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Sample records for before and after studies

  1. Change in antihypertensive drug prescribing after guideline implementation: a controlled before and after study

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    Helin-Salmivaara Arja

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antihypertensive drug choices and treatment levels are not in accordance with the existing guidelines. We aimed to assess the impact of a guideline implementation intervention on antihypertensive drug prescribing. Methods In this controlled before and after study, the effects of a multifaceted (education, audit and feedback, local care pathway quality programme was evaluated. The intervention was carried out in a health centre between 2002 and 2003. From each health care unit (n = 31, a doctor-nurse pair was trained to act as peer facilitators in the intervention. All antihypertensive drugs prescribed by 25 facilitator general practitioners (intervention GPs and 53 control GPs were retrieved from the nationwide Prescription Register for three-month periods in 2001 and 2003. The proportions of patients receiving specific antihypertensive drugs and multiple antihypertensive drugs were measured before and after the intervention for three subgroups of hypertension patients: hypertension only, with coronary heart disease, and with diabetes. Results In all subgroups, the use of multiple concurrent medications increased. For intervention patients with hypertension only, the odds ratio (OR was 1.12 (95% CI 0.99, 1.25; p = 0.06 and for controls 1.13 (1.05, 1.21; p = 0.002. We observed no statistically significant differences in the change in the prescribing of specific antihypertensive agents between the intervention and control groups. The use of agents acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system increased in all subgroups (hypertension only intervention patients OR 1.19 (1.06, 1.34; p = 0.004 and controls OR 1.24 (1.15, 1.34; p Conclusions A multifaceted guideline implementation intervention does not necessarily lead to significant changes in prescribing performance. Rigorous planning of the interventions and quality projects and their evaluation are essential.

  2. Student Reflective Writing: Cognition and Affect before, during, and after Study Abroad

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    Savicki, Victor; Price, Michele V.

    2015-01-01

    Reflective thinking is an important feature of study-abroad learning, yet research on reflection in this context is sparse. The current study examined student reflection on 3 content areas (Academic Expectations, Cultural Expectations, and Psychological Issues) at 3 times (before, during, and after study abroad). A content analysis approach with…

  3. Physics before and after Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Capria, M Mamone

    2005-01-01

    It is now a century ago that one of the icons of modern physics published some of the most influential scientific papers of all times. With his work on relativity and quantum theory, Albert Einstein has altered the field of physics forever. It should not come as a surprise that looking back at Einstein''s work, one needs to rethink the whole scope of physics, before and after his time. This books aims to provide a perspective on the history of modern physics, spanning from the late 19th century up to today. It is not an encyclopaedic work, but it presents the groundbreaking and sometimes provocative main contributions by Einstein as marking the line between ''old'' and ''new'' physics, and expands on some of the developments and open issues to which they gave rise.

  4. Is ionized calcium a reliable predictor of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy? A before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, F; Giuliani, A; Sgueglia, M; Patrizi, G; Di Rocco, G; Blasi, S; Russo, G; Tortorelli, G; Giannotti, D; Redler, A

    2014-01-01

    Wanting to find a way of identifying patients suitable for early discharge after thyroidectomy, we set out to establish whether ionized calcium concentration is a better predictor of post-surgical hypocalcemia than total serum calcium. Data were analyzed to establish whether serum ionized calcium concentrations are correlated with total serum calcium levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. Sixty-two patients undergoing total thyroidectomy at the Department of Surgical Sciences of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy, in 2010. Ionized calcium was measured before (day 0) and after surgery (days 1, 2 and 60) in all the patients. These measurements were compared with preoperative (day 0) and postoperative total serum calcium levels (days 1, 2 and 60). The preoperative ionized calcium levels differed from the ionized calcium levels recorded on days 1 and 2; this pattern was not observed for the total calcium concentrations. Conversely, total calcium on days I and II correlated significantly with the various ionized calcium measurements. The presence of parathyroid glands in the surgical specimen did not seem to affect suitability for discharge. The statistical analysis showed that ionized calcium measurements are more reliable than total calcium measurements in the immediate and long-term follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. Applying a 95% confidence interval we established reference values for both total serum calcium and ionized calcium, below which all patients develop postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia. In conclusion, measurement of ionized calcium, as opposed to total calcium, should be strongly recommended in the immediate and longterm follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. PMID:24690338

  5. Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy : A study in seven European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Pierini, Anna; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Susan; Jong-van den Berg, de Lolkje; Thayer, Daniel; Bos, H Jens; Puccini, Aurora; Hansen, Anne V; Gini, Rosa; Engeland, Anders; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore utilisation patterns of asthma medication before, during and after pregnancy as recorded in seven European population-based databases. DESIGN: A descriptive drug utilisation study. SETTING: 7 electronic healthcare databases in Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Ro

  6. Sexual Dysfunction before and after Cardiac Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg Schumann; Zellweger, Michael J.; Marcello Di Valentino; Simone Piazzalonga; Andreas Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess sexual function before and after cardiac rehabilitation in relation to medical variables. Methods. Analysis of patients participating in a 12-week exercise-based outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program (OCR) between April 1999 and December 2007. Exercise capacity (ExC) and quality of life including sexual function were assessed before and after OCR. Results. Complete data were available in 896 male patients. No sexual activity at all was indic...

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EMOTIONAL DISORDERS STRUCTURE IN PATIENTS BEFORE AND AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Mikhaylichenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Being based on a private experience, authors considered necessary to study features of emotional disorders that will allow understanding the mechanism of mental adaptation to disease at patients before and after OLT. In comparative research of structure of emotional frustration at the patients making the most numerous groups of patients before transplantation of a liver (viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases, 129 persons, from them 75 before OLT are included at entering into a waiting list and 54 to through 22 ± 9 days after OLT. Distinctions in structure of emotional frustration are revealed: at patients with autoimmune liver diseases be- fore OLT and viral hepatitis after OLT the semiology combined with disturbing-depressive experiences and hypochondriac fixings is brightly expressed neurotic, them distinguishes high level of personal uneasiness. For patients with autoimmune liver diseases after OLT and viral hepatitis before OLT are characteristic moderately expressed neurotic frustration of an asthenia circle and low level of personal and situational anxiety. 

  8. Psychological and health comorbidities before and after bariatric surgery: a longitudinal study

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    Susana Sofia Pereira da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Morbid obesity has multiple implications for psychological and physical health. Bariatric surgery has been selected as the treatment of choice for this chronic disease, despite the controversial impact of the surgery on psychosocial health. The objective of this study was to describe candidates for bariatric surgery and analyze changes in weight, psychopathology, personality, and health problems and complaints at 6- and 12- month follow-up assessments. METHODS: Thirty obese patients (20 women and 10 men with a mean age of 39.17±8.81 years were evaluated in different dimensions before surgery and 6 and 12 months after the procedure. RESULTS: Six and 12 months after bariatric surgery, patients reported significant weight loss and a significant reduction in the number of health problems and complaints. The rates of self-reported psychopathology were low before surgery, and there were no statistically significant changes over time. The conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness dimensions increased, but neuroticism and openness remained unchanged. All changes had a medium effect size. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients experience significant health improvements and some positive personality changes after bariatric surgery. Even though these findings underscore the role of bariatric surgery as a relevant treatment for morbid obesity, more in-depth longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the evolution of patients after the procedure.

  9. Multifrequency EPR study on freeze-dried fruits before and after X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova, A. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, L. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tzvetkova, E. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-09-15

    X-, K- and Q-band EPR studies on lyophilized whole pulp parts of blue plum, apricot, peach, melon as well as achens and pulp separately of strawberry before and after X-ray irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples show in X band a weak singlet EPR line with g=2.0030+/-0.0005, except melon, which is EPR silent. Immediately after irradiation all samples exhibit complex fruit-depending spectra, which decay with time and change to give, in ca. 50days, an asymmetric singlet EPR line with g=2.0041+/-0.0005. Only apricot pulp gave a typical ''sugar-like'' EPR spectrum. Singlet EPR lines recorded after irradiation in X -band are K- and Q-band resolved as typical anisotropic EPR spectra with g{sub ||}=2.0023+/-0.0003 and g{sub -}bar =2.0041+/-0.0005. In addition, K- and Q-band EPR spectra of all samples show a superposition with the six EPR lines of Mn{sup 2+} naturally present in the fruits. The saturation behavior of the EPR spectra of achens of lyophilized and fresh strawberry is also studied. The differences in g factors of samples before and after X-ray irradiation might be used for the identification of radiation processing of fruits in the case of pulp and the differences in the EPR saturation behavior might be used for the achens of strawberry.

  10. Before Copernico and after Copernico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmastri, Elena

    2016-04-01

    This work is addressed to young people, 13 -14 years old. Requirements: - Experience with the concept of force, balance and speed - Experience of measure - Knowledge on direct and inverse proportionality - Abstractive abilities - Dialectical ability - Dynamic balance - Solar System - Reference System The purpose of this work is: 1) Looking at the Starry Sky, ask questions and search for answers. Someone before us has been asking the same questions and has been trying to find answers: going through the history of science, experiencing the same queries and contrasts. 2) Each student embodies a particular scientist, and fights to support their theory. In this way the student acquires the concepts of the theory they are supporting. 3) The debate amongst the students will lead to an outcome that will be perceived as a personal victory, rather than taken for granted. 4) A certainty will produce new queries and ways forward. Theory of Relativity (Albert Einstein, Power Point presentation) 5) We will demonstrate that the way to knowledge has no limits one must never feel satisfied. 6) Finally, there is a comparison between Copernican Revolution and Darwinian Revolution. For each student to embody a particular scientist, they will need to be familiar with the basic contents of the theory they are supposed to support. - Therefore, pupils will be provided with some forms about every scientist (Tolomeo, Aristarco di Samo, Copernico, Galileo, Keplero, Newton). - It will be necessary to consult some museum sites on line (for example "Collana - Gli strumenti della scienza" where you can find a session for each instrument used by Galileo (binoculars, compass), using interactive tools, PDF, videos). - Pupils are also recommended to watch the movie "Agorà" that tells the story of the philosopher and scientist of Ancient Greece, Aristarco of Samo. - To achieve a better understanding of the concept of ellipse, a prototype will be made with paper, pencil and rope (confirming elliptic

  11. Sleep Problems Before and After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparative Study

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    Belguzar Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare patients’ sleep problems before and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI and also to determine factors affecting sleep problems in patients undergoing AMI. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Coronary Intensive Care Unit in a training hospital between January 1 and April 30, 2007. The sample of the study was composed of 26 patients with a first-ever AMI. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to determine the patient and illness-related descriptive characteristics and the Post Sleep Inventory Scale (PSIS. The Shapiro-Wilks test, descriptive statistics, paired samples t test, Mann Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, reliability analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was 53.2 ± 12.6 years and approximately 81% were males. The patients’ mean bedtime (t= -3.422, p= 0.001, quality of nocturnal sleep (t= -3.221, p= 0.001, awakening (t =-3.533, p<0.001 and total PSIS scores (t= -5.652, p<0.001 were significantly higher after AMI compared to before AMI. The mean PSIS scores of patients undergoing AMI were statistically significant different by gender (z= -2.164, p= 0.030 and working status (z= -2.171, p= 0.030. There was a negative correlation between the PSIS score and haemoglobin and haematocrit values (r= -0.503, p<0.01; r= -0.473, p<0.05; respectively. CONCLUSION: There were differences in the patients’ reported sleep problems between before and after AMI. The results of this study showed that sleep problems were more common among women, patients not working and those with anemia. Nurses should be aware of the sleep problems and factors that affect to sleep problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 687-694

  12. Prospective Study on Salivary Evening Melatonin and Sleep before and after Pinealectomy in Humans.

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    Slawik, Helen; Stoffel, Michael; Riedl, Lina; Veselý, Zdenko; Behr, Michael; Lehmberg, Jens; Pohl, Corina; Meyer, Bernhard; Wiegand, Michael; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-02-01

    Melatonin is secreted systemically from the pineal gland maximally at night but is also produced locally in many tissues. Its chronobiological function is mainly exerted by pineal melatonin. It is a feedback regulator of the main circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei and of many peripheral oscillators. Although exogenous melatonin is approved for circadian rhythm sleep disorders and old-age insomnia, research on endogenous melatonin in humans is hindered by the great interindividual variability of its amount and circadian rhythm. Single case studies on pinealectomized patients report on disrupted but also hypersomnic sleep. This is the first systematic prospective report on sleep with respect to pinealectomy due to pinealocytoma World Health Organization grade I without chemo- or radiotherapy. Before and after pinealectomy, 8 patients completed questionnaires on sleep quality and circadian rhythm (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire), 2 nights of polysomnography, salivary evening melatonin profiles, and qualitative assessment of 2 weeks of actigraphy and sleep logs. Six patients were assessed retrospectively up to 4 years after pinealectomy. Before pinealectomy, all but 1 patient showed an evening melatonin rise typical for indifferent chronotypes. After pinealectomy, evening saliva melatonin was markedly diminished, mostly below the detection limit of the assay (0.09 pg/mL). No systematic change in subjective sleep quality or standard measures of polysomnography was found. Mean pre- and postoperative sleep efficiency was 94% and 95%, and mean sleep-onset latency was 21 and 17 min, respectively. Sleep-wake rhythm during normal daily life did not change. Retrospective patients had a reduced sleep efficiency (90%) and more stage changes, although this was not significantly different from prospective patients. In conclusion, melatonin does seem to have a modulatory, not a

  13. Physical Activity before and after School

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    Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a variety of before- and after-school programs (BASPs) that can be implemented from preschool through 12th grade. These programs offer physical activity opportunities before and after school for youths of various ages, skill levels, and socioeconomic levels. In addition, strategies for the director of physical activity to…

  14. Prescribing of Antidiabetic Medicines before, during and after Pregnancy : A Study in Seven European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Sue; Pierini, Anna; Jong-van den Berg, de Lolkje; Bos, H Jens; Puccini, Aurora; Engeland, Anders; Gini, Rosa; Davies, Gareth; Thayer, Daniel; Hansen, Anne V; Morgan, Margery; Wang, Hao; McGrogan, Anita; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore antidiabetic medicine prescribing to women before, during and after pregnancy in different regions of Europe. METHODS: A common protocol was implemented across seven databases in Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna/Tuscany), Wales and the rest of the UK. Women wit

  15. Electron Spectroscopy Studies on SiC Films before and after Hydrogen Ion Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ningkang; YANG Bing; WANG Dezhi

    2005-01-01

    The ion beam mixing prepared SiC films on stainless steel substrates were irradiated by hydrogen ion beam with an energy of 5 keV to a dose of 1×1018 ions/cm2. AES and XPS were used for the characterization of chemical bonding states of C and Si elements in SiC films as well as contamination oxygen before and after hydrogen ion irradiation in order to study the effect of hydrogen ion irradiation on SiC films and to understand oxygen behaviors in the SiC films prepared with ion beam mixing. The results show that contamination oxygen can react with silicon to form silicon oxides,and more oxygen entered into the films during hydrogen ion irradiation.In addition, oxygen also reacts with carbon related hydrogen to form species including carbon,hydrogen and oxygen.

  16. VOICE QUALITY BEFORE AND AFTER THYROIDECTOMY

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    Dora CVELBAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Voice disorders are a well-known complication which is often associated with thyroid gland diseases and because voice is still the basic mean of communication it is very important to maintain its quality healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study referred to questions whether there is a statistically significant difference between results of voice self-assessment, perceptual voice assessment and acoustic voice analysis before and after thyroidectomy and whether there are statistically significant correlations between variables of voice self-assessment, perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Methods: This scientific research included 12 participants aged between 41 and 76. Voice self-assessment was conducted with the help of Croatian version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI. Recorded reading samples were used for perceptual assessment and later evaluated by two clinical speech and language therapists. Recorded samples of phonation were used for acoustic analysis which was conducted with the help of acoustic program Praat. All of the data was processed through descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistical methods. Results: Results showed that there are statistically significant differences between results of voice self-assessments and results of acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Statistically significant correlations were found between variables of perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate the importance of multidimensional, preoperative and postoperative assessment. This kind of assessment allows the clinician to describe all of the voice features and provides appropriate recommendation for further rehabilitation to the patient in order to optimize voice outcomes.

  17. The effect of aging on bispectral index before and after sedation: a prospective study

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    Mahoori A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Bispectral Index (BIS is an EEG-derived value that measures the sedative and hypnotic component of the anesthetic state. The effects of age on the bispectral index have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of age on hypnotic requirement and bispectral index in awake and in patients with sedation induced by midazolam. "n"nMethods: Eighty patients were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The patients in study group were aged more than 70 years, and the age in control group ranged 20-40 years. Baseline recording of BIS was taken in awake patients in two groups for few minutes. Five minutes after administration of 0.02 mg/kg IV midazolam the BIS value also was taken and recorded. "n"nResults: In the study group, patients had a mean base BIS 94±3 compared with 97.3±1 in the control group (p< 0.0001. Five minutes after administration of 0.02 mg/kg midazolam the value were 80.9±6 and 90.4±3 respectively (p< 0.0001. "n"nConclusion: When BIS is used as a monitor of hypnosis in the elderly, we recommend that a baseline recording be taken before induction for a few minutes to alert the anesthesia provider to the possibility of low initial values. Further studies are needed to verify if the recommended range of 50-60 of BIS during clinical anesthesia is also adequate in the elderly with low initial baseline BIS or if this range needs adjusting in view of reduced initial BIS value.

  18. Happiness: before and after the kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Margolis, Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how having children influences parents' subjective well-being ("happiness") has great potential to explain fertility behavior. We study parental happiness trajectories before and after the birth of a child, using large British and German longitudinal data sets. We account for unobserved parental characteristics using fixed-effects models and study how sociodemographic factors modify the parental happiness trajectories. Consistent with existing work, we find that happiness increases in the years around the birth of a first child and then decreases to before-child levels. Moreover, happiness increases before birth, suggesting that the trajectories may capture not only the effect of the birth but also the broader process of childbearing, which may include partnership formation and quality. Sociodemographic factors strongly modify this pattern. Those who have children at older ages or who have more education have a particularly positive happiness response to a first birth; and although having the first two children increases happiness, having a third child does not. The results, which are similar in Britain and Germany, suggest that having up to two children increases happiness, and mostly for those who have postponed childbearing. This pattern is consistent with the fertility behavior that emerged during the second demographic transition and provides new insights into low and late fertility.

  19. Happiness: before and after the kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Margolis, Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how having children influences parents' subjective well-being ("happiness") has great potential to explain fertility behavior. We study parental happiness trajectories before and after the birth of a child, using large British and German longitudinal data sets. We account for unobserved parental characteristics using fixed-effects models and study how sociodemographic factors modify the parental happiness trajectories. Consistent with existing work, we find that happiness increases in the years around the birth of a first child and then decreases to before-child levels. Moreover, happiness increases before birth, suggesting that the trajectories may capture not only the effect of the birth but also the broader process of childbearing, which may include partnership formation and quality. Sociodemographic factors strongly modify this pattern. Those who have children at older ages or who have more education have a particularly positive happiness response to a first birth; and although having the first two children increases happiness, having a third child does not. The results, which are similar in Britain and Germany, suggest that having up to two children increases happiness, and mostly for those who have postponed childbearing. This pattern is consistent with the fertility behavior that emerged during the second demographic transition and provides new insights into low and late fertility. PMID:25143019

  20. Translating Vocabulary Research to Social Studies Instruction: Before, during, and after Text-Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairrell, Angela; Simmons, Deborah; Swanson, Elizabeth; Edmonds, Meaghan; Vaughn, Sharon; Rupley, William H.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper elementary grades, content-area text gains increasing importance as a primary source of reading and information. This article focuses on the specialized vocabulary demands of social studies texts and presents a framework of teaching and learning strategies based on vocabulary research. Strategies are introduced before, during, and…

  1. Hospital admissions before and after shipyard closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, M; Fagin, L

    1990-03-01

    "To determine the effect of job loss on health an investigation was made of admissions to hospitals in 887 men five years before and three years after the closure of a Danish shipyard. The control group comprised 441 men from another shipyard. The information on hospital admissions was obtained from the Danish national register of patients. The relative risk of admission in the control group dropped significantly in terms of the number of men admitted from the study group from 1.29 four to five years before closure to 0.74 in the three years after closure. This was especially true of admissions due to accidents (1.33 to 0.46) and diseases of the digestive system (4.53 to 1.03). For diseases of the circulatory system, particularly cardiovascular diseases, the relative risk increased from 0.8 to 1.60, and from 1.0 to 2.6 respectively. These changes in risk of illness after redundancy are probably a consequence of a change from the effects of a high risk work environment to the effects of psychosocial stresses such as job insecurity and unemployment."

  2. Immunocytochemical studies of chicken somatotrophs and somatotroph granules before and after hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Gibney, J A; Cain, L D; Perez, F M; Scanes, C G

    1993-05-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were used to gain information about the embryonic development of chicken somatotrophs before and after hatching. To localize growth hormone, anterior pituitary sections were incubated with growth-hormone antibody, and then an indirect peroxidase method was used for light microscopy and an immunogold method for electron microscopy. The earliest evidence of embryonic somatotrophs was seen at 12 days. At this stage somatotrophs were sparse (0.2% of parenchymal cells) and their granules were pleomorphic with elongated ovoid and lozenge shapes predominating. Few of the immunogold-labeled somatotroph granules of the embryo were spherical until 15 days after fertilization. At 18 days, most of the granules were spherical (their shape in the adult chicken). During the six days between the 15-day-old embryo and the 1-day-old chick, the number of gold particles per granule section approximately doubled suggesting an increase in growth hormone content of the granules. This rise was the result of increases in the size of the granule sections and in the concentration of gold particles in the sections. During the embryonic period of 12-20 days, somatotrophs were not more than 3.6% of the anterior pituitary cell population. During the following two days, between the 20-day-old embryo and the 1-day-old chick, the percentage of somatotrophs in the pituitary parenchymal cell population rose rapidly from 3.6% to 20.7% and then increased slowly to 24.6% during the period of 1-5 days after hatching.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur

  4. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new......-onset diabetes mellitus after Tx, (ii) describe which parameters that influence the ADPN concentration before and after Tx. Fifty-seven nondiabetic kidney allograft recipients and 40 nondiabetic uraemic patients were included. The Tx group was examined at baseline and 3 and 12 months after Tx. The uraemic...... analysis, whereas an ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed no predictive characteristic of ADPN for aggravation of the glucose tolerance after Tx. In conclusion, kidney transplantation is accompanied by a significant reduction in ADPN concentration. Several factors determine the ADPN concentration...

  5. Effect of an environmental health educational programme for paediatricians in an Egyptian University Hospital: before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Reem A; Alghobashy, Ashgan A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the effect of an educational intervention on paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding children's environmental health and to identify the sources of information and common environmental history taking constrains. Design Before and after study. Setting Zagazig University Paediatric Hospital. Participants Practising paediatricians from all specialty units. Main outcome measures The outcome of a specifically designed educational programme about paediatric ...

  6. Influence of tacrolimus on glucose metabolism before and after renal transplantation : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, E M; Boots, J M; Christiaans, M H; Wolffenbuttel, B H; Van Hooff, J P

    2001-01-01

    Most studies concerning the influence of tacrolimus on glucose metabolism have been performed either in animals or after organ transplantation. These clinical studies have largely been transversal with patients who were using steroids. Therefore, this prospective, longitudinal study investigated the

  7. Before, During, and After a Wildfire

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    More and more people are making their homes in woodland settings – in or near forests, rural areas, or remote mountain sites - areas in which wildfires are more likely to occur. Wildfires often begin unnoticed. They spread quickly, igniting brush, trees, and homes. CDC recommends taking steps before, during, and after local wildfires to reduce the effect they have on your life.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 11/1/2007.

  8. Sexual Dysfunction before and after Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schumann

    2010-01-01

    variables. Methods. Analysis of patients participating in a 12-week exercise-based outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program (OCR between April 1999 and December 2007. Exercise capacity (ExC and quality of life including sexual function were assessed before and after OCR. Results. Complete data were available in 896 male patients. No sexual activity at all was indicated by 23.1% at baseline and 21.8% after OCR, no problems with sexual activity by 40.8% at baseline and 38.6% after OCR. Patients showed an increase in specific problems (erectile dysfunction and lack of orgasm from 18% to 23% (<.0001 during OCR. We found the following independent positive and negative predictors of sexual problems after OCR: hyperlipidemia, age, CABG, baseline ExC and improvement of ExC, subjective physical and mental capacity, and sense of affiliation. Conclusions. Sexual dysfunction is present in over half of the patients undergoing OCR with no overall improvement during OCR. Age, CABG, low exercise capacity are independent predictors of sexual dysfunction after OCR.

  9. A Case Study of Letters to Shareholders in Annual Reports Before, During and After the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates changes in themes and linguistic strategies in letters to shareholders from a large Danish bank’s annual reports published before, during and after the financial crisis. It draws mainly on genre theory and uses corpus linguistics as the primary method for collecting...

  10. A Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs before and after Work-Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoti, S. N.; Junqueira, K. E.; Odora, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the teaching efficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers before and after work-integrated learning (WIL) in a South African University of Technology. The comparison groups were formed based on the criterion of WIL. Pre-service teachers in their third year of the B.Ed. (FET) programme participated in the study…

  11. A Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Efficacy Beliefs before and after Work-Integrated Learning: Part Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, K. E.; Matoti, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    The study, which is grounded in Bandura's concept of self-efficacy, assessed the teaching efficacy beliefs of student teachers before and after completing six months of work-integrated learning. This was necessitated by research which shows that self-efficacy is an important aspect which influences a teacher's ability to teach as well as the…

  12. Parental experiences before and long-term after their children's hemispherotomy - A population-based qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Anneli; Verdinelli, Cecilia; Olsson, Ingrid; H Graneheim, Ulla; Malmgren, Kristina

    2016-07-01

    Severe childhood epilepsy has an impact on the whole family. For selected children, hemispherotomy is the treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to explore parents' experiences before and after hemispherotomy as reported at a long-term follow-up and their view on received information and support. This was a population-based qualitative descriptive study, using qualitative content analysis of interviews. Seven to eighteen years after hemispherotomy, parents of twenty-one operated children were interviewed about the family life situation, expectations before surgery, and support and information before and after surgery. Before surgery, the theme 'Living in a chaotic bubble' illuminates how parents felt: the family lived in isolation, they felt both dissatisfaction and satisfaction about support and information, and they experienced that surgery was a question about life or death. After surgery, the theme 'Hovering between success and disaster' illuminates how parents hovered between happiness if the surgery was successful and sadness about e.g., complications and behavior problems. They experienced both excellent and poor support, in hospital and at rehabilitation. Regardless of all concerns, parents were satisfied that the child had received an operation. The hemispherotomies were successful and generated a better life situation. However, in order to cope, families need support and information throughout the whole process, from the onset of epilepsy and for a long time after surgery. If the child has behavior problems, an assessment should be made before surgery in order for the families to get adequate support. The specialist team needs to be involved as early as possible and follow the families for several years after surgery. Focus should be on the whole family, if needed including grandparents; family-centered care might be relevant for this patient group. PMID:27176878

  13. Preceptors' reflections on their educational role before and after a preceptor preparation course: A prospective qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Gunilla; Löfmark, Anna; Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Skytt, Bernice

    2016-07-01

    During clinical practice, preceptors play an important educational role in helping nursing students become secure and effective practitioners. For this educational role they need adequate preparation. The aim of the present prospective study was to describe preceptors' experiences of their educational role before and after attending a university preceptor preparation course. This 7.5-credit, Master's level course is offered on a part-time basis and covers one semester. The theoretical approach was self-directed and reflective learning. Twentyseven preceptors participated in group interviews before and after the course, and data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed a shift in preceptors' perceptions. Their view of the educational role changed from being characterized by individual experiences and notions to being guided by personal and formal demands. Before the course, the lack of sufficient preconditions for preceptorship predominated, whereas after the course participants described ways of creating such preconditions. Before the course, the supervisory process was described as teaching, whereas after the course it was described as a learning process for students. Using reflective learning in a preceptor preparation course can develop and strengthen preceptors' view of their educational role and help them manage and create the preconditions for preceptorship. PMID:27428684

  14. Liver elasticity measurement before and after biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice: a prospective cohort studya prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Kimitoshi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kawahata, Shuhei; Taya, Yoko; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Amano, Toraji; Shirato, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive jaundice has been reported to influence liver elasticity, independent of liver fibrosis. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate the changes in liver elasticity, before and after biliary drainage, in patients with obstructive jaundice, and to evaluate the correlation between elasticity measures and serum markers of liver fibrosis. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 20 patients with obstructive jaundice. Liver elasticity was assessed by Transient Elas...

