1984, and experienced three times of the scheduled annual maintenance outage. No.4 plant began the commercial operation in September, 1987, and the first annual maintenance is scheduled from September, 1988. In this paper, discussion is focused on recent radiation reduction measures, that is the control of iron and nickel in primary coolant for reducing the radiation dose rate in primary systems, based on the experience with No.2 and No.4 plants. The design concept of a low radiation dose rate nuclear power plant, the experience on water chemistry in No.2 plant, the control of iron and nickel in No.4 plant operation and so on are reported. It is believed that these operation experiences contribute to the reduction of occupational exposure in BWR plants currently in operation and in future. (Kako, I.)

  20. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  1. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  2. Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asosheh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing issues has been attracted in recent years because many information systems projects in organizations are done in this case. On the other hand, failure rate of this kind of projects is also high. The aim of this article is to find success factors in risk management of information systems outsourcing in commercial banks using these factors leads to increase the success rate of risk management of information systems outsourcing projects. Research methods in the present article based on purpose are applied and descriptive- survey. In addition, research tool is questionnaire which was used among commercial bank experts. For this purpose, First information systems outsourcing risks were identified and then ranked. In the next step, the information systems outsourcing reasons were surveyed and the most important reasons were identified. Then the risks which have not any relationship with the most important reasons were removed and success factors in managing residual risks were extracted.

  3. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but...

  4. A comparative study of parameters used in design and operation of desalination experimental facility versus the process parameters in a commercial desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanra, M.S.; Verma, R.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1982-01-01

    Desalination Experimental Facility (DEF) based on multistage flash desalination process has been set up by the Desalination Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. The design parameters of DEF and materials used for various equipment and parts of DEF are mentioned. DEF was operated for 2300 hours in six operational runs. The range of operational parameters maintained during operation and observations on the performance of the materials of construction are given. Detailed comparison has been made for the orocess parameters in DEF and those in a large size plant. (M.G.B.)

  5. When the atomic age began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    2 December 1942, just twenty-five years ago, is the date most often proclaimed as marking the beginning of the atomic age. On that day Enrico Fermi's atomic 'pile' went critical - man had achieved the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. This achievement is an outstanding example of how modern science can work. It had been predicted in theory, calculated in advance and finally realised through the work of large teams of scientists, headed by some of the most imaginative personalities of our century. The military aspects of man-made nuclear chain reaction still dominate our world today. However, within this quarter of a century, nuclear energy has also become significant as a source of power for peaceful purposes. By the end of another quarter of a century it will, according to the best forecasts we can make today, produce a major part of the electricity in the world. The control of nuclear fission was initiated by Fermi and his collaborators. It had a tremendous impact on politics, on concepts of warfare and finally on scientific progress for man's welfare. Fifteen years afterwards the International Atomic Energy Agency was created to promote the peaceful uses of the new technology and to assist in winning the advantages it offered for improving health and prosperity. Another of its great objects is to ensure, as far as possible, that nuclear materials intended for peaceful purposes shall not be diverted to military ends. The hope of the world must be that this, one day, will include all nuclear materials

  6. Commercial nuclear power 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents historical data on commercial nuclear power in the United States, with projections of domestic nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2020. The report also gives country-specific projections of nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2010 for other countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information is also presented regarding operable reactors and those under construction in countries with centrally planned economies. 39 tabs

  7. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill facility storage of commercial crude oil project, Jefferson County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The Big Hill SPR facility located in Jefferson County, Texas has been a permitted operating crude oil storage site since 1986 with benign environmental impacts. However, Congress has not authorized crude oil purchases for the SPR since 1990, and six storage caverns at Big Hill are underutilized with 70 million barrels of available storage capacity. On February 17, 1999, the Secretary of Energy offered the 70 million barrels of available storage at Big Hill for commercial use. Interested commercial users would enter into storage contracts with DOE, and DOE would receive crude oil in lieu of dollars as rental fees. The site could potentially began to receive commercial oil in May 1999. This Environmental Assessment identified environmental changes that potentially would affect water usage, power usage, and air emissions. However, as the assessment indicates, changes would not occur to a major degree affecting the environment and no long-term short-term, cumulative or irreversible impacts have been identified

  9. Operation management in the tension field between technical, commercial, and public legal demands; Betriebsfuehrung im Spannungsfeld technischer, kommerzieller und oeffentlich-rechtlicher Anforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebel, H.

    1997-12-31

    Operation management is not restricted to the execution of operational measures. In order to be able to work together efficiently the different organisational units of a plant are dependent on the support of an intelligent operation management system. Such an operation management system must give the user`s working style priority over the system`s integration in the superordinate system. This is the only way to win the user`s acceptance and achieve the intended results now and over the long term. The most important thing to consider when planning the introduction of an operation management system are the likely processing costs. The one-time cost of procuring the necessary software is practically negligible. [Deutsch] Betriebsfuehrung ist keine ausschliesslich auf die Abwicklung der betrieblichen Massnahmen ausgerichtete Aufgabe. Die Organisationseinheiten des Betriebes muessen zur rationellen Bearbeitung durch ein intelligentes Betriebsfuehrungssystem unterstuetzt werden. Dieses Betriebsfuehrungssystem hat die Arbeitsweisen der Anwender vor die Integration des Systems in uebergeordnete Gesamtsysteme zu stellen. Nur so kann die Akzeptanz der Anwender erzielt sowie das geforderte Ergebnis erreicht und langfristig gesichert werden. Bei der Einfuehrung eines Betriebsfuehrungssystems sind insbesondere die langfristig zu erwartenden Bearbeitungskosten zu bewerten. Die einmaligen Anschaffungskosten der Software sind in Relation zu den Gesamtkosten praktisch ohne Bedeutung. (orig./RHM)

  10. Reactive distillation : The front-runner of industrial process intensification - A full review of commercial applications, research, scale-up, design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, G. Jan

    Most industrial scale reactive distillations (presently more than 150), operated worldwide today at capacities of 100-3000 ktonnes/y, and are reported in this paper. Most of these plants started up less than 15 years ago. The drivers, processes, systems, scale-up methods and partner collaborations

  11. Commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the near term (one-to-five-year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered in this assessment. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low-radiation-dose thyroid scan. The word could in the preceding sentence is underlined because an alternative source of enriched stable isotopes does exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States

  12. Commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  13. Analysis of radiation doses from operation of postulated commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Analysis of a system containing a monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.; Daling, P.M.; Faletti, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    This addendum report extends the original study of the estimated radiation doses to the public and to workers resulting from transporting spent nuclear fuel from commercial nuclear power reactor stations through the federal waste management system (FWMS), to a system that contains a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The system concepts and designs utilized herein are consistent with those used in the original study (circa 1985--1987). Because the FWMS design is still evolving, the results of these analyses may no longer apply to the design for casks and cask handling systems that are currently being considered. Four system scenarios are examined and compared with the reference No-MRS scenario (all spent fuel transported directly from the reactors to the western repository in standard-capacity truck and rail casks). In Scenarios 1 and 2, an MRS facility is located in eastern United States and ships either intact fuel assemblies or consolidated fuel rods and compacted assembly hardware in canisters. In Scenarios 3 and 4, an MRS facility is located in the western United States and ship either intact fuel assemblies or consolidated fuel rods and compacted assembly hardware in canisters

  14. Design, construction and operating experience of demonstration LMFBRs. The application of core and fuel performance experience in British reactors to commercial fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, K.Q.

    1978-01-01

    The Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) sub-assembly design is described with particular emphasis on the choice of factors that are important in determining satisfactory performance. Reasons for the adoption of specific clad and fuel design details are given in their historical context, and irradiation experience - mostly from the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) - in support of the choices is described. The implications of factors that are now better understood than when the PFR fuel was designed, notably neutron-induced void swelling and irradiation creep, are then considered. It is shown that the 'free-standing' core design used in PFR, in which the sub-assembly is unsupported above the level of the lower axial breeder, relies on the availability of low-swelling, preferably irradiation-creep-resistant alloys as sub-assembly structural materials in order to achieve the prescribed burn-up target. The advantages of a 'restrained core', which makes use of irradiation creep to redress the effects of material swelling, are noted briefly, and the application of this concept to the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) core design is described. Probable future trends in pin and sub-assembly design are reviewed and the scope of associated irradiation testing programmes defined. Arrangements for monitoring and evaluating fuel performance, both in reactor and post-irradiation, are outlined and the provisions for endorsement of CDFR pin, sub-assembly and core design details in PFR are indicated. (author)

  15. Study of Risk Assessment Programs at Federal Agencies and Commercial Industry Related to the Conduct or Regulation of High Hazard Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.; Rosenbloom, S.; O'Brien, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the Department of Energy (DOE) Implementation Plan (IP) for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 2009-1, the DOE committed to studying the use of quantitative risk assessment methodologies at government agencies and industry. This study consisted of document reviews and interviews of senior management and risk assessment staff at six organizations. Data were collected and analyzed on risk assessment applications, risk assessment tools, and controls and infrastructure supporting the correct usage of risk assessment and risk management tools. The study found that the agencies were in different degrees of maturity in the use of risk assessment to support the analysis of high hazard operations and to support decisions related to these operations. Agencies did not share a simple, 'one size fits all' approach to tools, controls, and infrastructure needs. The agencies recognized that flexibility was warranted to allow use of risk assessment tools in a manner that is commensurate with the complexity of the application. The study also found that, even with the lack of some data, agencies application of the risk analysis structured approach could provide useful insights such as potential system vulnerabilities. This study, in combination with a companion study of risk assessment programs in the DOE Offices involved in high hazard operations, is being used to determine the nature and type of controls and infrastructure needed to support risk assessments at the DOE.

  16. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  17. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  18. Integration of the commercial and operational systems for the supply of services related to the transportation of natural gas; Integracao entre sistema comercial e operacional para prestacao de servicos de transporte de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Faria, Jose Aurelio Carvalho de; Silva, Mauricio dos Santos [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Varon, Rene [Energy Solutions International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil S.A. - TBG, In order to perform with efficiency and quality, has always been committed to providing its customers with the best services and support. This commitment has been materialized with the recent implementation of a state-of-the-art technology that allows TBG to automatically manage all of its requests for services and to guarantee the delivery of gas to its customers is done in a safe way, optimizing pipeline capacity. To offer these levels of service, it was necessary to acquire a field proven solution capable of managing all commercial procedures as well as providing the right tools to operation to evaluate the capacity to move gas throughout the pipeline. Therefore the solution also was required to be easily integrated with existing operational and commercial tools such as the SCADA system and SAP R3 software. Reductions of fuel consumption and mitigation of risks against contractual penalties are some of the benefits reached. (author)

  19. Environmental Assessment for Leasing Land for the Siting, Construction and Operation of a Commercial AM Radio Antenna at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-02-16

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease approximately 3 acres of land at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the southeast tip of Technical Area (TA) 54 for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been developed in order to assess the environmental effects of the Proposed Action and No Action alternative. The Proposed Action includes the lease of land for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna in TA-54, just north of Pajarito Road and State Highway 4. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under the No Action Alternative, DOE would not lease land on LANL property for the siting and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna; the DOE would not have a local station for emergency response use; and the land would continue to be covered in native vegetation and serve as a health and safety buffer zone for TA-54 waste management activities. Other potential sites on LANL property were evaluated but dismissed for reasons such as interference with sensitive laboratory experiments. Potential visual, health, and environmental effects are anticipated to be minimal for the Proposed Action. The radio broadcasting antenna would be visible against the skyline from some public areas, but would be consistent with other man-made objects in the vicinity that partially obstruct viewsheds (e.g. meteorological tower, power lines). Therefore, the net result would be a modest change of the existing view. Electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions from the antenna would be orders or magnitude less than permissible limits. The proposed antenna construction would not affect known cultural sites, but is located in close proximity to two archaeological sites. Construction would be monitored to ensure that the associated road and utility corridor would avoid cultural sites.

  20. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  1. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound...

  2. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any...

  3. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  4. Change-management. From commercial power operation to post power operation and decommissioning; Change-Management. Vom Leistungsbetrieb ueber den Nachbetrieb zum Rueckbau. T. 1. Stilllegung und Rueckbau von Reaktoren und Anlagen im Brennstoffkreislauf durch AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasinger, Karl [AREVA GmbH, Offenbach am Main (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Transition from power generation to decommissioning challenges utilities. Power generation is mainly characterized by a stable working environment and constant workload, decommissioning and dismantling, however, by transformation and change. Also, changing requirements for the workforce's skills challenge the organization and its senior management. Ensuring effective and efficient performance, while maintaining motivation of staff, requires adjustment of management processes as well as of operational organization and human resources management. AREVA has more than 20 years of experience in decommissioning of own nuclear fuel cycle plants in France, as well as of other large plants and power reactors in Germany, the United Kingdom and the US. Therefore, the group has developed and successfully implemented integrated change management processes. The implementation of well-established and proven methods, developed by the productive industry and adjusted to the nuclear regulatory requirements, significantly improves the performance and efficiency of means and methods in use. The AREVA Performance Improvement Process defines concrete approaches to identify and improve potential deficits of productivity in six main areas (decommissioning scenarios and stra-tegies, waste treatment and logistics, operations management, supply chain, regulatory monitoring and controls as well as dismantling operation). Nuclear plant and facility owners around the world benefit from AREVA experts well experienced in execution of large and complex decommissioning projects.

  5. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  6. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  7. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  8. Operating experience of Fugen-HWR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, F.

    1991-01-01

    Fugen is a 165 MWe prototype heavy water reactor which mainly uses plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has taken responsibility for the advanced thermal reactor (ATR) project, with its name 'FUGEN' taken from the Buddhist God of Mercy. The project started in October 1967, to develop and establish the technology for this new type of reactor and to clarify MOX fuel performance in the reactor. Site construction began in December 1970 at Tsuruga and the plant commenced commercial operation on March 20, 1979. Since then, Fugen has been operated successfully for more than twelve years. The plant performance and reliability of this type of reactor has been demonstrated through the operation. All these operational experiences have contributed to the establishment of the ATR technology

  9. Operating experience of Fugen-HWR in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, F [Reactor Regulation Division, Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-04-01

    Fugen is a 165 MWe prototype heavy water reactor which mainly uses plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has taken responsibility for the advanced thermal reactor (ATR) project, with its name 'FUGEN' taken from the Buddhist God of Mercy. The project started in October 1967, to develop and establish the technology for this new type of reactor and to clarify MOX fuel performance in the reactor. Site construction began in December 1970 at Tsuruga and the plant commenced commercial operation on March 20, 1979. Since then, Fugen has been operated successfully for more than twelve years. The plant performance and reliability of this type of reactor has been demonstrated through the operation. All these operational experiences have contributed to the establishment of the ATR technology.

  10. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  11. 78 FR 32165 - Commercial Radio Operators; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...) Grants emergency exemption requests, extensions or waivers of inspection to ships in accordance with..., marking and lighting of antenna structures (part 17 of this chapter), and the Commission's privatized ship radio inspection program (part 80 of this chapter). * * * * * (s)(1) Extends the Communications Act...

  12. 75 FR 66709 - Commercial Radio Operators Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... inspectors from inspecting ships. The mandatory inspection of U.S. vessels must be conducted by an FCC..., subpart W... * * * * * (b) Inspection and certification of a ship subject to the Great Lakes Agreement. The FCC will not inspect Great Lakes Agreement vessels. An inspection and certification of a ship...

  13. 78 FR 23150 - Commercial Radio Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ...'s privatized ship radio inspection program. * * * * * 0 3. Section 0.131 is amended by revising... this chapter), and the Commission's privatized ship radio inspection program (part 80 of this chapter... inspection to ships in accordance with applicable provisions of the Communications Act, the Safety Convention...

  14. Safety Climate of Commercial Vehicle Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Enhancing the safety culture within trucking and motor coach industries has become a key area of concern given the potential impact it has on crashes and overall safety. Many organizations recognize that safety is compromised if the culture within th...

  15. 78 FR 37474 - Commercial Radio Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Management and Budget (OMB) has approved, for a period of three years, the information collection associated... Responses: 9 respondents; 9 responses. Estimated Time per Response: 0.44 hours up to 30 hours. Frequency of... available to the FCC upon request. The records are journal entries showing revenues collected and expenses...

  16. An Assessment of Commercial Motorcycle Transport Operators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMTO) is ubiquitous in Zaria metropolis and its growing effects fully felt. Consequently there is the need of a research focusing on its assessment. The aim of this study is to assess the activities of CMTO with a view to positively repositioning and ...

  17. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelburn, Bryan H

    2002-01-01

    .... The increasing dependence of government and industry on information technology has created critical vulnerabilities that can be exploited by degrading or destroying the use of information systems...