  15. Brain computed tomography in morbid obesity before and after gastric restriction surgery: A prospective quantitative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berginer, V.M.; Solomon, H.; Charuz, I.; Hirsch, M.; Berginer, J.; Weitzman, S.; Friedman, L.

    1987-11-01

    Linear brain parameters were measured by CT in 19 patients with morbid obesity (mean weight 126.4 +- 20.5 kg) and 20 age and sex matched normal weight subjects (mean weight 62.6 +- 14.9 kg). Ventricular parameters were slightly smaller and cortical parameters were slightly larger in the preoperative obese than in control subjects. However, only the '4 cortical sulci ratio' was significantly different in the two groups (p=0.02). After gastric restriction surgery and drastic weight loss (mean postoperative weight 82.9 +- 27.4 kg), all the ventricular and cortical parameters increased, with significant change in the frontal interhemispheric fissure ratio (P<0.05). Obese patients followed for 23 months after surgery had less striking changes than those followed for 6 months. Morbidly obese subjects have altered brain CT dimensions which are partly reversible after weight correction.

  16. Study of surface carbohydrates in Galba truncatula tissues before and after infection with Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Katya; Georgieva, Liliya; Mizinska-Boevska, Yana; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R

    2016-01-01

    The presence and distribution of surface carbohydrates in the tissues of Galba truncatula snails uninfected or after infection with Fasciola hepatica as well as on the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of the parasite were studied by lectin labelling assay. This is an attempt to find similarities that indicate possible mimicry, utilised by the parasite as an evasion strategy in this snail-trematode system. Different binding patterns were identified on head-foot-mantle, hepatopancreas, genital glands, renopericardial complex of the host as well as of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The infection with F. hepatica leads to changes of labelling with Glycine max in the head-mantle cells and Arachis hypogaea in the tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas. The lectin binding on the other snail tissues is not changed by the development of the larvae. Our data clearly demonstrated the similarity in labelling of G. truncatula tissues and the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The role of glycosylation of the contact surfaces of both organisms in relation to the host-parasite interactions is also discussed. PMID:27384082

  17. Study of surface carbohydrates in Galba truncatula tissues before and after infection with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Katya; Georgieva, Liliya; Mizinska-Boevska, Yana; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R

    2016-07-01

    The presence and distribution of surface carbohydrates in the tissues of Galba truncatula snails uninfected or after infection with Fasciola hepatica as well as on the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of the parasite were studied by lectin labelling assay. This is an attempt to find similarities that indicate possible mimicry, utilised by the parasite as an evasion strategy in this snail-trematode system. Different binding patterns were identified on head-foot-mantle, hepatopancreas, genital glands, renopericardial complex of the host as well as of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The infection with F. hepatica leads to changes of labelling with Glycine max in the head-mantle cells and Arachis hypogaea in the tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas. The lectin binding on the other snail tissues is not changed by the development of the larvae. Our data clearly demonstrated the similarity in labelling of G. truncatula tissues and the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The role of glycosylation of the contact surfaces of both organisms in relation to the host-parasite interactions is also discussed.

  18. Effect of Haemostatic Control Resuscitation on mortality in massively bleeding patients: a before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, P I; Stensballe, J

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives Evidence supporting the use of platelets and plasma in resuscitation of massive bleedings is questionable. Current consensus guidelines recommend restrictive use. Our aim was to determine the effect of changing the transfusion practice on 30-day survival in massively bleeding patients. Materials and Methods Consecutive adult patients receiving more than 10 units of red blood cells (RBC) within 24 h 2 years prior to (2002–2003) and 2 years after (2005–2006) a change i...

  19. Before and after the earthquake: a case study of attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy program in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy H. Puttkammer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: On January 12, 2010, a devastating 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck the West Department of Haiti, killing more than 200,000 people and injuring or displacing many more. This disaster threatened continuity of HIV care and treatment services. Objectives: This case study examined the effect of the devastating 2010 earthquake in Haiti on attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART program. Design: The study triangulated retrospective data from existing sources, including: 1 individual-level longitudinal patient data from an electronic medical record for ART patients at two large public sector departmental hospitals differently affected by the earthquake; and 2 aggregate data on the volume of HIV-related services delivered at the two hospitals before and after the earthquake. Methods: The study compared ART attrition and service delivery in Jacmel, a site in the ‘very strong’ zone of earthquake impact, and in Jérémie, a site in the ‘light’ zone of earthquake impact. The analysis used time-to-event analysis methods for the individual-level patient data, and descriptive statistical methods for the aggregate service delivery data. Results: Adjusted ART attrition risk was lower at the hospital in Jacmel after vs. before the earthquake (HR=0.51; p=0.03, and was lower in Jacmel vs. Jérémie both before (HR=0.55; p=0.01 and after the earthquake (HR=0.35; p=0.001. The number of new ART patient enrollments, new HIV patient registrations, and HIV clinical visits dropped notably in Jacmel immediately after the earthquake, but then rapidly rebounded. On average, there was no change in new ART enrollments per month after vs. before the earthquake at either site. Conclusion: These findings underscore the resilience of Haitian ART providers and patients, and contribute evidence that it is possible to maintain continuity of ART services even in the context of a complex humanitarian crisis.

  20. A Register-Based Study of Occupational Functioning in Non-Psychotic Patients Before and After Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2013-01-01

    higher number of days on sick leave (pcompared to the control group, while the change in days with unemployment was insignificant (p=0.501). Conclusion: Occupational outcome of psychotherapy may be less advantageous than shown in previous studies. Differences can...... perhaps be explained by the length and symmetry of the observation period before and after intervention. Other possible reasons for the outcome are: disorder chronicity; a labor market that excludes individuals with mental disorders; and that psychotherapy does not address occupational functioning....

  1. A Study of Stranding of Juvenile Salmon by Ship Wakes Along the Lower Columbia River Using a Before-and-After Design: Before-Phase Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, J R.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Miller, Martin C.; Johnson, Gary E.; Williams, Greg D.; Southard, John A.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.

    2006-02-01

    Ship wakes produced by deep-draft vessels transiting the lower Columbia River have been observed to cause stranding of juvenile salmon. Proposed deepening of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about the potential impact of the deepening project on juvenile salmon stranding. The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory design and conduct a study to assess stranding impacts that may be associated with channel deepening. The basic study design was a multivariate analysis of covariance of field observations and measurements under a statistical design for a before and after impact comparison. We have summarized field activities and statistical analyses for the ?before? component of the study here. Stranding occurred at all three sampling sites and during all three sampling seasons (Summer 2004, Winter 2005, and Spring 2005), for a total of 46 stranding events during 126 observed vessel passages. The highest occurrence of stranding occurred at Barlow Point, WA, where 53% of the observed events resulted in stranding. Other sites included Sauvie Island, OR (37%) and County Line Park, WA (15%). To develop an appropriate impact assessment model that accounted for relevant covariates, regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between stranding probability and other factors. Nineteen independent variables were considered as potential factors affecting the incidence of juvenile salmon stranding, including tidal stage, tidal height, river flow, current velocity, ship type, ship direction, ship condition (loaded/unloaded), ship speed, ship size, and a proxy variable for ship kinetic energy. In addition to the ambient and ship characteristics listed above, site, season, and fish density were also considered. Although no single factor appears as the primary factor for stranding, statistical analyses of the covariates resulted in the following equations: (1) Stranding

  2. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels Before and After 70-Day Bed Rest: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Zanello, Susana B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions. Impairments include decreased near visual acuity, posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, optic disc edema and cotton wool spots. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within the retinal blood vessels that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated by NASAs innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software for two studies: (1) head-down tilt in human subjects before and after 70 days of bed rest, and (2) U.S. crew members before and after ISS missions. VESGEN analysis in previous research supported by the US National Institutes of Health identified surprising new opportunities to regenerate retinal vessels during early-stage, potentially reversible progression of the visually impairing and blinding disease, diabetic retinopathy.

  3. Examining College Students' Culture Learning before and after Summer Study Abroad in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Chie Matsuzawa; Anzai, Shinobu; Zimmerman, Erica

    2011-01-01

    With study abroad becoming an integral part of the American higher-education curriculum, home-institution instructors face the challenge of understanding the type and content of learning taking place abroad. We report on a study conducted at a service academy on the U.S. East Coast to examine American college students' cultural learning in the…

  4. A Pilot Study of Disparity Vergence and Near Dissociated Phoria in Convergence Insufficiency Patients Before versus After Vergence Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. Alvarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between the near dissociated phoria and disparity vergence eye movements. Convergence insufficiency (CI patients before vergence therapy were compared to: 1 the same patients after vergence therapy and 2 binocularly normal controls (BNC. METHODS: Sixteen subjects were studied--twelve BNC and four with CI. Measurements from the CI subjects were obtained before and after 18 hours of vergence eye movement therapy. The near dissociated phoria was measured using the flashed Maddox rod technique. Vergence responses were stimulated from 4° symmetrical disparity vergence step stimuli. The peak velocity of the vergence response and the magnitude of the fusion initiating component (FIC from an independent component analysis were calculated. A linear regression analysis was conducted studying the vergence peak velocity as a function of the near dissociated phoria where the Pearson correlation coefficient was computed. RESULTS: Before vergence therapy, the average with one standard deviation FIC magnitude of convergence responses from CI subjects was 0.290.82 and significantly less than the FIC magnitude of 1.850.84 for BNC (p<0.02. A paired t-test reported that the FIC and near dissociated phoria before vergence therapy for CI subjects significantly increased to 1.490.57 (p<0.04 and became less exophoric to 3.5∆1.9 exo (p<0.02 after vergence therapy. A significant correlation (r=0.87; p<0.01 was observed between the near dissociated phoria and the vergence ratio of convergence peak velocity divided by divergence peak velocity. CONCLUSION: The results have clinical translational impact in understanding the mechanism by which vergence therapy may be changing the vergence system leading to a sustained reduction in visual symptoms.

  5. Promoting hospital-based smoking cessation services at major Swiss hospitals: a before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Bolliger, Chris T; van Biljon, X.; Humair, Jean-Paul Luc André; El Fehri, V.; Cornuz, J.

    2008-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: Whether a 1-year nationwide, government supported programme is effective in significantly increasing the number of smoking cessation clinics at major Swiss hospitals as well as providing basic training for the staff running them. METHODS: We conducted a baseline evaluation of hospital services for smoking cessation, hypertension, and obesity by web search and telephone contact followed by personal visits between October 2005 and January 2006 of 44 major public hospitals...

  6. Mössbauer studies of iron doped poly(methyl methacrylate) before and after ion beam modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D R S Somayajulu; C N Murthy; D K Awasthi; N V Patel; M Sarkar

    2001-08-01

    High-energy MeV ions from accelerators are known to produce drastic modifications in polymers. The typical effects include chain scissions, crosslinks, molecular emission and double bond formation. Poly(methyl methacrylate) was doped with Fe(III) and irradiated with 95 MeV O7+ ions. 57Fe-Mössbauer studies were done on the doped samples before and after irradiation. Before irradiation, no Mössbauer absorption was observed. The irradiated samples showed a good Mössbauer absorption, which seems to indicate that there is a significant interaction between the metal ion and the polymer matrix. Two possibilities exist at these doses (∼ 22 × 1012 ions/cm): Fe(III) ions may be bridging the various polymer segments through crosslinking or amorphization of the sample leading to Fe–C bonding. Studies of FTIR, conductivity and glass transition temperatures on these samples support these observations.

  7. A clinical comparative study of anatomic parameters before and after total hip replacement on congenital dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ziqiang; Zhou, Yonggang; Chai, Wei; Ji, Weiping; Cui, Guopeng; Ma, Miaoqun; Zhu, Yin

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] To study preoperative and postoperative hip circumference data of various types of congenital dysplasia of the hip treated with total hip replacement, including the femoral offset, femoral neck length, height, and hip abductor arm parameters. [Subjects and Methods] This study included seventy-eight cases of congenital dysplasia of the hip (I-III type). Furthermore, four parameters were measured, including the preoperative and postoperative femoral offset. Statistical data analysis was performed using the SPSS 13.0 software. [Results] The femoral offset was 33.3 ± 8.4 mm (preoperative) and 39.1 ± 7.1 mm (postoperative). The femoral head height was 59.5 ± 8.7 mm (preoperative) and 68.8 ± 11.0 mm (postoperative). The femoral neck length was 50.8 ± 10.8 mm (preoperative) and 61.5 ± 10.4 mm (postoperative). The hip abductor arm was 54.3 ± 9.6 mm (preoperative) 64.7 ± 10.1 mm (postoperative). The preoperative and postoperative parameters showed statistical differences. Furthermore, no significant differences were evidenced when comparing the postoperative hip parameters with the normal data parameters. [Conclusion] Total hip replacement on congenital dysplasia of the hip could lead to the rebuilt of an almost normal physiological anatomy for each hip case (type I-III). PMID:27512242

  8. PET Study in a Patient with Spinocerebellar Degeneration before and after Long-Term Administration of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tanji

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the chronic effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH in a patient with spinocerebellar degeneration by measuring cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRG1c using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG and positron emission tomography (PET. A 56-year-old female, who had suffered from progressive ataxia for 2 years, was treated by intravenous administration of 2 mg TRH for 3 weeks, and CMRG1c of the brain was measured before and after treatment. CMRG1c was markedly decreased in the cerebellum and there was no significant difference before and after the treatment, i.e. mean CMRG1c values were 4.92 and 4.90 mg/100 g/min, and the ratios of the cerebellum versus the frontal cortex were 0.50 and 0.51, respectively. The degree of disequilibrium of her body examined with stabilography became better by the 19th day and further improved by the 26th day after the start of TRH treatment. Based on the present study we conclude that long-term administration of TRH did not improve CMRG1c in the cerebellum, but evidently improved the sway of gravity center by stabilography. We speculate that the chronic effect of TRH was not necessarily due to an improvement of cerebellar function, because TRH receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system.

  9. LONGITUDINAL STUDY ON LIVER FUNCTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH THALASSEMIA MAJOR BEFORE AND AFTER DEFERASIROX (DFX) THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Tawfik Soliman; Mohamed Yassin; Fawzia AlYafei; Lolwa Al-Naimi; Noora Almarri; Aml Sabt; Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    With regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life . Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (Desferal)  reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of De...

  10. Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    SOLIMAN, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The rece...

  11. LONGITUDINAL STUDY ON LIVER FUNCTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH THALASSEMIA MAJOR BEFORE AND AFTER DEFERASIROX (DFX THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Tawfik Soliman

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Some impairment of liver function can occur in hepatitis negative BMT patients with iron overload. The use of DFX was associated with mild but significant reduction of ALT, AST and ALP and increase in IGF-I levels. The negative correlation between IGF-I and ALT concentrations suggest that preventing hepatic dysfunction may improve the growth potential in these patients.

  12. Effect of Haemostatic Control Resuscitation on mortality in massively bleeding patients: a before and after study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Stensballe, J

    2009-01-01

    ) with preemptive use of platelets and plasma, administered in transfusion packages, comprising 5 units of RBCs, 5 units of fresh-frozen plasma and 2 units of platelet concentrates (PC), when massive bleeding occurred or upon arrival at the emergency room and thereafter directed by thrombelastography throughout......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence supporting the use of platelets and plasma in resuscitation of massive bleedings is questionable. Current consensus guidelines recommend restrictive use. Our aim was to determine the effect of changing the transfusion practice on 30-day survival in massively...... patients treated in 2002-2003. Thirty-day mortality was reduced in 2005-2006 (20.4% vs. 31.5%; P = 0.0002) and at 90-day (22.4% vs. 34.6%; P plasma, as guided by thrombelastography...

  13. Vulnerability before, during, and after a major depressive episode - A 3-wave population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Vollebergh, W

    2004-01-01

    Background: Vulnerability as defined by high levels of neuroticism, low self-esteem, and poor coping skills characterizes individuals with a history of major depressive episodes (MDEs). Objective: To separate postmorbid vulnerability into (1) trait effects (ie, the continuation of premorbid vulnerab

  14. Ultrasonography of portosystemic shunting in dogs : Doppler studies before, during and after surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szatmári, V.

    2004-01-01

    Portosystemic shunting occurs when anomalous veins allow the portal blood to enter the systemic veins directly without first flowing through the hepatic sinusoids. Portosystemic shunting can occur via acquired portosystemic collaterals or via congenital portosystemic shunts and may result in clinica

  15. Reduced incidence of admissions for myocardial infarction associated with public smoking ban: before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent, R P; Shepard, R M; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction while a local law banning smoking in public and in workplaces was in effect. Design Analysis of admissions front December 1997 through November 2003 using Poisson analysis. Setting Helena, Montana, a geographical]), isolated community with one hospital serving a population of 68140. Participants All patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction. Main outcome measures Number of monthly ...

  16. Gallbladder function before and after fundoplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John M; Bowers, Steven P; Lucktong, Tananchai A; Mattar, Samer; Bradshaw, W Alan; Behrns, Kevin E; Koruda, Mark J; Herbst, Charles A; McCartney, William; Halkar, Raghuveer K; Smith, C Daniel; Farrell, Timothy M

    2002-01-01

    No study has reported an association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or its therapies and gallbladder function. We compared pre- and postoperative gallbladder function in patients undergoing fundoplication to determine the following: (1) whether patients with chronic GERD have preexisting gallbladder motor dysfunction; (2) whether medical or surgical therapy alters gallbladder function; and (3) whether division of the hepatic branch of the anterior vagus nerve is detrimental to gallbladder motility. Nineteen patients with documented GERD consented to a preoperative cholecystokinin-stimulated technetium hepatobiliary (CCK-HIDA) scan to quantify the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF). All patients underwent laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. One month after fundoplication, 12 patients completed a repeat CCK-HIDA scan for determination of GBEF, with comparison to the preoperative GBEF. Among patients with preoperative GERD, 11 (58%) of 19 met the scintigraphic criteria for gallbladder dysfunction (GBEF hepatic branch of the anterior vagus nerve and postoperative gallbladder dysfunction (P = NS, chi-square test). Unexpectedly, 58% of patients with GERD demonstrated gallbladder motor dysfunction prior to fundoplication, with improvement to normal occurring in most of those studied postoperatively. These data support controlled trials to determine the effect of chronic GERD and antisecretory therapy on gallbladder and global gastrointestinal smooth muscle function. Preservation of the hepatic branch of the anterior vagus nerve during fundoplication offered no clear benefit with regard to early postoperative gallbladder function. PMID:12504218

  17. Young children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death: a rural South African population-based surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that a young child's risk of dying increases following the mother's death, but little is known about the risk when the mother becomes very ill prior to her death. We hypothesized that children would be more likely to die during the period several months before their mother's death, as well as for several months after her death. Therefore we investigated the relationship between young children's likelihood of dying and the timing of their mother's death and, in particular, the existence of a critical period of increased risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from a health and socio-demographic surveillance system in rural South Africa were collected on children 0-5 y of age from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2008. Discrete time survival analysis was used to estimate children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death, accounting for moderators. 1,244 children (3% of sample died from 1994 to 2008. The probability of child death began to rise 6-11 mo prior to the mother's death and increased markedly during the 2 mo immediately before the month of her death (odds ratio [OR] 7.1 [95% CI 3.9-12.7], in the month of her death (OR 12.6 [6.2-25.3], and during the 2 mo following her death (OR 7.0 [3.2-15.6]. This increase in the probability of dying was more pronounced for children whose mothers died of AIDS or tuberculosis compared to other causes of death, but the pattern remained for causes unrelated to AIDS/tuberculosis. Infants aged 0-6 mo at the time of their mother's death were nine times more likely to die than children aged 2-5 y. The limitations of the study included the lack of knowledge about precisely when a very ill mother will die, a lack of information about child nutrition and care, and the diagnosis of AIDS deaths by verbal autopsy rather than serostatus. CONCLUSIONS: Young children in lower income settings are more likely to die not only after their mother's death but also in the months before

  18. The Numerical Study of the Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms before and after Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jun Soo; Choi, Sun-Young

    2016-01-01

    The patient-specific pre- and postsurgery cerebral arterial geometries in the study were reconstructed from computed tomography angiography (CTA). Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models were used to investigate the hemodynamic phenomena in the cerebral arteries before and after surgery of the aneurysm under realistic conditions. CFD simulations for laminar flow of incompressible Newtonian fluid were conducted by using commercial software, ANSYS v15, with the rigid vascular wall assumption. The study found that the flow patterns with the complex vortical structures inside the aneurysm were similar. We also found that the inflow jet streams were coming strongly in aneurysm sac in the presurgery models, while the flow patterns in postsurgery models were quite different from those in presurgery models. The average wall shear stress after surgery for model 1 was approximately three times greater than that before surgery, while it was about twenty times greater for model 2. The area of low WSS in the daughter saccular aneurysm region in model 2 is associated with aneurysm rupture. Thus the distribution of WSS in aneurysm region provides useful prediction for the risk of aneurysm rupture. PMID:27274764

  19. The study of KBP of road construction workers of highway AIDS prevention project before and after intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Liu; Si-Ping Dong; Guang-Ming Gao; Ming-Yu Fan; Zong-Jiu Zhang; Peng-Qian Fang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To get scientific basis for further health education through the research of the road construction workers’KBP before and after the interventions of highwayAIDS prevention project. Methods:Multi-stage random sampling method was employeed to select workers of8 sites from14 sites along highway to investigate theirAIDS knowledge, belief and performance(KBP) before and after highwayAIDS prevention project.Results:Over90% of the investigated workers had ever heard aboutAIDS, and the non-skilled workers of lower educational level improved more after intervention.The correct answer rate of the three transmitting ways ofAIDS of drivers which is the focused group of highway before and after intervention had the obvious statistical significance(P<0.05), and the other group’s correct answer rates also had improved after intervention.Most people’s understanding of preventingAIDS through correct use of condoms when having sex had a statistically significant difference(P<0.05) after prevention.The rates of using condoms of foremen and skilled workers when having sex with commercial sex worker/casual partner increased after intervention.Conclusions:The health education ofHIV among the road construction workers is effective and further health education ofHIV prevention should be carried out among the road construction workers to improve their knowledge and awareness of avoiding the high-risk behaviors.

  20. Serum thyroglobulin before and after iodization of salt: an 11-year DanThyr follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejbjerg, Anne; Bjergved, Lena; Pedersen, Inge Bülow;

    2015-01-01

    (moderate iodine deficiency (ID)) and Copenhagen (mild ID). Participants were examined at baseline (1997) before the mandatory IF of salt (2000) and again at follow-up (2008) after IF. We examined 2465 adults and a total of 1417 participants with no previous thyroid disease and without Tg...

  1. Evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiti, K.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960 with the help of variable quantifies of products, the cultured area and the exported quantifies of products. A comparative analysis of quantifies of studied products shows that after 1960, the agricultural production of basis foodstuffs of the Zairian population has fallen of the order of 91 % in comparison with the first period. This study shows that the system of peasantry introduced in 1936 by the INEAC, the rationalization of cultural methods connected to the governmental explain the agricultural expansion of Zaire before 1960.

  2. Investigation of bone and mineral metabolism in hyperthyroidism before and after treatment using calcitonin, 47Ca and balance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen normocalcaemic patients with severe hyperthyroidism were examined before therapy was initiated; 9 were re-examined about 1 year later. Studies with 47Ca under balance conditions and with calcitonin demonstrated a high rate of bone resorption in untreated patients. As a result of the increased bone turnover, the reaction to 6 MRC units of porcine calcitonin iv was more marked in the untreated than in the treated patients, or the control group. In contrast to the normal diurnal pattern for PO4, it was found that during fasting the plasma PO4 level increases in the morning in patients with hyperthyroidism. This increase which was not suppressed by the administered dose of calcitonin developed in spite of an elevated urinary PO4 excretion. After treatment, the serum Ca concentration as well as the urinary and faecal Ca excretion was decreased. The Ca balance improved; the rapidly-exchangeable Ca pool returned to normal. The slowly-exchangeable and the total Ca pools, however, remained enlarged. The rate of bone resorption normalized. The accretion rate on the other hand remained elevated. This is attributed to continued enhancement of bone formation to compensate for the previous loss of bony tissue. (author)

  3. Detection of the viable myocardium. A perfusion scintigraphic study, before and after coronary bypass surgery in myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalela Willliam A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging scans using 201Tl and 99mTc-MIBI in detection of viable myocardium, in regions compromised by infarction. METHODS: Thirty-two (59.3±9.8 years old and 87% male myocardial infarction patients were studied. All had Q waves on the ECG and left ventricle ejection fraction of <50%. They underwent coronary and left ventricle angiographies and SPECT before (including 201Tl reinjection and after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG. Improvement in perfusion observed after surgery was considered the gold standard for myocardial viability. RESULTS: Among 102 studied regions of the heart, there were 40 (39.2% areas of transient perfusion defects in the conventional protocol with 201Tl and 52 (51.0% after reinjection. Therefore, 12/62 (19.4% more viable regions were identified by reinjection. Using 99mTc-MIBI, only 14 (13.7% regions with transient defects were identified, all of which were seen also in 201Tl protocols. After surgery, 49 of a total of 93 regions analyzed (52.7% were viable. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative prediction values were, respectively, 201Tl SPECT scans - 65.3%, 90.9%, 77.4%, 88.9% and 70.2%, reinjection protocol with 201Tl scans - 81.6%, 81.8%, 81.7%, 83.3% and 80.0%; 99mTc-MIBI SPECT scans - 20.4%, 90.9%, 53.8%, 71.4% and 50.6%. Logistic regression demonstrated that the reinjection protocol with 201Tl was the best predictor of viability (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the election of 201Tl for viability studies, especially when using the reinjection protocol.

  4. Gait pattern of heifers before and after claw trimming: a high-speed cinematographic study on a treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S W; Weishaupt, M A; Nuss, K A

    2007-02-01

    The manner in which the claws contacted the ground at the walk was evaluated in 18 healthy heifers. The animals were filmed before and after claw trimming while walking on a treadmill using high-speed cinematography (500 frames/s). For each limb, 4 consecutive steps were recorded from a side and a frontal plane. The objectives of the study were to evaluate 1) the order of claw contact with the treadmill surface, 2) the initial claw contact area, and 3) the effect of trimming on claw contact patterns. The heifers placed their front feet on the ground in a plane sagittal to the shoulders, whereas the hind feet were advanced more toward the median plane. Before trimming, the lateral claws contacted the ground before the medial in 83% of front and 100% of hind limbs. Trimming changed the percentage to 92% in the front and to 97% in the hind limbs. The percentage with which the heel of the lateral claws became the region of initial contact with the ground increased from 47 to 64% in the front feet and from 50 to 78% in the hind feet. In the medial claws of the forelimbs, claw trimming shifted the region of initial contact from the toe to the abaxial wall and heel. In the hind limbs, the main region of initial contact of the medial claws became the abaxial wall. Weight bearing by the medial claw became visibly apparent only during the midstance, propulsion, and push-off phases. "Heel first" contact of the lateral claws in the front and hind limbs may be the normal gait pattern in cattle. On hard surfaces, this pattern may lead to overload and predispose to disease, especially in the hind limbs. PMID:17235142

  5. Study on ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy before and after closed surgery for atrial septal defect with persistent ostium secundum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine changes of ventilation and perfusion distribution before and after closed surgery in atrial septal defect (ASD), a total of 25 ventrilation-perfusion lung scintigraphies were performed in a supine position in 15 ASD patients. Their ages ranged from one year and 11 months to 23 years (an average age of 7 years and one month). Ventilation and perfusion distribution was almost uniform before surgery. Preoperative time constant obtained from Xe-133 washout curve had a positive correlation with pulmonary blood flow per pulmonary volume. Although preoperative higher perfusion was seen in the upper lobe, perfusion tended to be uniform after surgery. Non-uniform distribution of ventilation/perfusion ratio became uniform within a few weeks after surgery. (N.K.)

  6. Self-assessment of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthognathic surgery is a well-accepted treatment for patients with skeletal discrepancies. The primary motivation of many patients who seek orthognathic surgery is esthetics and not for correction of functional disability. The treatment is incomplete if the surgeon attempts to correct the physical deformity alone without adequate understanding and regard for the emotional framework. The purpose of this study is aimed at patient′s self-perceptions of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery. Fifty patients were included in the study, of which 21 were used as control. Twenty-two questions were asked to evaluate the problem in all four areas as mentioned earlier. Each question takes a score from one to five. In group I, the internal consistency of each scale indicates moderate to high internal reliability, ranging from α = 0.71 for general health to α = 0.88 for psychosocial problem. In group II, except for functional problems, the internal consistency of each scale has moderate to high reliability. The psychological wellbeing of an orthognathic surgery patient is enhanced by careful preoperative counseling regarding the expected surgical treatment objectives, the operative course, and the expected postoperative sequelae. Patients who undergo orthognathic surgery readily accept the changes in their postoperative appearance and are satisfied with achieved results.

  7. Crewmember Performance before, during, and after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas H.; Hienz, Robert D.; Zarcone, Troy J.; Wurster, Richard M.; Brady, Joseph V.

    2005-01-01

    The development of technologies for monitoring the welfare of crewmembers is a critical requirement for extended spaceflight. Behavior analytic methodologies provide a framework for studying the performance of individuals and groups, and brief computerized tests have been used successfully to examine the impairing effects of sleep, drug, and…

  8. [Study on antiplatelet and antithrombin activitives and effective components variation of Puhuang-Wulingzhi before and after compatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-lan; Xue, Ping; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhou, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-08-01

    The changes of bioactive constituents were analyzed for Puhuang-Wulingzhi before and after compatibility and the antiplatelet and antithrombin activitives were evaluated in order to elucidate the scientific and reasonable of Puhuang-Wulingzhi compatibility. UPLC-QTOF-MA-Markerlynx, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis were used for data analysis and tracking changes of chemical composition during the decocting process. In vitro platelet aggregation induced by ADP, thrombin time(TT) and prothrombin time (PT) were investigated for Puhuang-Wulingzhi before and after compatibility. The results showed that significant differences were found between the mixed decoction and codecoction of Wulingzhi and Puhuang. Five compounds changed obviously were identified as typhaneoside, naringenin, isorhamnetin-3-O-ruinoside, quercetin-3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol-3-O-neohesperidoside. The codecoction, comparing with the single decoction, was more significant in antiplatelet aggregation and could prolong thrombin time. In the same crude drug dose, the thrombin time (TT) elongation were greater. These data could provide references for elucidation of bioactive components for this herb pair. PMID:26790290

  9. CT studies before and after CNS treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT was performed on 72 children with acute lymphoblasitc leukemia or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Thirty-two of these patients were investigated prior to CNS radiation and intrathecal methotrexate therapy. Ten of these patients (31%) were known to have hydrocephalic dilatation of the CSF spaces. Clinical data and subsequent observations with analysis of the CT findings show that no difference in the attenuation values of brain tissue occurs in the absence of a CNS relapse. The percentage of abnormal findings before and after therapy remains constant. The adverse late effects described in the CT literature seem principally to be damage diagnosed too late. It is questionable if the CT demonstration of dilated CSF spaces before treatment has a prognostic significance. (orig.)

  10. CT before and after liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our retrospective study, we evaluated the role of CT in cases of liver transplantation. 118 examinations (37 pre- and 81 post-operative) were carried out in 46 transplant recipients. Pre-operatively CT was used to exclude retro-peritoneal secondary lesions, although ultrasound was superior in the region of the porta hepatis. Patency of the portal vein can be established by means of duplex sonography and CT, portography is indicated only in exceptional circumstances. Post-operative complications (abscesses, hematomas, infarcts) can be demonstrated by CT. CT-guided fine needle biopsies and percutaneous drainage can be carried out post-operatively, even under difficult conditions. Liver cell necrosis, if extensive, represents a serious risk to transplant survival. CT may clarify this, while other problems and differential diagnosis may be solved by angiography. (orig.)

  11. Patient Satisfaction Before and After Executing Health Sector Evolution Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Behrouz Hashemi; Alireza Baratloo; Mohammad Mehdi Forouzafar; Maryam Motamedi; Mohammadreza Tarkhorani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: After long discussions, carrying out health sector evolution (HSE) plan began on May 5, 2014 throughout Iran. Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, was also included in this plan. This study aimed to evaluate the level of emergency department patient satisfaction, before and after running this plan. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed the data extracted from a standard questionnaire filled out by the patients presented to the emergency department of Shohadaye Tajrish Hosp...

  12. Study on determination of stress level by seismic stress drops and the stress axis deflections before and after large earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong-ge

    2006-01-01

    To obtain the stress level at the earthquake source, this paper sets forth the solution of the stress magnitude at the earthquake source by seismic stress drop and the stress axis deflections before and after large earthquakes. The pre-seismic and post-seismic stress direction can be statistically determined by a large collection of foreshock and aftershock focal mechanism data while the stress drop can be determined through the source fracture inversion from seismic wave data or crust deformation data. The paper attempts to make a fundamental contribution to seismic dynamics.

  13. Childhood IQ and all-cause mortality before and after age 65: Prospective observational study linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, C. L.; M. D. Taylor; Davey Smith, G; Whalley, L.J.; Starr, J M; Hole, D; Wilson, V.; Deary, I J

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate how childhood IQ related to all-cause mortality before and after age 65. DESIGN: The Midspan prospective cohort studies, followed-up for mortality for 25 years, were linked to individuals' childhood IQ from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932. METHODS: The Midspan studies collected data on risk factors for cardiorespiratory disease from a questionnaire and at a screening examination, and were conducted on adults in Scotland in the 1970s. An age 11 IQ f...

  14. Before-, During-, and After-Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joanne; Storr, Gerrie

    2005-01-01

    Reading nonfiction requires students to use different techniques to: (1) navigate multiple starting and stopping points; (2) decipher charts, tables, and other graphic elements; and (3) be comfortable skipping about and scanning through text. This article offers simple and effective strategies that can facilitate successful reading in science.

  15. Ultrasound Evaluation Before and After Hemodialysis Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Saedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nThe basic concept of hemodialysis access is to make a route to the central circulation in CRF patients. Vascular access procedures and subsequent complications represent a major cause of morbidity, hospitalization and cost for hemodialysis patients. Native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs are preferable to synthetic arteriovenous grafts because they are associated with a lower frequency of thrombosis and infection, as well as greater longevity. AVFs that are never usable and early graft failures are associated with the common problem of inadequate vessel (artery or vein selection. The surgeon’s preoperative physical examination is the primary basis for AVF versus graft selection. Only palpable veins are considered for construction of AVFs, and the more proximal draining venous anatomy is not known prior to the operation. Physical examination is the traditional surgical evaluation performed prior to hemodialysis access placement. Palpation and inspection are difficult in obese arms, and few patients have vessels that are visible throughout their entire course. Patients with end-stage renal disease have often had multiple venipunctures and numerous intravenous lines placed and thus have an increased likelihood of venous stenosis or occlusion. Central vein problems are difficult to detect at visual inspection. By colour Doppler analysis vessels can be assessed for size, stenosis, and occlusion. US mapping assists in surgical planning and is especially valuable in patients who are difficult surgical cases (eg, obesity, diabetes, history of prior access, elderly women.  "nThis lecture contains two separate sections: 1-Vascular mapping prior to access placement and 2-Fistula maturity by US evaluation. Ultrasonography (US is an excellent modality for hemodialysis access evaluation because it is  readily available, non-invasive and inexpensive. It avoids the risks associated with iodinated contrast material and ionizing radiation.   

  16. Before, after, in and beyond Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. James

    2013-01-01

    The author uses a trip to a Holocaust museum to explain and illustrate psychoanalytic concepts from Freud to Lacan in order to re-imagine persistent dilemmas in teacher education. The author suggests that psychoanalytic vocabularies provide an additional and productive lens to conceptualize productive possibilities in teacher education.

  17. Before and after testicular repair (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development, during the last months of birth, the testicles develop in the abdomen and descend into the ... male fetus. Sometimes at birth, one or both testicles may fail to descend into the scrotum. If ...

  18. Understanding civil society before and after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Miszlivetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrapped in the ambiguities of the Realpolitik of the Yalta system, East and Central European societies had to proceed on a long path of learning in order to find the right modes of self-organization and articulation to defend their values and identities vis-à-vis dictatorship and authoritarian rule. These bitter lessons contributed to the emergence of a new «strategy», a new vision which materialized in the emerging political philosophy and the political and social practice of civil society. This development would not have been possible without a gradual and fundamental change in political thinking and goal-setting, expressed in the development of a new concept of civil society.Atrapados en las ambigüedades de la Realpolitik del sistema de Yalta, las sociedades del Centro y Este de Europea han tenido que proceder a un largo camino de aprendizaje a fin de encontrar formas correctas de autoorganización y la articulación de la defensa de sus valores e identidades vis-à- vis con una dictadura y una administración autoritaria. Estas amargas lecciones contribuyeron a la emergencia de una nueva «estrategia», una nueva visión materializada en la emergente filosofía política y la práctica social y política de la sociedad civil. Este desarrollo no hubiera sido posible sin el gradual y fundamental cambio en el pensamiento político y el establecimiento de metas, expresadas en el desarrollo de un nuevo concepto de sociedad civil. 

  19. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new...

  20. General anaesthesia vs. conscious sedation for transfemoral aortic valve implantation: a single UK centre before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, L F; Joshi, K R; Ogilvie, E H; Densem, C G; Klein, A A; O'Sullivan, M; Martinez, G; Sudarshan, C D; Abu-Omar, Y; Irons, J F

    2016-08-01

    Reported data suggest that 99% of transfemoral, transcatheter aortic valve implantations in the UK are performed under general anaesthesia. This before-and-after study is the first UK comparison of conscious sedation vs. general anaesthesia for this procedure. Patients who underwent general anaesthesia received tracheal intubation, positive pressure ventilation, radial arterial and central venous access and urinary catheterisation. Anaesthesia was maintained with propofol or sevoflurane. Patients who received conscious sedation had a fascia iliaca and ilioinguinal nerve block and low-dose remifentanil infusion, without invasive monitoring or urinary catheterisation. Recruitment took place between August 2012 and July 2015, with a 6-month crossover period between November 2013 and June 2014. A total of 88 patients were analysed, evenly divided between the two groups. Patients receiving conscious sedation had a shorter anaesthetic time (mean (SD) 121 (28) min vs. 145 (41) min; p < 0.001) and recovery room time (110 (50) min vs. 155 (48) min; p = 0.001), lower requirement for inotropes (4.6% vs 81.8%; OR (95% CI) 0.1 (0.002-0.050); p < 0.001) and a lower incidence of malignant dysrhythmia (0% vs 11.4%; p = 0.020). Conscious sedation appears a feasible alternative to general anaesthesia for this procedure and is associated with a reduced requirement for inotropic support and improved efficiency. PMID:27353456

  1. Study on the change of hepatic fibrosis indicators in serum before and after I-131 treatment in Graves' Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To explore the change of hepatic fibrosis indicators, i.e., PC-III (type III procollagen), IV-C (type IV collagen), HA (hyaluronic acid), LN (laminin) levels in serum of Graves' patients before and after I-131 treatment. Methods: Control group were 40 healthy cases (female 25, male 15, aged 18-60 years) with normal serum levels of those indicators by medical examination in our hospital. Fifty-five Graves' patients (female 32, male 23, aged 17-58) were diagnosed by thyroid function indicators (TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH) tests, thyroid iodine intake and clinical symptoms and signs, with normal hepatic function indicators and without combined history of hepatic disease, cardiac disease, diabetes, and rheumatic disease. Three to six months after I-131 treatment these were completely recovered (back to normal thyroid function, shrunken thyroid gland volume from swelling, and disappeared clinical symptoms and signs). In both controls and Graves' patients, 2 ml venous blood was taken at early morning from each case with limosis respectively before and after I- 131 treatment. RIA method was adopted for detection of each serum indicator with reagents kit. Data were analyzed by t test in the SPSS statistical software pack. Results: 1. In Graves' patients, before treatment PC- III (type III procollagen) levels were statistically higher than that in controls (p0.05). 2. In Graves' patients, PC-III significantly decreased to a lower level after treatment than before (p05). 3. In Graves' patients, after treatment there is no significant difference of indicator levels when compared with controls (p>0.05). Conclusion: Graves' patients had certain degree of hyperplasia of hepatic connective tissue, and this pathogenesis recovered with healing of Graves' disease. PC-III positive rate and thyroid function indicator positive rate may be better in accordance with the disease process than IV-C, Ha and LN indicators. These data showed that of four serum hepatic

  2. Gait analysis before and after achilles tendon surgical suture in a single-subject study: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolin, Giuseppe; Buriani, Alessandro; Balasso, Alberto; Villaminar, Renato; Petrone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Achilles tendon rupture is a disabling injury that requires a long recovery time. We describe a unique case of a 46-year-old male who had undergone gait analysis as part of a personal physical examination and who, 16 months later, ruptured his left Achilles tendon while running. With gait kinematic and kinetic data available both before and after his injury, we determined the residual gait asymmetries on his uninjured side and compared the pre- and postinjury measurements. We analyzed his gait at 1, 4, and 7 weeks after his return to full weightbearing. Compared with the preinjury values, at 7 weeks he had almost complete range of motion in his left ankle (-2%) and a slight increase in gait velocity (+6%) and cadence (+3%). The peak power of his injured ankle was 90% of its preinjury value. In contrast, the unaffected ankle was at 118%. These observations suggest that measuring the asymmetries of the gait cycle, especially at the beginning of rehabilitation, can be used to improve treatment. We had the patient strengthen his ankle using a stationary bicycle before he returned to running. Kinetics also appears to be more powerful than kinematics in detecting functional asymmetries associated with reduced calf strength, even 15 weeks after surgery. Gait analysis could be used to predict the effectiveness of rehabilitation protocols and help calibrate and monitor the return to sports participation while preventing overloading muscle and tendon syndromes.

  3. Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjorg; von Buchwald, Christian; Nauntofte, Birgitte;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Low saliva flow and abnormal saliva composition are common conditions after radiotherapy for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Both conditions increase the susceptibility to dental caries and erosion, which may be further accelerated by changes in food preferences. The aim...... of this study was to determine changes in saliva flow and susceptibility to erosive challenges in pharyngeal cancer patients before and after radiotherapy to the head and neck. Materials and methods: The erosive potential of sucking acidic candies with and without calcium was determined in nine patients (50......-68 years) before and after receiving a radiation dose of 66 Gy to the head and neck area. The erosive potential was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAp) and by dissolution of HAp in candy-stimulated saliva. Results. Sucking acidic candies increased saliva flow...

  4. Characterization and photoluminescence studies of CdTe nanoparticles before and after transfer from liquid phase to polystyrene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shugang Wang; Yaoxian Li; Jie Bai; Qingbiao Yang; Yan Song; Chaoqun Zhang

    2009-10-01

    The major objective of this work was to detect the change of photoluminescence (PL) intensity of CdTe nanoparticles (NPs) before and after transfer from liquid phase to polystyrene (PS) matrix by electrospinning technique. Thio-stabilized CdTe NPs were first synthesized in aqueous, then enwrapped by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and finally, transferred into PS matrix to form CdTe/PS nanofibres by electrospinning. Then, CdTe/PS nanofibres were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe their morphology and distribution, respectively. The selective area electronic diffraction (SAED) pattern proved that the CdTe NPs were cubic lattice. The PL spectrum indicated that CdTe NPs have been transferred into PS nanofibres, and the PL intensity of CdTe NPs in the nanofibres was even higher than that before CdTe NPs were introduced into PS nanofibres. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) revealed that thiol-stabilized CdTe NPs were enwrapped by CTAB, and PS acted as a dispersant in the process of electrospinning.

  5. Effectiveness of a 1-Year Resident Training Program in Clinical Research: A Controlled Before-and-After Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Mechthild; Wild, Beate; Nikendei, Christoph; Kroenke, Kurt; Niehoff, Dorothea; Henningsen, Peter; Zipfel, Stephan; Herzog, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Background To increase the number of clinician scientists and to improve research skills, a number of clinical research training programs have been recently established. However, controlled studies assessing their effectiveness are lacking. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a 1-year resident training program in clinical research. Design Controlled before-and-after study. The training program included a weekly class in clinical research methods, completion of a research project, and mentorship. Participants Intervention subjects were 15 residents participating in the 1-year training program in clinical research. Control subjects were 22 residents not participating in the training program. Measurements and Main Results Assessments were performed at the beginning and end of the program. Outcomes included methodological research knowledge (multiple-choice progress test), self-assessed research competence, progress on publications and grant applications, and evaluation of the program using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Intervention subjects and controls were well matched with respect to research experience (5.1 ± 2.2 vs 5.6 ± 5.8 years; p = .69). Methodological knowledge improved significantly more in the intervention group compared to the control group (effect size = 2.5; p < .001). Similarly, self-assessed research competence increased significantly more in the intervention group (effect size = 1.1; p = .01). At the end of the program, significantly more intervention subjects compared to controls were currently writing journal articles (87% vs 36%; p = .003). The intervention subjects evaluated the training program as highly valuable for becoming independent researchers. Conclusions A 1-year training program in clinical research can substantially increase research knowledge and productivity. The program design makes it feasible to implement in other academic settings. PMID:17922168

  6. Antioxidant status in neonatal jaundice before and after phototherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dahiya, Kiran; Tiwari, A. D.; Shankar, Vijay; Kharb, Simmi; Dhankhar, Rakesh

    2006-01-01

    Phototherapy has been related to increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. In the present study, thirty full term jaundiced neonates with appropriate weight were analyzed before and after completion of phototherapy for malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols, vitamin C and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in hemolysate and albumin levels in plasma. These parameters were analyzed in cord blood samples of 20 healthy neonates as control. It was observed that leve...

  7. How to Make Sense of Temporal/Spatial "Before" and "After."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagans, Lynne

    1980-01-01

    Studies the perceptual relationship between temporal "before" and "after" and their spatial counterparts. Adults reported temporal "before" related to spatial "after" and temporal "after" related to spatial "before." Three-year old children better understood spatial "after" and spatial "before," suggesting a temporal/spatial semantic acquisition…

  8. Oral manifestations of allograft recipients before and after renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is considered the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. In this study, the prevalence of oral lesions was studied in a cohort of renal transplant recipients before and after transplantation. Fifty-nine kidney transplant recipients were examined one week before and four months after transplantation. The information gathered included age, sex, smoking history, duration on dialysis, drugs and their doses. There were 41 males (69.5% and 18 females (30.5% with a mean age of 37 years. Before surgery, two patients had non-specific lesions and two other patients had leukoedema. Following transplantation, 24 patients (40.7% did not have any specific lesion. In six patients, we observed non-specific erythematous lesions (10.2%. Other recorded observations are as follows: Gingival hyperplasia in five patients (8.5%, oral candidiasis of the erythematous type in five patients (8.5%, hairy leukoplakia in four patients (6.8% and leukoedema in seven patients (11.9%. In our study patients, the prevalence of oral lesions increased after transplantation, although it was lower than that reported in other studies. This could be due to the differences in sample size, differences between Iranian race and other races and different pharmaceutical formulation of the drug produced in Iran.

  9. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantit...

  10. Forward lunge knee biomechanics before and after partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Nielsen, Jonas Høberg; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients following meniscectomy are at increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis in the tibiofemoral compartment and at the patellofemoral joint. As osteoarthritis is widely considered a mechanical disease, it is important to understand the potential effect of arthroscopic...... partial meniscectomy (APM) on knee joint mechanics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in knee joint biomechanics during a forward lunge in patients with a suspected degenerative meniscal tear from before to three months after APM. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (35-55years old......) with a suspected degenerative medial meniscal tear participated in this study. Three dimensional knee biomechanics were assessed on the injured and contralateral leg before and three months after APM. The visual analogue scale was used to assess knee pain and the Knee Injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score was used...

  11. Serum BDNF levels before and after the development of mood disorders: a case-control study in a population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, K; Yoshida, H; Jones, P B; Hashizume, M; Suzuki, Y; Ishijima, H; Kim, H K; Suzuki, T; Hachisu, M

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are low in major depressive disorder (MDD), and were recently shown to decrease in chronic depression, but whether this is a trait or state marker of MDD remains unclear. We investigated whether serum BDNF levels decrease before or after the developments of MDD and other mood disorders through a case-control study nested in a cohort of 1276 women aged 75-84 years in 2008. Psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV identified incident cases of mood disorders at follow-up surveys in 2010 and 2012: 28 of MDDs, 39 of minor depressive disorders (minDDs) and 8 of minor depressive episodes with a history of major depressive episodes (minDEs with MDE history). A total of 106 representative non-depressed controls were also identified in the 2012 follow-up. We assayed BDNF levels in preserved sera of cases and controls at baseline and at follow-up. Serum BDNF levels at baseline in cases of MDD, minDD or minDE with MDE history were no lower than those in controls. The decrease in the serum BDNF level from baseline to follow-up was greater in cases of MDD or minDE with MDE history than in controls or cases of minDD. These results show that serum BDNF levels are not a trait marker of MDD in old women but appeared to be a state marker. The different changes in BDNF levels among diagnostic groups suggest that MDD has a pathophysiologic relation to minDE with MDE history, rather than to minDD. PMID:27070410

  12. Antioxidant status in neonatal jaundice before and after phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ayyappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice refers to yellow coloration of the skin and the sclera (whites of the eyes of newborn babies that result from the accumulation of bilirubin in the skin and mucous membranes. Because bilirubin is potentially toxic to the central nervous system. Genetic disorders of bilirubin conjugation, particularly the common Gilbert′s syndrome, can also contribute to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid per-oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with neonatal jaundice before and after phototherapy. Materials and Methods: The study includes 50 neonatal jaundice patients with average age 2-15 days. All patients of neonatal jaundice receiving phototherapy except feeding, cleaning. Subjects selected were from the patients attending Pediatrics Department. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT to monitor the bilirubin level. Results: The results show increased levels of bilirubin compared with controls (P < 0.001 shows the level of plasma MDA in control, before and after phototherapy. Represents the level of GPX was significantly increased in after the phototherapy group when compared with before phototherapy and control SPSS soft ware: (P < 0.001. Shows the reduced glutathione (GSH level in plasma was significantly decreased in the after phototherapy group when compared with before phototherapy and control (P < 0.001. And finally with ascorbic acid and CAT. Conclusion: It is evident from the study that increased oxidative stress in neonatal jaundice babies leads to decrease in the levels of antioxidants like GSH and ascorbic acid and disturb their metabolism, that weaken their ability to fight the growing stress. Intense oxidative stress and decreased antioxidants may contribute to neural cell death and alter the erythrocytomembrane structure processing in neonatal jaundice.

  13. Studying of some physical properties for natural polymers (hemoglobin) for cancer patients before and after exposure to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiotherapy on hemoglobin (Hb) polymer, obtained from patients (cases) before and after two periods of local gamma irradiation was studied. The results were compared with healthy volunteer. The patients were classified into two main groups. The first group represents cases that suffer from breast cancer, while, the second group represents cases that suffer from pelvic cancer. The total doses for breast cancer were ranged from 45 to 50 Gy, divided into 25 fractions for 5 weeks. While the total doses for pelvic irradiation were ranged from 20 to 66 Gy; divided into 10-25 fraction for 2-5 weeks. The physical properties of Hb have been studied via several characterization techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, viscosity, Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and UV-visible spectra. The resultant effects of radiotherapy can be summarized as follows: X-ray diffraction pattern of Hb polymer, for control and cancer breast before and after exposure to accumulated gamma irradiation, were characterized by halo consisting of two adjacent peaks with maximum intensity observed at 2θ = 9.549 and 21.222, respectively. By increasing the gamma doses, a decrease in crystalline phase (disordering character) were obtained. Also, the halos width at half of maximal intensity (δW) shows a decrease followed by an increase with increasing the accumulative gamma dose up to 50 Gy, but still below + ve and -ve control values. The viscosity were measured for Hb solutions of concentration 4.1x10-5 Mol on the base of heme-heme interaction and at different shear rates (10-400 sec-1). The plastic viscosity for every hemoglobin samples was calculated by Bingham equation using specific software of the viscometer. There was an increase in the plastic viscosity of Hb cancer patients compared to -ve control. On irradiation the viscosity shows an increase with increasing the accumulative gamma dose. Fourier transform infra-red spectra (FTIR

  14. Cognitive Function Before and After Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy (RT) on neurocognitive function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with NPC treated with intensity-modulated RT were included. Dose-volume histograms of the temporal lobes were obtained in every patient. Neurocognitive tests were administered individually to each patient 1 day before initiation of RT and at least 12 months after completion of RT. Cognitive functioning status was evaluated as change in scores over time. Results: Among the total of 30 patients, 23 patients (76.7%) had significantly lower post-RT cognitive functioning scores compared with their pre-RT scores (p = 0.033). The cognitive functioning scores had significantly declined in the domains of short-term memory, language abilities, and list-generating fluency (p = 0.020, 0.023, and 0.001, respectively). Compared with patients with a mean dose to the temporal lobes of 36 Gy or less, patients with a mean dose of greater than 36 Gy had a significantly greater reduction in cognitive functioning scores (p = 0.017). Patients in whom V60 of the temporal lobes (i.e., the percentage of the temporal lobe volume that had received >60 Gy) was greater than 10% also had a greater reduction in cognitive functioning scores than those in whom V60 was 10% or less (p = 0.039). Conclusions: The results of our study indicated that RT could have deleterious effects on cognitive function in patients with NPC. Efforts should be made to reduce the radiation dose and irradiated volume of temporal lobes without compromising the coverage of target volume.

  15. Sex Differences in Medication and Primary Healthcare Use before and after Spousal Bereavement at Older Ages in Denmark: Nationwide Register Study of over 6000 Bereavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Jacobsen, Rune; Glaser, Karen;

    2011-01-01

    Background. The study aimed to examine sex differences in healthcare use before and after widowhood to investigate whether reduced healthcare use among widowers compared with widows may partially explain excess mortality and more adverse health outcomes among men than women after spousal loss. Me...

  16. Patient Satisfaction Before and After Executing Health Sector Evolution Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After long discussions, carrying out health sector evolution (HSE plan began on May 5, 2014 throughout Iran. Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, was also included in this plan. This study aimed to evaluate the level of emergency department patient satisfaction, before and after running this plan. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed the data extracted from a standard questionnaire filled out by the patients presented to the emergency department of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital over 6-month periods before and after the beginning of HSE. Results: 3665 patients were surveyed. After the execution of the plan, satisfaction decreased significantly regarding pre-discharge training (p = 0.03, hospitalization room condition (p = 0.0002, restroom sanitation (p = 0.007, waiting time to be visited by the physician (p = 0.04, accuracy and duration of physical examination (p = 0.007, feeling confident and desirable outcome (p = 0.03, commitment to religious and moral principles (p = 0.01, and handling financial affairs (p = 0.03. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, after execution of HSE plan, patient satisfaction has decreased significantly regarding pre-discharge training, hospitalization room condition, restroom sanitation, timely visit of the physicians, accuracy and duration of physical examination, suggestions for wellbeing of the patient, handling financial affairs, and commitment to religious and moral principles.