  18. Use of commercial grade item dedication to reduce procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, the Nuclear Regulatory Industry (NRC) began inspecting utility practices of procuring and dedicating commercial grade items intended for plant safety-related applications. As a result of the industry efforts to address NRC concerns, nuclear utilities have enhanced existing programs and procedures for dedication of commercial grade items. Though these programs were originally enhanced to meet NRC concerns, utilities have discovered that the dedication of commercial grade items can also reduce overall procurement costs. This paper will discuss the enhancement of utility dedication programs and demonstrates how utilities have utilized them to reduce procurement costs

  19. The commercialization of SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, Megan M.; Enkerlin, Walther

    2003-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of sterile insects for sterile insect technique (SIT) programs have been supplied by government facilities, although the private sector often participates in the field programs and sometimes provides substantial funding. As the demand for SIT has grown, government production facilities have sold sterile insects to other governments to use in their own programs. However, most of the production facilities are not organized as commercial ventures and have not been accounting for capital or possibly other fixed costs on top of the direct (variable) costs such as diet and transport. The biological nature of the product influences the best methods for figuring operational costs. Furthermore, unlike other liabilities and losses, a business cannot recover quickly from the unlikely but serious event of a lost breeding colony through an insurance claim, even if such insurance could be obtained. (author)

  20. Experiences of operation for Ikata Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimoto, Shigeyuki

    1979-01-01

    No. 1 plant in the Ikata Nuclear Power Station, Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., is a two-loop PWR unit with electric output of 566 MW, and it began the commercial operation on September 30, 1977, as the first nuclear power station in Shikoku. It is the 13th LWR and 7th PWR in Japan. The period of construction was 52 months since it had been started in June, 1973. During the period, it became the object of the first administrative litigation to seek the cancellation of permission to install the reactor, and it was subjected to the influence of the violent economical variation due to the oil shock, but it was completed as scheduled. After the start of operation, it continued the satisfactory operation, and generated about 2.35 billion KWh for 4300 operation hours. It achieved the rate of utilization of 96.7%. Since March 28, 1978, the first periodical inspection was carried out, and abnormality was not found in the reactor, the steam generator and the fuel at all. The period of inspection was 79 days and shorter than expected. The commercial operation was started again on June 14. The outline of the Ikata Nuclear Power Station, its state of operation, and the periodical inspection are reported. Very good results were able to be reported on the operation for one year, thanks to the valuable experiences offered by other electric power companies. (Kako, I.)

  1. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  2. Commercialization project of Ulchin vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Won

    2011-01-01

    The Ulchin Vitrification Facility (UVF), to be used for the vitirification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the world's first commercial facility using Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology. The construction of the facility was begun in 2005 and was completed in 2007. From December 2007 to September 2009, all key performance tests, such as the system functional test, the cold test, the hot test, and the real waste test, were successfully carried out. The UVF commenced commercial operation in October 2009 for the vitrification of radioactive waste. (author)

  3. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  4. Operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRae, L.P.; Six, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company began operating a first-generation integrated safeguards system in the Plutonium Finishing Plant storage vaults. This Vault Safety and Inventory System is designed to integrate data into a computer-based nuclear material inventory monitoring system. The system gathers, in real time, measured physical parameters that generate nuclear material inventory status data for thousands of stored items and sends tailored report to the appropriate users. These data include canister temperature an bulge data reported to Plant Operations and Material Control and Accountability personnel, item presence and identification data reported to Material Control and Accountability personnel, and unauthorized item movement data reported to Security response forces and Material Control and Accountability personnel. The Westinghouse Hanford Company's experience and operational benefits in using this system for reduce radiation exposure, increase protection against insider threat, and real-time inventory control are discussed in this paper

  5. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  6. Regional vegetation management standards for commercial pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the understanding gained from these trials allowed for the development of vegetation management standards, their operational and economic viability need to be tested on a commercial basis. Four pine trials were thus initiated to test the applicability of these standards when utilised on a commercial scale. Two of ...

  7. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  8. NREL Analysis Identifies Where Commercial Customers Might Benefit from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battery Energy Storage | NREL | News | NREL NREL Analysis Identifies Where Commercial Customers Customers Might Benefit from Battery Energy Storage August 24, 2017 After upfront costs, batteries may reduce operating costs for customers paying demand charges Commercial electricity customers who are

  9. Commercial mixed waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    At the South Clive, Utah, site, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., (Envirocare), currently operates a commercial low-activity, low-level radioactive waste facility, a mixed waste RCRA Part B storage and disposal facility, and an 11e.(2) disposal facility. Envirocare is also in the process of constructing a Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. As the nation's first and only commercial treatment and disposal facility for such waste, the information presented in this segment will provide insight into their current and prospective operations

  10. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  11. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  12. The Trend of Mean BMI Values of US Adults, Birth Cohorts 1882-1986 Indicates that the Obesity Epidemic began Earlier than Hitherto Thought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komlos, J.; Brabec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2010), s. 631-638 ISSN 1042-0533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : BMI * semiparametric model * generalized additive model * trend estimation * birth cohort effects Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2010

  13. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  14. How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2005-01-01

    How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

  15. Results and Lessons Learned From the DOE Commercial Building Partnerships: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A.; Deru, M.; Langner, R.; Stark, G.; Doebber, I.; Scheib, J.; Sheppy, M.; Bonnema, E.; Pless, S.; Livingood, B.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of 5 years, NREL worked with commercial building owners and their design teams in the DOE Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to cut energy consumption by 50% in new construction (versus code) and by 30% in existing building pilot projects (versus code or pre-retrofit operational energy use depending on the preference of the Partner) using strategies that could be replicated across their building portfolios. A number of different building types were addressed, including supermarket, retail merchandise, combination big box (general merchandise and food sales), high rise office space, and warehouse. The projects began in pre-design and included a year of measurement data to evaluate performance against design expectations. Focused attention was required throughout the entire process to achieve a design with the potential to hit the energy performance target and to operate the resulting building to reach this potential. This paper will report quantitative results and cover both the technical and the human sides of CBP, including the elements that were required to succeed and where stumbling blocks were encountered. It will also address the impact of energy performance goals and intensive energy modeling on the design process innovations and best practices.

  16. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  17. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  18. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs

  19. Ten year report on the operation of the Latina nuclear power station 1964-1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The final report on the operation of the Latina nuclear power station, required under the terms of the contract of participation between ENEL and EURATOM is presented. It covers the first ten years of commercial operation (1 January 1964-31 December 1973) of this power station. Latina uses a British Magnox-type gas-graphite natural uranium reactor with a design thermal capacity of 724 MW. The rated electrical output of the three main turbogenerators was originally 210 MW (3x70), but was reduced to 160 MW in 1971. Construction began in November 1958 and was completed when the reactor first reached criticality in December 1962, the station being connected to the Italian electricity network for the first time in May 1963. The gross rated output of 210 MWe was reached in December 1963 and commercial operation began on 1 January 1964, by which date, however, the power station had already fed 295.5 million kWh into the network

  20. Commercialization of technology in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud Mohamad; Razali Hamzah

    2005-01-01

    Full text:The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), was officially established in 1972 (PUSPATI as it was known then) and has progressed leaps and bounds to become one of the country's leading research organization particularly in the field of nuclear science and technology. Primarily set up as a full fledge research and development entity with one of the initial aims was looking into the possibility of embarking in the generation of power via the use of nuclear technology as an alternative source of energy for the nation. MINTs role has somewhat changed in tandem with her stage of development and national priorities. In line with the Government's policy on sustainability and self-reliance and a drive to commercialize R and D findings, the R and D institutions are expected to be self sufficiency at 30% of institutional operating budget. MINT has embarked on the commercialization program since in 1987 even before the the policy was instituted. Unlike other corporate R and D institutions and universities which do have some liberty and flexibility in the management of the organizations, MINT as a full fledge government R and D institute faces a number of challenges in the commercialization exercise. The paper describes the technologies developed at MINT, our product and services, and challenges and limitations in commercializing our R and D endeavors. (Author)

  1. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  2. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 3rd Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009....

  3. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 4th Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009, and the EU Brussels Regulation (recast), 2012....

  4. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  5. Ressenya a Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Expósito i Amagat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ressenya a Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015, 302 pp., 80 il·ls., ISBN: 978-84-608-3423-6 Review to  Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015, 302 pp., 80 il·ls., ISBN: 978-84-608-3423-6

  6. Is radurisation commercially feasible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In November 1980 an international expert committee, convened by the three organisations sponsoring the International Food Irradiation Project, viz the World Health Organisation, the Food and Agricultural Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, declared all radurised foods irradiated up to a dose of 10 kGy (1 Mrad) as unconditionally safe and nutritionally adequate (ie wholesome) for humans. However, the application of this new food-processing technique on a full commercial scale will undoubtedly be determined by factors such as the efficacy of the process in comparison with existing techniques, cost of operation, and finally, acceptance by the food handler and consumer. Studies in various countries, including South Africa, during the past decade have demonstrated that radiation in most cases in combination with pre-irradiation heat treatment or post irradiation cold storage, could play an important role in improving the quality of fresh produce by extension of shelf life (sometimes dramatic), by hygienisation (eg the elimination of harmful pathogens or a reduction of potentially harmful chemical residues) and lastly by improved quarantine control. Cost and energy-comsumption analyses indicate that radurisation is an energy-saving process in comparison with both heating and cooling and, even though the process is capital intensive, that substantial cost benefits can accrue when large quantities of certain foodstuffs are processed. Consumer acceptance trials, both locally and abroad, have shown that if the consumer is properly informed, he can be convinced of the advantages which radurised foods could offer. A National Steering Committee was recently consituted. This committee acts in an advisory capacity to the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and co-ordinates all aspects of the test marketing of radurised food on a national level

  7. The commercialization of natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, P.

    1997-01-01

    A successful NGV industry depends upon the skilled use of prime geographic and economic drivers. But a vital ingredient to a sustained and profitable industry is the pioneering example of the gas suppliers and the combined commercial skills of fleet operators equipment suppliers and government. The use of natural gas for vehicles must be long-term commercially viable both for the vehicles whole life cost and the refuelling stations capital investment. (au)

  8. Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios The WEA Project Team May 2012 SPECIAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2012-SR-020 CERT® Division, Software ...Homeland Security under Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0003 with Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally...DISTRIBUTES IT “AS IS.” References herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trade mark, manufacturer, or otherwise

  9. Commercial Space with Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    To provide affordable space transportation we must be capable of using common fixed assets and the infrastructure for multiple purposes simultaneously. The Space Shuttle was operated for thirty years, but was not able to establish an effective continuous improvement program because of the high risk to the crew on every mission. An unmanned capability is needed to provide an acceptable risk to the primary mission. This paper is intended to present a case where a commercial space venture could share the large fixed cost of operating the infrastructure with the government while the government provides new advanced technology that is focused on reduced operating cost to the common launch transportation system. A conceivable commercial space venture could provide educational entertainment for the country's youth that would stimulate their interest in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through access at entertainment parks or the existing Space Visitor Centers. The paper uses this example to demonstrate how growing public-private space market demand will re-orient space transportation industry priorities in flight and ground system design and technology development, and how the infrastructure is used and shared.

  10. Recognition and Use of Kitchen Tools and Utensils. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 4.4. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 4: Equipment Handling, Operation, and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with common tools and utensils used in commercial kitchens. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided on various kitchen tools (cutting,…

  11. Commercial application of fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosetti, P.A.; Bruce, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    The potential for general application of Fault Tree Analysis to commercial products appears attractive based not only on the successful extension from the aerospace safety technology to the nuclear reactor reliability and availability technology, but also because combinatorial hazards are common to commercial operations and therefore lend themselves readily to evaluation by Fault Tree Analysis. It appears reasonable to conclude that the technique has application within the commercial industrial community where the occurrence of a specified consequence or final event would be of sufficient concern to management to justify such a rigorous analysis as an aid to decision making. (U.S.)

  12. R and M practices in commercial aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    During 1982-83, Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA) and American Management Systems (AMS) conducted an extensive review of design and operations practices in the commercial air transport industry focused on reliability and maintenance for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The genesis of this review was a discussion of the technical and environmental similarities of the commercial air transport and commercial nuclear power communities and the potential opportunities for experience transfer from air transport to nuclear power. This paper focuses on those similarities believed to be of particular interest to the nuclear power community

  13. Commercialization in Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    For any firm, the ultimate purpose of new product development is the commercialization of the new offerings. Despite its regular use in the product innovation and general management science literature, commercialization is only loosely defined and applied. This lack of conceptual clarity about...... the processes at the interface between product development and customer application is noteworthy as it hinders the theoretical development of the field. In this paper, we explore how research has advanced our understanding of commercialization in product innovation over a 30 year period by mapping different...

  14. The impact of continuous driving time and rest time on commercial drivers' driving performance and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianzhen; Pei, Yulong

    2014-09-01

    This real road driving study was conducted to investigate the effects of driving time and rest time on the driving performance and recovery of commercial coach drivers. Thirty-three commercial coach drivers participated in the study, and were divided into three groups according to driving time: (a) 2 h, (b) 3 h, and (c) 4 h. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) was used to assess the subjective fatigue level of the drivers. One-way ANOVA was employed to analyze the variation in driving performance. The statistical analysis revealed that driving time had a significant effect on the subjective fatigue and driving performance measures among the three groups. After 2 h of driving, both the subjective fatigue and driving performance measures began to deteriorate. After 4 h of driving, all of the driving performance indicators changed significantly except for depth perception. A certain amount of rest time eliminated the negative effects of fatigue. A 15-minute rest allowed drivers to recover from a two-hour driving task. This needed to be prolonged to 30 min for driving tasks of 3 to 4 h of continuous driving. Drivers' attention, reactions, operating ability, and perceptions are all affected in turn after over 2 h of continuous driving. Drivers should take a certain amount of rest to recover from the fatigue effects before they continue driving. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Commonalities in Russian Military Operations in Urban Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Dale

    2003-01-01

    .... In doing so it advantage in technology will be significantly reduced. By conducting a study of the Russian operations in Chechnya and comparing it to operations in Stalingrad some enduring traits began to emerge...

  16. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  17. NASA commercial programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  18. Commercial Landing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Statistics Division of the NOAA Fisheries has automated data summary programs that anyone can use to rapidly and easily summarize U.S. commercial...

  19. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  20. Commodification and commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Richard J

    1992-01-01

    ... In this article I shall argue tentatively for the claim that commercial surrogacy should be legally permissible. I am more strongly convinced that a commitment to feminism should not predispose anyone against surrogacy. At least, no arguments offered so far should persuade anyone who is committed to equal rights for women and men and the dismantling of gender-based hierarchies to favor either legal prohibition or moral condemnation of commercial surrogacy.

  1. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  2. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  3. Prospects for commercial fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of issues associated with whether or not, and when, fusion will become commercial. One of the largest factors is cost of development. Development is being delayed by the need to work with other countries to share these costs. Other aspects have to do with the capital costs of the reactors themselves. The ITER reactor may cost 6-7 billion dollars, which is a sizeable investment for a test reactor. The safety and environmental aspects of fusion are other factors which have delayed commercialization. Public acceptance of this form of nuclear power and the licensing and regulatory procedures must be resolved before electric utilities are willing to invest heavily in fusion. The Department of Energy has developed a plan as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, wherein a first demonstration power plant will be operating around the year 2025. Much of the ongoing effort is directed toward reducing the size and cost of Tokamak reactors. While Tokamaks are not the only game in town, it is the primary thrust of the world effort and it is the technology which is expected to lead into the first generation of commercial fusion reactors

  4. 30 CFR 772.14 - Commercial use or sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial use or sale. 772.14 Section 772.14... REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL EXPLORATION § 772.14 Commercial use or sale. (a) Except as provided under §§ 772.14(b... operations is required for the sale or commercial use of coal extracted during exploration operations if such...

  5. Industrial and commercial applications for a Triga reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Physics and Radioisotope Services Group of ICI operates a Triga Reactor in support of a commercial, Industrial Radioisotope Technology Service. The technical and commercial development of this business is discussed in the context of operating a Triga Reactor in an Industrial Environment. (author)

  6. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  7. Satisfying story of how it all began

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddle, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    {sup N}ow this 'Big Bang' idea seemed to me to be unsatisfactory...for it is an irrational process that cannot be described in scientific terms.' With this rather derisory remark (or at least so intended) in a 1950 radio broadcast, Fred Hoyle named the theory that rivalled his steady-state theory. The Big Bang has subsequently become the dominant paradigm in attempts to understand our universe. It is also one of the dominant ways in which popular-science writing seeks to persuade people to part with their cash. Simon Singh has rapidly made a name for himself as one of the leading popularizers of science, with his previous books Fermat's Last Theorem and The Code Book bringing accessible science to a wide audience . Big Bang brings him to a much busier marketplace, where he must compete both with other science writers and with working scientists. (U.K.)

  8. The day the Internet age began

    CERN Multimedia

    Cerf, Vinton G

    2009-01-01

    Forty years ago today the first message was sent between computers on the ARPANET. Vinto G. Cerf, who was a principal programmer on the project, reflects on how our online world was shaped by its innovative origins. (2 pages)

  9. The Geneva conference - How it began

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-08-15

    The First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy had its origin in President Eisenhower's initiative of the early nineteen-fifties, when he proposed a concerted international effort to divert the power of the atom from warlike purposes into the service of peace. To the United Nations General Assembly in December 1953, he pledged the determination of the United States 'to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma - to devote its entire heart and mind to finding the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life'. The UN General Assembly in plenary session, in December 1954, unanimously and enthusiastically adopted a resolution which provided for the establishment of an International Atomic Energy Agency, and for the holding of an international technical conference of governments under the auspices of the United Nations. To prepare the way, an Advisory Committee was set up, consisting of representatives of Brazil, Canada, France, India, USSR, United Kingdom and USA. The result was the largest meeting that had been convened under the auspices of the United Nations; it was held from 8 to 25 August 1955 in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, where the necessary facilities were available for such a large multilingual conference. Thirty-eight governments submitted 1067 papers and 1428 participants attended. The conference was wide in scope, embracing all major aspects of the peaceful applications of atomic energy.

  10. The Geneva conference - How it began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy had its origin in President Eisenhower's initiative of the early nineteen-fifties, when he proposed a concerted international effort to divert the power of the atom from warlike purposes into the service of peace. To the United Nations General Assembly in December 1953, he pledged the determination of the United States 'to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma - to devote its entire heart and mind to finding the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life'. The UN General Assembly in plenary session, in December 1954, unanimously and enthusiastically adopted a resolution which provided for the establishment of an International Atomic Energy Agency, and for the holding of an international technical conference of governments under the auspices of the United Nations. To prepare the way, an Advisory Committee was set up, consisting of representatives of Brazil, Canada, France, India, USSR, United Kingdom and USA. The result was the largest meeting that had been convened under the auspices of the United Nations; it was held from 8 to 25 August 1955 in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, where the necessary facilities were available for such a large multilingual conference. Thirty-eight governments submitted 1067 papers and 1428 participants attended. The conference was wide in scope, embracing all major aspects of the peaceful applications of atomic energy.

  11. Do not fear the Framingham: Practical application to properly evaluate and modify cardiovascular risk in commercial divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Rahul; Pavela, James; Kus, Marcus S; Alleman, Tony; Sanders, Robert

    2018-01-01

    In April 2016 the Association of Diving Contractors International (ADCI) consensus guidelines began recommending annual cardiovascular risk stratification of commercial divers using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). For those at elevated risk, further testing is recommended. This approach has raised concerns about potential operational and financial impacts. However, the prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk and need for additional testing among commercial divers is not known. Clinical data required to calculate the FRS was abstracted for 190 commercial divers in two cohorts. Population demographics, FRS distribution, contributions of risk factors and effect of interventions on reducing risk-factor burden were assessed. Mean FRS score was 1.68 ± 6.35 points, with 13 divers (6.8%) at intermediate risk and none at high 10-year risk. In these 13 divers, the mean contributions to the FRS were from age (6.5 points), cholesterol (3.1 pts.), smoking (1.3 pts.), highdensity lipoprotein (1 pt.), and systolic blood pressure (0.8 pts). The youngest age group had a significantly higher modifiable risk core than the oldest age group (5.87 vs. 1.2 points, P ⟨ 0.001). All 13 intermediate risk divers could have been reclassified as low-risk with successful treatment of modifiable risk factors. The prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk among commercial divers is low, and treatment of modifiable risk factors could reclassify those at intermediate risk to low risk. Therefore, FRS implementation coupled with intensive risk-reduction strategies for at risk-divers may help improve diver health and prolong the careers of divers while limiting the need for additional testing and adverse operational impact. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  12. FFTF operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newland, D.J.; Krupar, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In April 1982, the FFTF began its first nominally 100 day irradiation cycle. Since that time the plant has operated very well with steadily increasing plant capacity factors during its first four cycles. One hundred fifty fuel assemblies (eighty of which are experiments) and over 32,000 individual fuel pins have been irradiated, some in excess of 100 MWd/Kg burnup. Specialized equipment and systems unique to sodium cooled reactor plants have performed well

  13. Commercialization of NESSUS: Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Millwater, Harry R.

    1991-01-01

    A plan was initiated in 1988 to commercialize the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) probabilistic structural analysis software. The goal of the on-going commercialization effort is to begin the transfer of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) developed technology into industry and to develop additional funding resources in the general area of structural reliability. The commercialization effort is summarized. The SwRI NESSUS Software System is a general purpose probabilistic finite element computer program using state of the art methods for predicting stochastic structural response due to random loads, material properties, part geometry, and boundary conditions. NESSUS can be used to assess structural reliability, to compute probability of failure, to rank the input random variables by importance, and to provide a more cost effective design than traditional methods. The goal is to develop a general probabilistic structural analysis methodology to assist in the certification of critical components in the next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  14. Commercial Conspiracy Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eFurnham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs.The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed.

  15. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  16. Commercial launch systems: A risky investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John

    1996-03-01

    A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

  17. 防范商业贿赂工作机制在我院药库的建立及运作%Establishment and Operation of Working Mechanisms of Commercial Bribery Prevention in Drugstore of Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海莹; 吴新荣; 胡丽辉

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prevent commercial bribery through formulating and consummating all kinds of working systems in hospital drugstores. METHODS: Working systems of commercial bribery precaution were established using strategies of purchasing medicine from the main channel, online examination and verification of new drugs data, online drug purchase and quantified evaluation for suppliers, etc. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The working mechanism improves reasonable and fair approval procedure of new drugs, online transparent drug purchase procedure and objective evaluation and selection of distribution companies. Being the key point in drugstore management, the prevention of commercial bribery and the reinforcement of building a clean and honest department should be implemented thoroughly for a long time.%目的:通过在医院药库制定及完善各项工作制度防范商业贿赂.方法:实施主渠道进药、基于网络实现新药资料审核、药品网上采购、对供货公司进行量化考评等方法,建立防范商业贿赂的工作机制.结果与结论:通过建立该工作机制,促进了新药审批环节公平公正化,药品采购流程网络化、透明化以及配送公司的客观评估和遴选.防治商业贿赂、加强廉政建设是药库管理工作的重点,必须长期贯彻执行.

  18. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  19. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  20. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  1. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  2. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  3. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  4. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  5. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  6. Research achievements and commercial interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    ANSTO, in partnership with Australian and overseas organisations, continues to make significant contributions to selected fields of research and development. Major revenue for ANSTO is generated through sales of radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes for medical, industrial, environmental and research purposes and through neutron irradiation services. Further, ANSTO is actively trying to generate maximum value from its knowledge and know-how through protection and exploitation of its intellectual property. Strategic alliances have been developed to further the commercial utilisation of ANSTO know-how in, for example, delivery systems for tumour treatments, commercial waste remediation and applications of plasma implantation. The 2000-2001 financial year saw the establishment of an ANSTO business unit called Sulfide Solutions targeted at better management of environmental issues arising from mining operations. Overall, ANSTO's capacity to generate value from the application of its knowledge and know-how is being increasingly acknowledged, the organisation attaining credibility as an international leader in the application of nuclear science and technology in targeted areas

  7. Chemical surveillance of commercial fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.; Stade, K.Ch.

    1988-01-01

    After BN-600 (USSR) and SUPERPHENIX (France) were started succesfully, the international development of LMFBRs is standing at the doorstep of commercial use. For commercial use of LMFBRs cost reductions for construction and operation are highly desirable and necessary. Several nations developing breeder reactors have joined in a common effort in order to reach this aim by standardization and harmonization. On the base of more than 20 years of operation experience of experimental reactors (EBR-II, FFTF, RAPSODIE, DFR, BR-5/BR-10, BOR-60, JOYO, KNK-II) and demonstration plants (PHENIX, PFR, BN-350), possibilities for standardization in chemical surveillance of commercial breeder reactors without any loss of availability, reliability and reactor safety will be discussed in the following chapters. Loop-type reactors will be considered as well as pool-type reactors, although all commercial plants under consideration so far (SUPERPHENIX II, BN-800, BN-1600, CFBR, SNR-2, EFR) include pool-type reactors only. Table 1 gives a comparison of the Na inventories of test reactors, prototype plants and commercial LMFBRs

  8. Advanced commercial Tokamak optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, R.H.; Berwald, D.H.; Gordon, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Our recent studies have concentrated on developing optimal high beta (bean-shaped plasma) commercial tokamak configurations using TRW's Tokamak Reactor Systems Code (TRSC) with special emphasis on lower net electric power reactors that are more easily deployable. A wide range of issues were investigated in the search for the most economic configuration: fusion power, reactor size, wall load, magnet type, inboard blanket and shield thickness, plasma aspect ratio, and operational β value. The costs and configurations of both steady-state and pulsed reactors were also investigated. Optimal small and large reactor concepts were developed and compared by studying the cost of electricity from single units and from multiplexed units. Multiplexed units appear to have advantages because they share some plant equipment and have lower initial capital investment as compared to larger single units

  9. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  10. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  11. International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Hlušička, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to analyse one of the most used type of extrajudicial procedures, the International commercial arbitration. The reason for my research is the progress and elevation of use of the arbitration and not only on international field. The thesis is composed of six chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of Arbitration. Chapter One is introductory and defines basic terminology used in the thesis. The chapter is subdivided into two parts. Part One describes in...

  12. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  14. Activities dedicated to FCPP commercialization at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Ozono, Jiro; Sato, Nobuaki [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The present line-up of fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) at Toshiba consists of 11MW FCPP for pressurized operation, 1000kW on-site FCPP and 200kW on-site FCPP. In these, an 11MW FCPP installed at Goi Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) is providing valuable experience through more than 20,000 cumulative hours of operation. Also, a 1000kW on-site FCPP, which Toshiba manufactured under the joint program of NEDO and PAFC Technology Research Association, has cumulative operation of 7,500 hours. Toshiba, however, believes that the 200kW on-site FCPP is the leader in the commercialization of phosphoric acid FCPP. This paper therefore presents the development status of 200kW power plants and our strategic considerations for full commercialization of PC25 type 200kW FCPP.

  15. NCAP projection displays: key issues for commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akira; Jones, Philip J.

    1992-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in a new polymer nematic dispersion technology, often called as NCAP, PDLC, PNLC, LCPC, etc., since projection displays using this technology have been shown to produce much brighter display images than projectors using conventional twisted nematic (TN) lightvalves. For commercializing projection displays based on this polymer nematic dispersion technology, the new materials must not only meet various electro- optic requirements, e.g., operational voltage, `off-state'' scattering angle, voltage holding ratio and hysteresis, but must also be stable over the lifetime of the product. This paper reports recent progress in the development of NCAP based projection displays and discusses some of the key commercialization issues.

  16. Environmental assessment for commercialization of the Mound Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In November 1993 US DOE decided to phase out operations at the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, with the goal of releasing the site for commercial use. The broad concept is to transform the plant into an advanced manufacturing center with the main focus on commercializing products and other technology. DOE proposes to lease portions of the Mound Plant to commercial enterprises. This Environmental Impact statement has a finding of no significant impact in reference to such action

  17. Entrepreneurship and innovation: the co-operative society as a commercial option to development Empreendedorismo e inovação: a cooperativa como alternativa empresarial para o desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Ribeiro Rodrigues Alves

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The crisis of the traditional capitalism urges innovation. The cooperative is an alternative way of usual commercial organization, and it does this without compromising the institutes of free enterprises and private property. Cooperativism promotes ethics and democracy as an environment of entrepreneurship. The profits are shared according to the participation in the activities and not according to how much the person have paid before. The experience of cooperativism in developed countries shows how much it is profitable and good to economics and society.A crise da forma tradicional de capitalismo clama por inovações. A cooperativa é uma forma alternativa à organização empresarial tradicional, sem deixar de assegurar a livre iniciativa e a propriedade privada. O cooperativismo preza a ética e a democracia num ambiente propício ao empreendimento. Pressupõe uma cultura de desapego ao poder estabelecido com base no capital investido, e a participação nos resultados proporcional à conduta proativa do empreendedor. A experiência das cooperativas em países de alto grau de desenvolvimento corrobora o acerto desta forma de organização e se mostra útil para o desenvolvimento econômico e social do empreendedor.

  18. Knowledge gained from the founding and operation of EURODIF with respect to political and legal structures which may be used in the establishment of a multinational commercial plant for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The political and legal problems and the decisions to be made in establishing a multi-national enrichment venture are reviewed in the context of the EURODIF facility. It is argued that location is important economically, since enrichment processes (especially diffusion) are highly energy-intensive, and strategically, in that diversity of location contributes to assurances of supply. Technology is also considered a fundamental factor. Potential partners are categorized according to: Those who are able to bring a viable enrichment technique, those who are able to make a commercial contribution, e.g. by contracting to purchase a portion of the product, those who are attracted by a potential profit and are able to make a financial contribution, those who are able to provide a source of energy, and those who have the engineering expertise needed to carry out a large-scale project. The development of the EURODIF facility, the partners selected, and the reasoning which led to some of the decisions are reviewed

  19. Applied Operations Research: Operator's Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operates high value critical equipment (HVCE) that requires trouble shooting, periodic maintenance and continued monitoring by Operations staff. The complexity HVCE and information required to maintain and trouble shoot HVCE to assure continued mission success as paper is voluminous. Training on new HVCE is commensurate with the need for equipment maintenance. LaRC Research Directorate has undertaken a proactive research to support Operations staff by initiation of the development and prototyping an electronic computer based portable maintenance aid (Operator's Assistant). This research established a goal with multiple objectives and a working prototype was developed. The research identified affordable solutions; constraints; demonstrated use of commercial off the shelf software; use of the US Coast Guard maintenance solution; NASA Procedure Representation Language; and the identification of computer system strategies; where these demonstrations and capabilities support the Operator, and maintenance. The results revealed validation against measures of effectiveness and overall proved a substantial training and capability sustainment tool. The research indicated that the OA could be deployed operationally at the LaRC Compressor Station with an expectation of satisfactorily results and to obtain additional lessons learned prior to deployment at other LaRC Research Directorate Facilities. The research revealed projected cost and time savings.

  20. Commercial and ERDA waste packaging criteria: possible similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrie, B.

    1977-01-01

    The schedule calls for hot operation of two waste repositories by the end of 1985, and these facilities will have to be licensed. This licensing requirement sets the commercial program apart from the ERDA defense waste program. Packaging criteria are discussed for commercial and ERDA wastes. The different NRC, DOT, and EPA criteria are considered

  1. Electric vehicles: Technology assessment and commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabot, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article traces the history of commercialization efforts relative to electric vehicles, assesses the state-of-the-art of electric vehicle technology and identifies the industrial firms that are investing heavily in this field. The main design problems affecting the commercialization of these vehicles (e.g., battery weight, autonomy, operating safety and toxicity) are pointed out. Comparisons of commercialization prospects are made with those for hydrogen fuelled vehicles. With regard to investments in research programs, it is argued that, in addition to car manufacturers and oil companies, the usual active participants in the transport sector, new participants are needed to give added support to the development of electric vehicles, namely, electric utilities and battery manufacturers

  2. Thermal Environment evaluation in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    as commercial kitchens? There is therefore a need to study the indoor environment in commercial kitchens and to establish standardized methods and procedures for setting criteria that have to be met for the design and operation of kitchens. The present paper introduces a data collection protocol based......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence the thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., complicate further an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are expressed in international standards such as ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN7730. But are these standardised methods applicable for such environments...

  3. Challenges of Sustainable and Commercial Aquaponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a number of serious problems of which population rise, climate change, soil degradation, water scarcity and food security are among the most important. Aquaponics, as a closed loop system consisting of hydroponics and aquaculture elements, could contribute to addressing these problems. However, there is a lack of quantitative research to support the development of economically feasible aquaponics systems. Although many studies have addressed some scientific aspects, there has been limited focus on commercial implementation. In this review paper, opportunities that have the potential to fill the gap between research and implementation of commercial aquaponic systems have been identified. The analysis shows that aquaponics is capable of being an important driver for the development of integrated food production systems. Arid regions suffering from water stress will particularly benefit from this technology being operated in a commercial environment.

  4. Identifying, Licensing, and Commercializing Technology: An Entrepreneur's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Kris

    2013-03-01

    A linguist by trade, Kris Appel left government service to pursue entrepreneurship. She knew she wanted to start a company, but she did not have a business idea. After researching various technologies available for commercialization, she began to focus on a prototype medical device at the University of Maryland Medical School, which had been developed to help stroke survivors recover their arm movement. The device was based upon emerging science into brain re-training, and was backed by very convincing clinical trials. Working closely with University researchers, she licensed the rights to the device, developed a commercial version, and launched it in 2009. Today the device is used around the globe, and has helped thousands of stroke and brain injury survivors improve their arm function and way of life. Kris will tell the story of the device, and how it got from idea to prototype to successful rehabilitation product.

  5. Commercial real estate development and valuation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, Dennis Albert Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, financial deregulation, or the process of removing governmental rules controlling the way that financial organizations operate, has facilitated interconnections between commercial real estate markets, the financial sector and national economic markets. As a result,

  6. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  7. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  8. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  9. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  10. Commercial Opportunities and Ethical Pitfalls in Personalized Medicine: A Myriad of Reasons to Revisit the Myriad Genetics Saga

    OpenAIRE

    So, Derek; Joly, Yann

    2013-01-01

    In 1996, the US-based biotechnology company Myriad Genetics began offering genetic diagnostic tests for mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are linked to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Since that time, Myriad has been a forerunner in the field of personalized medicine through the use of effective commercialization strategies which have been emulated by other commercial biotechnology companies. Myriad?s strategies include patent acquisition and active enforcement, direct-to-co...