  17. Innovative psycho-educational program to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a before and after controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Heather J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal interventions to prevent postnatal mental disorders in women have had limited success, perhaps because they were insufficiently theorised, not gender-informed and overlooked relevant risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether an innovative brief psycho-educational program for mothers, fathers and first newborns, which addressed salient learning needs about infant behaviour management and adjustment tasks in the intimate partner relationship, prevented postpartum mental health problems in primiparous women. Methods A before and after controlled study was conducted in primary care in seven local government areas in Victoria, Australia. English-speaking couples with one-week old infants were invited consecutively to participate by the maternal and child health nurse at the universal first home visit. Two groups were recruited and followed sequentially: both completed telephone interviews at four weeks and six months postpartum and received standard health care. Intervention group participants were also invited to attend a half-day program with up to five couples and one month old infants, facilitated by trained, supervised nurses. The main outcome was any Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI diagnosis of Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the first six months postpartum. Factors associated with the outcome were established by logistic regression controlling for potential confounders and analysis was by intention to treat. Results In total 399/646 (62% women were recruited; 210 received only standard care and 189 were also offered the intervention; 364 (91% were retained at follow up six months postpartum. In women without a psychiatric history (232/364; 64%, 36/125 (29% were diagnosed with Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the control group

  18. Providing education on evidence-based practice improved knowledge but did not change behaviour: a before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovarini Meryl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence

  19. Evaluation of Longitudinal Right Ventricular Mechanical Dyssynchrony before and Early after Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: A Strain Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Parsaee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The right ventricular (RV dyssynchrony has not been studied extensively and the existing literature has established the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT on the left ventricular (LV dyssynchrony, but there is a dearth of data on the effect of CRT on the forgotten ventricle. We sought to evaluate the presence of mechanical right ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with systolic heart failure, selected for CRT, and track the changes early afterward utilizing the longitudinal strain analysis.Methods: Thirty-six patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction, candidated for CRT, were enrolled in this study. Mechanical dyssynchrony was assessed using tissue Doppler echocardiography. The time interval between the onset of the QRS to the peak systolic longitudinal strain at the RV free wall and the septum was obtained. The RV mechanical delay was calculated as the absolute value of the difference in the time-to-peak measurements between the RV and septum. The RV dyssynchrony was defined as the calculated delay in strain imaging, which was ± 2 SD above the mean value for the control subjects (20 cases. The RV function was evaluated using the RV fractional area change (RVFAC, tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, and peak systolic strain values of the RV free wall. Four to 7 days after CRT implantation, echocardiographic reevaluations were done.Results: The calculated cut-off value for the RV dyssynchrony was 41.5 msec, according to which the pre-CRT analysis specified two patient groups: Group 1 (16 cases with RV dyssynchrony and Group 2 (20 patients without RV dyssynchrony. Significant improvement in the RV dyssynchrony was noted in Group 1 after CRT (30 ± 28.9 msec vs. 68.8 ± 21 msec; p value < 0.01 vs. 14 ± 10 msec vs. 19 ± 16.5 msec; p value = 0.18 respectively. A significant correlation was found between the severity of the RV dyssynchrony and peak systolic strain in the RV free wall (r = -0

  20. Consumers' price knowledge before, during, and after store visit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for frequently purchased goods. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with the results of reference price studies. This is the first study to examine consumers' price knowledge before, during, and after store...... visit, thus enabling a study of what consumers learn about prices during the store visit, and consequently the relationship between reference prices and episodic price knowledge. The project applies three measures of consumers' price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information...... processing, which furthermore allows us to examine whether consumers' price memory is one- or multidimensional....

  1. Prevalence of Sleep Deficiency and Hypnotic Use Among Astronauts Before, During and After Spaceflight: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Laura K.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Kubey, Alan; Walsh, Lorcan; Ronda, Joseph M.; Wang, Wei; Wright, Kenneth P.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation and fatigue are common subjective complaints among astronauts. We conducted the first large-scale evaluation of objectively-estimated sleep of astronauts on both short- and long-duration spaceflight missions. Methods Allnon-Russian crewmembers assigned to space shuttle flights with inflight experiments from July 2001 until July 2011 or ISS Expeditions from 2006 –2011 were eligible to participate. We objectively assessed, via wrist actigraphy and daily logs, sleep-wake timing of 64 astronauts on 80 Space Shuttle missions, encompassing 26 Space Transportation System flights (1,063 inflight days), and 21 astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) (3,248 inflight days) and, for each astronaut, during two Earth-based data-collection intervals prior to and one following spaceflight (4,013 ground-based days). Findings Astronauts attempted and obtained significantly less actigraphically-estimated sleep per night on space shuttle missions (7·35 ± 0·47 and 5·96 ± 0·56 hours, respectively), in the 11-days before spaceflight (7·35 ± 0·51 and 6·04 ± 0·72 hours, respectively) and even three months before spaceflight (7·40 ± 0·59 and 6·29 ± 0·67 hours, respectively) than they did upon their return to Earth (8·01 ± 0·78 and 6·74 ± 0·91 hours, respectively) (p sleeping pill use was pervasive during spaceflight. As chronic sleep loss produces performance decrements, these findings highlight the need for development of effective counter measures to promote sleep. Funding The study was supported by NASA cooperative agreement NCC 9–119. Drs. Czeisler and Barger received support from the NSBRI (HFP01601). PMID:25127232

  2. Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Pierini, Anna; Klungsøyr, Kari;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore utilisation patterns of asthma medication before, during and after pregnancy as recorded in seven European population-based databases. DESIGN: A descriptive drug utilisation study. SETTING: 7 electronic healthcare databases in Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Italy (Emilia...... pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The percentage of deliveries where the woman received an asthma medicine prescription, based on prescriptions issued (UK) or dispensed (non-UK), during the year before, throughout or during the year following pregnancy. Asthma medicine prescribing patterns were described...... for 3-month time periods and the choice of asthma medicine and changes in prescribing over the study period were evaluated in each database. RESULTS: In total, 1 165 435 deliveries were identified. The prevalence of asthma medication prescribing during pregnancy was highest in the UK and Wales databases...

  3. Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swai Ndeniria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. Methods The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and cross-sectional surveys before and after intervention in randomly selected health facilities (HF in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants were all clinicians and their patients in the above health facilities. The intervention consisted of training and introduction of mRDTs in all three hospitals and in six HF. Three HF without mRDTs were selected as matched controls. The use of routine mRDT and treatment upon result was advised for all patients complaining of fever, including children under five years of age. The main outcome measures were: (1 anti-malarial consumption recorded from routine statistics in ledger books of all HF before and after intervention; (2 anti-malarial prescription recorded during observed consultations in cross-sectional surveys conducted in all HF before and 18 months after mRDT implementation. Results Based on routine statistics, the amount of artemether-lumefantrine blisters used post-intervention was reduced by 68% (95%CI 57-80 in intervention and 32% (9-54 in control HF. For quinine vials, the reduction was 63% (54-72 in intervention and an increase of 2.49 times (1.62-3.35 in control HF. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys showed a similar decrease from 75% to 20% in the proportion of patients receiving anti-malarial treatment (Risk ratio 0.23, 95%CI 0.20-0.26. The cluster randomized analysis showed a considerable difference of anti-malarial prescription between intervention HF (22% and control HF (60% (Risk ratio 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.70. Adherence to test result was excellent since only 7% of negative patients received an anti-malarial. However, antibiotic

  4. Quality of Reporting and Study Design of CKD Cohort Studies Assessing Mortality in the Elderly Before and After STROBE: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Rao

    Full Text Available The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement was published in October 2007 to improve quality of reporting of observational studies. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of the STROBE statement on observational study reporting and study design quality in the nephrology literature.Systematic literature review.European and North American, Pre-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD cohort studies.Studies assessing the association between CKD and mortality in the elderly (>65 years published from 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2013 were included, following systematic searching of MEDLINE & EMBASE.Time period before and after the publication of the STROBE statement.Quality of study reporting using the STROBE statement and quality of study design using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tools.37 papers (11 Pre & 26 Post STROBE were identified from 3621 potential articles. Only four of the 22 STROBE items and their sub-criteria (objectives reporting, choice of quantitative groups and description of and carrying out sensitivity analysis showed improvements, with the majority of items showing little change between the period before and after publication of the STROBE statement. Pre- and post-period analysis revealed a Manuscript STROBE score increase (median score 77.8% (Inter-quartile range [IQR], 64.7-82.0 vs 83% (IQR, 78.4-84.9, p = 0.05. There was no change in quality of study design with identical median scores in the two periods for NOS (Manuscript NOS score 88.9, SIGN (Manuscript SIGN score 83.3 and CASP (Manuscript CASP score 91.7 tools.Only 37 Studies from Europe and North America were included from one medical specialty. Assessment of study design largely reliant on good reporting.This study highlights continuing deficiencies in the reporting of STROBE items and their sub-criteria in cohort

  5. Opioid prescriptions before and after high-energy trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Stine T; Hallas, Jesper; Larsen, Morten S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the legal use of opioids in adult patients before and after high-energy trauma. DESIGN: The study was a retrospective database study. SETTING: Clinical care outside hospitals. PATIENTS: All patients who suffered high-energy trauma and were brought to Odense University...... Hospital (OUH), Denmark, in 2007 and 2008 were retrieved from the trauma database. These patients were linked with data on opioid use from the regional prescription database. In all, 938 patients were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Redemption of opioid prescription during the 6 months prior...... to a multitrauma or redemption of two or more prescriptions for opioids 6 months or later after a multitrauma. RESULTS: Of the 938 patients brought to OUH with severe trauma within the study period, 61 patients died (7 percent) and six of these had redeemed prescriptions for opioids within 6 months prior...

  6. Phosphorus Spectroscopy of Calf Muscles before and after Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Wcisło, Bożena; Cichocka, Monika; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to determine 31PMRS reference spectrum and intracellular pH of calf muscles in the dominant limb of healthy, young, male volunteers before and after intense physical effort. Material/Methods Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2 and VOI (Volume Of Interest)=8×8×8 cm3 (512 cm3) involving in calf muscles. Raw ...

  7. Food satisfaction: Integrating feelings before, during and after food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Hyldig, Grethe

    2015-01-01

    Consumers' satisfaction is important for the food industry to ensure product success. Determinants to food satisfaction are multifactorial and a method approaching the multiple determinants would provide a detailed picture of determinant behind consumers' hedonic food appreciation. The aims...... of this study were (1) to develop a method that could give detailed information about sensory- and food satisfaction (2) to study differences in sensory satisfaction in a case study, and (3) to study the factors related to food satisfaction. Focus group interviews and a literature study provided an overview...... of factors with potential to affect food satisfaction. A total of four questionnaires, covering factors before-, during- and after intake as well as demographics, were developed to measure factors related to satisfaction. The questionnaires were utilised in a cross-over consumer study with 79 subjects...

  8. Population-based cohort study of anti-infective medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-01-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescri

  9. Strength and Flexibility in Gymnasts Before and After Menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Kathleen M.

    Twenty female gymnasts between the ages of twelve and fourteen were tested to determine possible difference in strength and flexibility before and after the development of an active menstrual cycle. Results indicate that females participating in gymnastics on a seriously competitive level tend to be short and light for their ages, as well as to…

  10. Morphometric evaluation of keratocystic odontogenic tumor before and after marsupialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Campos Telles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the morphometric evaluation of the epithelial lining and fibrous capsule in histological specimens of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs before and after marsupialization. Histological sections from six KOTs that had undergone marsupialization followed by enucleation were photographed. The thickness and features of the capsule and of the epithelial lining of the tumor were evaluated upon marsupialization and upon subsequent enucleation using Axion Vision software. The histological specimens taken upon marsupialization presented an epithelial lining that is typical of KOTs. After marsupialization, the enucleated specimens had a modified epithelial lining and a fibrous capsule that both presented a greater median thickness (p = 0.0277 and p = 0.0212, respectively, morphological changes, and significant enlargement. These modifications can facilitate full surgical treatment and may well be related to a low KOT recurrence rate.

  11. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  12. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Thi Quynh Lien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L. Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L. A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01 and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001.

  13. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use-A One Year Study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital's wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital's wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  14. Right ventricular function before and after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, W; Brinkies, C; Illert, S; Teupe, C; Kneissl, G D; Schräder, R

    1997-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate right ventricular performance in patients with mitral stenosis and its modification by balloon valvuloplasty. Right ventricular volumes of 24 patients with postrheumatic mitral stenosis were determined by thermodilution 1 or 2 days before and 1 or 2 days after valvuloplasty. Right ventricular ejection fraction at rest was 43 (36-47)% (median and interquartile range). Right ventricular end-diastolic volume was 100 (86-119) ml/m2. Supine bicycle exercise (50 Watt) reduced right ventricular ejection fraction to 30 (29-37)% (P volume to 124 (112-141) ml/m2 (P improvement of right ventricular ejection fraction correlated inversely with the value of this parameter before valvuloplasty (r = -0.88, P volume (r = 0.57, P < 0.01). The right ventricular function curve, disturbed before commissurotomy, was reestablished by the procedure. In conclusion, at the here investigated stage of mitral stenosis right ventricular function is reversibly impaired. This is predominantly caused by the hemodynamic consequences of the valvular defect and not by an impairment of right ventricular myocardial function.

  15. Algorithm for lamotrigine dose adjustment before, during, and after pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, A

    2012-01-01

    Sabers A. Algorithm for lamotrigine dose adjustment before, during, and after pregnancy. Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2011.01627.x. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background -  Treatment with lamotrigine (LTG) during pregnancy is associated with a pronounced risk of seizure deterior......Sabers A. Algorithm for lamotrigine dose adjustment before, during, and after pregnancy. Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2011.01627.x. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background -  Treatment with lamotrigine (LTG) during pregnancy is associated with a pronounced risk of seizure...

  16. Multifractal Fluctuations of Jiuzhaigou Tourists Before and after Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Li, Wen-Yong; Liu, Chun-Qiong; Huang, Zheng-Wen

    2013-03-01

    In this work, multifractal methods have been successfully used to characterize the temporal fluctuations of daily Jiuzhai Valley domestic and foreign tourists before and after Wenchuan earthquake in China. We used multifractal detrending moving average method (MF-DMA). It showed that Jiuzhai Valley tourism markets are characterized by long-term memory and multifractal nature in. Moreover, the major sources of multifractality are studied. Based on the concept of sliding window, the time evolutions of the multifractal behavior of domestic and foreign tourists were analyzed and the influence of Wenchuan earthquake on Jiuzhai Valley tourism system dynamics were evaluated quantitatively. The study indicates that the inherent dynamical mechanism of Jiuzhai Valley tourism system has not been fundamentally changed from long views, although Jiuzhai Valley tourism system was seriously affected by the Wenchuan earthquake. Jiuzhai Valley tourism system has the ability to restore to its previous state in the short term.

  17. Morphological characteristics of spermatozoa before and after renal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Gen Xu; Shi-Fang Shi; Xiao-Ping Qi; Xiao-Feng Huang; Hui-Ming Xu; Qi-Zhe Song; Xing-Hong Wang; Zong-Fu Shao; Jun-Rong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the changes of the spermatozoa ultrastructures before and after renal transplantation in uremic patients. Methods: The sperm of five uremic patients before and after transplantation and four healthy volunteers were collected and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Abnormal spermatozoa were found in patients pre-transplantation; abnormalities included deletion of the acrosome, absence of the postacrosomal and postnuclear ring, dumbbell-like changes of the head, tail curling, and absence of the mitochondrial sheath in the midsegment. After renal transplantation, most of the spermatozoa became normal. Conclusion: There are many abnormalities with regard to the appearance and structure of the head, acrosome, mitochondria and tail of the spermatozoa in uremic patients. The majority of the spermatozoa returned to normal after renal transplantation, but a few still presented some abnormalities possibly relating to the administration of immunosuppressants.

  18. Using the Glucometrics Website to Benchmark ICU Glucose Control Before and After the NICE-SUGAR Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lleva, Ranee R.; Thomas, Prem; Bozzo, Janis E.; Hendrickson, Karrie C.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to 2009, intensive glycemic control was the standard in main intensive care units (ICUs). Glucose targets have been recalibrated after publication of the NICE-SUGAR study in that year, followed by updated guidelines that endorsed more moderated control. We sought to determine if the prevalence of hyperglycemia in US ICUs had increased after the NICE-SUGAR study’s results were reported. We used data from hospitals submitted to the Yale Glucometrics™ website to assess mean blood glucose v...

  19. Study of the profile of the neurotrophin BDNF in new leprosy cases before, during and after multidrug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Dias Costa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a neurotrophin involved in the survival of neurons and growth and differentiation of dendrites and axons. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of BDNF of leprosy patients at different stages of multidrug therapy (MDT in comparison with non-infected individuals. Plasma levels of BDNF were measured by ELISA in 30 healthy controls and 37 leprosy patients at diagnosis, during and after MDT. Plasma levels of BDNF tended to be higher in control subjects in comparison with leprosy patients, but this difference does not reach statistical significance. Interestingly, BDNF levels changed following MDT, achieving statistical difference only at the 2nd dose of MDT. These results indicate that BDNF may not be a surrogate marker of leprosy infection and/or related neuropathy. Further research is needed to investigate the meaning of BDNF level changes following leprosy treatment.

  20. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strengths of veneering porcelain to base metal alloy and zirconia substructures before and after aging – An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Sreekala, Laju; Narayanan, Mahesh; Eerali, Sunil M.; Eerali, Susil M.; Varghese, Joju; Zainaba Fathima, A. l.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to base metal alloy and zirconia substructures before and after aging. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the failure pattern. Materials and Methods: Twenty rectangular blocks (9 mm length × 4 mm height × 4 mm width) of base metal alloy (Bellabond plus, Bego, Germany) and zirconia (Will ceramZ zirconia K block) were fabricated for shear bond strength test. Surface ...

  1. Hydro reservoir handling in Norway before and after deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfgang, Ove; Haugstad, Arne; Mo, Birger; Gjelsvik, Anders [SINTEF Energy Research, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Wangensteen, Ivar; Doorman, Gerard [NTNU, Department of Electric Power Engineering, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-10-15

    The Norwegian Energy Act that came into force in 1991 deregulated the electricity market and removed the former obligation power companies had to supply electricity to the geographical area they were responsible for. Hence producers can supply electricity on the basis of profitability. In 2007 the Energy Act was evaluated by the Government. As a part of this, a study concerning hydro reservoir handling before and after deregulation was carried out by SINTEF. Public statistics show that average hydro reservoir levels measured in per cent of reservoir capacity have been reduced after 1990. We have used the power-market model EMPS (EFI's Multi-area Power-market Simulator) to analyze if this reduction can be explained by natural variation in climatic variables or by structural changes that have occurred after 1990. Simulation results show that the reduced reservoir levels cannot be explained by natural variation in climatic variables. Structural changes such as increased transmission capacities can, however, explain some of the reduction. Our study does not indicate that the present reservoir handling gives reservoir levels that are too low. In this paper we also describe the stochastic dynamic optimization problem for long-term hydropower scheduling, and we explain how this problem actually is solved by the EMPS model. (author)

  2. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amood Al-Kamarany, Mohammed; Al-Areqi, Lina; Mujally, Abulatif; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Nasser, Arwa; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009-July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013-December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P[8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. PMID:27437161

  3. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%, followed by G1P[8] (15.0%, while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31% was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%. In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains.

  4. Medication Use before, during, and after Pregnancy among Women with Eating Disorders: A Study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lupattelli

    Full Text Available Little is known about medication use among women with eating disorders in relation to pregnancy.To explore patterns of and associations between use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal and analgesic medications and eating disorders in the period before, during and after pregnancy.This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A total of 62,019 women, enrolled at approximately 17 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and completed three MoBa questionnaires. The questionnaires provided diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN, binge eating disorder (BED and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P, along with self-reported use of medication six months before, during, and 0-6 months after pregnancy.The prevalence of eating disorder subtypes before and/or during pregnancy was: 0.09% AN (n = 54, 0.94% BN (n = 585, 0.10% EDNOS-P (n = 61 and 5.00% BED (n = 3104. The highest over-time prevalence of psychotropic use was within the AN (3.7-22.2% and EDNOS-P (3.3-9.8% groups. Compared to controls, BN was directly associated with incident use of psychotropics in pregnancy (adjusted RR: 2.25, 99% CI: 1.17-4.32. Having AN (adjusted RR: 5.11, 99% CI: 1.53-17.01 or EDNOS-P (adjusted RR: 6.77, 99% CI: 1.41-32.53 was directly associated with use of anxiolytics/sedatives postpartum. The estimates of use of analgesics (BED and laxatives (all eating disorders subtypes were high at all time periods investigated.Use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal, and analgesic medications is extensive among women with eating disorders in the period around pregnancy. Female patients with eating disorders should receive evidence-based counseling about the risk of medication exposure versus the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and postpartum.

  5. Medication Use before, during, and after Pregnancy among Women with Eating Disorders: A Study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupattelli, Angela; Spigset, Olav; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Hatle, Marianne; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about medication use among women with eating disorders in relation to pregnancy. Aims To explore patterns of and associations between use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal and analgesic medications and eating disorders in the period before, during and after pregnancy. Method This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A total of 62,019 women, enrolled at approximately 17 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and completed three MoBa questionnaires. The questionnaires provided diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P), along with self-reported use of medication six months before, during, and 0–6 months after pregnancy. Results The prevalence of eating disorder subtypes before and/or during pregnancy was: 0.09% AN (n = 54), 0.94% BN (n = 585), 0.10% EDNOS-P (n = 61) and 5.00% BED (n = 3104). The highest over-time prevalence of psychotropic use was within the AN (3.7–22.2%) and EDNOS-P (3.3–9.8%) groups. Compared to controls, BN was directly associated with incident use of psychotropics in pregnancy (adjusted RR: 2.25, 99% CI: 1.17–4.32). Having AN (adjusted RR: 5.11, 99% CI: 1.53–17.01) or EDNOS-P (adjusted RR: 6.77, 99% CI: 1.41–32.53) was directly associated with use of anxiolytics/sedatives postpartum. The estimates of use of analgesics (BED) and laxatives (all eating disorders subtypes) were high at all time periods investigated. Conclusions Use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal, and analgesic medications is extensive among women with eating disorders in the period around pregnancy. Female patients with eating disorders should receive evidence-based counseling about the risk of medication exposure versus the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:26200658

  6. Pregnancy-Induced Hypertensive Disorders before and after a National Economic Collapse: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir

    Full Text Available Data on the potential influence of macroeconomic recessions on maternal diseases during pregnancy are scarce. We aimed to assess potential change in prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (preeclampsia and gestational hypertension during the first years of the major national economic recession in Iceland, which started abruptly in October 2008.Women whose pregnancies resulted in live singleton births in Iceland in 2005-2012 constituted the study population (N = 35,211. Data on pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders were obtained from the Icelandic Medical Birth Register and use of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy, including β-blockers and calcium channel blockers, from the Icelandic Medicines Register. With the pre-collapse period as reference, we used logistic regression analysis to assess change in pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and use of antihypertensives during the first four years after the economic collapse, adjusting for demographic and pregnancy characteristics, taking aggregate economic indicators into account. Compared with the pre-collapse period, we observed an increased prevalence of gestational hypertension in the first year following the economic collapse (2.4% vs. 3.9%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.47; 95 percent confidence interval [95%CI] 1.13-1.91 but not in the subsequent years. The association disappeared completely when we adjusted for aggregate unemployment rate (aOR 1.04; 95% CI 0.74-1.47. Similarly, there was an increase in prescription fills of β-blockers in the first year following the collapse (1.9% vs.3.1%; aOR 1.43; 95% CI 1.07-1.90, which disappeared after adjusting for aggregate unemployment rate (aOR 1.05; 95% CI 0.72-1.54. No changes were observed for preeclampsia or use of calcium channel blockers between the pre- and post-collapse periods.Our data suggest a transient increased risk of gestational hypertension and use of β-blockers among pregnant women in Iceland in the

  7. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a population-based study in six European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Ra; Jordan, S; Pierini, A;

    2015-01-01

    prescribing had dropped to between 1.2% (CI95 , 1.1-1.3%) in Emilia Romagna and 4.5% (CI95 , 4.3-4.6%) in Wales. The higher UK pre-pregnancy prescribing rates resulted in higher first trimester exposures. After pregnancy, SSRI prescribing increased most rapidly in the UK. Paroxetine was more commonly...

  8. Temporal changes in CT perfusion values before and after cranioplasty in patients without symptoms related to external decompression: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbo, Silvio [' ' S. Chiara' ' Hospital, Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Trento (Italy); ' ' S. Anna' ' University Hospital, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences of Communication and Behavior, Clinics of Neurology, Ferrara (Italy); Latini, Francesco; Cavallo, Michele [' ' S. Anna' ' University Hospital, Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Ferrara (Italy); Ceruti, Stefano [' ' S. Anna' ' University Hospital, Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Ferrara (Italy); Chieregato, Arturo [' ' Careggi' ' University Hospital, Neurocritical Care Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Firenze (Italy); D' Esterre, Christopher [Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada). Foothills Medical Centre; Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Imaging Research Lab.; Lee, Ting-Yim [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Imaging Research Lab.; Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Imaging Program; Fainardi, Enrico [' ' S. Anna' ' University Hospital, Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Ferrara (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Unita Operativa di Neuroradiologia

    2014-03-15

    Little is known about hemodynamic disturbances affecting cerebral hemispheres in traumatic brain injury (TBI) after cranioplasty. We prospectively investigated six stable TBI patients who underwent cranioplasty more than 90 days after effective decompressive craniectomy. Computerized tomography perfusion (CTP) studies and evaluation of clinical outcome were performed for each patient before cranioplasty and at 7 days and 3 months after surgery. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) were measured in multiple cortical circular regions positioned in cranioplasty-treated and contralateral hemispheres. Neither complications associated with cranioplasty nor changes in outcome were observed. On the treated side, CBF and CBV values were higher before and 7 days after cranioplasty than at 3 months after surgery, whereas MTT values were lower at 7 days than at 3 months after surgical treatment. Our results indicate that cortical perfusion progressively declines in the cranioplasty treated hemisphere but remains stable in the contralateral hemisphere after surgery and suggest that CTP can represent a promising tool for a longitudinal analysis of hemodynamic abnormalities occurring in TBI patients after cranioplasty. In addition, these data imply a possible role of cranioplasty in restoring flow to meet the prevailing metabolic demand. (orig.)

  9. Metamorphopsia assessment before and after vitrectomy for macular hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøyer, Kristian; Christensen, Ulrik; la Cour, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the degree of metamorphopsia in 42 patients before and 6 months after vitrectomy for idiopathic unilateral macular hole. METHODS: Semicircular test and reference stimuli of variable diameters were applied in a binocular test that measured interocular size disparity in patient...... to the degree of preoperative disparity in spatial projection between receptive units with a shared perceptual projection in visual space in the two eyes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00302328.)....

  10. Pulsations of blue supergiants before and after helium core ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrowski, Jakub; Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    We present results of pulsation analyses of B-type supergiant models with masses of $14 - 18 M_\\odot$, considering evolutionary stages before and after helium core ignition. Using a non-adiabatic pulsation code, we compute instability domains for low degree modes. For selected models in these two evolutionary phases, we compare properties of pulsation modes. Significant differences are found in oscillation spectra and the kinetic energy density of pulsation modes.

  11. Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Carla; Pereira Belmiro G; Cecatti Jose G; Cavalcante Sergio R; Pereira Rosa I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical activity in water on fetal cardiotocography patterns in sedentary pregnant women. Method In a non-randomized controlled trial, 133 previously sedentary pregnant women participated in multiple regular sessions of water aerobics in a heated swimming pool. Cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes before and just after the oriented exercise. Cardiotocography patterns were analyzed pre- and post-exercise according to gesta...

  12. Ceres' evolution before and after Dawn: Where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Thomas B.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2016-10-01

    Observations of Ceres before Dawn indicated that it contains ~25 wt% water, and thermodynamic modeling indicated Ceres probably had experienced the same process of differentiation due to melting of the original ice after accretion as experienced by large icy moons. Consistent with that was a surface of altered mineralogy like clays suggesting aqueous alteration of the original chondritic silicates. Dawn has revealed some concentration of mass toward the center, specific aqueously altered mineralogies, a stiff surface with weaker material beneath, and extrusions and protrusions suggesting recent subsurface activity, including exposures of water ice that must be very recent. This wealth of new information from Dawn enables selection of more specific evolution models that best match the vastly improved Dawn observations. In this new study we propose one possibility is that Ceres accreted as an ice and silicate mixture after short-lived radionuclides in CAIs had significantly decayed, i.e. nearer 5 my after CAIs, and thus differentiated less completely than for hotter models. On the other hand, the presence of heavily aqueously altered mineralogies, including probably salts, suggests extensive mixing of water and silicates, which might normally be associated with more complete differentiation. Geologically recent activity, perhaps even to the present time, seems evident from several young landforms, including protrusions consistent with diapirism and recent exposures of water ice. This suggests recent flexing of the subsurface and rising of less dense interior material, including salts and ice. The presence of ammoniated minerals and what appear to be salt deposits suggest a major lowering of subsurface water ice melting temperature, enhancing the duration of water-silicate contact, and perhaps accelerating the mineralization processes and slowing or halting differentiation of water and silicates. Thus, Ceres is becoming known as the first body outward from the Sun

  13. Cosmonauts' haemostasis system status before and after space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzichkin, Dmitry; Markin, Andrey; Morukov, Boris

    Introduction. It is known that cosmonauts expose themselves to psychophysical effort in different phases of space flights as well as in pre- and post-flight period. Stress affects different body systems functioning changes including haemostasis system. It is shown that adrenalin directly activates XII coagulation cascade factor [McKay D. G., Latour I. G., Parrish M. N.,1970], initiating intrinsic clotting pathway and affects fibrinogen concentration increase in plasma [Zubairov D. M., 1978]. A post-flight increase in the fibrinogen concentration was revealed with its drop up to the pre-flight level within rehabilitation period [T. Peter Stein, Margaret D., 2006]. Stress agents influence on haemostasis system is physiologically determined and directed to body preparation before probable blood loss. One can consider this process as a function of intrinsic clotting pathway. But in case of blood loss absence the preliminary permanent coagulation activation can lead to appearance of thrombosis risk. Purpose. The purpose was to study haemostasis system main components functional activity features before and after space flights. Methods. In the citrated plasma of astronauts who performed short-term (10 to 11 days) or long-term (196 to 199 days) the following values were determined: activated partial thrombin time (APTT); prothrombin time; prothrombin index; international normalized ratio; thrombin time (TT); activity of enzymes influencing the function of proteins involved in the formation and lysis of a clot such as antithrombin III, protein C, plasminogen, antiplasmin; content of fibrinogen, as well as intermediate products of formation and degradation of fibrin such as D-dimer, soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC). Sampling of biomaterial was perfomed 30 to 45 days prior to the flight, during the 1st day of the post flight period (all the examined persons), and in the 7th and 14th day (long-term flights member only) Results. In pre-flight period cosmonauts’ APTT

  14. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2010-08-01

    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.