  11. 76 FR 42160 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Space Transportation Operations Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory...

  12. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 2 : summary of case study interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The FHWA has commissioned the Commercial Vehicle Fleet Management and Information Systems study to determine if there are fleet management needs that the public sector can address through the development of ITS for commercial vehicle operations. As p...

  13. 10 CFR 431.132 - Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers § 431.132 Definitions... necessarily shipped in 1 package) that— (1) Consists of a condensing unit and ice-making section operating as...

  14. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's annual summary of licensed nuclear power reactor data is based primarily on the report of operating data submitted by licensees for each unit for the month of December because that report contains data for the month of December, the year to date (in this case calendar 1990) and cumulative data, usually from the date of commercial operation. The data is not independently verified, but various computer checks are made. The report is divided into two sections. The first contains summary highlights and the second contains data on each individual unit in commercial operation. Section 1 capacity and availability factors are simple arithmetic averages. Section 2 items in the cumulative column are generally as reported by the licensee and notes as to the use of weighted averages and starting dates other than commercial operation are provided

  15. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfield, R.A.

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commissions annual summary of licensed nuclear power reactor data is based primarily on the report of operating data submitted by licensees for each unit for the month of December, the year to date (in this case calendar year 1993) and cumulative data, usually for the date of commercial operation. The data is not independently verified, but various computer checks are made. The report is divided into two sections. The first contains summary highlights and the second contains data on each individual unit in commercial operation. Section 1 capacity and availability factors are simple arithmetic averages. Section 2 items in the cumulative column are generally as reported by the licensee and notes as to the use of weighted averages and starting dates other than commercial operation are provided

  16. Advanced LWR technology for commercial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) are now being deployed and commercialized around the world. In Japan, the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) is building the world's first ALWRs, two 1300 MWe Advanced BWRs (ABWRs). In the United States, the Department of Energy, utilities and suppliers are undertaking a cooperative program called First of a Kind Engineering (FOAKE). The purpose of FOAKE is to perform the detailed engineering of ALWRs to that they will be commercially available to U.S. utilities in the mid-1990s. The U.S. industry is in the second year of its strategic plan to have an ALWR in commercial operation by the year 2000. Elsewhere, the Taiwan Power Company has issued a Request for Proposal for two ALWRs so be built at its Lungmen site, with commercial operation of the first unit to be in the year 2000. Korea is formulating plans for an ALWR and other countries, such as Indonesia and Mexico, are looking into the feasibility of building ALWRs

  17. Commercial regional incinerator facility for treatment of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1981, US Ecology, Inc. began studies on the feasibility of constructing and operating a regional radioactive waste incinerator facility. In December, 1982, US Ecology requested turnkey quotations from several vendors for engineering, procurement, and construction of the new facility. After technical and commercial evaluations, a contract was awarded to Associated Technologies, Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, in June, 1983. In June, 1984, US Ecology made a public announcement that they were studying two sites in North Carolina for location of the facility. This same month, they submitted their permit application for a radioactive material license to the North Carolina Department of Human Resources. The facility will accept wastes from power reactors, medical and research institutions and other industrial users, and will incinerate dry solid waste, pathological waste, scintillation fluids, and turbine oils. The incinerator will be a dual chamber controlled air design, rated at 600 lbs/hr, with a venturi scrubber, packed column, HEPA, and charcoal filters for pollution control. The stack will have a continuous monitor

  18. A commercial regional incinerator facility for treatment of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, R.E.; Jessop, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, US Ecology, Inc. began studies on the feasibility of constructing and operating a regional radioactive waste incinerator facility. In December, 1982, US Ecology requested turnkey quotations from several vendors for engineering, procurement, and construction of the new facility. After technical and commercial evaluations, a contract was awarded to Associated Technologies, Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, in June, 1983. In June, 1984, US Ecology made a public announcement that they were studying two sites in North Carolina for location of the facility. This same month, they submitted their permit application fro a radioactive material license to the North Carolina Department of Human Resources. The facility will accept wastes from power reactors, medical and research institutions and other industrial users, and will incinerate dry solid waste, pathological waste, scintillation fluids, and turbine oils. The incinerator will be a dual chamber controlled air design, rated at 600 lbs/hr, with a venturi scrubber, packed column, HEPA, and charcoal filters for pollution control. The stack will have a continuous monitor

  19. Commercial regional incinerator facility for treatment of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, R.E.; Jessop, D.; Associated Technologies, Inc., Charlotte, NC)

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, US Ecology, Inc. began studies on the feasibility of constructing and operating a regional radioactive waste incinerator facility. In December, 1982, US Ecology requested turnkey quotations from several vendors for engineering, procurement, and construction of the new facility. After technical and commercial evaluations, a contract was awarded to Associated Technologies, Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, in June, 1983. In June, 1984, US Ecology made a public announcement that they were studying two sites in North Carolina for location of the facility. This same month, they submitted their permit application for a radioactive material license to the North Carolina Department of Human Resources. The facility will accept wastes from power reactors, medical and research institutions and other industrial users, and will incinerate dry solid waste, pathological waste, scintillation fluids, and turbine oils. The incinerator will be a dual chamber controlled air design, rated at 600 lbs/h, with a venturi scrubber, packed column, HEPA, and charcoal filters for pollution control. The stack will have a continuous monitor. 4 figs

  20. Commercial regional incinerator facility for treatment of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, R.E.; Jessop, D.

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, US Ecology, Inc. began studies on the feasibility of constructing and operating a regional radioactive waste incinerator facility. In December, 1982, US Ecology requested turnkey quotations from several vendors for engineering, procurement, and construction of the new facility. After technical and commercial evaluations, a contract was awarded to Associated Technologies, Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, in June, 1983. In June, 1984, US Ecology made a public announcement that they were studying two sites in North Carolina for location of the facility. This same month, they submitted their permit application for a radioactive material license to the North Carolina Department of Human Resources. The facility will accept wastes from power reactors, medical and research institutions and other industrial users, and will incinerate dry solid waste, pathological waste, scintillation fluids, and turbine oils. The incinerator will be a dual chamber controlled air design, rated at 600 lbs/h, with a venturi scrubber, packed column, HEPA, and charcoal filters for pollution control. The stack will have a continuous monitor

  1. The commercialization of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  2. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  3. Treatment of DOE mixed wastes using commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.F.; Ross, M.A.; Dilday, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    In a demonstration program, Department of Energy (DOE) solid mixed wastes generated during uranium processing operations are characterized to define the unit operations required for treatment. The objectives included the implementation of these treatment operations utilizing a commercial Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF). In contracting for commercial hazardous and mixed waste treatment, it is important to characterize the waste beyond the identification of toxicity characteristic (TC) and radiological content. Performing treatability studies and verification of all the unit operations required for treatment is critical. The stream selected for this program was TC hazardous for barium (D005) and contaminated with both depleted and low enriched uranium. The program resulted in the generation of characterization data and treatment strategies. The characterization and treatability studies indicated that although a common unit operation was required to remove the toxic characteristic, multiple pretreatment operations were needed. Many of these operations do not exist at available TSDF's, rendering some portions of the stream untreatable using existing commercial TSDF's. For this project the need for pretreatment operations resulted in only a portion of the waste originally targeted for treatment being accepted for treatment at a commercial TSDF. The majority of the targeted stream could not be successfully treated due to lack of an off-site commercial treatment facility having the available equipment and capacity or with the correct combination of RCRA permits and radioactive material handling licenses. This paper presents a case study documenting the results of the project

  4. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  5. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  6. Commercialism - the growth prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.K.R.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to ensure good business proposals for the future British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) is making a number of international initiatives. Likely markets for expansion include the United States, Japan and Western Europe, to whom the company can offer activities such as oxide fuel reprocessing, uranium hexafluoride conversion, fabrication of oxide and mixed oxide fuels, uranium enrichment and the safe transport of nuclear materials. The creation of International Nuclear Fuels Limited will expand overseas business and ensure security of fuel supply for the international nuclear industry. Working jointly with AEA Technology, BNFL will seek to market their combined decommissioning experience on the international market. The author concludes the BNFL is in a strong position to supply an increasing world-wide need for nuclear waste management and increased commercial awareness within the company will ensure a good section of the market is secured. U.K

  7. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. LS1 to LHC Report: LHC key handed back to Operations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    This week, after 23 months of hard work involving about 1000 people every day, the key to the LHC was symbolically handed back to the Operations team. The first long shutdown is over and the machine is getting ready for a restart that will bring its beam to full energy in early spring.   Katy Foraz, LS1 activities coordinator, symbolically hands the LHC key to the operations team, represented, left to right, by Jorg Wenninger, Mike Lamont and Mirko Pojer. All the departments, all the machines and all the experimental areas were involved in the first long shutdown of the LHC that began in February 2013. Over the last two years, the Bulletin has closely followed  all the work and achievements that had been carefully included in the complex general schedule drawn up and managed by the team led by Katy Foraz from the Engineering Department. “The work on the schedule began two years before the start of LS1 and one of the first things we realised was that there was no commercial...

  9. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  10. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-01-17

    During the Energy Commercialization Center’s (ECC) three years in operation, the only thing constant was change. The world of commercialization and cleantech evolved significantly during the time the ECC was formed and operating, including: the availability of cleantech funding lessoned, the growth of incubators and accelerators skyrocketed, the State of Utah created an office dedicated to energy development, the University of Utah was both praised and criticized for its success in commercialization, and the Federal government temporarily shut down. During the three-year grant there were three principle investigators on the grant, as well as three directors for the University’s Commercialization Office. Change can be hard for an organization,but as we instruct the companies we support, “Fail fast and fail often, because it is the fastest path to success.” Although there were some unanticipated challenges along the way, the local ecosystem is stronger because of the ECC’s efforts. Perhaps the greatest lesson learned was the importance of aligned incentives between key stakeholders in the commercialization process and the need for resources at the company and individual entrepreneur levels. The universities have systems and incentives to commercialize technologies, but creating value and companies generally rest with the individuals and entrepreneurs. Unfortunately the ECC was unable to create a viable mechanism to transfer the commercialization process that successfully aligned incentives and achieve a more effective ecosystem within the Rocky Mountain West. However, the ECC was successful in adding value to the individual ecosystems, and connecting national resources to regional and local needs. Regarding the ECC’s effectiveness in developing a cleantech commercialization ecosystem, initial inroads and relationships were established with key stakeholders. However, incentives, perceived or real competition, differences in commercialization processes, and

  11. Commercializing medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  12. Commercial Crew Program and the Safety Technical Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Macy

    2016-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is unique to any other program office at NASA. After the agency suffered devastating budget cuts and the Shuttle Program retired, the U.S. gave up its human spaceflight capabilities. Since 2011 the U.S. has been dependent on Russia to transport American astronauts and cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) and back. NASA adapted and formed CCP, which gives private, domestic, aerospace companies unprecedented reign over America's next ride to space. The program began back in 2010 with 5 companies and is now in the final phase of certification with 2 commercial partners. The Commercial Crew Program is made up of 7 divisions, each working rigorously with the commercial providers to complete the certification phase. One of these 7 divisions is Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) which is partly comprised of the Safety Technical Review Board (STRB). The STRB is primarily concerned with mitigating improbable, but catastrophic hazards. It does this by identifying, managing, and tracking these hazards in reports. With the STRB being in SE&I, it significantly contributes to the overall certification of the partners' vehicles. After the partners receive agency certification approval, they will have the capability to provide the U.S. with a reliable, safe, and cost-effective means of human spaceflight and cargo transport to the ISS and back.

  13. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Zaraswati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health.  It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.  The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop.  The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development.      Keywords:  commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance

  14. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.; Fujita, T.; Mondt, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    For more than a decade, Jet Propulsion Labortory and Los Alamos have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples: a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication (self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the NASA Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received, which indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  15. ETHICS AND COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MEGHIŞAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern economic science was built around the concept of efficiency. In economy the notion of equality is strongly correlated with the notion of balance, such as the market balance when the demand equals the offer. In a broader view, the economy cannot contribute to a reflection on equity unless it re-became a moral and political science or even a philosophical economy. At present, when there is an effervescence of international transactions, we all adulate the need for morality. Everyday, all around the world, regular people are affected by the costs of ethical issues. The profit and social responsibility do not exclude reciprocally. The social value of a company is given by the well-being and the work-places generated, by the products and services offered to the consumers at a fair price in correlation with the quality. The sentimental value represents the value that a person is giving to a good, based on feelings and emotions and not on monetary values. In many cases the passions and the interests are more powerful than the moral value that animates us. A lot of commercials, if they are to say the truth, would recognize that, for them, not the clients are important but the profits.

  16. The commercialization of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Currently there are ten large collective biogas plants and ten smaller farm plants operating in Denmark. During the last five years, biogas technology has undergone extensive technological development. The developmental process is supported by a public R and D programme and a follow-up programme for full-scale demonstration plants. Most plants still need considerable income increases before a final conclusion can be reached as to whether it is possible to achieve a profit from a corporate economic viewpoint. All plants have received investment grants. Gas production is in most cases reliable, especially due to the admixture of easily convertible organic waste as a supplement to the slurry supplies. Profitable collective biogas plants are within reach, even without investment grants. The total intake of biomass must be supplemented by 10 to 25 per cent easily convertible organic waste so that the minimum gas production reaches 30 to 35 m 3 per m 3 of biomass. Plants based solely on animal manure are not profitable. Energy from the biogas has to be sold at prices corresponding to consumer prices, which include Danish energy taxes. Collective biogas plants in Denmark appear to be approaching a commercial breakthrough. The concept of a collective biogas plant has been developed to address the energy-related, environmentally-related and agricultural problems. (AB)

  17. Electric automobile: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1992-01-01

    Performance results during one-month test driving of a small FIAT car (normally equipped with a 30-45 Hp internal combustion engine), retrofitted to operate with a set of electric batteries delivering 15 Hp, demonstrated that, unless the design of an electric car's transmission and control systems are based completely on electric power operation, the vehicle loses its competitiveness with conventional cars. Making reference to the findings of an ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) electric powered vehicle R ampersand D program, this paper assesses the feasibility of electric powered vehicles and points out their major drawbacks: battery volume, weight, cost and recharging requirements in densely populated urban environments. The paper also notes that mass conversion to these vehicles by itself will not solve the urban traffic congestion problem for which optimum traffic control and parking areas are required

  18. COMMERCIALLY ORIENTED CLINICAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, W. Max

    1964-01-01

    Out-of-state flat-rate mail order contract laboratories operating from states which have little or no legal control over them can do business in California without obedience to regulations that govern laboratories located within the state. The flat-rate contract principle under which some out-of-state laboratories operate is illegal in California. The use of such laboratories increases physician liability. Legislation for the control of these laboratories is difficult to construct, and laws which might result would be awkward to administer. The best remedy is for California physicians not to use an out-of-state laboratory offering contracts or conditions that it could not legally offer if it were located in California. PMID:14165875

  19. Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Kirk, Roy J.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Greene, Richard M.; Buncher, Carole S.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1989-03-01

    Coal, an abundant domestic energy source, provides 25 percent of the nation's energy needs, but its use contributes to various types of pollution, including acid rain. The Department of Energy (DOE) has a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program whose goal is to expand the use of coal in an environmentally safe manner by contributing to the cost of projects demonstrating the commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. Concerned about the implementation of the CCT program, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, requested GAO to report on (1) DOE's process of negotiating cooperative agreements with project sponsors, (2) changes DOE has made to the program, (3) the status of funded projects, and (4) the interrelationship between acid rain control proposals and the potential commercialization of clean coal technologies. Under the CCT program, DOE funds up to 50 percent of the cost of financing projects that demonstrate commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. DOE has conducted two solicitations for demonstration project proposals and is planning a third solicitation by May 1989. The Congress has appropriated $400 million for the first solicitation, or round one of the program, $575 million for round two, and $575 million for round three, for a total of $1.55 billion. For the round-one solicitation, DOE received 51 proposals from project sponsors. As of December 31, 1988, DOE had funded nine projects and was in the process of negotiating cooperative financial assistance agreements with sponsors of four projects. In September 1988, DOE selected 16 round-two projects from 55 proposals submitted and began the process of negotiating cooperative agreements with the project sponsors. The Congress has debated the need to reduce acid rain-causing emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion. The 100th Congress considered but did not enact about 20 acid rain control bills. On February 9, 1989

  20. Emergency operating instruction improvements at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trillo, M.W.; Smith, B.H.

    1989-01-01

    In late 1987, San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) began an extensive upgrade of the units 2 and 3 emergency operating instructions (EOIs). The original intent of this program was to incorporate revised generic guidance and to correct problems that were identified by operators. While this program was in progress, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted a series of audits of emergency operating procedure (EOP) development and maintenance programs as 16 commercial nuclear facilities in the United States. These audits included four stations with Combustion Engineering-designed nuclear steam supply systems. (One of these audits included a review of preupgrade SONGS units 2 and 3 EOIs.) Significant industrywide comments resulted from these audits. The NRC has stated its intent to continue the review and audit of EOIs and the associated maintenance programs at all US commercial nuclear facilities. The units 2 and 3 EOI upgrade program developed procedural improvements and procedural program maintenance improvements that address many of the existing audit comments that have been received by the industry. Other resulting improvements may be useful in minimizing NRC comments in future such audits. Specific improvements are discussed. The upgrade program resulted in benefits that were not originally anticipated. The results of this program can be of significant use by other utilities in addressing the industrywide concerns that have been raised in recent NRC audits of EOP development and maintenance programs

  1. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. 77 FR 47818 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socioeconomics of Commercial Fishers and for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socioeconomics of Commercial Fishers and for Hire Diving and Fishing Operations... [[Page 47819

  3. Land remote sensing commercialization: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, W. P.; Heacock, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The current offer by the United States Department of Commerce to transfer the U.S. land remote sensing program to the private sector is described. A Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued, soliciting offers from U.S. firms to provide a commercial land remote sensing satellite system. Proposals must address a complete system including satellite, communications, and ground data processing systems. Offerors are encouraged to propose to take over the Government LANDSAT system which consists of LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D'. Also required in proposals are the market development procedures and plans to ensure that commercialization is feasible and the business will become self-supporting at the earliest possible time. As a matter of Federal Policy, the solicitation is designed to protect both national security and foreign policy considerations. In keeping with these concerns, an offeror must be a U.S. Firm. Requirements for data quality, quantity, distribution and delivery are met by current operational procedures. It is the Government's desire that the Offeror be prepared to develop and operate follow-on systems without Government subsidies. However, to facilitate rapid commercialization, an offeror may elect to include in his proposal mechanisms for short term government financial assistance.

  4. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk (Napier 1992). Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanford facilities in a calendar year (Heeb 1993); therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed

  5. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  6. Commercially available video motion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended

  7. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.

    2008-01-01

    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  8. Development of commercial robots for radwaste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colborn, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    The cost and dose burden associated with low level radwaste handling activities is a matter of increasing concern to the commercial nuclear power industry. This concern is evidenced by the fact that many utilities have begun to revaluate waste generation, handling, and disposal activities at their plants in an effort to improve their overall radwaste handling operations. This paper reports on the project Robots for Radwaste Handling, to identify the potential of robots to improve radwaste handling operations. The project has focussed on the potential of remote or automated technology to improve well defined, recognizable radwaste operations. The project focussed on repetitive, low skill level radwaste handling and decontamination tasks which involve significant radiation exposure

  9. Commercialization of sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.; Kristle Nathan, Hippu Salk; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2010-01-01

    Commercialization efforts to diffuse sustainable energy technologies (SETs) have so far remained as the biggest challenge in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Limited success of diffusion through government driven pathways urges the need for market based approaches. This paper reviews the existing state of commercialization of SETs in the backdrop of the basic theory of technology diffusion. The different SETs in India are positioned in the technology diffusion map to reflect their slow state of commercialization. The dynamics of SET market is analysed to identify the issues, barriers and stakeholders in the process of SET commercialization. By upgrading the 'potential adopters' to 'techno-entrepreneurs', the study presents the mechanisms for adopting a private sector driven 'business model' approach for successful diffusion of SETs. This is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development with innovative regulatory, marketing, financing, incentive and delivery mechanisms leading to SET commercialization. (author)

  10. 31 CFR 103.188 - Special measures against Commercial Bank of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs Law Enforcement Access to Foreign Bank Records § 103.188 Special measures against Commercial Bank of Syria. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Commercial Bank of Syria means any branch, office, or subsidiary of Commercial Bank of Syria operating in Syria or in any other jurisdiction...

  11. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor...

  12. Interest rate and commercial banks' lending operations in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that Monetary Policy Rate (MPR) and inflation rate exert a positive and significant impact on banks' loans for the period. For the deregulation era, the result showed that MPR and the exchange rate had significant impact on banks' loans and advances. While the former exerted a negative impact, the later had a ...

  13. Indiana intelligent transportation systems commercial vehicle operations business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This business plan was developed by the Motor Carrier Services (MCS) division of the Indiana Department of Revenue. It is the result of a nine month study of the various state departments and agencies that directly and indirectly support the intersta...

  14. Map based localization to assist commercial fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report outlines key recent contributions to the state of the art in lane detection, lane departure warning, : and map-based sensor fusion algorithms. These key studies are used as a basis for a discussion about the : limitations of systems that ...

  15. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  16. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Operating Units Status Report --- Licensed Operating Reactors provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff on NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non- power reactors in the US

  17. Commercial Application of In-Space Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymer, John; Hanson, Mark; Tadros, Al; Boccio, Joel; Hollenstein, Bruno; Emerick, Ken; Doughtery, Sean; Doggett, Bill; Dorsey, John T.; King, Bruce D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In-Space assembly (ISA) expands the opportunities for cost effective emplacement of systems in space. Currently, spacecraft are launched into space and deploy into their operational configuration through a carefully choreographed sequence of operations. The deployment operation dictates the arrangement of the primary systems on the spacecraft, limiting the ability to take full advantage of launch vehicles volume and mass capability. ISA enables vastly different spacecraft architectures and emplacement scenarios to be achieved, including optimal launch configurations ranging from single launch and assembly to on-orbit aggregation of multiple launches at different orbital locations and times. The spacecraft can be visited at different orbital locations and times to effect expansion and maintenance of an operational capability. To date, the primary application of ISA has been in large programs funded by government organizations, such as the International Space Station. Recently, Space Systems Loral (SSL) led a study funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), called Dragonfly, to investigate the commercial applicability and economic advantages of ISA. In the study, it was shown that ISA enables SSL to double the capability of a commercial satellite system by taking advantage of alternate packaging approaches for the reflectors. The study included an ultra-light-weight robotic system, derived from Mars manipulator designs, to complete assembly of portions of the antenna system using a tool derived from DARPA orbital express and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) automated structural assembly experience. The mechanical connector that enables robotic ISA takes advantage of decades of development by NASA from the 1970's to 1980's during the Space Station Freedom program, the precursor to the ISS. The mechanical connector was originally designed for rapid astronaut assembly while also providing a high quality structural connection

  18. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected

  19. Residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Furbo, S.

    2012-11-15

    Low-energy buildings can make a major contribution to general sustainable development by providing a solution to problems related to the use of fossil fuels. The EPBD (EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings) requirements that by 2020 new building shall be constructed to use nearly zero energy, and no fossil fuels, can be accomplished by combining low-energy buildings with renewable energy via low-temperature district heating in cities and suburbs, and via heat pumps for low-density settlements. Based on experience with passive houses, low-energy buildings meeting the energy performance requirements of 2020 are expected to cost only a few percent more than conventional buildings. The very large and rapid changes needed in the energy performance of buildings is a challenge for the building sector, but one that can be overcome by better methods of developing products and designing, constructing and operating buildings. Simulation-based analysis and optimisation, and considerations of durability, will be important here. Building may thus be transformed from an experience-based sector to one based on knowledge and research, with high-quality sustainable products and good business opportunities. (Author)

  20. FY 1998 Report on development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power systems. International co-operative project (IEA implementing agreement for a co-operative programme on photovoltaic power systems); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. IEA taiyoko hatsuden system kenkyu kyoryoku program jisshi kyotei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are outline of the International Energy Agency/Co-operative programme on Photovoltaic Power Systems (IEA/PVPS). Japan signed the IEA Implementing Agreement for a co-operative programme on Photovoltaic Power Systems in April 1993, and has been participating in the programme for research and development, demonstration, analysis, information exchange and introduction promotion, among others. This programme is managed by Executive Committee composed of the representatives, one nominated by each participating country, and each task is managed by each Operating Agency. There are 9 tasks (Tasks 1 to 9), and Executive Committee deliberates and approves the plans, and manages the progresses, budgetary plans and budgets for each task. IEA implementing agreement for a co-operative programme on PVPS, originally set effective for 5 years, has been extended for another 5 years to 2002, and the second phase activities have been started. The 9th to 11th Executive Committee meetings were held during the 1997-1998 period in Denmark, ROK, Spain, Austria and Australia, respectively. (NEDO)

  1. Preliminary performance and operating results from the integrated dry NOx/SO2 emissions control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, T.; Schott, G.; Smith, R.; Muzio, L.; Jones, D.; Mali E.; Arrigoni, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Dry NO x /SO 2 Emissions Control System was installed at Public Service Company of Colorado's Arapaho 4 generating station in 1992 in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This full scale 100 MWe demonstration combines low-NO x burners, overfire air, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO x control and dry sorbent injection with humidification for SO 2 control. Operation and testing of the Integrated Dry NO x /SO 2 Emissions Control System began in August 1992 and will continue through mid 1994. Preliminary results of the NO x control technologies show that the original system goal of 70% NO x removal has been easily met and that NO x removals of up to 80% are possible at full load with the combustion and SNCR systems. Testing of the dry sorbent injection system with low sulfur coal began in April 1993 using a calcium-based reagent. A maximum SO 2 removal of 40% has been achieved with duct injection of commercial calcium hydroxide and humidification to a 25 degrees F approach to saturation. Sodium-based dry sorbent injection is expected to achieved up to a 70% SO 2 reduction

  2. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  3. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  4. SPECIAL ISSUES REGARDING THE MEDIATION PROCESS IN THE COMMERCIAL FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    SEPTIMIU STOICA

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research subject to this paper is to find proper solutions for the increase of the volume and efficiency in the field of commercial mediation. Starting from practical remarks, after an analysis of the substance, a new concept is suggested to be included and put into operation, namely the special commercial mediation, and a plead is made for its use in the current activity of alternative dispute resolution. The first major objective of this paper is to demonstrate once again...

  5. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  6. Technology transfer and commercialization of in situ vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.D.; Hansen, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) technology was conceived and an initial proof-of-principle test was conducted in 1980 by Battelle Memorial Institute for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The technology was rapidly developed through bench, engineering pilot, and large scales in the following years. In 1986, DOE granted rights to the basic ISV patent to Battelle in exchange for a commitment to commercialize the technology. Geosafe Corporation was established as the operating entity to accomplish the commercialization objective. This paper describes and provides status information on the technology transfer and commercialization effort

  7. This is Commercial Titan Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensselaer, F. L.; Slovikoski, R. D.; Abels, T. C.

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S. government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, Commercial Titan Inc., which is taking on its U.S. and foreign rocket-making competitors to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  8. Commercial mortgages: An underutilized channel for scaling energy efficiency investments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul; Wallace, Nancy; Alschuler, Elena; Kolstad, Leonard

    2016-02-01

    Commercial mortgages currently do not fully account for energy factors in underwriting and valuation, particularly as it relates to the impact of energy costs and volatility on an owner’s net operating income. As a consequence, energy efficiency is not properly valued and energy risks are not properly assessed and mitigated. Commercial mortgages are a large lever and could be a significant channel for scaling energy efficiency investments. A pilot analysis of loans with different mortgage contract structures and locations showed that when energy cost volatility was included in mortgage valuation, a 20% reduction in energy use resulted in a 1.3% average increase in mortgage value. This suggests that the explicit inclusion of energy use and volatility in mortgage valuation can send a strong price signal that financially rewards and values energy efficiency in commercial properties. This paper presents findings from a scoping study addressing energy factors in commercial mortgages. First, we present a review of current practices as it relates to incorporating energy factors into commercial mortgage underwriting and valuation. Next, we detail the impacts of energy factors on property values, net operating income and mortgage valuation. Building operational practices alone can result in energy use variations from -17% to 87%. Finally, we present a set of proposed interventions to properly address energy factors in commercial mortgages, based on extensive discussions with stakeholders including mortgage originators, underwriters, building owners and regulators.

  9. Characterization of commercial MOSFETS electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal, M. A.; Simancas, F.; Guirado, D.; Banqueri, J.; Vilches, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Palma, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there have been commercial dosimetry devices based on transistors Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOSFET) having a number of advantages over traditional systems for dosimetry in medical applications. These include the portability of the sensor element and a reading process quick and relatively simple dose, linearity, and so on. The use of electron beams is important in modern radiotherapy include its use in intra-operative radiotherapy (RIO). This paper presents an initial characterization of different business models MOSFET, not specific for radiation detection, to demonstrate their potential as sensors for electron beam dosimetry. (Author)

  10. Prospective needs for decommissioning commercial nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Yasui, M.; Laraia, M.

    1992-01-01

    The answers to the questions: How many reactors will face the end of their operating lifetime over the next few decades? To what extent are the issues of decommissioning urgent? The answers will lead us to those issues that should be tackled now in order to complete smoothly the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The prospective needs for decommissioning of nuclear power plants are illustrated from the viewpoint of reactor age, and some of the issues to be tackled, in particular by governments, in this century are discussed, to prepare for the future decommissioning activities. (author) 18 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Nuclear power plant operational data compilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electricite de France R and D Division has set up a nuclear power plant operational data compilation system. This data bank, created through American documents allows results about plant operation and operational material behaviour to be given. At present, French units at commercial operation are taken into account. Results obtained after five years of data bank operation are given. (author)

  12. Commercial Cyclone Incinerator Demonstration Program: April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The commercial cyclone incinerator program was designed to study the effects of burning low-level waste contaminated with beta and gamma emitters in a cyclone system. The ultimate program goal is the demonstration of a cyclone incinerator at a nuclear power plant. During the past six months, the first program objective, NRC review of the Feasibility Plan, was achieved, and work began on the second objective, Complete Incinerator Feasibility Plan. Potential applications for the cyclone incinerator have been investigated. The feasibility plan for the incinerator system was reviewed with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Following a series of cold checkout burns, implementation of the feasibility plan was begun with the start of laboratory-scale experiments. Inconel 601 is being investigated as a material of construction for the incinerator burn chamber

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  16. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  18. Les entreprises commerciales (Commercial Enterprises).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace

    1979-01-01

    Examines the legal concept of "corporate body" in French and English law, as well as that of the "company," the "corporation," and the "society"; and discusses the manifestations of a dual legal heritage in commercial enterprises in Quebec. (AM)

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  20. Towards a commercially potential process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the industrial potential to indirectly isolate phytosterols from deodoriser distillates (DODs), enzymatic transesterification of an industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD mixture with bioethanol was investigated using commercial lipases and a few newly immobilised preparations...

  1. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  2. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  3. Organic diagenesis in commercial nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry currently faces numerous challenges. Large volumes of already existing wastes must be permanently disposed using environmentally acceptable technologies. Numerous criteria must be addressed before wastes can be permanently disposed. Waste characterization is certainly one of the key criteria for proper waste management. some wastes are complex melting pots of inorganics, radiochemicals, and, occasionally, organics. It is clear, for example, that organics have been used extensively in nuclear operations, such as waste reprocessing, and continue to be used widely as solvents, decontamination agents, etc. The authors have analyzed the organic content of many kinds of nuclear wastes, ranging from commercial to defense wastes. In this paper, the finale analyses are described of three commercial wastes: one waste from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and two wastes from a boiling water reactor (BWR). The PWR waste is a boric acid concentrate waste. The two BWR wastes, BWR wastes Nos. 1 and 2, are evaporator concentrates of liquid wastes produced during the regeneration of ion-exchange resins used to purify reactor process water. In preliminary analyses, which were reported previously, a few know organics and myriad unknowns were detected. Recent reexamination of mass-spectral data, coupled with reanalysis of the wastes, has resulted in the firm identification of the unknowns. Most of the compounds, over thirty distinct organics, are derived from the degradation, or diagenesis, of source-term organics, revealing, for the first time, that organic diagenesis in commercial wastes is both vigorous and varied

  4. Commercializing ALURTRONs electron beam irradiation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aiasah Hashim; Mohd Sidek Othman; Shari Jahar; Sarada Idris; Naurah Mohd Isa; Muhamad Zahidee Taat

    2010-01-01

    ALURTRON has been the nation's sole electron irradiation service provider for research sectors. The main irradiation is done by utilising the EPS 3000 Cockcroft-Walton type 3.0 MeV, 90 k Watts electron beam machine (EBM). With more than 15 years experience in the operation and maintenance of the EPS, the challenge is now to commercialize the service at a larger and profitable scale. Medical products sterilization at commercial level has been ruled out since the energy is insufficient to penetrate dense and non-homogenous items. Recently, the demand for irradiation of wire and heat shrinkable tubes is showing bigger commercial potential. Therefore, prudent planning considerations need to be taken to ensure profitable return to the agency. Calculations were made to estimate ALURTRON service capacity, based on the existing EBM and its auxiliary systems. Details of the calculation including all the variables are presented. Results indicated that Alurtron should be able to process a minimum of 1000 km of small wires per month, running at 150 m/ min, working in two shifts, 5 days a week. The projected revenue is dependent on the charges imposed on the basis of total length delivered. (author)

  5. Advances in commercial ICF technology since 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the march toward commercial ICF fusion reactors has been uneven in the past few years. Considerable advances have been made in the area of light ion beam fusion through the development of rep ratable drivers (i.e., HERMES-III technology) and diodes (i.e., applied B configuration with renewable Li surfaces). Significant progress in the development of lasers to compress targets has also been made through the KrF Aurura program. The possibility of lowering the cost of glass in the advanced solid state lasers has been given serious consideration. The development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique to improve the uniformity of the laser beam has allowed physicists and engineers to once again contemplate the use of symmetric illumination. This would reduce the driver energy required to achieve high gains but it also introduces difficulty in the reactor design. Relatively little progress in commercial heavy ion beam drivers has been made over the past few years aside from an indepth study (HIFSA) of the desirable operating regimes to be pursued. Other areas where little progress has been made are conceptual reactor studies, target declassification and specific experimental programs to address commercial ICF reactor technology needs

  6. McDonaldization and commercial outdoor recreation and tourism in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera J. Zegre; Mark D. Needham; Linda E. Kruger; Randall S. Rosenberger

    2012-01-01

    This article uses perceptions of commercial tour operators in Juneau, Alaska, to examine the extent to which the commercial outdoor recreation and tourism industry in this area reflects principles of McDonaldization—efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. Data from interviews with 23 operators suggest that this industry in Juneau illustrates these...