  15. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2010-08-01

    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them. PMID:19115101

  16. CHANGES AND PERSPECTIVES OF SLOVENIAN PIG PRODUCTION BEFORE AND AFTER ACCESSION TO THE EU: THE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kastelić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in pig production during the last six to ten years were studied in case of Farme Ihan d. d., the Slovenian pig producer. At the beginning of the period, the company produced 70 to 75 thousand slaughtering pigs per year. At the end of the period the production increased to 150 thousand. As expected, the prices of pigs were reduced during that period. According to the new legislation, the large part of facilities was reconstructed and some environment protection investments were done. The production was improved: the number of weaned pigs per sow per year increased from 19.2 in 1996 to 25.48 in 2006 and reached the Danish average. The percentage of meat was increased in the same period from 52.7 % to 58.6 %. The progress in daily gain and in feed conversion ratio was moderate. To secure the access to the market, the own slaughter facility was bought and reconstructed. For the same reason, the company became shareholder of two meat processing companies. The transition period has not been finished yet. Production results may improve faster than in old EU member countries. Investment cycle has also not been finished yet. More investments, especially in environment protection are needed.

  17. Hearing disability before and after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from a disability orientated approach, which takes into account binaural hearing. Newly diagnosed patients with NPC were studied before radiotherapy, and at four months (mean 9.2 months) after radiotherapy, provided they remained disease-free. Each patient was examined clinically and with pure tone audiograms. Tympanometry was used to confirm middle ear effusion. Averaged hearing thresholds over 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz were evaluated. If abnormal (> 30 dB), the resultant hearing disability was illustrated by a modified Glasgow Plot. Twenty-three males and 10 females completed the study. Middle ear effusions resulted in 39.3 per cent (binaural in two patients) and 33.3 per cent (binaural in five patients) of patients having hearing disability pre- and post-irradiation respectively. No patient had hearing disability as a result of a sensoineural loss. It is recommended that future reporting of post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with NPC, as in middle ear surgery, be considered from a disability-orientated approach. (author)

  18. Thickness and morphology of polyelectrolyte coatings on silica surfaces before and after protein exposure studied by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselberg, Rob, E-mail: r.haselberg@vu.nl [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flesch, Frits M. [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); Boerke, Arjan [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Somsen, Govert W. [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Atomic force microscopy is used to characterize polyelectrolyte coatings. •Coating procedure leads to nm-thick layers on a silica surface. •Polyelectrolyte coatings effectively prevent protein adsorption. •AFM provides the high resolution to investigate these thin films. •AFM results support earlier findings obtained with capillary electrophoresis. -- Abstract: Analyte–wall interaction is a significant problem in capillary electrophoresis (CE) as it may compromise separation efficiencies and migration time repeatability. In CE, self-assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer films of Polybrene (PB) and dextran sulfate (DS) or poly(vinylsulfonic acid) (PVS) have been used to coat the capillary inner wall and thereby prevent analyte adsorption. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to investigate the layer thickness and surface morphology of monolayer (PB), bilayer, (PB-DS and PB-PVS), and trilayer (PB-DS-PB and PB-PVS-PB) coatings on glass surfaces. AFM nanoshaving experiments providing height distributions demonstrated that the coating procedures led to average layer thicknesses between 1 nm (PB) and 5 nm (PB-DS-PB), suggesting the individual polyelectrolytes adhere flat on the silica surface. Investigation of the surface morphology of the different coatings by AFM revealed that the PB coating does not completely cover the silica surface, whereas full coverage was observed for the trilayer coatings. The DS-containing coatings appeared on average 1 nm thicker than the corresponding PVS-containing coatings, which could be attributed to the molecular structure of the anionic polymers applied. Upon exposure to the basic protein cytochrome c, AFM measurements showed an increase of the layer thickness for bare (3.1 nm) and PB-DS-coated (4.6 nm) silica, indicating substantial protein adsorption. In contrast, a very small or no increase of the layer thickness was observed for the PB and PB-DS-PB coatings

  19. Evaluation and comparison of the internal fit and marginal accuracy of base metal (nickelchromium) and zirconia copings before and after ceramic veneering: a sem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regish, K M; Sharma, D; Prithviraj, D R; Nair, A; Raghavan, R

    2013-03-01

    This study compares the internal fit and marginal adaptation of copy milled Zirconia copings with Nickel-Chromium (Ni-Cr) copings fabricated using a lost wax technique before and after ceramic veneering. A standardized metal master die simulating a prepared crown was fabricated and twenty impressions of the metal die were made and poured with die stone. Wax patterns were made on ten dies and cast while light cure resin patterns were made on the other ten dies for copy milling the Zirconia copings. Five specimens from each group were subjected to ceramic veneering. All the test specimens were luted on to the fresh dies, embedded in dental plaster, sectioned and image analysis done using scanning electron microscopy. Thereafter statistical analysis is done using student t-test. The linear measurements for internal fit and marginal discrepancy were increased for Zirconia compared with Ni-Cr copings. The difference in the values of all the specimens of all the groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) except the values comparing the internal fit of Zirconia and Ni-Cr copings before ceramic veneering (P milled Zirconia copings but internal fit and marginal adaptability deteriorated after ceramic veneering. PMID:23682510

  20. Sun exposure before and after a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure before and after a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) have been based primarily on questionnaires. Objective measures are needed....

  1. Public debt management before, during and after the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andabaka Badurina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the financial and economic crisis, the public debt ratio in the European Union increased significantly, and public debt management had to be carried out in a completely new and unfavorable environment. The authors of this paper explore the changes in public debt management during and after the crisis. They describe the way in which three members of the Union – the Netherlands, Ireland and Hungary – dealt with the challenge of government financing during the crisis. These three countries were chosen because they all had a comparatively welldeveloped public debt management system before the crisis, and also due to the fact that during the crisis those responsible for public debt management pursued a policy of active accommodation to current market circumstances. Therefore, these case studies can illustrate the capacity of public debt management to contribute to the prevention of a sovereign debt crisis. In the conclusion, the authors give an overview of public debt management in Croatia in the period of the crisis and compare it with public debt management in the three countries whose experiences are presented in the paper.

  2. Study of Environmental Impacts Before and After Using the Organic-Chemical Fertilizer in Rice Paddy Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Wipawee KHAMWICHIT; Wipada SANONGRAJ; Sompop SANONGRAJ

    2006-01-01

    The environmental impact of an organic-chemical fertilizer developed by the Institute of National Science and Technology has been studied at Bansrangsabaeng Posai Ubonratchathani. The study revealed that the values of pH, EC, OC, total N, available P, and exchangeable K in soils from two varieties of rice tested Kor-Khor 10 and         Kor-Khor 15 paddy fields are almost the same. The concentrations of VOC, NH3, and CH4 in the air from the rice paddy fields mentioned above are lower than 0....

  3. The learning environment in the obstetrics and gynecology clerkship: an exploratory study of students' perceptions before and after the clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecher-Lind, Laura E; Chang, Katherine; Blanco, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    For reasons that remain not entirely clear, Obstetrics and Gynecology (Ob/Gyn) clerkships often exhibit comparatively higher rates of medical student mistreatment. To explore perceptions of our local learning environment, focus groups were held with students yet to start (pre-students) and students having completed (post-students) their Ob/Gyn clerkship. Topics of discussion included learning expectations and experiences, perceptions of mistreatment, and suggestions for improving the learning environment and student treatment. Using a naturalistic approach, we conducted a conventional content analysis to identify emergent themes. Nine pre-students and nine post-students participated. While pre-students anticipated being actively engaged, they also expected - based on peer accounts - to be subject to an unwelcoming learning environment on the Ob/Gyn clerkship, despite working hard to become team members. Due to patient advocacy and protection concerns, post-students reported low levels of student involvement and, subsequently, an overall passive learning experience. Students from both groups offered valuable suggestions for improving the learning environment and student treatment. The sensitive nature of Ob/Gyn clinical encounters may lead to overprotective behaviors that contribute to students feeling mistreated and excluded from patient care and team membership. Students' experiences during Ob/Gyn clerkships could be improved by better balancing patient advocacy and student involvement. Practical implications to address these issues are offered. PMID:26080798

  4. Type and Extent of Somatic Morbidity before and after the Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism. A Nationwide Register Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind;

    2013-01-01

    Hypothyroidism has been linked with an increased risk of other morbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. However, the temporal relationship between these diseases and the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not well illuminated. Such information may provide insight into causal...... relationships between hypothyroidism and other morbidities....

  5. Prospective study on quality of life before and after radical radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, JA; Aaronson, NK; de Jong, JMA; ten Velde, GPM; Muller, MJ; Lamers, RJ; Slotman, BJ; Wouters, EFM

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in respiratory symptoms and quality of life (QoL) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving radical radiotherapy (60 Gy). Additionally, the association between the level of symptom relief and objective tumor response,

  6. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer

  7. Changes of plasma C-reactive protein in patients with craniocerebral injury before and after hyperbaric oxygenation: A randomly controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeyu Xie; Minghua Zhuang; Lan Lin; Hongwu Xu; Linxing Chen; Lina Hu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma inflammatory factor, such as C-reactive protein, whose content is regarded as a sensitively pathological marked protein and quantitative indexes of central nervous system injury, has been paid more and more attention in clinic. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects and clinical significance of C-reactive protein in patients with craniocerebral injury after hyperbaric oxygenation. DESIGN: Randomized controlled study.SETTING: Departments of Neurosurgery, Laboratory and Hyperbaric Oxygen, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Shantou University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 60 patients with craniocerebral injury were selected from Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Shantou University from October 2006 to April 2007. There were 37 males and 23 females and the mean age was 26 years. All subjects were certainly diagnosed as history of craniocerebral injury. Patients hospitalized at 24 hours after injury, Glasgow Coma Score ranged from 3 to 12 points, and all patients were certainly diagnosed with CT or MR scanning. Patients and their relatives provided confirmed consent. All the subjects were randomly divided into hyperbaric oxygenation group and control group with 30 in each group.METHODS: Patients in the control group were treated with routinely neurosurgical therapy after hospitalization; however, based the same basic treatment in the control group, patients in the hyperbaric oxygenation group received hyperbaric oxygenation by using iced-wheel four-door 2-cabin air-compression chamber (made in Yantai) from 24 hours to 10 days after operation or injury. After entering the cabin, patients who had a clear consciousness breathed the oxygen by using face mask; contrarily, patients directly breathed the oxygen. Therapeutic project: Expression was increased for about 15-20 minutes, maintained for about 70 - 80 minutes, and decreased for 20 minutes. Otherwise, pressure was maintained from 0.2 to 0.25 Mpa

  8. A study on quantitative analyses before and after injection of contrast medium in spine examinations performed by using diffusion weighted image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the changes in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of metastatic cancer in the lumbar region by using diffusion weighted image taken with a 1.5 T (Tesla) magnetic resonance (MR) scanner before and after injecting a contrast medium. The study enrolled 30 healthy people and 30 patients with metastatic spine cancer from patients who underwent a lumbar MRI scan from January 2011 to October 2012. A 1.5 T MR scanner was used to obtain the diffusion weighted images (DWIs) before and after injecting the contrast medium. In the group with metastatic spine cancer, the SNR and the CNR were measured in three parts among the L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae, which included the part with metastatic spine cancer, the area of the spine with spine cancer, and the area of spine under the region with cancer. In the acquired ADC map image, the SNRs and the ADCs of the three parts were measured in ADC map images. Among the healthy subjects, the measurements were conducted for the lumbar regions of L3-L5. According to the results, in the group with metastatic spine cancer, the SNR in the DWI before the contrast medium had been injected was lowest in the part with spine cancer. In the DWI after the contrast medium had been injected, the SNR and the CNR were increased in all three parts. In the ADC map image after the contrast medium had been injected, the SNR decreased in all three parts compared to the SNR before the contrast had been injected. The ADC after had been injected the contrast medium was decreased in all three parts compared to that before the contrast medium had been injected. In the healthy group, the SNR was increased in the L3-L5 lumbar regions in the DWI. In the ADC map image, the SNR in all the three parts was decreased in the DWI after injecting the contrast medium had been injected. The ADC in the ADC map image was also decreased in all three parts.

  9. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S;

    2007-01-01

    , pelvic floor contraction (PFC), coughing, Valsalva, rising from sitting to standing and lifting 2 and 5 kg with four different lifting techniques. VP was measured before, 1-5 days and 4-6 weeks after vaginal repair. Mean VP was four to five times higher during coughing and Valsalva compared to PFC...... and lifting 2 and 5 kg. Lifting in the walking position created a slightly higher VP compared to other lifting techniques, which did not differ. The VP did not increase when lifting 5 kg compared to 2 kg. Mean VP during coughing and Valsalva were significantly lower 1-5 days after the operation. VP...... was not related to the type of vaginal repair. The results imply that post-operative counselling should concentrate more on treating chronic cough and constipation than restrictions of moderate physical activities....

  10. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S;

    2007-01-01

    , pelvic floor contraction (PFC), coughing, Valsalva, rising from sitting to standing and lifting 2 and 5 kg with four different lifting techniques. VP was measured before, 1-5 days and 4-6 weeks after vaginal repair. Mean VP was four to five times higher during coughing and Valsalva compared to PFC and...... lifting 2 and 5 kg. Lifting in the walking position created a slightly higher VP compared to other lifting techniques, which did not differ. The VP did not increase when lifting 5 kg compared to 2 kg. Mean VP during coughing and Valsalva were significantly lower 1-5 days after the operation. VP was not...... related to the type of vaginal repair. The results imply that post-operative counselling should concentrate more on treating chronic cough and constipation than restrictions of moderate physical activities....

  11. Does opening a milk bank in a neonatal unit change infant feeding practices? A before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Cooke Elisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Donor human milk banks are much more than simple centers for collection, storage, processing, and distribution of donor human milk, as they cover other aspects and represent a real opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding. The aim of our study is to assess the impact that opening a human milk bank has had on the proportion of infants receiving exclusive breast milk at discharge and other aspects related to feeding children with birth weight Methods The study included babies of Results Children born in 2008 commenced feeding 16 hours earlier than those born in 2006 (p = 0.00. The proportion of infants receiving exclusive breast milk at discharge was 54% in 2006 and 56% in 2008 (p = 0.87. The number of days they received their mother's own milk during the first 28 days of life was 24.2 days in 2006, compared to 23.7 days in 2008 (p = 0.70. In 2006, 60% of infants received infant formula at least once in the first 28 days of life, compared to 37% in 2008 (p = 0.01. Conclusions The opening of a donor human milk bank in a neonatal unit did not reduce the proportion of infants exclusively fed with breast milk at discharge, but did reduce the proportion of infants that received infant formula during the first four weeks of life. Also, having donor human milk available enables commencement of enteral feeding earlier.

  12. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in assessing lung function in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a pilot study of comparison before and after posterior spinal fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Wynnie WM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restrictive impairment is the commonest reported pulmonary deficit in AIS, which improves following surgical operation. However, exact mechanism of how improvement is brought about is unknown. Dynamic fast breath-hold (BH-MR imaging is a recent advance which provides direct quantitative visual assessment of pulmonary function. By using above technique, change in lung volume, chest wall and diaphragmatic motion in AIS patients before and six months after posterior spinal fusion surgery were measured. Methods 16 patients with severe right-sided predominant thoracic scoliosis (standing Cobb's angle 50° -82°, mean 60° received posterior spinal fusion without thoracoplasty were recruited into this study. BH-MR sequences were used to obtain coronal images of the whole chest during full inspiration and expiration. The following measurements were assessed: (1 inspiratory, expiratory and change in lung volume; (2 change in anteroposterior (AP and transverse (TS diameter of the chest wall at two levels: carina and apex (3 change in diaphragmatic heights. The changes in parameters before and after operation were compared using Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Patients were also asked to score their breathing effort before and after operation using a scale of 1–9 with ascending order of effort. The degree of spinal surgical correction at three planes was also assessed by reformatted MR images and correction rate of Cobb's angle was calculated. Results The individual or total inspiratory and expiratory volume showed slight but insignificant increase after operation. There was significantly increase in bilateral TS chest wall movement at carina level and increase in bilateral diaphragmatic movements between inspiration and expiration. The AP chest wall movements, however, did not significantly change. The median breathing effort after operation was lower than that before operation (p There was significant reduction in coronal Cobb's angle

  13. The quality of marriage before and after vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, G

    1979-09-01

    A randomly selected sample of 145 couples were seen at the time of a vasectomy request and a year or 18 months later, regardless of whether the vasectomy had been performed, to assess the quality of marriage before and after vasectomy. The sample was seen by 10 different doctors and studied in a seminar at the Cassel Hospital, Ham (UK). All doctors had had training in dealing with psychosexual problems. As part of each interview, the marital pattern was assessed using the following scale: 1) joint, warm, reciprocal, rewarding, showing loving concern; 2) fair, strains but a bearable modest success; and 3) real strains, contained but with difficulty; 4) major strains for both and marital war or major apathy; and 5) impending disaster (breakdown, illness, break up, divorce, or other cause). Using this scale, it became apparent that the majority of marriages improved in quality following vasectomy. This was the case in all age groups. It also appeared that the majority of requests came from successful marriages (score 1 and 2), in some of which strains apparent before vasectomy were not observed afterwards. 90% of the youngest age group had only minor strains whereas in the oldest group 56% had minor strains and 44% major difficulties in the marital relationship. The 94 successful marriages showing only minor strain hoped that vasectomy would prevent further pregnancies and would remove the need for contraception. They felt that they had reached the limit of parenthood and must have absolute protection against pregnancy. Following vasectomy, these marriages improved. Minor sexual problems disappeared, and tensions were eased. The exceptions were couples who had colluded; 3 couples were about to separate and hid their problems. 2 couples hid the husband's history of previous depressive illness. Both the men became severely depressed afterwards. The 37 marriages showing difficulties had also hoped that vasectomy would prevent further pregnancies and the need for

  14. Gender equity: A study of classroom interactions of sixth-grade science teachers before and after gender equity training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Joanne

    The researcher investigated teachers' perceptions of their interactions with students in their 6th grade science classrooms and the effects of gender equity training on teachers' interactions with students. Teacher perceptions were measured at pretest and posttest using the Gender Equity Teacher-Student Interaction Questionnaire (GETSIQ). The outcomes from one day of gender equity training, using the Gender Equity Video and Instructional Guide, were measured at pretest, posttest, and follow-up using the INTERSECT scale. A non-random sample of twenty 6th grade science teachers from five middle schools participated in the study. Ten teachers were assigned to each of the control or experimental groups. The first hypothesis posited that teacher perceptions of and actions toward male and female students in sixth grade science classrooms would be different as reflected by scores on the GETSIQ. The hypothesis was partially supported. Teachers reported significantly different amounts of acknowledgment, attention in general, and attention to questions, responses, and comments for boys and girls, and different evaluations based on their expectations for a student. Following training, teachers from the experimental group obtained somewhat higher scores, though the differences were not statistically significant. Hypothesis 2 stated that gender equity training would increase equitable teacher interactions with male and female students as demonstrated by scores on the INTERSECT Checklist. This hypothesis was partially supported. A comparison of the Intersect checklist (praise, acceptance, remediation, criticism) revealed that teachers were observed to more equally give praise to boys and girls following training, male teachers engaged in more acceptance responses with girls, and female teachers had more equitable distribution of acceptance. Male teachers increased the amount of remediation to girls, and female teachers continued to provide more remediation to boys. The

  15. Balance in Visual Impairment Before and After Intervention Based Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Moraes Frade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article’s objective was to evaluate the balance in low vision deficients before and after 16 game therapy sessions. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee with protocol 2349/2012, and developed at the Institute of the Blind of Central Brazil in Uberaba, Minas Gerais. The sample was made with 10 individuals with low vision in the age group of 12-23 years. Initially, participants were assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, underwent a session of game therapy with Nintendo Wii Fit and then reassessed. After that, 4 of the 10 participants were chosen to conduct 16 sessions of therapy for 2 months. In the end, the balance was reassessed. The results showed significant improvement in balance. The virtual rehabilitation can be used in several kinds of treatments, as it improves motor function, decreases perception of pain and improves balance. We conclude that the game therapy showed balance improvements in the subjects.

  16. What Students Think About (Nuclear) Radiation - Before and After Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, S.

    2014-06-01

    Preparing successful science lessons is very demanding. One important aspect a teacher has to consider is the students' previous knowledge about the specific topic. This is why research about students' preconceptions has been, and continues to be, a major field in science education research. Following a constructivistic approach [R. Duit et al., International handbook of research on conceptual change, p. 629 (2008)], helping students learn is only possible if teachers know about students' ideas beforehand. Studies about students' conceptions regarding the major topics in physics education (e.g. mechanics, electrodynamics, optics, thermodynamics), are numerous and well-documented. The topic radiation, however, has seen very little empirical research about students' ideas and misconceptions. Some research was conducted after the events of Chernobyl [P. Lijnse et al., International Journal of Science Education 12, 67 (1990); B. Verplanken, Environment and Behavior 21, 7 (1989)] and provided interesting insight into some of the students' preconceptions about radiation. In order to contribute empirical findings to this field of research, our workgroup has been investigating the conceptions students have about the topic radiation for several years [S. Neumann et al., Journal of Science Education and Technology 21, 826 (2012)]. We used children's drawings and conducted short follow-up interviews with students (9 - 12 years old) and more detailed interviews with 15-year-old students. Both studies were originally done before the events in Fukushima and replicated a year later. We not only asked students about their general associations and emotions regarding the term radiation, but also examined the students' risk perceptions of different types of radiation. Through the use of open-ended questions we were able to examine students' conceptions about different types of radiation (including nuclear) that could be a hindrance to student learning. Our results show that students

  17. Prostate Cancer Care Before and After Medicare Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco D; Ong, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies suggest Medicare eligibility confers significant and substantial reductions in mortality and beneficial increases in health service utilization. We compared 13,882 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at ages 63 to 64 years with 14,774 patients diagnosed at ages 65 to 66 (controls) in 2004 to 2007. Compared with controls, patients diagnosed with prostate cancer before Medicare eligibility had no statistically significant or meaningful differences in cancer stage, time to treatment, or type of treatment.

  18. Analysis of High School Newspaper Editorials Before and After "Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier:" A Content Analysis Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomicky, Carol S.

    2000-01-01

    In "Hazelwood" the U.S. Supreme Court said public school officials can censor school-sponsored expression for legitimate educational purposes. A content-analysis case study of student-written newspaper editorials found that more than three times as many editorials of criticism were published prior to the Court's decision. Argues that since the…

  19. Symptoms in Children with Convergence Insufficiency: Before and After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, Carmen; Cotter, Susan A.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Scheiman, Mitchell; Kulp, Marjean T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate symptom patterns and evaluate the relationship between patient characteristics and symptom severity before and after treatment for symptomatic children with convergence insufficiency (CI). Methods In a randomized clinical trial, the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) was administered pre- and post-treatment to 221 children 9 to <18 years with symptomatic CI. Frequency of symptom type was determined at baseline, mean change in performance-related versus eye-related symptoms for treatment responders was compared, and the relationship between patient characteristics and symptom severity at baseline for the entire cohort and after treatment for those who responded to treatment, was determined. Results At baseline, the score for performance-related symptoms was greater than that for eye-related symptoms (mean response of 2.3 vs. 1.8, p<0.001) regardless age, sex, race/ethnicity, or presence of parent-reported ADHD. Symptom severity increased with age for both the overall and eye-related subscale scores (p=0.048, p=0.022, respectively). Children with parent-reported ADHD were more symptomatic (p=0.005) than those without parent-reported ADHD because of a higher performance-related score (p<0.001). A significant and equal improvement (p<0.01) for the performance-related and eye-related symptoms was found in treatment responders. Girls had significantly lower performance-related symptoms than boys (p=0.014) and African-American children reported less eye-related symptoms than White children (p=0.022). Children without parent-reported ADHD had significantly less symptoms overall and less eye-related symptoms than children with parent-reported ADHD (p=0.019, p=0.011, respectively). Conclusions Because of a high frequency of both performance- and eye-related symptoms, clinicians should perform a targeted history that addresses both types of symptoms to help identify children with symptomatic CI. Future study regarding the relationship of CI

  20. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on mental health: a before-after study

    OpenAIRE

    Vash Javad; Aslani Afshin; Yunesian Masud; Yazdi Abbas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Transcendental Meditation is a mental practice to put the body and mind into a state of relaxation and rest. The method was shown to reduce anxiety and stress in previous reports. This study investigates its potential benefits in enhancing mental health of an adult Muslim population. Methods A before-after clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a 12-week meditation course on mental health of participants who were enrolled into the study by random sampling. ...

  1. Referral for psychological therapy of people with long term conditions improves adherence to antidepressants and reduces emergency department attendance: Controlled before and after study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon; Chan, Tom; Tejerina Arreal, Maria C.; Parry, Glenys; Dent-Brown, Kim; Kendrick, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Referral to psychological therapies is recommended for people with common mental health problems (CMHP) however its impact on healthcare utilisation in people with long term conditions (LTCs) is not known. Method Routinely collected primary care, psychological therapy clinic and hospital data were extracted for the registered population of 20 practices (N = 121199). These data were linked using the SAPREL (Secure and Private Record Linkage) method. We linked the 1118 people referred to psychological therapies with 6711 controls, matched for age, gender and practice. We compared utilisation of healthcare resources by people with LTCs, 6 months before and after referral, and conducted a controlled before and after study to compare health utilisation with controls. We made the assumption that collection of a greater number of repeat prescriptions for antidepressants was associated with greater adherence. Results Overall 21.8% of people with an LTC had CMHP vs. 18.8% without (p < 0.001). People with LTCs before referral were more likely to use health care resources (2-tailed t-test p < 0.001). Cases with LTCs showed referral to the psychological therapies clinic was associated with increased antidepressant medication prescribing (mean differences 0.62, p < 0.001) and less use of emergency department than controls (mean difference −0.21, p = 0.003). Conclusions Referral to improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) services appears of value to people with LTC. It is associated with the issue of a greater number of prescriptions for anti-depressant medicines and less use of emergency services. Further studies are needed to explore bed occupancy and outpatient attendance. PMID:23639304

  2. Population-based cohort study of anti-infective medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-08-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescriptions (1999 to 2009) were identified (T1D cohort) and compared with an age- and sex-matched (ratio: 1 up to 4) diabetes-free reference group. The prevalence and average number of anti-infective use was studied from (up to) 8 years before until a maximum of 4 years after the onset of T1D. A total of 925 patients with T1D and 3,591 children and adolescents in the reference cohort (51% boys, mean age of 10.1 [standard deviation, 4.5] years) were included. The overall prevalence of anti-infective use (62.6 compared to 52.6%, P < 0.001) and average number of prescriptions (2.71 compared to 1.42 per child, P < 0.001) in the T1D cohort were significantly higher than those in the reference cohort after the onset of diabetes. This pattern was consistent across sex and age categories and already observed in the year before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Patients in the T1D cohort received more antibacterials (49.8 compared to 40%, P < 0.001), antimycotics (4.0 compared to 1.3%, P < 0.001), antivirals (2.5 compared to 0.4%, P < 0.001), and second-line antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, quinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Our findings that elevated anti-infective use in the T1D cohort exists in the period before the onset of type 1 diabetes and the consumption of more second-line anti-infective compounds in this time period warrant further research.