  7. Evaluation Of The Advanced Operating System Of The Ann Arbor Transportation Authority : Driver And Dispatcher Perceptions Of AATA'S Advanced Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Ann Arbor (Michigan) Transportation Authority began deploying advanced public transportation systems (APTS) technologies in its fixed route and paratransit operations. The project's concept is the integration of a range of such technolog...

  8. Recovery Act: Training Program Development for Commercial Building Equipment Technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leah Glameyer

    2012-07-12

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop curricula, certification requirements, and accreditation standards for training on energy efficient practices and technologies for commercial building technicians. These training products will advance industry expertise towards net-zero energy commercial building goals and will result in a substantial reduction in energy use. The ultimate objective is to develop a workforce that can bring existing commercial buildings up to their energy performance potential and ensure that new commercial buildings do not fall below their expected optimal level of performance. Commercial building equipment technicians participating in this training program will learn how to best operate commercial buildings to ensure they reach their expected energy performance level. The training is a combination of classroom, online and on-site lessons. The Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) developed curricula using subject matter and adult learning experts to ensure the training meets certification requirements and accreditation standards for training these technicians. The training targets a specific climate zone to meets the needs, specialized expertise, and perspectives of the commercial building equipment technicians in that zone. The combination of efficient operations and advanced design will improve the internal built environment of a commercial building by increasing comfort and safety, while reducing energy use and environmental impact. Properly trained technicians will ensure equipment operates at design specifications. A second impact is a more highly trained workforce that is better equipped to obtain employment. Organizations that contributed to the development of the training program include TEEX and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) (both members of The Texas A&M University System). TEES is also a member of the Building Commissioning Association. This report includes a description of the project

  9. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  10. Trials, tribulations, and pitfalls using commercial instruments for data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.C.; Olsen, R.H.; Unger, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) uses many commercially available instruments - for example spectrum analyzers, oscilloscopes, digital volt meters, signal generators - as integral parts of instrumentation and control systems. Typically these systems are remotely controlled. Using commercial instruments has many benefits. Manufactures have the skill, knowledge, and experience to produce high quality products. The price performance ratio is hard to duplicate. There are also disadvantages. Proprietary interfaces, single platform drivers, and reliable operation provide challenges for implementation and unattended operation. Several of the systems used at RHIC will be described. Their issues and solutions will be presented.

  11. Response Variability in Commercial MOSFET SEE Qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J. S.; Clymer, D. A.; Turflinger, T. L.; Mason, L. W.; Stone, S.

    2016-01-01

    Single-event effects (SEE) evaluation of five different part types of next generation, commercial trench MOSFETs indicates large part-to-part variation in determining a safe operating area (SOA) for drain-source voltage (V_D_S) following a test campaign that exposed >50 samples per part type to heavy ions. These results suggest a determination of a SOA using small sample sizes may fail to capture the full extent of the part-to-part variability. An example method is discussed for establishing a Safe Operating Area using a one-sided statistical tolerance limit based on the number of test samples. Finally, burn-in is shown to be a critical factor in reducing part-to-part variation in part response. Implications for radiation qualification requirements are also explored.

  12. Commercial Optics for Space Surveillance and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Kopit, E.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    Since the first days of the space program, there have been both amateur and government satellite watchers. Large, expensive government systems with custom optics are still the most capable, but with modern sensors and high speed computers, amateur trackers are easily pushing the limits of what government systems achieved only a decade ago. A very recent trend in the space world is the emergence of commercial space operations centers. Once the exclusive purview of governments, corporations are now providing orbital environment awareness services to the operators of commercial satellites. The requirement for synoptic satellite observations has led to corporations developing world-wide observing networks. A problem facing both amateur and corporate observers is the limited availability of suitable optical systems. Most observing efforts rely on long focus (f/8 or greater) optical systems with focal reducers, and a somewhat limited field of view. Often, the cameras in use are not ideally matched to the optical system. While there are a few exceptions, the choices are not many. Celestron recently introduced the C-11 RASA optical system, with an 11-inch aperture and an f/2.2 focal ratio. This optical system is designed for dedicated imaging and is ideally suited for both wide-field astronomy and the detection and tracking of satellites. The larger C-14 RASA, to be introduced later this year, was specifically designed for wide-field imaging with large commercial CCDs. It offers greater sensitivity and a wider field of view than the smaller C-11 RASA and should prove to be the instrument of choice for both amateur and corporate satellite observers. We present data from satellite observations with a production model C-11 RASA and estimated performance for the new C-14 RASA.

  13. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  14. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  15. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  16. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-11-27

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  17. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  18. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  19. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  20. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  1. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-01-01

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database

  2. Energy Factors in Commercial Mortgages: Gaps and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coleman, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wallace, Nancy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Issler, Paulo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kolstad, Lenny [Inst. for Market Transformation, Washington, DC (United States); Sahadi, Robert [Inst. for Market Transformation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The commercial real estate mortgage market is enormous, with almost half a trillion dollars in deals originated in 2015. Relative to other energy efficiency financing mechanisms, very little attention has been paid to the potential of commercial mortgages as a channel for promoting energy efficiency investments. The valuation and underwriting elements of the business are largely driven by the “net operating income” (NOI) metric – essentially, rents minus expenses. While NOI ostensibly includes all expenses, energy factors are in several ways given short shrift in the underwriting process. This is particularly interesting when juxtaposed upon a not insignificant body of research revealing that there are in fact tangible benefits (such as higher valuations and lower vacancy and default rates) for energy-efficient and “green” commercial buildings. This scoping report characterizes the current status and potential interventions to promote greater inclusion of energy factors in the commercial mortgage process.

  3. Applying commercial robotic technology to radioactive material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasz, E.L.; Sievers, R.H. Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The development of robotic systems for glove box process automation is motivated by the need to reduce operator radiation dosage, minimize the generation of process waste, and to improve the security of nuclear materials. Commercial robotic systems are available with the required capabilities but are not compatible with a glove box environment. Alpha radiation, concentrated dust, a dry atmosphere and restricted work space result in the need for unique adaptations to commercial robotics. Implementation of these adaptations to commercial robotics require performance trade-offs. A design and development effort has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of using a commercial overhead gantry robot for glove box processing. This paper will present the initial results and observations for this development effort. 1 ref

  4. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-05-17

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database.

  5. 76 FR 126 - Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI) Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial..., SDDC will require all commercial accounts accessing transportation systems and applications to use a commercial PKI certificate or Transportation Workers Identification Credential (TWIC). This requirement will...

  6. COMMERCIAL FUND, RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOREL TRIF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the immaterial investments within companies nowadays urges the specialists in accounting to find the ways to present more in the elements. In their studies researchers face the controversy reinvestments, as an asset in the balance sheet or an expense in the profit or loss account. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the difficulties in commercial fund. In the first part we will analyze various definitions of the problems concerning the commercial fund’s recognition and assessment. The paper also suggests that investments are really social and economic problems.

  7. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an interim status report on the STARFIRE project for the period of May to September 1979. The basic objective of the STARFIRE project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor

  8. Commercial IEC portable neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sved, J.

    1997-01-01

    The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion grade plasma devices are being developed as a commercial industrial product by Daimler-Benz Aerospace (DASA), Center Trauen, which has an exclusive license from the University of Illinois (UI) to manufacture the commercial implementation of the Miley et al. IEC inventions. DASA is funding the UI Fusion Studies Laboratory basic IEC research and the intellectual property protection process. The association of the DASA Space Infrastructure division with an apparently unrelated technology has arisen from the perception that IEC technology may benefit from certain aerospace technologies and eventually create a market for space infrastructure services. In addition, DASA Center Trauen has a number of environmental technology businesses

  9. Commercial applications of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The fact that industry is now willing to pay the full commercial cost for certain neutron scattering experiments aimed at solving its urgent materials - related problems is a true testimony to the usefulness of neutrons as microscopic probes. This paper gives examples of such use of three techniques drawn mainly from our experience at AEA Technology Harwell Laboratory. These are diffraction to measure residual stress, small angle neutron scattering to examine hardening precipitates in ferritic steels brought about by irradiation, and reflectivity to study amorphous diamond layers deposited on silicon. In most cases it is the penetrative power of the neutron which proves to be its best asset for commercial industrial applicaitons. (author)

  10. Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial reactor criticality was achieved 12/11/76 and power generation began 12/25/76. Information is presented concerning operation, maintenance, procedure and specification changes, power generation, unit shutdowns and forced power reductions, testing, and personnel radiation exposures

  11. Commercial and PET radioisotope manufacturing with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, T.E.; McLeod, T.F.; Plitnikas, M.; Kinney, D.; Tavano, E.; Feijoo, Y.; Smith, P.; Szelecsenyi, F.

    1993-01-01

    Mount Sinai has extensive experience in producing radionuclides for commercial sales and for incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, including PET. Currently, an attempt is being made to supply radiochemicals to radiopharmaceutical manufacturers outside the hospital, to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for in-house use, and to prepare PET radiopharmaceuticals, such as 2-[F-18] FDG, for outside sales. This use for both commercial and PET manufacturing is atypical for a hospital-based cyclotron. To accomplish PET radiopharmaceutical sales, the hospital operates a nuclear pharmacy. A review of operational details for the past several years shows a continuing dependence on commercial sales which is reflected in research and developmental aspects and in staffing. Developmental efforts have centered primarily on radionuclide production, target development, and radiochemical processing optimization. (orig.)

  12. Commercial and PET radioisotope manufacturing with a medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, T. E.; McLeod, T. F.; Plitnikas, M.; Kinney, D.; Tavano, E.; Feijoo, Y.; Smith, P.; Szelecsényi, F.

    1993-06-01

    Mount Sinai has extensive experience in producing radionuclides for commercial sales and for incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, including PET. Currently, an attempt is being made to supply radiochemicals to radiopharmaceutical manufacturers outside the hospital, to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for in-house use, and to prepare PET radiopharmaceuticals, such as 2-[F-18] FDG, for outside sales. This use for both commercial and PET manufacturing is atypical for a hospital-based cyclotron. To accomplish PET radiopharmaceutical sales, the hospital operates a nuclear pharmacy. A review of operational details for the past several years shows a continuing dependence on commercial sales which is reflected in research and developmental aspects and in staffing. Developmental efforts have centered primarily on radionuclide production, target development, and radiochemical processing optimization.

  13. Applying commercial robotic technology to radioactive material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasz, E.L.; Sievers, R.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The development of robotic systems to automate nuclear material processing in glove boxes is motivated by the need to reduce operator radiation exposure, minimize the generation of process waste, and to improve security of nuclear materials. Commercial robotic systems can furnish the needed manipulation capabilities by are not readily compatible with the glove box environment and physical restrictions. Alpha radiation, concentrated dust, a dry atmosphere and restricted work space require unique adaptations of commercial robotics. Tradeoffs between meeting desired functional capabilities and extensive customization are necessary. The reported design and development efforts include evaluating the feasibility of using a commercial gantry robot for glove box pyrochemical and smelting operations. This paper presents the initial results and observations for this development effort

  14. TidGen Power System Commercialization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Christopher R. [President & CEO; McEntee, Jarlath [VP Engineering & CTO

    2013-12-30

    ORPC Maine, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (collectively ORPC), submits this Final Technical Report for the TidGen® Power System Commercialization Project (Project), partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-EE0003647). The Project was built and operated in compliance with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) pilot project license (P-12711) and other permits and approvals needed for the Project. This report documents the methodologies, activities and results of the various phases of the Project, including design, engineering, procurement, assembly, installation, operation, licensing, environmental monitoring, retrieval, maintenance and repair. The Project represents a significant achievement for the renewable energy portfolio of the U.S. in general, and for the U.S. marine hydrokinetic (MHK) industry in particular. The stated Project goal was to advance, demonstrate and accelerate deployment and commercialization of ORPC’s tidal-current based hydrokinetic power generation system, including the energy extraction and conversion technology, associated power electronics, and interconnection equipment capable of reliably delivering electricity to the domestic power grid. ORPC achieved this goal by designing, building and operating the TidGen® Power System in 2012 and becoming the first federally licensed hydrokinetic tidal energy project to deliver electricity to a power grid under a power purchase agreement in North America. Located in Cobscook Bay between Eastport and Lubec, Maine, the TidGen® Power System was connected to the Bangor Hydro Electric utility grid at an on-shore station in North Lubec on September 13, 2012. ORPC obtained a FERC pilot project license for the Project on February 12, 2012 and the first Maine Department of Environmental Protection General Permit issued for a tidal energy project on January 31, 2012. In addition, ORPC entered into a 20-year agreement with Bangor Hydro Electric

  15. 19 CFR 113.67 - Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.67 Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions. Commercial Gauger Bond Conditions (a) Commercial gauger bond...

  16. Development of comprehensive waste acceptance criteria for commercial nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, F.A.; Miller, N.E.; Ausmus, B.S.; Yates, K.R.; Means, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.; Kulacki, F.A.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed methodology is presented for the identification of the characteristics of commercial nuclear waste which may require criteria. This methodology is analyzed as a six-step process which begins with identification of waste operations and proceeds until the waste characteristics affecting the potential release of radionuclides are determined. All waste types and operations were analyzed using the methodology presented. Several illustrative example are included. It is found that thirty-three characteristics can be identified as possibly requiring criteria

  17. The 14 Faces of Commercialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas

    The ultimate purpose of new product development is commercialization of the results. That is, creating returns for the investment. The authors investigate to what degree research published in Journal of Product Innovation Management has contributed to further our understanding of the concept...

  18. NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.

  19. What Is Commercial Social Marketing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Stead, Martine

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of commercial social marketing (CSM) and discuss some major ethical aspects of CSM. In the first section, we introduce 6 social marketing benchmark criteria. Against this background, we demonstrate Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ to be an instance...

  20. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  1. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  2. Strategy development marketing commercial enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Shatalov D. S.; Hamidova O. M.

    2016-01-01

    in the scientific article the necessity of development and implementation of marketing strategies in the activity of any commercial enterprise, we give a meaningful description of the concept of «marketing strategy» and develop requirements for the selection strategy of trade enterprise.

  3. International agreements on commercial representation

    OpenAIRE

    Slanař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to describe the possibilities for fixing the position of a company in the market through contracts for commercial representation with a focus to finding legal and economic impact on the company that contracted for exclusive representation.

  4. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  5. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  6. Flaws in Commercial Reading Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Jerome

    Three flaws found in commercial reading materials, such as workbooks and kits, are discussed in this paper, and examples of the flaws are taken from specific materials. The first problem noted is that illustrations frequently provide the information that the learner is supposed to supply through phonetic or structural analysis; the illustrations…

  7. Commercial Art: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a commercial art vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  8. Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, John [Eaton Corporation, Arden, NC (United States); Pugh, Jerry [Eaton Corporation, Arden, NC (United States)

    2015-03-31

    In 2011, the DOE issued Funding Opportunity DE-FOA-0000554 as a means of addressing two major task areas identified by the Grid Integration Tech Team (GITT) that would help transition Electric vehicles from a market driven by early adopters and environmental supporters to a market with mainstream volumes. Per DE-FOA-0000554, these tasks were: To reduce the cost of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), thereby increasing the likelihood of the build out of EV charging infrastructure. The goal of increasing the number of EVSE available was to ease concerns over range anxiety, and promote the adoption of electric vehicles: To allow EV loads to be managed via the smart grid, thereby maintaining power quality, reliability and affordability, while protecting installed distribution equipment. In December of that year, the DOE awarded one of the two contracts targeted toward commercial EVSE to Eaton, and in early 2012, we began in earnest the process of developing a Smart Grid Enable L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market (hereafter known as the DOE Charger). The design of the Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE was based primarily on the FOA requirements along with input from the Electric Transportation Infrastructure product line (hereafter ETI) marketing team who aided in development of the customer requirements.

  9. Confirmatory research program: effects of atmospheric contaminants on commercial charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.; Dietz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    The increased use of activated charcoals in engineered-safety-feature and normal ventilation systems of nuclear power stations to continually remove radioiodine from flowing air prior to release to the environment has added importance to the question of the effect of atmospheric contaminants on the useful life of the charcoal. In January of 1977 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began an investigation to determine the extent to which atmospheric contaminants in ambient concentrations degrade the efficiency of various commercially-available charcoals for removing methyl iodide. The approach employed by NRL is two-fold. First, charcoal samples are exposed to unmodified outdoor air for periods of one to nine months, then examined for methyl iodide retention, increase in weight, and the pH of water extract. The atmospheric contaminants are identified by the NRL Air Quality Monitoring Station, and concentrations of the various contaminants (ozone, SO 2 , NO 2 , CO 2 , methane and total hydrocarbons) are also available. Second, additional charcoal samples are exposed to the same pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions in various pollutant combinations. Results indicate that the water vapor-charcoal interaction is an important factor in the degradation of the commercial charcoals. Laboratory results indicate the pollutant sulfur dioxide plus water vapor can result in significant charcoal deterioration, as did ozone plus water vapor. Conversely, carbon monoxide did not appear to affect the charcoal. Also, differences were observed for various charcoals

  10. Using a Commercial Simulator to Teach Sorption Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    2006-01-01

    The commercial simulator Aspen Chromatography was used in the computer laboratory of a dual-level course. The lab assignments used a cookbook approach to teach basic simulator operation and open-ended exploration to understand adsorption. The students learned theory better than in previous years despite having less lecture time. Students agreed…

  11. Commercial feasibility of fusion power based on the tokamak concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Steiner, D.

    1977-01-01

    The impact of plasma operating characteristics, engineering options, and technology on the capital cost trends of tokamak power plants is determined. Tokamak power systems are compared to other advanced energy systems and found to be economically competitive. A three-phase strategy for demonstrating commercial feasibility of fusion power, based on a common-site multiple-unit concept, is presented

  12. Determinants of Commercial Banks' Interest Rate Spread in Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduces net interest margin whilst the liquidity levels of a commercial bank increases ... and the capital ratio are not important determinants of the net interest margin. .... profitable and resilient to shocks including the recent financial crisis .... affects its business operations including its decision of what interest rate to charge.

  13. Are high penetrations of commercial cogeneration good for society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jeremy F.; Apt, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Low natural gas prices, market reports and evidence from New York State suggest that the number of commercial combined heat and power (CHP) installations in the United States will increase by 2%-9% annually over the next decade. We investigate how increasing commercial CHP penetrations may affect net emissions, the distribution network, and total system energy costs. We constructed an integrated planning and operations model that maximizes owner profit through sizing and operation of CHP on a realistic distribution feeder in New York. We find that a greater penetration of CHP reduces both total system energy costs and network congestion. Commercial buildings often have low and inconsistent heat loads, which can cause low fuel utilization efficiencies, low CHP rates-of-return and diminishing avoided emissions as CHP penetration increases. In the northeast, without policy intervention, a 5% penetration of small commercially owned CHP would increase CO2 emissions by 2% relative to the bulk power grid. Low emission CHP installations can be encouraged with incentives that promote CHP operation only during times of high heat loads. Time-varying rates, such as time-of-day and seasonal rates, are one option and were shown to reduce customer emissions without reducing profits. In contrast, natural gas rate discounts, a common incentive for industrial CHP in some states, can encourage CHP operation during low heat loads and thus increase emissions.

  14. Pattern of Eye Diseases among Commercial Intercity Vehicle Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of eye diseases among commercial intercity vehicle drivers (CIVDs) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methodology: Out of the estimated 450 drivers operating in the five major motor parks for CIVDs in Ilorin, 399 consecutive drivers participated in the study.

  15. Performance of Canadian commercial nuclear units and heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, L.W.; Ingolfsrud, L.J.

    The operating history of Canadian commercial CANDU type reactors, i.e. Pickering generating station-A, is described. Capacity factors and unit energy costs are analyzed in detail. Equipment performance highlights are given. The performance of the two Canadian heavy water plants is described and five more are under construction or planned. (E.C.B.)

  16. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial foods and culinary arts. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description;…

  17. 47 CFR 76.970 - Commercial leased access rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the provision of channel capacity, such as marketing, and excludes revenues. The affiliation fees for.... (a) Cable operators shall designate channel capacity for commercial use by persons unaffiliated with...)(A) and (B), only those channels that must be carried pursuant to 47 U.S.C. 534 and 535 qualify as...

  18. Social and ecological analysis of commercial integrated crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, R.D.; Niles, M.T.; Gil, J.D.B.; Gaudin, A.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Assmann, A.; Assmann, T.S.; Brewer, K.; Faccio Carvalho, de P.C.; Cortner, O.; Dynes, R.; Garbach, K.; Kebreab, E.; Mueller, N.; Peterson, C.; Reis, J.C.; Snow, V.; Valentim, J.

    2017-01-01

    Crops and livestock play a synergistic role in global food production and farmer livelihoods. Increasingly, however, crops and livestock are produced in isolation, particularly in farms operating at the commercial scale. It has been suggested that re-integrating crop and livestock systems at the

  19. Construction and Operation of a Commercial Gamma-Ray Package-Sterilizing Plant; Construction et fonctionnement d'une installation industrielle pour la sterilisation d'articles sous emballage par les rayons gamma; Razrabotka i ehkspluatatsiya sbornoj ustanovki gamma-izlucheniya promyshlennogo tipa dlya sterilizatsii meditsinskikh materialov; Construccion y funcionamiento de una instalacion industrial para la esterilizacion gamma de articulos medicos empaquetados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. G. [Johnson' s Ethical Plastics Ltd., Slough (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    The purpose of the paper is to describe the Co{sup 60} sterilizing plant now being operated commercially by Johnson's Ethical Plastics Limited, at Slough, England. This is a continuous process plant with a source of 72000 c and completely automatic operation. Based on experience gained by U.K.A.E.A. in their Package Irradiation Plant at Wantage, the present plant was designed specifically for sterilization of disposable plastic syringes and other medical products of similar bulk density. The plant has been in operation since November 1962. A description is given of the main features of its construction, including personnel safety devices, and method of loading the source rods. Operating experience is described including dosimetry, integration of the plant into a commercial undertaking as a production process, and bacteriological results. A short discussion on the economics of sterilizing by gamma radiation is given and an assessment of possible future applications of a plant of this type. (author) [French] Le memoire est consacre a la description de l'installation de sterilisation au cobalt-60, actuellement exploitee industriellement par la Johnson Ethical Plastics Ltd., a Slough (Angleterre). Cette installation, equipee d'une source de 72 000 c, fonctionne en continu et toutes les operations y sont automatiques. Fondee sur l'experience acquise par l'Autorite de l'energie atomique du Royaume-Uni dans son installation d'irradiation d'articles sous emballage, de Wantage, l'installation decrite est specialement destinee a la sterilisation de seringues en matieres plastiques et d'autres instruments medicaux non recuperables de densite apparente analogue. L'installation est en service depuis novembre 1962. Le memoire decrit ses principales caracteristiques, y compris les appareils de protection du personnel et les dispositifs de chargement des barreaux utilises comme sources. L'auteur fournit des donnees d'ordre pratique, notamment sur la dosimetrie, l'integration de l

  20. Technology Transfer and Commercialization Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelle R. Blacker

    2008-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) multi-program national laboratory that conducts research and development in all DOE mission areas. Like all other federal laboratories, INL has a statutory, technology transfer mission to make its capabilities and technologies available to all federal agencies, to state and local governments, and to universities and industry. To fulfill this mission, INL encourages its scientific, engineering, and technical staff to disclose new inventions and creations to ensure the resulting intellectual property is captured, protected, and made available to others who might benefit from it. As part of the mission, intellectual property is licensed to industrial partners for commercialization, creating jobs and delivering the benefits of federally funded technology to consumers. In other cases, unique capabilities are made available to other federal agencies or to regional small businesses to solve specific technical challenges. In other interactions, INL employees work cooperatively with researchers and other technical staff of our partners to further develop emerging technologies. This report is a catalog of selected INL technology transfer and commercialization transactions during this past year. The size and diversity of INL technical resources, coupled with the large number of relationships with other organizations, virtually ensures that a report of this nature will fail to capture all interactions. Recognizing this limitation, this report focuses on transactions that are specifically authorized by technology transfer legislation (and corresponding contractual provisions) or involve the transfer of legal rights to technology to other parties. This report was compiled from primary records, which were readily available to the INL’s Office of Technology Transfer & Commercialization. The accomplishments cataloged in the report, however, reflect the achievements and creativity of the highly skilled researchers

  1. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing... species. (1) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in § 404.7(a) and (h), commercial fishing for bottomfish and...

  2. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial use. 272.4 Section... OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture... charge, royalty charge, or payment in kind which is reasonably related to the commercial value has been...

  3. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial license. 271.4... BEARâ SYMBOL § 271.4 Commercial license. (a) The Chief may authorize the commercial manufacture... a use or royalty charge which is reasonably related to the commercial enterprise has been...

  4. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It is...

  5. The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

    2010-09-30

    Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of

  6. Commercial Consolidation Model Applied to Transport Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme de Aragão, J.J.; Santos Fontes Pereira, L. dos; Yamashita, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Since the 1990s, transport concessions, including public-private partnerships (PPPs), have been increasingly adopted by governments as an alternative for financing and operations in public investments, especially in transport infrastructure. The advantage pointed out by proponents of these models lies in merging the expertise and capital of the private sector to the public interest. Several arrangements are possible and have been employed in different cases. After the duration of the first PPP contracts in transportation, many authors have analyzed the success and failure factors of partnerships. The occurrence of failures in some stages of the process can greatly encumber the public administration, incurring losses to the fiscal responsibility of the competent bodies. This article aims to propose a new commercial consolidation model applied to transport infrastructure to ensure fiscal sustainability and overcome the weaknesses of current models. Initially, a systematic review of the literature covering studies on transport concessions between 1990 and 2015 is offered, where the different approaches between various countries are compared and the critical success factors indicated in the studies are identified. In the subsequent part of the paper, an approach for the commercial consolidation of the infrastructure concessions is presented, where the concessionary is paid following a finalistic performance model, which includes the overall fiscal balance of regional growth. Finally, the papers analyses the usefulness of the model in coping with the critical success factors explained before. (Author)

  7. Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10 15 parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology's instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Medical support to military airborne training and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Kerry J; Lyon, J; Sigman, E; Pynn, H J; Nordmann, G

    2018-05-01

    Airborne operations enable large numbers of military forces to deploy on the ground in the shortest possible time. This however must be balanced by an increased risk of injury. The aim of this paper is to review the current UK military drop zone medical estimate process, which may help to predict the risk of potential injury and assist in planning appropriate levels of medical support. In spring 2015, a British Airborne Battlegroup (UKBG) deployed on a 7-week overseas interoperability training exercise in the USA with their American counterparts (USBG). This culminated in a 7-day Combined Joint Operations Access Exercise, which began with an airborne Joint Forcible Entry (JFE) of approximately 2100 paratroopers.The predicted number of jump-related injuries was estimated using Parachute Order Number 8 (PO No 8). Such injuries were defined as injuries occurring from the time the paratrooper exited the aircraft until they released their parachute harness on the ground. Overall, a total of 53 (2.5%) casualties occurred in the JFE phase of the exercise, lower than the predicted number of 168 (8%) using the PO No 8 tool. There was a higher incidence of back (30% actual vs 20% estimated) and head injuries (21% actual vs 5% estimated) than predicted with PO No 8. The current method for predicting the incidence of medical injuries after a parachute drop using the PO No 8 tool is potentially not accurate enough for current requirements. Further research into injury rate, influencing factors and injury type are urgently required in order to provide an evidence base to ensure optimal medical logistical and clinical planning for airborne training and operations in the future. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

  10. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant

  11. Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notestein, J.E.

    1990-06-01

    This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Wave energy : from demonstration to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Wave Energy Centre is a non-profit organization dedicated to the development and marketing of ocean wave energy devices through technical and strategic support to companies and research and development institutions. WEC provides access to researchers to associated test infrastructures for testing and demonstration of wave energy structures. This presentation described the current status of wave energy. Public policies that support wave energy were also highlighted. Wave energy technology is currently in the demonstration phase, with several pilot plants and prototypes in service around the world. The first 2 offshore shoreline ocean wave current pilot plants were constructed in 2000. This presentation identified the 12 near or offshore pilot plants that were in operation by 2007. The pilot plants represent 5 basic different concepts with many different designs. The world's first commercial park was launched in 2007 in Portugal. The Pelamis wave farm uses three Pelamis P-750 machines with a capacity of 2.25 megawatts. figs.

  13. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  14. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.

  15. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  16. Starfire: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.A.; Trachsel, C.A.; Graumann, D.; Kokoszenski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic objective of the STARFIRE Project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor. The STARFIRE Project was initiated in May 1979, with the goal of completing the design study by October 1980. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the major parameters and design features that have been tentatively selected for STARFIRE

  17. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  18. SPECIAL ISSUES REGARDING THE MEDIATION PROCESS IN THE COMMERCIAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEPTIMIU STOICA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research subject to this paper is to find proper solutions for the increase of the volume and efficiency in the field of commercial mediation. Starting from practical remarks, after an analysis of the substance, a new concept is suggested to be included and put into operation, namely the special commercial mediation, and a plead is made for its use in the current activity of alternative dispute resolution. The first major objective of this paper is to demonstrate once again the need and utility of mediation in the commercial field, insisting though on its remarkable specific nature. The second objective is, starting from the outlined differences between the commercial mediation and the classical mediation, to define and to conceptualize the special commercial mediation, as a separate branch of mediation. The third objective of this paper is to draw the regime of the newly defined category of commercial mediation from a regulatory point of view, of the implementation structure and techniques as foreseen.

  19. Developing talent for operational excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theadore, Jason C; O'Brien, Thaddeus J

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations have the expectation that their employees will prepare for their own professional development without much support or guidance. To achieve operational excellence, development of the people in an organization is just as important as the development of technologies and processes. Ohio Health Ambulatory Division in Columbus, OH created a plan to develop its people systematically in three distinct pillars: management development, staff engagement, and clinical excellence. Much was learned about talent development since work began on "The People Plan", perhaps the most critical lesson learned has been the importance of not giving up on the effort.

  20. Competition and Commercial Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Andrea; Sobbrio, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on commercial media bias (i.e., advertisers influence over media accuracy) and then introduces a simple model to summarize the main elements of the theoretical literature. The analysis provides three main policy insights for media regulators: i) Media regulators should target their monitoring efforts towards news contents upon which advertisers are likely to share similar preferences; ii) In advertising industries characterized by high correlation in ...

  1. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  2. Recommender Systems in Commercial Use

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial recommender systems are deployed by marketing teams to increase revenue and/or personalize user experience. Marketers evaluate recommender systems not on its algorithms but on how well the vendor‘s expertise and interfaces will support achieving business goals. Driven by a business model that pays based on recommendation success, vendors guide clients through continuous optimization of recommendations. While recommender technology is mature, the solutions and market are still young...

  3. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and the world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge trademark level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs

  4. Defense Waste Processing Facility -- Radioactive operations -- Part 3 -- Remote operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, W.M.; Kerley, W.D.; Hughes, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, South Carolina is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly three years of non-radioactive testing, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. Radioactive glass is poured from the joule heated melter into the stainless steel canisters. The canisters are then temporarily sealed, decontaminated, resistance welded for final closure, and transported to an interim storage facility. All of these operations are conducted remotely with equipment specially designed for these processes. This paper reviews canister processing during the first nine months of radioactive operations at DWPF. The fundamental design consideration for DWPF remote canister processing and handling equipment are discussed as well as interim canister storage

  5. Fuel cell APU for commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daggett, D.L. [Boeing Commercial Airplane, Seattle, WA (United States); Lowery, N. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Wittmann, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Boeing Company has always sought to improve fuel efficiency in commercial aircraft. An opportunity now exists to explore technology that will allow fuel efficiency improvements to be achieved while simultaneously reducing emissions. Replacing the current aircraft gas turbine-powered Auxiliary Power Unit with a hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is anticipated to greatly improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions and noise as well as improve airplane performance. However, there are several technology hurdles that need to be overcome. If SOFC technology is to be matured for the betterment of the earth community, the fuel cell industry, aerospace manufacturers and other end users all need to work together to overcome these challenges. Aviation has many of the same needs in fuel cell technology as other sectors, such as reducing cost and improving reliability and fuel efficiency in order to commercialize the technology. However, there are other distinct aerospace needs that will not necessarily be addressed by the industrial sector. These include development of lightweight materials and small-volume fuel cell systems that can reform hydrocarbon fuels. Aviation also has higher levels of safety requirements. Other transportation modes share the same requirement for vibration and shock tolerant fuel cell stacks. Lastly, as fuel cells are anticipated to be operated in flight, they must be capable of operating over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. By itself, the aviation sector does not appear to offer enough of a potential market to justify the investment required by any one manufacturer to develop fuel cells for APU replacements. Therefore, means must be found to modularize components and make SOFC stacks sufficiently similar to industrial units so that manufacturing economy of scales can be brought to bear. Government R and D and industry support are required to advance the technology. Because aerospace fuel cells will be higher performing units, the benefits of

  6. Performance properties of commercial explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.N.; Mader, C.L.; Goldstein, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aquarium test is a proven means of obtaining nonidial performance property data for commercial blasting agents. Optical data on the detonation velocity, shock wave in water, and expansion rate of the pipe enclosing the detonation products (in combination with the equilibrium thermodynamic chemistry code BKW) give the C-J state and degree of chemical reaction at the detonation front, as well as information on additional chemical reaction that occurs as the detonation products expand. Specific explosive systems that are studied are ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixture (ANFO), aluminized ANFO, flaked trinitrotoluene (TNT), and several other commercial products in 10-cm diam and 20-cm-diam pipes of Plexiglas and clay. Experimental shock-pressure data are obtained with lithium niobate transducers placed in the water surrounding the explosive charge. These data show that the addition of approx.100-..mu..m aluminum particles to ANFO significantly increases the initial peak shock pressure delivered to the surrounding medium. Peak shock pressures in the water, calculated from the shock-wave orientation, are also useful in comparing performance properties of various commercial explosives. 20 references, 17 figures, 2 tables.