  3. STUDY OF THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYESTER WITH VINYL ETHER SIDE CHAINS BEFORE AND AFTER PHOTOCURING. (R827121)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Does gender matter? Differences in social-emotional behavior among infants and toddlers before and after mild traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldoja, Mari-Liis; Kolk, Anneli

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a common cause of acquired disability in childhood. While much is known about cognitive sequelae of brain trauma, gender-specific social-emotional problems in children with mild traumatic brain injury is far less understood. The aims of the study were to investigate gender differences in social-emotional behavior before and after mild traumatic brain injury. Thirty-five 3- to 65-month-old children with mild traumatic brain injury and 70 controls were assessed with Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional. Nine months later, 27 of 35 patients and 54 of 70 controls were reassessed. We found that before injury, boys had more self-regulation and autonomy difficulties and girls had problems with adaptive functioning. Nine months after injury, boys continued to struggle with self-regulation and autonomy and new difficulties with interaction had emerged, whereas in girls, problems in interaction had evolved. Even mild traumatic brain injury in early childhood disrupts normal social-emotional development having especially devastating influence on interaction skills. PMID:25143483

  5. Medication Therapy Management Service for Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Before-and-After Study

    OpenAIRE

    Foppa, Aline Aparecida; Chemello, Clarice; Vargas-Peláez, Claudia Marcela; Farias, Mareni Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor manifestations, autonomic and neurological disorders and sensorial symptoms. Medication therapy management (MTM) consists of a service undertaken by pharmacists to optimize pharmacological therapy results. This way, the pharmacist monitors the treatment prescribed by the doctor and formulates a healthcare plan to guarantee the treatment’s effectiveness, safety and convenience, thereby improving the patie...

  6. Sexual Function before and after Total Hip Replacement: Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Meiri, BPT

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The ability to move comfortably is included among the many physical and psychosocial factors influencing sexual functioning. Practitioners should be encouraged to question their THR patients about sexual concerns and to provide counseling related to physical and functional aspects of sexual activity. Rehabilitation that focuses specifically on activities of daily living of sex should include sexual counseling, therapeutic exercise, and advice regarding sexual positions. Rehabilitation provided by physical therapists may help decrease pain, and facilitate greater self‐awareness, self‐confidence, and improved body image, all of which encourage and affirm optimal sexual health. Meiri R, Rosenbaum TY, and Kalichman L. Sexual function before and after total hip replacement: Narrative review. Sex Med 2014;2:159–167.

  7. The effect of an e-learning course on nursing staff's knowledge of delirium: A before-and-after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Van De Steeg (Lotte); R.I. Jkema (Roelie I); C. Wagner (Cordula); M. Langelaan (Maaike)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Delirium is a common condition in hospitalized patients, associated with adverse outcomes such as longer hospital stay, functional decline and higher mortality, as well as higher rates of nursing home placement. Nurses often fail to recognize delirium in hospitalized patients

  8. Young children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death: a rural South African population-based surveillance study.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Samuel J.; Kathleen Kahn; Brian Houle; Adriane Arteche; Collinson, Mark A.; Tollman, Stephen M; Alan Stein

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Over the past few years, there has been enormous international effort to meet the target set by Millennium Development Goal 4—to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds from the 1990 level by 2015. There has been some encouraging progress, and according to the latest figures from the World Health Organization, in 2011, just under 7 million children less than five years died, a fall of almost 3 million from a decade ago. However, such efforts must a...

  9. Differences of adaptation to school and self-resilience before and after sleep education for adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, So-Mi; Kim, Jong-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to verify the effectiveness of sleep education by identifying the differences of adaption to school and self-resilience of the high school students before and after sleep education for a certain period of time. The conclusion of this study is presented below: First, there were differences in adaptation to school and self-resilience of the high school students before and after sleep education for the high school students. After sleep education, adaptation to school environment ...

  10. Calculating structural and geometrical parameters by laboratory measurements and X-ray microtomography: a comparative study applied to a limestone sample before and after a dissolution experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquot, Linda; Hebert, Vanessa; Rodriguez, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the structural, geometrical and transport parameters of a limestone rock sample determined by X-ray microtomography (XMT) images and laboratory experiments. Total and effective porosity, pore-size distribution, tortuosity, and effective diffusion coefficient have been estimated. Sensitivity analyses of the segmentation parameters have been performed. The limestone rock sample studied here has been characterized using both approaches before and after a reactive percolation experiment. Strong dissolution process occurred during the percolation, promoting a wormhole formation. This strong heterogeneity formed after the percolation step allows us to apply our methodology to two different samples and enhance the use of experimental techniques or XMT images depending on the rock heterogeneity. We established that for most of the parameters calculated here, the values obtained by computing XMT images are in agreement with the classical laboratory measurements. We demonstrated that the computational porosity is more informative than the laboratory measurement. We observed that pore-size distributions obtained by XMT images and laboratory experiments are slightly different but complementary. Regarding the effective diffusion coefficient, we concluded that both approaches are valuable and give similar results. Nevertheless, we concluded that computing XMT images to determine transport, geometrical, and petrophysical parameters provide similar results to those measured at the laboratory but with much shorter durations.

  11. Clinical and physiological study of anal sphincter and ileal J pouch before preileostomy closure and 6 and 12 months after closure of loop ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussade, S; Michopoulos, S; Hautefeuille, M; Valleur, P; Hautefeuille, P; Guerre, J; Couturier, D

    1991-02-01

    Spontaneous evolution of pouch and anal function, and absorption features has been assessed in 15 patients who underwent proctocolectomy with J ileal pouch anastomosis without conservation of a rectal muscular cuff. All the patients were studied before preileostomy closure and six and 12 months after the closure of the protection loop ileostomy. Stool frequency was identical at six and 12 months (mean +/- SEM: 5.0 +/- 0.4 and 5.3 +/- 0.5/day, respectively). Sixty-six percent of patients at six months and 40% of patients at 12 months need to defecate at least one time during night. Stool weight as well as steatorrhea decreased significantly six months after the closure of loop ileostomy (P less than 0.05). Mean resting anal pressure remained unchanged six and 12 months after closure of the loop ileostomy (41 +/- 6 and 45 +/- 5 cm H2O, respectively). Maximum squeeze anal pressures increased significantly at six (P less than 0.05) and 12 months (P less than 0.05). The rectoanal inhibitory reflex was always absent at the same period. The maximum pouch capacity increased significantly during the first six months (P less than 0.01) from 142 +/- 17 to 279 +/- 27 ml. The maximum infused volume during a saline continence test was not significantly different at six and 12 months; the percentage of evacuation of the reservoir and the volume at which the first ileal contraction appeared in the reservoir increased significantly (P less than 0.05) at six and 12 months. In conclusion, in patients with ileoanal anastomosis and pouch reservoir, the closure of the loop ileostomy is associated with spontaneous modifications of the anal and pouch parameters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1988259

  12. Medication before and after a spinal cord lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Elmo K; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To map the impact of spinal cord lesion (SCL) on medication. STUDY DESIGN: Registration of medication for 72 patients before SCL and at discharge from the Department for Spinal Cord Injuries. SETTING: Department for Spinal Cord Injuries, East Denmark. METHODS: The changes in medication...... for each Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System group were registered for all patients, who were discharged from Department for Spinal Cord Injuries during 2010. The changes in medication per se were calculated for different parts of the population: non-traumatic, traumatic patients...... severely injured (AIS A, B and C). The increase in medication may have implications for side effects and for the economy of all involved....

  13. Discovery of biomarkers for glycaemic deterioration before and after the onset of type 2 diabetes: rationale and design of the epidemiological studies within the IMI DIRECT Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivula, Robert W.; Heggie, Alison; Barnett, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    biomarkers that: (1) predict the rate of glycaemic deterioration before and after type 2 diabetes onset; (2) predict the response to diabetes therapies; and (3) help stratify type 2 diabetes into clearly definable disease subclasses that can be treated more effectively than without stratification. This paper...

  14. Lung Cancer Care Before and After Medicare Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco D; Ong, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Uninsured and underinsured near-elderly may not have timely investigation, diagnosis, or care of cancer. Prior studies suggest Medicare eligibility confers significant and substantial reductions in mortality and increases in health service utilization. We compared 2245 patients diagnosed with lung cancer at ages 64.5 to 65 years and 2512 patients aged 65 to 65.5 years, with 2492 patients aged 65.5 to 66 years (controls) in 2000 to 2005. Compared with controls, patients diagnosed with lung cancer before Medicare eligibility had no statistically significant differences in cancer stage, time to treatment, type of treatment, and survival. Study power was sufficient to exclude mortality reductions and health service utilization changes of the magnitude found in prior work, suggesting that typically, appropriate lung cancer care may be sought and delivered regardless of insurance status.

  15. Morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind;

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism has been linked with different morbidities, like atrial fibrillation, stroke and diabetes mellitus. However, our knowledge regarding the extent and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and other diseases is fragmented. Here, we aimed at evaluating various morbidities before...

  16. Impact of STROBE Statement Publication on Quality of Observational Study Reporting: Interrupted Time Series versus Before-After Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bastuji-Garin (Sylvie); E. Sbidian (Emilie); C. Gaudy-Marqueste (Caroline); E. Ferrat (Emilie); J.C. Roujeau (Jean-Claude); M.A. Richard (Marie-Aleth); F. Canoui-Poitrine (Florence); J.N. Bouwes Bavinck (Jan Nico); P.J. Coenraads (Pieter-Jan); T.L. Diepgen; P. Elsner (Peter); I. Garcia-Doval (Ignacio); J.J. Grob; S. Langan (Sinead); L. Naldi; T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); J. Schmitt (Julien); Å. Svensson (Åke); H. Williams

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:In uncontrolled before-after studies, CONSORT was shown to improve the reporting of randomised trials. Before-after studies ignore underlying secular trends and may overestimate the impact of interventions. Our aim was to assess the impact of the 2007 STROBE statement publicat

  17. A quantitative study of CSF pulsatile flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus; An analysis of flow patterns before and after a shunting procedure using cine MR phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Shinji; Makabe, Tetsuo; Itoh, Takahiko (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-06-01

    In the previous report, we described the visualization and quantitative analysis of a normal CSF pulsatile flow using cine MR phase imaging. In the present study, CSF flow velocities were measured in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) before and after a shunting procedure. All of the healthy subjects showed a similar flow pattern in the time-velocity flow profiles (TVFP). However, patients with NPH showed a variable pattern of TVFP and could be divided into the following four types: Type 0: the CSF flow pattern was similar to that of the healthy subjects. Type I: the caudal peak flow was delayed more than 190 msec on TVFP. Type II: the caudal peak flow was not apparent, but the CSF flow through the aqueduct was remarkable on phase images. Type III: the amplitude of TVFP was very small, and no CSF flow through the aqueduct was identified. The patients with Type III TVFP showed significantly lower NPH scores. The lumbar CSF pressures tended to be high in the patients with Type III TVFP, but nevertheless failed to reach a statistically significant level. The amplitude of TVFP increased in the patients who improved clinically after the shunting procedure. Some of the Type III patients changed into Type II, I, and 0; also, one of the Type II patients changed into a Type I patients after the shunting procedure. We conclude that cine MR phase imaging is useful for analyzing the CSF flow of the patients with NPH before and after the shunting procedure as well as for evaluating shunt patency. (author).

  18. Use of selected ambulatory dental services in Taiwan before and after global budgeting: a longitudinal study to identify trends in hospital and clinic-based services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chienhung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Taiwan government adopted National Health Insurance (NHI in 1995, providing universal health care to all citizens. It was financed by mandatory premium contributions made by employers, employees, and the government. Since then, the government has faced increasing challenges to control NHI expenditures. The aim of this study was to determine trends in the provision of dental services in Taiwan after the implementation of global budgeting in 1998 and to identify areas of possible concern. Methods This longitudinal before/after study was based on data from the National Health Insurance Research Database from 1996 to 2001. These data were subjected to logistic regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to examine changes in delivery of specific services after global budgeting implementation. Utilization of hospital and clinic services was compared. Results Reimbursement for dental services increased significantly while the number of visits per patient remained steady in both hospitals and clinics. In hospitals, visits for root canal procedures, ionomer restoration, tooth extraction and tooth scaling increased significantly. In dental clinics, visits for amalgam restoration decreased significantly while those for ionomer restoration, tooth extraction, and tooth scaling increased significantly. After the adoption of global budgeting, expenditures for dental services increased dramatically while the number of visits per patient did not, indicating a possible shift in patients to hospital facilities that received additional National Health Insurance funding. Conclusions The identified trends indicate increased utilization of dental services and uneven distribution of care and dentists. These trends may be compromising the quality of dental care delivered in Taiwan.

  19. STUDIES ON LINEARTY AND ASSAY USING RP-HPLC AND UV-VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DRUGS OXCARBAZEPINE AND PIOGLITAZONE BEFORE AND AFTER EXPIRY PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suganya, A. Bright and T.S. Renuga Devi*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The standard for stability and quality of drugs for approval of marketing, are assured by testing and systematic evaluation using different analytical techniques. The drugs are tested in pharma analytical lab involving analysts associated spectra, chromatogram etc , and the results are analyzed leading to fixation of expiry dates. Once the drug crosses its expiry period, its potency is lost and it deteriorates, not only decreasing in therapeutic activity but also turning to be toxic. In the present investigation RP-HPLC and UV-Visible spectroscopic methods are employed for estimation of drugs oxcarbazepine and pioglitazone in tablet dosage form before expiry period and 10-12 months after its expiry. Chromatography was carried out on a C-18 column using a mobile phase of 0.05M KH2PO4 and 0.5 ml Triethylamine buffer solution: methanol: acetonitrile (60:20:20 v/v for oxcarbazepine. The flow rate was 1ml/min with detection at 254nm. For pioglitazone a mobile phase of 0.02 M KH2PO4 buffer: acetonitrile (50:50v/v was used. The flow rate was 2ml/min with detection at 270nm.The calibration curves obtained using HPLC method was linear in the range 160 - 240μgml-1 for oxcarbazepine and 170-280 μgml-1 for pioglitazone. The calibration curves obtained using UV-Visible spectroscopy was linear in the range 10-30 μgml-1 for oxcarbazepine and 10-34 μgml-1 for pioglitazone. Assays of oxcarbazepine found using HPLC technique before expiry was 152.05mg/tablet and after expiry were 138.50mg/tablet. For pioglitazone, before expiry it was 30.85mg/tablet and after expiry 27.60mg/tablet. This was substantiated using UV-Visible spectroscopy.

  20. Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Carla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical activity in water on fetal cardiotocography patterns in sedentary pregnant women. Method In a non-randomized controlled trial, 133 previously sedentary pregnant women participated in multiple regular sessions of water aerobics in a heated swimming pool. Cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes before and just after the oriented exercise. Cardiotocography patterns were analyzed pre- and post-exercise according to gestational age groups (24-27, 28-31, 32-35 and 36-40 weeks. Student's t and Wilcoxon, and McNemar tests were used, respectively, to analyze numerical and categorical variables. Results No significant variations were found between pre- and post-exercise values of fetal heart rate (FHR, number of fetal body movements (FM or accelerations (A, FM/A ratio or the presence of decelerations. Variability in FHR was significantly higher following exercise only in pregnancies of 24-27 weeks. Conclusions Moderate physical activity in water was not associated with any significant alterations in fetal cardiotocography patterns, which suggests no adverse effect on the fetus.

  1. Histomorphometry and Bone Matrix Mineralization Before and After Bisphosphonate Treatment in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Paired Transiliac Biopsy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, Barbara M; Roschger, Paul; McMillan, Hugh J; Ma, Jinhui; Klaushofer, Klaus; Rauch, Frank; Ward, Leanne M

    2016-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder causing progressive muscle weakness. To prolong independent ambulation, DMD patients are treated with glucocorticoids, which, in turn, can increase bone fragility. In a cohort with vertebral fractures, intravenous bisphosphonate (iv BP) therapy stabilized vertebrae and reduced back pain. To characterize the effects of glucocorticoid therapy and bisphosphonate treatment on bone tissue and material properties, paired transiliac biopsy samples (before and after on average 2.4 years of iv BP) from 9 boys with DMD were studied for histomorphometry and bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) and compared to reference values. Before iv BP, the boys had low cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and cortical thickness (Ct.Wi) (both on average 56% of the healthy average, p < 0.001 versus reference), and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) in the lower normal range (on average 74% of the healthy average). The average degree of mineralization of cancellous (Cn.CaMean) and cortical compartments (Ct.CaMean) was 21.48 (20.70, 21.90) wt% and 20.42 (19.32, 21.64) wt%, respectively (median [25th, 75th percentiles]), which was not different from reference. After iv BP, BV/TV and Ct.Wi were, on average, unchanged. However, at the individual patient level, BV/TV Z-scores increased in 2, remained unchanged in 4, and declined in 3 patients. Additionally, on average, MS/BS decreased (-85%, p < 0.001), Cn.CaMean (+2.7%) increased, whereas the heterogeneity of cancellous (Cn.CaWidth -19%) and cortical bone mineralization (Ct.CaWidth -8%, all p < 0.05) decreased versus baseline. The changes in bone mineralization are consistent with the antiresorptive action of iv BP. At the same time, our observations point to the need for novel therapies with less or absent bone turnover suppression, including the fact that bone turnover was low even before bisphosphonate therapy, that bone turnover declined further (as expected) with treatment

  2. Whole-brain CT perfusion and CT angiography assessment of Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization: preliminary study with 256-slice CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 256-slice CT enables the entire brain to be scanned in a single examination. We evaluated the application of 256-slice whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP in determining graft patency as well as investigating cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization. METHODS: Thirty-nine cases of Moyamoya disease were evaluated before and after surgical revascularization with 256-slice CT. Whole-brain perfusion images and dynamic 3D CT angiographic images generated from perfusion source data were obtained in all patients. Cerebral blood flow (CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV, time to peak (TTP and mean transit time (MTT of one hemisphere in the region of middle cerebral artery (MCA distribution and contralateral mirroring areas were measured. Relative CTP values (rCBF, rCBV, rTTP, rMTT were also obtained. Differences in pre- and post- operation perfusion CT values were assessed with paired t test or matched-pairs signed-ranks test. RESULTS: Preoperative CBF, MTT and TTP of potential surgical side were significantly different from those of contralateral side (P<0.01 for all. All graft patencies were displayed using the 3D-CTA images. Postoperative CBF, rCBF and rCBV values of surgical side in the region of MCA were significantly higher than those before operation (P<0.01 for all. Postoperative MTT, TTP, rMTT and rTTP values of the surgical side in the region of MCA were significantly lower than those before operation (P<0.05 for all. CONCLUSION: The 256-slice whole-brain CTP can be used to evaluate cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgery and the 3D-CTA is useful for assessing the abnormalities of intracranial arteries and graft patencies.

  3. Computed tomography in low back pain before and after myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-six patients with possible lumbar disk herniation were examined with computed tomography (CT) before and after lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Altogehter 90 intervertebral spaces (L4/L5 and L5/S1) were analyzed with regard to the diagnostic information provided by pre- and postmyelography CT. Corresponding to the level of 73 intervertebral spaces (81%) the contrast medium filling of the dural sac was homogeneous, while corresponding to 17 spaces (19%) the filling was inhomogeneous, with layering of contrast medium. The demarcation of the disk margin and of the dural sac was poor at the level of 13 spaces (14%), the majority of which (9 spaces) belonged to the group with homogeneous dural sac filling. At the level of 4 intervertebral spaces the dural sac was isodense with the intervertebral disk. The overall diagnostic information from the premyelography examination was equal to the postmyelography examination at 66 intervertebral spaces (73%). The postmyelography CT examination showed the details better than the conventional CT at 11 intervertebral spaces (12%), and poorer than conventional CT at 13 intervertebral spaces (15%). It is concluded that in general a conventional CT examination is adequate in the evaluation of patients with suggested intervertebral disk herniation. The need for a postmyelography CT examination can be specified on the basis of the findings at myelography. (orig.)

  4. Plasma Osteoprotegerin Levels Before and After Treatment of Thyroid Dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Özdemir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Osteoprotegerin (OPG is a soluble decoy receptor for the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand, thereby inhibiting bone resorption. In this study, we aimed to evaluate plasma OPG levels in patients with thyroid dysfunctions and determine whether its levels change after restoration of euthyroidism. Material and Method: OPG levels were studied at the time of diagnosis and after the restoration of euthyroidism at least for 8 weeks in patients diagnosed with overt thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism. Results: Seventeen hypothyroid, 17 thyrotoxic patients and 17 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were analyzed. Mean basal plasma OPG levels were 5.42±2.66, 5.04±1.62 and 5.24±0.93 pmol/l in thyrotoxic, hypothyroid and healthy controls, respectively (p=0.844. After restoration of euthyroidism, OPG was 5.52±2.37 pmol/l in thyrotoxic and 4.33±1.37 pmol/l in hypothyroid patients, indicating no significant difference compared to baseline values (p=0.846 and p=0.109, respectively. We also did not observe any correlation between basal OPG levels and basal thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels. Discussion: Thyroid dysfunctions seem to affect bone functions by mechanisms other than OPG, however, more clinical studies with larger sample sizes are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of thyroid dysfunction-related changes in bone metabolism. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 102-7

  5. Tinnitus before and 6 Months after Cochlear Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kompis, M; Pelizzone, M.; Dillier, N; J. Allum; Demin, N; Senn, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this prospective multicenter study, tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress were investigated in 174 cochlear implant (CI) candidates who underwent CI surgery at a Swiss cochlear implant center. All subjects participated in two session, one preoperatively and one 6 months after device activation. In both sessions, tinnitus loudness was assessed using a visual analogue scale and tinnitus distress using a standardized tinnitus questionnaire. The data were compared with unaided pre- a...

  6. Evaluation of hospital palliative care teams: strengths and weaknesses of the before-after study design and strategies to improve it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S; Higginson, I J

    2009-01-01

    Hospital palliative care teams (HPCTs) are well established as multi-professional services to provide palliative care in an acute hospital setting and are increasing in number. However, there is still limited evaluation of them, in terms of efficacy and effectiveness. The gold standard method of evaluation is a randomised control trial, but because of methodological (e.g., randomisation), ethical and practical difficulties such trials are often not possible. HPCT is a complex intervention, and the specific situation in palliative care makes it challenging to evaluate (e.g., distress and cognitive impairment of patients). The quasi-experimental before-after study design has the advantage of enabling an experimental character without randomisation. But this has other weaknesses and is prone to bias, for example, temporal trends and selection bias. As for every study design, avoidance and minimisation of bias is important to improve validity. Therefore, strategies of selecting an appropriate control group or time series and applying valid outcomes and measurement tools help reducing bias and strengthen the methods. Special attention is needed to plan and define the design and applied method.

  7. The influence of achievement before, during and after medical school on physician job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the relationship between physicians' prior achievements (before, during and after medical school) and job satisfaction, and tested the two lines of reasoning that prior achievements influence job satisfaction positively or negatively, respectively. The par

  8. Drug disposition and modelling before and after gastric bypass: immediate and controlled-release metoprolol formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gesquiere, Ina; Darwich, Adam S; Van der Schueren, Bart; de Hoon, Jan; Lannoo, Matthias; Matthys, Christophe; Rostami, Amin; Foulon, Veerle; Augustijns, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the disposition of metoprolol after oral administration of an immediate and controlled-release formulation before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in the same individuals and to validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for predicting oral bioavailability following RYGB.

  9. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on mental health: a before-after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vash Javad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcendental Meditation is a mental practice to put the body and mind into a state of relaxation and rest. The method was shown to reduce anxiety and stress in previous reports. This study investigates its potential benefits in enhancing mental health of an adult Muslim population. Methods A before-after clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a 12-week meditation course on mental health of participants who were enrolled into the study by random sampling. 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ was administered on two occasions in conjunction with a background data sheet. Results Mean age of participants was 32.4; they were 70% female and 55% married. GHQ scores improved significantly after the meditation course (p value: Conclusion Transcendental Meditation may improve mental health of young adult population especially in the areas of somatisation and anxiety, and this effect seems to be independent of age, sex and marital status.

  10. Children's Drawings About "Radiation"—Before and After Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Susanne; Hopf, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Although the term "radiation" has a fixed place in everyday life as well as in the media, there is very little empirical research on students' conceptions about this topic. In our study we wanted to find out what students associate with this term. In 2009, we asked 509 students (between grade 4 and grade 6) from seven different schools to draw pictures related to "radiation". This method of children's drawings was supported by short interviews ( n = 74). The motifs appearing in the drawings were analysed, and we investigated whether or not the age and the sex of the children had any influence on the choice of motifs. One major result was that the older the students were, the more likely they were to choose sources of invisible radiation (nuclear power plants, mobile phones) as their motifs. Nine months after the tragic events in Fukushima (and at the same time 2 years after the 2009 data collection), we replicated the study. This time, we received 516 drawings from the same schools as in the 2009 study (supported by 33 interviews). This replicative trend study made it possible to compare the choice of motifs and discover possible differences. The results of this analysis showed that the drawings of 2011 included significantly more motifs related to radioactivity. This difference was prevalent in the drawings regardless of sex or age differences. Direct references to the Fukushima accident could be found in both the drawings and interviews.

  11. Sex Differences in Medication and Primary Healthcare Use before and after Spousal Bereavement at Older Ages in Denmark: Nationwide Register Study of over 6000 Bereavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oksuzyan

    2011-01-01

    Methods. All individuals alive and aged at least 60 years in 1996 and who became widowed in the period from 1996 to 2003 were selected from the 5% sample of the total Danish population and all Danish twins. The healthcare use was assessed as the average daily all-cause and major system-specific medication use and the average annual number of visits to general physicians (GPs. Results. The average daily use of all-cause and major system-specific medications, as well as the number of GP visits increased over the period from 1 year before and up to 5 years after a spouse's death, but there were no sex-specific patterns in the trajectories of medication use and number of GP visits after conjugal loss. Conclusion. We found little support for the hypothesis that reduced healthcare use contributes to the explanation of more adverse health outcomes after conjugal loss in men compared with women in Denmark.

  12. Impact of picture archiving communication systems on rates of duplicate imaging: a before-after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lingsong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic health information systems, such as picture archiving communication systems (PACS, are commonly believed to reduce the need for duplicate testing. However, empirical data to support this belief are not available. Methods Before-after study using administrative claims data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan to determine whether the introduction of PACS at 10 hospitals in the Thames Valley region of southwestern Ontario, Canada between June 2004 and December 2005 reduced the frequency of duplicate imaging examinations. The imaging modalities studied were: chest and abdominal X-ray; computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis, head, and chest. The frequency of duplicate testing was examined at 3 different time frames: 7 days, 30 days, and 60 days after a given index test. Results Overall frequencies of duplicate imaging were: 2.7% within 7 days of an index imaging test, 6.7% within 30 days, and 9.8% within 60 days. Comparing the 12 months before and 12 months after PACS, absolute reductions in the frequency of duplicate X-rays using 7-day, 30-day, and 60-day time frames were: 0.2% (P = 0.01, 0.6% (P increases in the frequency of duplicate CT scans after PACS of 0.0% (P = 0.92, 0.5% (P = 0.01, and 0.5% (P = 0.01, respectively. Conclusion The frequency of duplicate imaging is relatively low and we did not find large reductions in duplicate imaging after the introduction of PACS. Independent evaluation of electronic medical systems should be conducted to confirm widely held beliefs of their potential benefits.

  13. Health-related quality of life among blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C: longitudinal study before and after diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Augusto Porto Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: There is evidence that patients suffering from chronic hepatic diseases, including chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C, have a reduced health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the notification of test results for hepatitis B and hepatitis C on the quality of life of blood donors. Methods: Over a 29-month period, this study assessed the quality of life of 105 blood donors with positive serological screening tests for hepatitis B and hepatitis C and donors who presented false-positive test results. The Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire was applied at three time points: (1 when an additional blood sample was collected for confirmatory tests; (2 when donors were notified about their serological status; and (3 when donors, positive for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, started clinical follow- up. Quality of life scores for the confirmed hepatitis B and hepatitis C groups were compared to the false-positive control group. Results: The domains bodily pain, general health perception, social function, and mental health and the physical component improved significantly in donors with hepatitis C from Time Point 1 to Time Point 3. Health-related quality of life scores of donors diagnosed with hepatitis B and hepatitis C were significantly lower in six and four of the eight domains, respectively, compared to the false-positive control group. Conclusion: A decreased quality of life was detected before and after diagnosis in blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Contrary to hepatitis B positive donors, the pos- sibility of medical care may have improved the quality of life among hepatitis C positive donors.

  14. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in assessing lung function in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a pilot study of comparison before and after posterior spinal fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Lam Wynnie WM; Lam Tsz-ping; Li Albert M; Ng Bobby KW; Chu Winnie CW; Cheng Jack CY

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Restrictive impairment is the commonest reported pulmonary deficit in AIS, which improves following surgical operation. However, exact mechanism of how improvement is brought about is unknown. Dynamic fast breath-hold (BH)-MR imaging is a recent advance which provides direct quantitative visual assessment of pulmonary function. By using above technique, change in lung volume, chest wall and diaphragmatic motion in AIS patients before and six months after posterior spinal f...

  15. Low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm births before and after the economic collapse in Iceland: a population based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Infants born small for gestational age (SGA or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB and low birth weight (LBW. We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1(st 2006 to December 31(st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6(th 2008. RESULTS: Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52], particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72] and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]. Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51] particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23] and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]. No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6-9 months after the collapse. CONCLUSION: The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation.

  16. [Hospitality workers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke before and after implementation of smoking ban in public places: a review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure induces serious negative health consequences, of which the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory symptoms and poor pregnancy outcomes appear to be most important. Taking into account those health consequences of ETS exposure most countries have introduced legislation to ban or restrict smoking in public places. In this paper the effectiveness of the introduced legislation was analyzed with regard to the protection of hospitality workers from ETS exposure in the workplace. The analysis of 12 papers published after 2000 covered the year of publication, type of legislation, study population, hospitality venue (pub, bar, restaurant, disco) and type of markers or self-reported perception of exposure to ETS. The analysis indicates that the legislation to ban smoking in hospitality venues protects workers from ETS exposure when the venues are 100% tobacco smoke free. The reduction of the cotinine level in biological samples after the implementation of smoke free law was 57-89%, comparing to the biomarker level in the samples taken before the new law was introduced. About 90% of reduction in nicotine and PM levels was also noted. In addition, the positive self perception reported by workers proved the effectiveness of new legislation protecting them from ETS exposure. PMID:21698880

  17. Investigation of Pain in Hip Disease Patients before and after Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    MORIMOTO,Yosuke(Researcher of Graduate School of Kyoto University ); Kondo, Yasutaka; Shimosako, Junpei; Kozu, Ryo; Kataoka, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junya; Nakano, Jiro; Okita, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined pain in patients with hip disease before and after arthroplasty and whether the pain was induced in the hip joint itself. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-two patients presenting with hip disease who did not exhibit dementia, disease of the lower limbs or lumbar disease were included in this investigation. Regional pain, the site of maximum pain and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of the site of maximum pain before and after arthroplasty were evaluated. [Results] Groin d...

  18. "Omics" of Selenium Biology: A Prospective Study of Plasma Proteome Network Before and After Selenized-Yeast Supplementation in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Indu; Karagoz, Kubra; Fogle, Rachel L; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Zea, Arnold H; Arga, Kazim Y; Stanley, Anne E; Hawkes, Wayne C; Sinha, Raghu

    2016-04-01

    Low selenium levels have been linked to a higher incidence of cancer and other diseases, including Keshan, Chagas, and Kashin-Beck, and insulin resistance. Additionally, muscle and cardiovascular disorders, immune dysfunction, cancer, neurological disorders, and endocrine function have been associated with mutations in genes encoding for selenoproteins. Selenium biology is complex, and a systems biology approach to study global metabolomics, genomics, and/or proteomics may provide important clues to examining selenium-responsive markers in circulation. In the current investigation, we applied a global proteomics approach on plasma samples collected from a previously conducted, double-blinded placebo controlled clinical study, where men were supplemented with selenized-yeast (Se-Yeast; 300 μg/day, 3.8 μmol/day) or placebo-yeast for 48 weeks. Proteomic analysis was performed by iTRAQ on 8 plasma samples from each arm at baseline and 48 weeks. A total of 161 plasma proteins were identified in both arms. Twenty-two proteins were significantly altered following Se-Yeast supplementation and thirteen proteins were significantly changed after placebo-yeast supplementation in healthy men. The differentially expressed proteins were involved in complement and coagulation pathways, immune functions, lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Reconstruction and analysis of protein-protein interaction network around selected proteins revealed several hub proteins. One of the interactions suggested by our analysis, PHLD-APOA4, which is involved in insulin resistance, was subsequently validated by Western blot analysis. Our systems approach illustrates a viable platform for investigating responsive proteomic profile in 'before and after' condition following Se-Yeast supplementation. The nature of proteins identified suggests that selenium may play an important role in complement and coagulation pathways, and insulin resistance. PMID:27027327

  19. Estimating population impacts via dynamic occupancy analysis of Before-After Control-Impact studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Viorel D; de Valpine, Perry; Tempel, Douglas; Peery, M Zachariah

    2012-06-01

    Estimating environmental impacts on populations is one of the main goals of wildlife monitoring programs, which are often conducted in conjunction with management actions or following natural disturbances. In this study we investigate the statistical power of dynamic occupancy models to detect changes in local survival and colonization from detection-nondetection data, while accounting for imperfect detection probability, in a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI) framework. We simulated impacts on local survival and/or detection probabilities, and asked questions related to: (1) costs and benefits of different analysis models, (2) confounding changes in detection with changes in local survival, (3) sampling design trade-offs, and (4) species with low vs. high rates of turnover. Estimating seasonal effects on local survival and colonization, as opposed to estimating Before-After effects, had little effect on the power to detect changes in local survival. Estimating a parameter that accounted for pretreatment differences in local survival between Control and Impact sites decreased power by 50%, but it was critical to include when such differences existed. When the experimental treatment had a negative impact on species detectability but analysis assumed constant detection, the Type I error rates were dramatically inflated (0.20 0.33). In general, there was low power (researchers are confident that major treatment impacts will occur or very large sample sizes are obtainable. PMID:22827142

  20. Effect of a printed reminder in the waiting room to turn off mobile phones during consultation: a before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aguiar Sylvia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telephone interruptions during consultations are one cause of work-related stress amongst general practitioners. Many health care centers recommend that patients turn off any mobile phones to avoid interruptions to the discussion with the physicians. Methods The purpose of this before and after study was to determine whether a printed reminder for turning off the mobile phone in the waiting room is helpful in decreasing the number of interruptions during consultation. A visual phone off sign utilizing the International "No" symbol of a diagonal line through a circle, along with a "please turn off your phone during consultation" reminder was used in the waiting room in the "after" period. Results A significant difference was found in the proportion of patients receiving or making a call during the consultation (8.8% vs. 13.5%, RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.46–0.94; p = 0.021 and in the total number of calls (10.4% vs. 17.3%, RR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.44–0.83, p = 0.003 between the exposed and the non-exposed groups. However, no significant differences were found in the total time or the median time spent talking during consultation. The duration of the calls had median times of 20.5 seconds and 22.3 seconds in the exposed and the non-exposed groups respectively. Women from both groups who received a call during consultation answered significantly more when compared to men (70% vs. 52%; p = 0.05; Conclusion Our findings suggest that a printed reminder in the waiting room is helpful in decreasing the number of interruptions by mobile phone during consultation in our settings. The study provides the basis for further quantitative and qualitative research on this topic

  1. Use of general practice, diagnostic investigations and hospital services before and after cancer diagnosis - a population-based nationwide registry study of 127,000 incident adult cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina Garnier; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Flarup, Kaare Rud;

    2012-01-01

    ,272,100 controls. Monthly consultation frequencies, monthly proportions of persons receiving health services and three-month incidence rate ratios for one year before and one year after the cancer diagnosis were calculated. Data were analysed separately for women and men. RESULTS: Three months before...... one month after diagnosis and the number of hospital contacts three months after diagnosis. The proportion of cancer patients receiving each of these three types of health services remained more than 10% above that of the reference population from two months before diagnosis until the end of the study...

  2. Nociception Before and After Exercise In Rats Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Geisser, Michael E; Wang, Wenfei; Smuck, Matthew; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Lydic, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Exercise and stress are known to influence pain perception. However, little is known about how level of fitness influences pain perception and the experience of pain. In the present study, pain perception before and after exercise to exhaustion was examined in 6 rats systematically bred to have a high aerobic capacity (HCR animals) and 6 rats systematically bred to have a low aerobic capacity (LCR animals). HCR animals had significantly higher pain thresholds compared to LCR animals before an...

  3. Management of chronic hepatitis B before and after livertransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation remains the only curative option foreligible patients with complications of chronic hepatitis B(CHB) infection, including severe acute hepatitis flares,decompensated cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.In general, all patients with CHB awaiting liver transplantationshould be treated with oral nucleos(t)ideanalogs (NAs) with high barriers to resistance toprevent potential flares of hepatitis and reduce diseaseprogression. After liver transplantation, lifelong antiviraltherapy is also required to prevent graft hepatitis, whichmay lead to subsequent graft loss. Although combinationtherapy using NA and hepatitis B immune globulin(HBIG) has been the regimen most widely adopted forover a decade, recent studies have demonstrated thatnewer NAs with low rates of resistance are effective inpreventing graft hepatitis even without the use of HBIG,achieving excellent long term outcome. For patientswithout pre-existing resistant mutations, monotherapywith a single NA has been shown to be effective. Forthose with resistant strains, a combination of nucleosideanalog and nucleotide analog should be used. To date,clinical trials using therapeutic vaccination have shownsuboptimal response, as CHB patients likely have animmune deficit against HBV epitopes. Future strategiesinclude targeting different sites of the hepatitis Breplication cycle and restoring the host immunityresponse to facilitate complete viral eradication.

  4. Effects of Group 1 versus Group 2 carbapenems on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to carbapenems: a before and after intervention study of carbapenem-use stewardship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kyung Yoon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been proposed for reducing bacterial resistance in the hospital environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a carbapenem-use stewardship program on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to Group 2 carbapenems. METHODS: A before and after intervention study was conducted at a university hospital from September 2008 to February 2013. Three study periods were defined: Phase I, pre-intervention (months 1-18; Phase II, a postintervention period during which ertapenem use was mandated but carbapenem use was not restricted (months 19-36; and Phase III, a postintervention period during which Group 2 carbapenem use was restricted (months 37-54. RESULTS: During the study period, intervention resulted in diminished consumption of Group 2 carbapenems (antimicrobial use density (AUD: 21.3±6.0 in Phase I, 18.8±6.0 in Phase II, 16.1±4.4 in Phase III; P = 0.028 and increased consumption of ertapenem (AUD: 2.7±1.7 in Phase I, 7.2±4.5 in Phase II, 9.1±5.3 in Phase III; P<0.001. The use of autoregressive-error models showed that in contrast with ertapenem use, the use of Group 2 carbapenem during the previous one month was positively and significantly associated with a subsequent increase in the proportion of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB (P = 0.031. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing a carbapenem-use stewardship program featuring the preferential use of ertapenem for treating appropriate indications of infection resulted in reduced use of Group 2 carbapenems and had a positive impact on the susceptibility of A. baumannii to carbapenems. This approach could be integrated into CRAB-control strategies in hospitals.

  5. The effect of complete integration of HIV and TB services on time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a before-after study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Kerschberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that early ART initiation in TB/HIV co-infected patients lowers mortality. One way to implement earlier ART commencement could be through integration of TB and HIV services, a more efficient model of care than separate, vertical programs. We present a model of full TB/HIV integration and estimate its effect on time to initiation of ART. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrospectively reviewed TB registers and clinical notes of 209 TB/HIV co-infected adults with a CD4 count <250 cells/µl and registered for TB treatment at one primary care clinic in a South African township between June 2008 and May 2009. Using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analysis, we compared time between initiation of TB treatment and ART for the periods before and after full, "one-stop shop" integration of TB and HIV services (in December 2009. Potential confounders were determined a priori through directed acyclic graphs. Robustness of assumptions was investigated by sensitivity analyses. The analysis included 188 patients (100 pre- and 88 post-integration, yielding 56 person-years of observation. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. Median time to ART initiation decreased from 147 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 85-188 before integration of services to 75 days (95% CI 52-119 post-integration. In adjusted analyses, patients attending the clinic post-integration were 1.60 times (95% CI 1.11-2.29 more likely to have started ART relative to the pre-integration period. Sensitivity analyses supported these findings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Full TB/HIV care integration is feasible and led to a 60% increased chance of co-infected patients starting ART, while reducing time to ART initiation by an average of 72 days. Although these estimates should be confirmed through larger studies, they suggest that scale-up of full TB/HIV service integration in high TB/HIV prevalence settings may shorten time to ART initiation

  6. A full Bayes before-after study accounting for temporal and spatial effects: Evaluating the safety impact of new signal installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Emanuele; Sayed, Tarek; El-Basyouny, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Recently, important advances in road safety statistics have been brought about by methods able to address issues other than the choice of the best error structure for modeling crash data. In particular, accounting for spatial and temporal interdependence, i.e., the notion that the collision occurrence of a site or unit times depend on those of others, has become an important issue that needs further research. Overall, autoregressive models can be used for this purpose as they can specify that the output variable depends on its own previous values and on a stochastic term. Spatial effects have been investigated and applied mostly in the context of developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to relate crash occurrence to highway characteristics. Hence, there is a need for studies that attempt to estimate the effectiveness of safety countermeasures by including the spatial interdependence of road sites within the context of an observational before-after (BA) study. Moreover, the combination of temporal dynamics and spatial effects on crash frequency has not been explored in depth for SPF development. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to carry out a BA study accounting for spatial effects and temporal dynamics in evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety treatment. The countermeasure analyzed was the installation of traffic signals at unsignalized urban/suburban intersections in British Columbia (Canada). The full Bayes approach was selected as the statistical framework to develop the models. The results demonstrated that zone variation was a major component of total crash variability and that spatial effects were alleviated by clustering intersections together. Finally, the methodology used also allowed estimation of the treatment's effectiveness in the form of crash modification factors and functions with time trends.

  7. A full Bayes before-after study accounting for temporal and spatial effects: Evaluating the safety impact of new signal installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Emanuele; Sayed, Tarek; El-Basyouny, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Recently, important advances in road safety statistics have been brought about by methods able to address issues other than the choice of the best error structure for modeling crash data. In particular, accounting for spatial and temporal interdependence, i.e., the notion that the collision occurrence of a site or unit times depend on those of others, has become an important issue that needs further research. Overall, autoregressive models can be used for this purpose as they can specify that the output variable depends on its own previous values and on a stochastic term. Spatial effects have been investigated and applied mostly in the context of developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to relate crash occurrence to highway characteristics. Hence, there is a need for studies that attempt to estimate the effectiveness of safety countermeasures by including the spatial interdependence of road sites within the context of an observational before-after (BA) study. Moreover, the combination of temporal dynamics and spatial effects on crash frequency has not been explored in depth for SPF development. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to carry out a BA study accounting for spatial effects and temporal dynamics in evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety treatment. The countermeasure analyzed was the installation of traffic signals at unsignalized urban/suburban intersections in British Columbia (Canada). The full Bayes approach was selected as the statistical framework to develop the models. The results demonstrated that zone variation was a major component of total crash variability and that spatial effects were alleviated by clustering intersections together. Finally, the methodology used also allowed estimation of the treatment's effectiveness in the form of crash modification factors and functions with time trends. PMID:27249403

  8. Before-after field study of effects of wind turbine noise on polysomnographic sleep parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Leila; Bigelow, Philip; Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mohammad-Reza; Gohari, Mahmood; Williams, Diane; McColl, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Wind is considered one of the most advantageous alternatives to fossil energy because of its low operating cost and extensive availability. However, alleged health-related effects of exposure to wind turbine (WT) noise have attracted much public attention and various symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, have been reported by residents living close to wind developments. Prospective cohort study with synchronous measurement of noise and sleep physiologic signals was conducted to explore the possibility of sleep disturbance in people hosting new industrial WTs in Ontario, Canada, using a pre and post-exposure design. Objective and subjective sleep data were collected through polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard diagnostic test, and sleep diary. Sixteen participants were studied before and after WT installation during two consecutive nights in their own bedrooms. Both audible and infrasound noises were also concurrently measured inside the bedroom of each participant. Different noise exposure parameters were calculated (LAeq, LZeq) and analyzed in relation to whole-night sleep parameters. Results obtained from PSG show that sleep parameters were not significantly changed after exposure. However, reported sleep qualities were significantly (P = 0.008) worsened after exposure. Average noise levels during the exposure period were low to moderate and the mean of inside noise levels did not significantly change after exposure. The result of this study based on advanced sleep recording methodology together with extensive noise measurements in an ecologically valid setting cautiously suggests that there are no major changes in the sleep of participants who host new industrial WTs in their community. Further studies with a larger sample size and including comprehensive single-event analyses are warranted. PMID:27569407

  9. Effects of two commercial electronic prescribing systems on prescribing error rates in hospital in-patients: a before and after study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna I Westbrook

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considerable investments are being made in commercial electronic prescribing systems (e-prescribing in many countries. Few studies have measured or evaluated their effectiveness at reducing prescribing error rates, and interactions between system design and errors are not well understood, despite increasing concerns regarding new errors associated with system use. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two commercial e-prescribing systems in reducing prescribing error rates and their propensities for introducing new types of error. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a before and after study involving medication chart audit of 3,291 admissions (1,923 at baseline and 1,368 post e-prescribing system at two Australian teaching hospitals. In Hospital A, the Cerner Millennium e-prescribing system was implemented on one ward, and three wards, which did not receive the e-prescribing system, acted as controls. In Hospital B, the iSoft MedChart system was implemented on two wards and we compared before and after error rates. Procedural (e.g., unclear and incomplete prescribing orders and clinical (e.g., wrong dose, wrong drug errors were identified. Prescribing error rates per admission and per 100 patient days; rates of serious errors (5-point severity scale, those ≥3 were categorised as serious by hospital and study period; and rates and categories of postintervention "system-related" errors (where system functionality or design contributed to the error were calculated. Use of an e-prescribing system was associated with a statistically significant reduction in error rates in all three intervention wards (respectively reductions of 66.1% [95% CI 53.9%-78.3%]; 57.5% [33.8%-81.2%]; and 60.5% [48.5%-72.4%]. The use of the system resulted in a decline in errors at Hospital A from 6.25 per admission (95% CI 5.23-7.28 to 2.12 (95% CI 1.71-2.54; p<0.0001 and at Hospital B from 3.62 (95% CI 3.30-3.93 to 1.46 (95% CI 1.20-1.73; p<0.0001. This

  10. Airway response to inhaled salbutamol in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients before and after treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, R N; Tattersfield, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    For many years the development of thyrotoxicosis has been known to cause a deterioration in asthma but the mechanism is unknown. We have studied the effect of thyroid function on airway beta adrenergic responsiveness in 10 hyperthyroid and six hypothyroid subjects before and after treatment of their thyroid disease. Airway adrenergic responsiveness was assessed by measuring specific airway conductance (sGaw) after increasing doses of inhaled salbutamol (10-410 micrograms). After treatment the...

  11. Effects of outdoor temperature on changes in physiological variables before and after lunch in healthy women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masahiro; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies of autonomic nervous system responses before and after eating when controlling patient conditions and room temperature have provided inconsistent results. We hypothesized that several physiological parameters reflecting autonomic activity are affected by outdoor temperature before and after a meal. We measured the following physiological variables before and after a fixed meal in 53 healthy Japanese women: skin temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, salivary amylase, blood glucose, heart rate, and heart rate variability. We assessed satiety before and after lunch using a visual analog scale (100 mm). We recorded outdoor temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. Skin temperature rose significantly 1 h after eating (greater in cold weather) (P = 0.008). Cold weather markedly influenced changes in diastolic blood pressure before (P = 0.017) and after lunch (P = 0.013). Fasting salivary amylase activity increased significantly in cold weather but fell significantly after lunch (significantly greater in cold weather) (P = 0.007). Salivary amylase was significantly associated with cold weather, low atmospheric pressure, and low relative humidity 30 min after lunch (P metabolism.

  12. The radiological situation before and after Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear reactor accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl, has been one of the greatest ecological disasters in human history. In our study we discussed the most recent data on the accident, and the natural and synthetic sources of radiation. According to the recent data, the air at Chernobyl had been contaminated with about 5300 PBq radionuclide activity (excluding rare gases), including 1760 PBq 131I and 85 PBq 137Cs. The highest radiation received by the liquidators (0.8 - 16 Gy), lower doses were received by the population which was evacuated or inhabited the contaminated areas (in which the level of 137Cs activity deposited in the earth was 37 kBq/m2). In the European countries the highest mean radiation dose per year for the whole body in the first year after the accident was in Bulgaria (0.760 mSv), Austria (0.670 mSv) and Greece (0.590 mSv), while the lowest radiation dose was observed in Portugal (0.002 mSv) and Spain (0.004 mSv). In Poland the mean effective equivalent dose resulting from Chernobyl accident was 0.932 mSv and is close to the limited dose permitted in Poland, equalling 1 mSv/year. The highest radiation dose to thyroid was received by inhabitants of the states previously known as Bielskopodlaskie, Nowosadeckie and the north-east region of Poland. Lowest dose was received by inhabitants of the areas previously known as Slupski and Rzeszowski. (author)

  13. Brain functional changes in facial expression recognition in patients with major depressive disorder before and after antidepressant treatment A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyan Jiang; Zhongmin Yin; Yixin Pang; Feng Wu; Lingtao Kong; Ke Xu

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used during emotion recognition to identify changes in functional brain activation in 21 first-episode, treatment-naive major depressive disorder patients before and after antidepressant treatment. Following escitalopram oxalate treatment, patients exhibited decreased activation in bilateral precentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyrus, left cingulate and right parahippocampal gyrus, and increased activation in right superior frontal gyrus, bilateral superior parietal lobule and left occipital gyrus during sad facial expression recognition. After antidepressant treatment, patients also exhibited decreased activation in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate and right parahippocampal gyrus, and increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus and right precuneus during happy facial expression recognition. Our experimental findings indicate that the limbic-cortical network might be a key target region for antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder.

  14. Laid Off——The Before and After

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    I had to drop out of school inorder to look after my youngerbrother. Father worked all year round inthe countryside,and Mother, as ahead of a shift,worked full time in agarment factory.So,at the age ofeight.I had to carry my younger

  15. [Leprosy situation in Myanmar before and after multidrug therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Norihisa; Mori, Shuichi

    2005-09-01

    We introduced history of leprosy in Myanmar based on the book of Myanmar Academy of Medical Science published entitled "CONQUEST OF SCOURGES IN MYANMAR (Complied and Edited by Ko Ko, Kyaw and U Thaung) at 2002. "Leprosy Elimination Programme in Myanmar (Kyaw Lwin and Kyaw Nyunt Stein)" was appeared at chapter III in it. After dapsone treatment appeared, leprosy control program has started. Health system and service were developed and leprosy control program was also included in them. The integration of the elimination activities into basic health workers, such as midwives and health volunteers, has enabled the participation of a wide range of people in the community. After 1990s, multidrug therapy (MDT) was covered whole area of Myanmar, and task force for leprosy elimination was formed at Sate/Division, District and Township level. Finally Myanmar achieved the elimination of leprosy in January in 2003.

  16. Corneal thickness and endothelial density before and after cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, A.; Walti, R; Bohnke, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Deturgescence of the corneal stroma is controlled by the pumping action of the endothelial layer and can be monitored by measurement of central corneal thickness (pachymetry). Loss or damage of endothelial cells leads to an increase in corneal thickness, which may ultimately induce corneal decompensation and loss of vision. Little is known about the effect of moderate reductions in endothelial cell number on the thickness of the corneal stroma. This study aimed to investigate ...

  17. Positive and negative memories in Danish soldiers – before, during, and after deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Bohn, Annette; Staugaard, Søren Risløv;

    This study compares the characteristics of positive and negative memories in 610 Danish soldiers across three measurement points (before, during and after deployment). Participants were asked to report the most positive and most negative memory from their lives before deployment, and to report...... the most positive and most negative memories concerning their deployment (during deployment and right after deployment). The memory narratives were coded by two independent raters for specificity, coherence, and degree of desorganisation. For all three time points, these ratings were compared across time...

  18. MRI measurement of syrinx size before and after operation.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, R.; Hadley, D M; Lang, D.; Condon, B; Johnston, R.; Bone, I; Teasdale, G M

    1987-01-01

    When patients with syringomyelia fail to improve after operation, factors such as incomplete cyst decompression or type of operation are often implicated. MRI has been used to confirm adequate syrinx decompression post-operatively and to compare the degree of collapse with the type of operation. Foramen magnum decompression was at least as effective in reducing cyst size as syringo-subarachnoid shunting. MRI may also provide a better classification of syringomyelia.

  19. MRI measurement of syrinx size before and after operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R; Hadley, D M; Lang, D; Condon, B; Johnston, R; Bone, I; Teasdale, G M

    1987-12-01

    When patients with syringomyelia fail to improve after operation, factors such as incomplete cyst decompression or type of operation are often implicated. MRI has been used to confirm adequate syrinx decompression post-operatively and to compare the degree of collapse with the type of operation. Foramen magnum decompression was at least as effective in reducing cyst size as syringo-subarachnoid shunting. MRI may also provide a better classification of syringomyelia. PMID:3437304

  20. Severe maternal stress exposure due to bereavement before, during and after pregnancy and risk of overweight and obesity in young adult men: a Danish National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group. Median body mass index (BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2 were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. RESULTS: Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02 and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06 was higher in the exposed group. Conscripts exposed 6 to 0 months before conception and during pregnancy had a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03; 1.27 and odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.25, respectively. Conscripts born to mothers who experienced death of the child's biological father before child birth had a two-fold risk of obesity (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI: 0.93; 4.31. There was no elevated risk in those who experienced maternal bereavement postnatally. CONCLUSION: Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in a group of young male conscripts, and this may possibly be reflected to severe stress exposure early in life. However, not all associations were clear, and further studies are warranted.

  1. CEO Pay and Voting Dissent Before and After the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory-Smith, I.; Thompson, S.; Wright, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Say on pay’ – that is empowering shareholders to vote on the remuneration arrangements of their firm's senior executives – has become an international policy response to the perceived explosion in rewards for top management. In this study, we examine the operation of say in pay in the UK, the country which pioneered its adoption, using the population of non-investment trust companies in the FTSE 350 over the period 2003–12. We find that executive remuneration and dissent on the remuneration ...

  2. Spontaneous pneumothorax - evaluation of cases before and after vacuum drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pneumothorax is the presence of air or rarely gas in the pleural space. Spontaneous pneumothorax is a common clinical problem and ots incidence is increasing. Aim of the effort: To point the place of chest radiography and CT in the detection of the SPT and evaluation of post vacuum drainage, Methods: Estimating a group of 32 patients 26 from which are male and and 6 women. Chest radiography and selective CT of the lungs have been made. They were treated in the clinic for thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Skopje, in 2002, where all cases required chest-tube insertion to allow the air to be released and lung to re-expand. Results: After 5-10 days at 27 (84%) and 10-15 days at 5 (16%) patients after achieved re-expansion, we have made control chest radiography. 8 cases (25%) had a recurrence of the pneumothorax. Conclusion: Chest x-ray is fast, available and modern method in diagnosing and evaluation of SPT and in many cases of the primary lung disease. CT is superior method in searching and diagnosing the expansion of the primary disease that had caused SPT, but inferior in the evaluation of SPT in relation to chest x-ray

  3. Quality of life before and after septoplasty and rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective assessment of quality of life (QOL as an important aspect of outcomes research has received increasing importance during the past decades. QOL is measured with standardized questionnaires which had been tested with regard to reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Surgical procedures of the nasal septum (septoplasty and the external nose (rhinoplasty are frequently performed. Since many years subjectively assessed results of these operations have been reported in the literature. However, validated QOL instruments were applied only for one decade. Beforehand, measurements were performed using retrospective assessment of satisfaction or visual analogue scales. Prospective application of validated disease-specific and general measuring instruments has to be demanded for future studies. Most of the septoplasty patients as well as most of the rhinoplasty patients evaluate the operation being successful. However, a relevant number of patients is not satisfied with the result of surgery. In this context, QOL instruments have the potential to identify further factors influencing the outcome. Especially in rhinoplasty patients, special attention has to be drawn on potential psychosocial effects of the operation.