  7. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  8. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  9. US Department of Energy acceptance of commercial transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboas, A.L.; Bennett, W.S.; Brown, C.M.

    1980-02-01

    Contaminated transuranic wastes generated as a result of non-defense activities have been disposed of by shallow land burial at a commercially operated (NECO) facility located on the Hanford federal reservation, which is licensed by the State of Washington and by the NRC. About 15,000 ft 3 of commercial TRU waste have been generated each year, but generation for the next three years could triple due to decontamination and decommissioning scheduled to start in 1980. Disposal at other commercial burial sites has been precluded due to sites closing or prohibitions on acceptance of transuranic wastes. The State of Washington recently modified the NECO-Hanford operating license, effective February 29, 1980, to provide that radioactive wastes contaminated with transuranics in excess of 10 nCi/g will not be accepted for disposal. Consistent with the state policy, the NRC amended the NECO special nuclear material license so that Pu in excess of 10n Ci/g cannot be accepted after February 29, 1980. As a result, NRC requested DOE to examine the feasibility of accepting these wastes at a DOE operated site. TRU wastes accepted by the DOE would be placed in retrievable storage in accordance with DOE policy which requires retrievable storage of transuranic wastes pending final disposition in a geologic repository. DOE transuranic wastes are stored at six major DOE sites: INEL, Hanford, LASL, NTS, ORNL, and SRP. A specific site for receiving commercial TRU waste has not yet been selected. Shipments to DOE-Hanford would cause the least disruption to past practices. Commercial TRU wastes would be subject to waste form and packaging criteria established by the DOE. The waste generators would be expected to incur all applicable costs for DOE to take ownership of the waste, and provide storage, processing, and repository disposal. The 1980 charge to generators for DOE acceptance of commercial TRU waste is $147 per cubic foot

  10. Waste Management Operations Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The major function of the Program is to operate the Laboratory's systems and facilities for collecting and disposing of radioactive gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes. This includes collection and shallow land burial of about 2000 m 3 of β-γ contaminated waste and retrievable storage of about 60 m 3 of transuranium contaminated waste annually; ion-exchange treatment and release to the environment of about 450 x 10 3 m 3 of slightly contaminated water; volume reduction by evaporation of about 5000 m 3 of intermediate-level liquid waste followed by hydrofracture injection of the concentrate; and scrubbing and/or filtration of the gases from radioactive operations prior to release to the atmosphere. In addition, this year disposal of about 350,000 gal of radioactive sludge from the old (no longer in service) gunite tanks began. Operations are in conformance with rules and regulations presently applicable to ORNL. This Program is responsible for planning and for development activities for upgrading the facilities, equipment, and procedures for waste disposal to ensure ORNL work incorporates the latest technology. Major (line-item) new facilities are provided as well as substantial (GPP) upgrading of old facilities. These activities as well as the technical and engineering support to handle them are discussed

  11. Accelerator operation management using objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, H.; Timossi, C.; Valdez, M.

    1995-04-01

    Conflicts over control of shared devices or resources in an accelerator control system, and problems that can occur due to applications performing conflicting operations, are usually resolved by accelerator operators. For these conflicts to be detected by the control system, a model of accelerator operation must be available to the system. The authors present a design for an operation management system addressing the issues of operations management using the language of Object-Oriented Design (OOD). A possible implementation using commercially available software tools is also presented.

  12. Accelerator operation management using objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, H.; Timossi, C.; Valdez, M.

    1995-01-01

    Conflicts over control of shared devices or resources in an accelerator control system, and problems that can occur due to applications performing conflicting operations, are usually resolved by accelerator operators. For these conflicts to be detected by the control system, a model of accelerator operation must be available to the system. The authors present a design for an operation management system addressing the issues of operations management using the language of Object-Oriented Design (OOD). A possible implementation using commercially available software tools is also presented

  13. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL INTERMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN-ALEXANDRU SITARU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The commercial intermediation is a complex juridical operation which includes a different number of juridical relationships that takes place between contractual partners either on a national or international level. These partners bare different naming due to their different set of rights and obligations set forth by the law or by the parties, and it is from this that the classification of the intermediation can be set forth. The commercial intermediation represents the activity that one person executes either in the name and on behalf of another person, or using its own name but on behalf of another person, or, finally, using its own name but on behalf of acting towards a common goal with the person who mandated her (the principal, in relation with who it is either a proxy or an independent intermediary, only negotiating or both negotiating and binding the principal. The purpose of the paper is to strictly define and set in order the various variations of the juridical operation that is the commercial intermediation, presented both in the light of the actual legal framework and also by reference to the New Civil Code. Also, the purpose is to highlight and systematize the contractual relationships from which the parties involved in a commercial intermediary operation may choose and the rights and obligations specific to each contract.

  14. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  15. 10 MMBt/Hr AFBC Commercial Demonstration Cedar Lane Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold M. Keener; Mary H. Wicks; Tom Machamer; Dave Hoecke; Don Bonk; Bob Brown

    2005-10-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO2 emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications in the 4-40 MMBtu/hr size range. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range could displace a considerable amount of heating gas and oil with coal, while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators.

  16. Re-thinking informal entrepreneurship: commercial or social entrepreneurs?

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C.C.; Nadin, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates critically the assumption that entrepreneurs\\ud who start-up their business ventures operating wholly or partially\\ud off-the-books are engaged in commercial entrepreneurship. Reporting evidence\\ud from a 2005–2006 survey involving face-to-face interviews with\\ud 298 informal entrepreneurs in Ukraine, the finding is that they are not all\\ud commercially-driven. Instead, these informal entrepreneurs range from purely\\ud rational economic actors who pursue for-profit logics...

  17. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  18. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-01-01

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards

  19. Strategies for commercialization of cryopreserved fish semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence R. Tiersch

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Initial success in sperm cryopreservation occurred at about the same time for aquatic species and livestock. However, in the 50 plus years since then cryopreserved sperm of livestock has grown into a billion-dollar global industry, while cryopreserved sperm of aquatic species remains a research activity with little commercial application despite work in more than 90 species and more than 200 published reports. Most research work has focused on large-bodied culture and sport fishes, such as salmon, trout, carp, and catfish, and mollusks such as commercially important oyster and abalone species. However, only a few studies have addressed sperm cryopreservation in small fishes such as zebrafish, or in endangered species. Overall, this work has yielded techniques that are being applied with varied levels of success around the world. Barriers to expanded application include a diverse and widely distributed literature base, technical problems, small sperm volumes, variable results, a general lack of access to the technology, and most importantly, a lack of standardization in practices and reporting. The benefits of cryopreservation include at least five levels of improvements for existing industries and for creation of new industries. First, cryopreservation can be used to improve existing hatchery operations by providing sperm on demand and simplifying the timing of induced spawning. Second, frozen sperm can enhance efficient use of facilities and create new opportunities in the hatchery by eliminating the need to maintain live males, potentially freeing resources for use with females and larvae. Third, valuable genetic lineages such as endangered species, research models or improved farmed strains can be protected by storage of frozen sperm. Fourth, cryopreservation opens the door for rapid genetic improvement. Frozen sperm can be used in breeding programs to create improved lines and shape the genetic resources available for aquaculture. Finally

  20. Commercial Space Port Planning in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L.; Looke, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Texas Legislature is providing funding to support research and planning activities aimed at creating a commercial spaceport in the state. These monies have been allocated to regional Spaceport Development Corporations that have been established in three countries containing candidate site locations: Willacy County (in South Texas); Brazoria County (East Texas); and Pecos County (West Texas). This program is being sponsored and coordinated by the Texas Aerospace Commission (TAC). The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) at the University of Houston is providing research, planning and design support to TAC and is a member of each of the three regional development teams. Planning must carefully consider special support requirements and operational characteristics of all prospective launch systems along with geographic, infrastructure and environmental factors at each site. Two of the candidate sites are in coastal areas; a priority for certain launch service providers; whereas the third inland site is more attractive to others. Candidate launch systems include winged horizontal takeoff air-launch vehicles, vertical multi-stage reusable launch vehicles, and expendable sub-orbital surrounding rockets. Important research and planning activities include environmental impact assessments, analyses of overflight hazards, investigations of economic impacts and business plan development. The results of these activities will guide master plan development for each site, including: a physical plan (site layout, infrastructure improvements and facility construction); and a strategic plan (user agreements, licenses, finance sources and participants). Commercial spaceport development demands compliance with stringent FAA regulations established by the Office of Commercial Space Transportation (OCST) which exceed minimum standards allowed for U.S. Government spaceport facilities. Key among these requirements are 15,000 ft. radius on-site clear zones

  1. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    THE OPERATING UNITS STATUS REPORT - LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff of NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non-power reactors in the US

  2. Guideline on evaluation and acceptance of commercial grade digital equipment for nuclear safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are increasingly upgrading their instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems with commercial digital equipment, which allows them to continue meeting safety and reliability requirements while controlling operating costs. However, the use of commercial software-based devices for safety related applications has raised new issues that impact design, procurement, and licensing activities. This guideline describes a consistent, comprehensive approach for the evaluation and acceptance of commercial digital equipment for nuclear safety systems

  3. 77 FR 30919 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ..., and 385 [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's... published a final rule titled ``Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit... additional drivers, primarily those transporting certain tanks temporarily attached to the commercial motor...

  4. Proven commercial reactor types: an introduction to their principal advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    This study deals with the principal advantages and disadvantages of the five types of proven commercial reactors. A description of each class of commercial reactor (light water, gas-cooled, and heavy water) and their proven reactors is followed by a comparison of reactor types on the basis of technical merit, economics of operation, availability of technology, and associated political issues. (author)

  5. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 169a - Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial Activities Management Information... to Part 169a—Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS) Each DoD Component shall... American Standard Code Information Interchange text file format on a MicroSoft-Disk Operating System...

  6. A Study of IR Loss Correction Methodologies for Commercially Available Pyranometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Chuck; Andreas, Afshin; Augustine, John; Dooraghi, Mike; Habte, Aron; Hall, Emiel; Kutchenreiter, Mark; McComiskey, Allison; Reda, Ibrahim; Sengupta, Manajit

    2017-03-24

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of a study of IR Loss Connection Methodologies for Commercially Available Pyranometers. The IR Loss Corrections Study is investigating how various correction methodologies work for several makes and models of commercially available pyranometers in common use, both when operated in ventilators with DC fans and without ventilators, as when they are typically calibrated.

  7. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Tool User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Matsumoto, Steven W.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Tool is a web-based system that is designed to allow building owners, managers, and operators to more accurately assess the energy performance of their commercial buildings. This document provide a step-by-step instruction on how to use the tool.

  8. 47 CFR 76.971 - Commercial leased access terms and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operators that have not satisfied their statutory leased access requirements shall accommodate part-time..., educational and governmental access programming, provided that the operator's franchise agreement requires it... leased commercial channels. Cable operators may impose reasonable insurance requirements on leased access...

  9. The Commercial Challenges Of Pacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Brink, John A.

    1984-08-01

    The increasing use of digital imaging techniques create a need for improved methods of digital processing, communication and archiving. However, the commercial opportunity is dependent on the resolution of a number of issues. These issues include proof that digital processes are more cost effective than present techniques, implementation of information system support in the imaging activity, implementation of industry standards, conversion of analog images to digital formats, definition of clinical needs, the implications of the purchase decision and technology requirements. In spite of these obstacles, a market is emerging, served by new and existing companies, that may become a $500 million market (U.S.) by 1990 for equipment and supplies.

  10. Commercial application of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of laser-induced fusion, some laser-fusion reactor concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation are discussed. Theoretical fusion-pellet microexplosion energy release characteristics are described and the effects of pellet design options on pellet-microexplosion characteristics are discussed. The results of analyses to assess the engineering feasibility of reactor cavities for which protection of cavity components is provided either by suitable ablative materials or by diversion of plasmas by magnetic fields are presented. Two conceptual laser-fusion electric generating stations, based on different laser-fusion reactor concepts, are described

  11. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  12. The Limits of Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    in Oman, suc- cess took five years—most efforts take much longer. In a more typical case, U.S. and allied SOF began partnering with Colombian SOF...Spec Ops: Case Studies in Operational Warfare: Theory and Practice (New York: Presidio Press, 1996), chapter 2. 4 Cornelius Ryan, A Bridge Too...of Military History, 2002). 13 Thomas L. Ahern Jr., CIA and Rural Pacification in South Vietnam (Washington, DC: Center for the Study of

  13. Astronauts For Hire The Emergence of a Commercial Astronaut Corps

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The spaceflight industry is being revolutionized. It is no longer the sole preserve of professional astronauts working on government-funded manned spaceflight programs. As private companies are being encouraged to build and operate launch vehicles, and even spacecraft that can be hired on a contract basis, a new breed of astronauts is coming into being. Astronauts for Hire describes how this commercial astronaut corps will be selected and trained. It provides a unique insight into the kinds of missions and tasks that the astronauts will be involved in, from suborbital science missions to commercial trips to low Earth orbit. The book also describes the new fleet of commercial spaceships being developed - reusable rocket-propelled vehicles that will offer quick, routine, and affordable access to the edge of space. The author also explores the possibility of private enterprise establishing interplanetary spaceports, lunar bases, and outposts on the surface of Mars.

  14. Commercial tokamak reactors with resistive toroidal field magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombery, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Jassby, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Scaling relations and design concepts are developed for commercial tokamak reactors that use watercooled copper toroidal field (TF) magnets. Illustrative parameters are developed for reactors that are scaled up in size from LITE test reactor designs, which use quasi-continuous copper plate magnets. Acceptably low magnet power requirements may be attainable in a moderate beta (β = 0.065) commercial reactor with a major radius of 6.2 m. The shielding thickness and magnet size are substantially reduced relative to values in commercial reactors with superconducting magnets. Operation at high beta (β = 0.14) leads to a reduction in reactor size, magnet-stored energy, and recirculating power. Reactors using resistive TF magnets could provide advantages of physically smaller devices, improved maintenance features, and increased ruggedness and reliability

  15. Overview of Commercial Building Partnerships in Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, Glenn [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Higher education uses less energy per square foot than most commercial building sectors. However, higher education campuses house energy-intensive laboratories and data centers that may spend more than this average; laboratories, in particular, are disproportionately represented in the higher education sector. The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems–including some considered too costly or technologically challenging–and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions.

  16. Some thoughts on the commercial use of reactors in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the major regulatory issues associated with commercialization of space nuclear power. Currently, space reactors are government-owned and approved through the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) and the President while commercial reactors are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The commercial use of reactors in space will open a new regime of regulation; that is public intervenors could enter the space licensing process for the first time. The major issue is responsibility for licensing and operations, but related considerations involve controlling special nuclear materials from aborted launches or abandoned platforms, determining final shutdown and disposal tactics, and solving new design issues such as the need for longer life of space reactor power plants

  17. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further sub-divided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  18. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, T.; Simon, A.J.; Powers, S.; Meier, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  19. Analysis in the Utility of Commercial Wargaming Simulation Software for Army Organizational Leadership Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macintyre, Kerry

    2000-01-01

    ... analysis, operational test and evaluation, and campaign development. The intent of this monograph was to determine if commercial wargame simulations could be used to develop the organizational leadership abilities of Army officers...

  20. Hydroponic food production: a definitive guidebook for the advanced home gardener and the commercial hydroponic grower

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Resh, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    .... Meant for hobby and commercial growers, the book shows readers how to set up a hydroponic operation with the options of using any of the many hydroponic cultures presently used in the industry to grow vegetable crops...