  4. SIMPLE: implementation of recommendations from international evidence-based guidelines on caesarean sections in the Netherlands. Protocol for a controlled before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melman Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section (CS rates are rising worldwide. In the Netherlands, the most significant rise is observed in healthy women with a singleton in vertex position between 37 and 42 weeks gestation, whereas it is doubtful whether an improved outcome for the mother or her child was obtained. It can be hypothesized that evidence-based guidelines on CS are not implemented sufficiently. Therefore, the present study has the following objectives: to develop quality indicators on the decision to perform a CS based on key recommendations from national and international guidelines; to use the quality indicators in order to gain insight into actual adherence of Dutch gynaecologists to guideline recommendations on the performance of a CS; to explore barriers and facilitators that have a direct effect on guideline application regarding CS; and to develop, execute, and evaluate a strategy in order to reduce the CS incidence for a similar neonatal outcome (based on the information gathered in the second and third objectives. Methods An independent expert panel of Dutch gynaecologists and midwives will develop a set of quality indicators on the decision to perform a CS. These indicators will be used to measure current care in 20 hospitals with a population of 1,000 women who delivered by CS, and a random selection of 1,000 women who delivered vaginally in the same period. Furthermore, by interviewing healthcare professionals and patients, the barriers and facilitators that may influence the decision to perform a CS will be measured. Based on the results, a tailor-made implementation strategy will be developed and tested in a controlled before-and-after study in 12 hospitals (six intervention, six control hospitals with regard to effectiveness, experiences, and costs. Discussion This study will offer insight into the current CS care and into the hindering and facilitating factors influencing obstetrical policy on CS. Furthermore, it will allow

  5. Titan's surface-atmosphere system before and after Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2015-04-01

    Speculation about the nature of Titan's surface-atmosphere interactions goes back to the discovery of methane in its atmosphere in 1943 but beginning in the early 1970's surface models began to grapple more quantitatively with the source of methane and its instability in the atmosphere. The role of molecular nitrogen in the atmosphere was first quantitatively considered at that time as well. The Voyager 1 flyby put a thick atmosphere of molecular nitrogen and methane on an observational footing, and made an atmospheric descent probe quite feasible. The measured high methane humidity made seas of methane and possibly other constituents an attractive possible source of methane and sink of its photolytic products, influencing the choice of instruments for a descent probe. At the time of Huygens' actual descent to the surface, global seas had been ruled out, and the Cassini Orbiter was just beginning to gather imaging and radar data of the surface. The fluvial nature of the Huygens landing site and presence of volatiles just below the surface were important discoveries of Huygens itself. Together with Cassini, Huygens painted a picture of a cryogenic desert with occasional violent methane rainstorms feeding streams that tumble pebbles of ice and organics downhill, the whole surrounded by dunes whose organic-rich particles are harvested from the chemical conversion of methane to more refractory compounds high in the atmosphere. And yet many mysteries remain. The large bodies of liquid methane are restricted to high latitudes. Most of the river valleys seen in Cassini radar data seem to run down to nowhere. And the ultimate source and replenishment of methane, although seemingly more strongly tied to the interior than before Cassini-Huygens, remain unresolved. Huygens gave us the only imaging of Titan's surface with a resolution good enough to follow fluvial processes all the way from the contextual geology, to channels, to the stream debris washed out into the plains

  6. Preliminary Study on the Dynamic Variations of the Surface Thermal Flux before and after the Ms5.7 Earthquake of 2005 in Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Meihua; Deng Zhihui; Wang Yu; Liao Zhihui; Zu Jinhua

    2008-01-01

    The temporal and spatial variations of surface latent heat flux (SLHF) and diagnostic air temperature at 2m before and after the Ms5.7 earthquake occurring on November 26, 2005 in the area between Ruichang City and Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province are summarized in this paper. It is found that before the earthquake significant SLHF anomalies and air temperature anomalies occurred in the epicentral area and its vicinity. The air temperature anomalies appeared from the 2nd to the 13th of November, 2005 and were concentrated at the epicentral area and in its southern part. Then two days later, that is, from the 4th to the 15th of November 2005, significant SLHF anomalies occurred in the epicentral area and to its northern area where many lakes are distributed along the active faults. During the anomalous period, the SLHF and air temperature at 2m exceeded the sum of average daily value over 26 years and 1.5 times of its mean square deviation. Both anomalies had maintained for 12 days with a peculiar distribution related to the tectonic active zone. It is considered that both of air temperature anomalies and SLHF anomalies are correlated to the movement of thermal flux from underground prior to earthquake. SLHF anomalies occurred over wide regions covered with abundant water, whereas air temperature anomalies occurred over land.

  7. Antiepileptic drug prescribing before, during and after pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Rachel; Garne, Ester; Wang, Hao;

    2015-01-01

    and after pregnancy were identified in each of the databases. AED prescribing patterns were analysed, and the choice of AEDs and co-prescribing of folic acid were evaluated. Results In total, 978 957 women with 1 248 713 deliveries were identified. In all regions, AED prescribing declined during pregnancy...... co-prescribed with high-dose folic acid: ranging from 1.0% (CI950.3–1.8%) in Emilia Romagna to 33.5% (CI9528.7–38.4%) in Wales. Conclusion The country's differences in prescribing patterns may suggest different use, knowledge or interpretation of the scientific evidence base. The low co......-prescribing of folic acid indicates that more needs to be done to better inform clinicians and women of childbearing age taking AEDs about the need to offer and receive complete preconception care....

  8. The Role of Trust in Financial Customer-seller Relationships Before and After the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    provider. Hence, as a direct managerial implication, financial service managers should consider investing additional resources in satisfying their customers in the after crisis era. In addition, it is suggested that managers should seek to rebuild the positive relationship between trust and loyalty......This study examines the role of trust in customer-seller relationships before and after the 2008 financial crisis. On the basis of two surveys comprising 1155 and 757 bank customers, respectively, it is shown that trust is less likely to mediate the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty...... after the financial crisis compared with before the financial crisis. The results suggest that consumers rely more on satisfaction and less on trust after the financial crisis compared with before the financial crisis when determining whether they should remain loyal to a particular financial service...

  9. Trends in Community Pharmacy Counts and Closures before and after the Implementation of Medicare Part D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepser, Donald G.; Xu, Liyan; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Medicare Part D provided 3.4 million American seniors with prescription drug insurance. It may also have had an unintended effect on pharmacy viability. This study compares trends in the number of pharmacies and rate of pharmacy closures before and after the implementation of Medicare Part D. Methods: This retrospective observational…

  10. Rheological properties of sweet potato starch before and after denaturalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖华西; 林亲录; 夏新剑; 李丽辉; 林利忠; 吴卫国

    2008-01-01

    Based on the sweet potato starch,cationic starch,acetic starch and cationic-acetic compoundedly modified starch were made through chemical denaturalization.The above three kinds of static rheological parameter and dynamic rheological parameter were measured,respectively.The experimental result reveals that the thermal stability of starchy viscosity increases after chemical denaturalization.Under the condition of identical shearing rate,the shear stress of cationic-acetic ester compoundedly modified sweet potato starch paste is the largest among these kinds of sweet potato starch.This attributes to a phenomenon of shearing thinning.Furthermore,raw sweet potato starch has a larger gel intensity than that of modified starch.

  11. Differences of adaptation to school and self-resilience before and after sleep education for adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Mi; Kim, Jong-Hee

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to verify the effectiveness of sleep education by identifying the differences of adaption to school and self-resilience of the high school students before and after sleep education for a certain period of time. The conclusion of this study is presented below: First, there were differences in adaptation to school and self-resilience of the high school students before and after sleep education for the high school students. After sleep education, adaptation to school environment and school friends became higher, and also the emotion control, personal relations and optimism, which are the subvariables of self-resilience, became higher. Second, there were differences in adaptation to school and self-resilience before and after sleep education by grade of the high school students. The freshmen's adaptation to school friends and adaptation to school life, which are the subvariables of adaptation to school, increased after sleep education. The sophomores' adaptation to school environment, which is the subvariable of adaptation to school, went up higher after sleep education. The freshmen's emotion control, vitality and personal relations, which are the subvariables of self-resilience, were higher after sleep education. The sophomores' personal relations, which are a subvariable of self-resilience, went up higher.

  12. Assessing the effect of Michigan's smoke-free law on air quality inside restaurants and casinos: a before-and-after observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Shamo, Farid; Wilson, Teri; Kiley, Janet; Repace, James

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of Michigan's smoke-free air (SFA) law on the air quality inside selected restaurants and casinos. The hypothesis of the study: if the SFA law is effectively implemented in restaurants and casinos, there will be a significant reduction in the particulate matter PM2.5 measured in the same establishments after the law is implemented. Setting Prelaw and postlaw design study. Participants 78 restaurants in 14 Michigan cities from six major regions of the state, and...

  13. EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE BACTERIOLOGICAL CULTURE BEFORE AND AFTER SPERM WASHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANGGuang-Lun; ZHANGXi-Wei; WUGuo-Hua

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether sperm washing can remove microorganisms from human semen. 20 ejaculates were cultured for detecting the existenoe of any possible aerobic and anaerobic becteria. Samples collected were divided into two groups: spocial

  14. Sailors' scurvy before and after James Lind--a reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2009-06-01

    Scurvy is a thousand-year-old stereotypical disease characterized by apathy, weakness, easy bruising with tiny or large skin hemorrhages, friable bleeding gums, and swollen legs. Untreated patients may die. In the last five centuries sailors and some ships' doctors used oranges and lemons to cure and prevent scurvy, yet university-trained European physicians with no experience of either the disease or its cure by citrus fruits persisted in reviews of the extensive but conflicting literature. In the 20(th) century scurvy was shown to be due to a deficiency of the essential food factor ascorbic acid. This vitamin C was synthesized, and in adequate quantities it completely prevents and completely cures the disease, which is now rare. The protagonist of this medical history was James Lind. His report of a prospective controlled therapeutic trial in 1747 preceded by a half-century the British Navy's prevention and cure of scurvy by citrus fruits. After lime-juice was unwittingly substituted for lemon juice in about 1860, the disease returned, especially among sailors on polar explorations. In recent decades revisionist historians have challenged normative accounts, including that of scurvy, and the historicity of Lind's trial. It is therefore timely to reassess systematically the strengths and weaknesses of the canonical saga. PMID:19519673

  15. Character, symptoms and relationship patterns before and after psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczek, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Background. In psychoanalytic theory, character is conceived as a regulating structure intended for life-long adaptation between inner needs and outer reality. If this adaptation fails, symptoms and dysfunctional relationship patterns might emerge, thus, implying a close association between symptoms, relationship patterns and underlying character. Furthermore, according to psychoanalytic theory decreased symptomatic suffering and more adaptive relations are regarded to be ...

  16. Liver volume, portal vein flow, and clearance of indocyanine green and antipyrine in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J; Court-Payen, M;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment.......The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment....

  17. Feasibility and Impact of Doctor-Nurse Task Delegation in Preventive Child Health Care in the Netherlands, a Controlled Before-After Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Janine Benjamins

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands a need is felt for more flexible Child Health Care services, both efficient and tailored to needs. We set up a study on impact and feasibility of task delegation to child health care nurses performing all regular checkups on children aged 2 months to 4 years. Abnormal findings were discussed with the attending child health care doctor. This article describes impact and feasibility of this task delegation from four viewpoints: competences of nurses; percentage of children assigned to the nurse; change in abnormal findings and referrals; experiences of professionals and parents.Two experiment teams and two control teams were compared before and after starting task delegation. Nurses in the experiment teams were trained to carry out regular checkups on healthy children. Assignment to the experiment schedule was a joint decision by doctor and nurse. Nursing competences were measured by means of questionnaires. Percentage of children assigned to the nurse and screening results of eyes, heart, hips, growth and development were extracted from the electronic health record. Difference in change was compared between experiment and control teams. Mann-Whitney tests and logistic generalized estimating equations were used to test for significance. Experiences of professionals and parents were evaluated through focus group interviews, which were subjected to a qualitative analysis.Nurses in the experiment regions showed improvement in medical screening skills. No difference in change was perceived in general nursing competences. In the experiment group, 69% of all children were assigned to the nurse. There were no significant differences in change in the percentages of abnormal findings or referrals in the experiment teams compared to the control teams, except for hips. Interviews showed that both doctors and nurses thought positively of the new working method, yet made some recommendations for improvements. Parents felt well-informed and

  18. Effect of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy on fibrinolytic variables before and after parturition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Bremer (Henk); N. Rotmans (Nel); E.J.Ph. Brommer; H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of a daily oral dose of 60 to 80 mg of aspirin from 12 weeks gestation until delivery on fibrinolytic variables before and after parturition. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective controlled study labor was electively induced in 24 patients, eight receiving l

  19. Masticatory function in subacute TMD patients before and after treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, L.J.; Steenks, M.H.; Wijer, A. de; Speksnijder, C.M.; Bilt, A. van der

    2009-01-01

    Masticatory function can be impaired in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) patients. We investigated whether treatment of subacute non-specific TMD patients may influence oral function and clinical outcome measures. Fifteen patients with subacute TMD participated in the study. We quantified masticat

  20. Before and after fieldwork: ingredients for an ethnography of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gilbert

    2012-04-01

    W.H.R. Rivers asked what light anthropology could throw on the emergence of medicine. But this early lead was not soon followed up. Social anthropology had first to establish itself. The new social anthropology championed holistic fieldwork in small-scale societies. Some did choose to study illness or misfortune ethnographically. Evans-Pritchard, Victor Turner and Max Marwick provided outstanding models in this field. Political change and decolonisation made some of the older assumptions about the place and aims of anthropological research less easy to sustain. Growth in the subject encouraged specialisation. Medical anthropology was one among many possible developments. But it also had to identify a distinctive focus and place in relation to medicine and other health-related social studies.

  1. The Minimum Price Guarantee Policy before and after Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackelline Favro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the performance of the Minimum Price Guarantee Policy - MPGPin Brazil for the main agricultural products, during the 1980s and 1990s, and especially the post-Real Plan period. The research has a bibliographic and descriptive nature. The main results showed that the MPGP remains an important tool for ensuring income to farmers and the supply of selected crops in the analyzed period, but there was a reduction of public action for the new MPGP and new private instruments has revealed efficiency

  2. Evaluation of quality of life before and after videothoracoscopic simpathectomy for primary hyperhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Baroncello

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess quality of life before and after thoracoscopic sympathectomy for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis. Methods: we conducted an observational, analytical, cross-sectional and quantitative study. We evaluated patients undergoing thoracoscopic sympathectomy for primary axillary hyperhidrosis, primary palmar hyperhidrosis, and axillary hyperhidrosis associated with palmar one. We applied a questionnaire on quality of life related to hyperhidrosis before and after the operation. Results: The questionnaire was administered to 51 patients with a mean age of 32.4 years, 45 women and six men. The average quality of life related to hyperhidrosis in a score of 0-100 before sympathectomy was 34.6 and after the operation it was 77.1. Compensatory hyperhidrosis occurred in 84.3% of patients. Conclusion: thoracoscopic sympathectomy improves the quality of life of patients with primary hyperhidrosis, with results supported over time. Compensatory hyperhidrosis occurred in most patients, but did not significantly influence the improved quality of life.

  3. Tissue electrical properties in head and neck tumors before and after surgery: Preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malecka-Massalska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA detects changes in tissue electrical properties and has been seen as a prognostic tool in several chronic conditions, including cancer. AIMS: The study was conducted to investigate whether there are any tissue electrical differences in patients with head and neck cancer (H and NC before and after surgery treatment. Settings and Design: The observational study was performed at the Otolaryngology Department, Head and Neck Oncology. Materials and Methods : Tissue electrical properties were assessed in 31 patients with H and NC before and 2 weeks after surgery treatment. Direct bioimpedance measures [resistance, reactance, phase angle (PA] were determined by BIA. Statistical Analysis Used: The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess the distribution conformity of examined parameters with a normal distribution; the Fisher (F test was used to assess variance homogeneity. For group comparisons of metric data we used the Mann-Whitney U test. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The statistical analysis for this study was performed using the computer software STATISTICA v. 8.0 (StatSoft. Results: PA at 50 kHz was found to be significantly (P = 0.000009 lower after surgery in patients with H and NC than before treatment (4.69° ±0.71 vs. 4.22 ± 0.83, respectively. Resistance was significantly (P = 0.0005 greater after surgery in patients with H and NC than before (596.24 ± 96.31 ohm vs 647.64 ± 276.11 ohm, respectively. Conclusions: There are tissue electrical differences before and after surgery in patients diagnosed with H and NC. Further observations would be useful to feedback in support therapy planning of individual patients.

  4. Increased psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormones are necessary for fetal brain development, while hypothyroidism in adults has been associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the association and temporal relation between hypothyroidism and mental disorders...... is ambiguous. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism is associated with psychiatric morbidity. Methods: Observational cohort study. Based on record-linkage between different Danish health registers, 2822 hypothyroid singletons each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid...... controls were identified and followed over a mean period of 6 years (range 1-13). Additionally, we included 385 same sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders as well as treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotics and anxiolytics were recorded. Logistic and cox...

  5. Microbiota of Severe Early Childhood Caries before and after Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, A.C.R.; Kent, R.L.; Holgerson, P. Lif; Hughes, C. V.; Loo, C. Y.; Kanasi, E.; Chalmers, N. I.; Johansson, I.

    2011-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) is difficult to treat successfully. This study aimed to characterize the microbiota of severe ECC and evaluate whether baseline or follow-up microbiotas are associated with new lesions post-treatment. Plaque samples from 2- to 6-year-old children were analyzed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray and by PCR for selected taxa. Severe-ECC children were monitored for 12 months post-therapy. By microarray, species associated with severe-ECC (n = 53) compared with car...

  6. Health problems presented to family practices in the Netherlands 1 year before and 1 year after a disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeteman, R.J.; Yzermans, C.J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Dirkzwager, A.J.; Donker, G.A.; Veen, P.M. ten; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disasters often have negative health consequences. Studies of health problems presented in family practice before and after a disaster are rare. The present study analyzed health problems before and after a disaster and predictors of increased morbidity after the disaster as presented in

  7. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P endocrine system were similar to the effects of chairing on the ground, but were more pronounced. Reduced intestinal calcium absorption, losses in body weight, increases in cortisol, and higher postflight blood urea nitrogen were the changes in flight monkeys that distinguished them from the flight simulation study animals.

  8. On the stability of preferences and attitudes before and after experiencing an electric vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2013-01-01

    after a real experience with an electric vehicle in the household. In particular, there are major changes in the preference for driving range, top speed, fuel cost, battery life and charging in city centres and train stations. In line with other studies, we find that environmental concern has a positive......In this study, we investigate the extent to which experience affects individual preferences for specific electric vehicle characteristics, individual attitudes toward the environment, and the impact of the attitudes on the choice between an electric and a conventional vehicle. We use a two......-wave stated preference experiment where data was collected before and after the respondents experienced an electric vehicle for three months. We estimate a hybrid choice model using jointly the stated choices before and after the test period. The results show that individual preferences change significantly...

  9. Is the decline of renal function different before and after the start of dialysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, Dinanda J.; Halbesma, Nynke; Krediet, Raymond T.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; le Cessie, Saskia; Dekker, Friedo W.; Grootendorst, Diana C.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of glomerular filtration in dialysis patients is associated with improved survival and quality of life. This study explores the time course of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) between 1 year before and 1 year after the start of haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). This s

  10. The Influence of Achievement before, during and after Medical School on Physician Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the relationship between physicians' prior achievements (before, during and after medical school) and job satisfaction, and tested the two lines of reasoning that prior achievements influence job satisfaction positively or negatively, respectively. The participants were graduates who started their…

  11. A Water Rehabilitation Program in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis Before and After Total Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łyp, Marek; Kaczor, Ryszard; Cabak, Anna; Tederko, Piotr; Włostowska, Ewa; Stanisławska, Iwona; Szypuła, Jan; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pain associated with coxarthrosis, typically occurring in middle-aged and elderly patients, very commonly causes considerable limitation of motor fitness and dependence on pharmacotherapy. This article provides an assessment of a rehabilitation program with tailored water exercises in patients with osteoarthritis before and after total hip replacement. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 192 patients (the mean age 61.03±10.89) suffering from hip osteoarthritis (OA) were evaluated before and after total hip replacement (THR). The clinical study covered measurements of hip active ranges of motion (HAROM) and the forces generated by pelvis stabilizer muscles. Pain intensity was assessed according to analogue-visual scale of pain (VAS) and according to the Modified Laitinen Questionnaire. The patients were divided into 6 groups (4 treatment and 2 control). We compared 2 rehabilitation programs using kinesitherapy and low-frequency magnetic field. One of them also had specially designed exercises in the water. Statistical analysis was carried out at the significance level α=0.05. This was a cross-sectional study. RESULTS A positive effect of water exercises on a number of parameters was found in patients with OA both before and after total hip replacement surgery. We noted a significant reduction of pain (ptreatment process (pwater exercises most significantly reduced pain in patients with OA before and after total hip replacement surgery. 2. Inclusion of water exercises in a rehabilitation program can reduce the use of medicines in patient with OA and after THR. PMID:27455419

  12. A Water Rehabilitation Program in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis Before and After Total Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łyp, Marek; Kaczor, Ryszard; Cabak, Anna; Tederko, Piotr; Włostowska, Ewa; Stanisławska, Iwona; Szypuła, Jan; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2016-07-25

    BACKGROUND Pain associated with coxarthrosis, typically occurring in middle-aged and elderly patients, very commonly causes considerable limitation of motor fitness and dependence on pharmacotherapy. This article provides an assessment of a rehabilitation program with tailored water exercises in patients with osteoarthritis before and after total hip replacement. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 192 patients (the mean age 61.03±10.89) suffering from hip osteoarthritis (OA) were evaluated before and after total hip replacement (THR). The clinical study covered measurements of hip active ranges of motion (HAROM) and the forces generated by pelvis stabilizer muscles. Pain intensity was assessed according to analogue-visual scale of pain (VAS) and according to the Modified Laitinen Questionnaire. The patients were divided into 6 groups (4 treatment and 2 control). We compared 2 rehabilitation programs using kinesitherapy and low-frequency magnetic field. One of them also had specially designed exercises in the water. Statistical analysis was carried out at the significance level α=0.05. This was a cross-sectional study. RESULTS A positive effect of water exercises on a number of parameters was found in patients with OA both before and after total hip replacement surgery. We noted a significant reduction of pain (prehabilitation program including water exercises most significantly reduced pain in patients with OA before and after total hip replacement surgery. 2. Inclusion of water exercises in a rehabilitation program can reduce the use of medicines in patient with OA and after THR.

  13. Performance Analysis of Manet Before and After Black Hole Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.Heena Bhalla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile ad-hoc network is a temporary network set up by wireless mobile computers (or nodes moving arbitrary in the places that have no network infrastructure. Due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, wireless ad-hoc networks are unprotected to attacks of the malicious nodes. One of the prominent attacks is the Black Hole Attack which absorbs all data packets in the network. Since the data packets do not reach the destination node on account of this attack, data loss will occur. In this paper we simulated MANETs with and without Black Hole to study the effects of Black hole attack on network performance. Because of Black Hole Attack the average packet drop increased form 0.25% to 90.69% . The throughput of the network decreased 93.56% due to Black Hole effect.

  14. Gallbladder motility in patients with hepatic cirrhosis before and after portal azygous disconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xu Jin; Shuo-Dong Wu; Xue-Feng Zhang; Xian-Ying Chen; Guo-Xu Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine and compare the effect of vagus nerve on gallbladder motility in patients with hepatic cirrhosis before and after portal azygous disconnection (PAD).METHODS: PAD operation (or Hassab's operation) was performed on 18 patients with portal hypertension, and anterior and posterior vagal trunks were cut. On d 3 before operation and d 10 after operation, 99mTc-EHIDA 185 MBq was administered intravenously to the patients, and scintigraphy was performed at 0.25 min/frame. A standard fat meal was administered 30 min after scintigraphy, and dynamic imaging was performed 60 min after the fat meal.Following appearance of the region of interest (ROI) in gallbladder, the time-activity curve of ROI was established.The following seven parameters were used: radioactivity at 30 min after injection of 99mTc-EHIDA (RC 30min), bile emptying fraction (EF), bile emptying period (EP), emptying rate (ER), latent period (LP), latent period radiocounting increment (LI), and latent period radiocounting increment rate (LR).RESULTS: The RC 30 min decreased significantly after operation,compared with that before operation (2 693.6± 2 406.9 vs 5 606.8±2 625.4, P<0.05). The radiocounting of gallbladder increased gradually during LP. LP after operation was significantly longer than that before operation (13.36±5.92 vs 2.24± 1.48,P<0.01). LI and LR after operation were significantly higher than those before operation (2 861.62±028.3 vs 331.21±421.02, and 113.42±49.52 vs7.57±10.75,respectively, both P<0.01). EP after operation was significantly shorter than that before operation (18.5±6.3vs 24.1±6.4, P<0.05). EF and ER after operation were significantly lower than those before operation (13.1±5.4vs32.3±16.3, and 0.7±0.3 vs 1.4±0.8, respectively, both P<0.01).CONCLUSION: PAD operation is a good clinical model in studying the effect of vagus on gallbladder motility. The gallbladder tension after PAD operation decreases significantly during the interdigestive

  15. Determination of selected parabens, benzophenones, triclosan and triclocarban in agricultural soils after and before treatment with compost from sewage sludge: A lixiviation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Dorival-García, N; Juárez-Jiménez, B; Vílchez, J L

    2016-04-01

    An accurate and sensitive method for the determination of selected EDCs in soil and compost from wastewater treatment plants is developed and validated. Five parabens, six benzophenone-UV filters and the antibacterials triclosan and triclocarban were selected as target analytes. The parameters for ultrasound-assisted extraction were thoroughly optimized. After extraction, the analytes were detected and quantified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Ethylparaben (ring-(13)C6 labelled) and deuterated benzophenone (BP-d10) were used as internal standards. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays with spiked samples. The limits of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.40 ng g(-1) and the limits of quantification from 0.1 to 1.0 ng g(-1), while precision in terms of relative standard deviation was between 9% and 21%. Recovery rates ranged from 83% to 107%. The validated method was applied for the study of the behavior of the selected compounds in agricultural soils treated and un-treated with compost from WWTP. A lixiviation study was developed in both agricultural soil and treated soil and first order kinetic models of their disappearance at different depths are proposed. The application of organic composts in the soil leads to an increase of the disappearance rate of the studied compounds. The lixiviation study also shows the risk of pollution of groundwater aquifers after disposal or waste of these EDCs in agricultural soils is not high. PMID:26838425

  16. Surface roughness and gloss of current CAD/CAM resin composites before and after toothbrush abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Saiki, Osamu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Okazaki, Tomoyo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gloss and surface roughness behaviors of newly developed CAD/CAM composite blocks with different filler contents and characteristics. The gloss and surface roughness were quantified before and after a toothbrush dentifrice abrasion test; the results were compared to the gloss and surface roughness of a ceramic CAD/CAM block. Knoop hardness was determined before abrasion test. The results were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey HSD, and Dunnett t test (pVita Enamic>Gradia block>Shofu Block HC, Lava Ultimate≥Katana Avencia block≥Cerasmart. After toothbrush abrasion, a significant difference in the gloss unit was detected between the Shofu Block HC material and the ceramic block. The Ra and Rz of the Cerasmart and Shofu Block HC materials were significantly larger than those of the ceramic block after toothbrush abrasion. PMID:26632238

  17. Cognitive performance before and after the onset of subjective cognitive decline in old age

    OpenAIRE

    Koppara, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; König, Hans-Helmut; Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Luppa, Melanie; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background Our objectives were (1) to test the association between the report of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and prospective objective cognitive performance in high age individuals and (2) to study the course of longitudinal cognitive performance before and after the first report of SCD. Methods Cognitively normal elderly participants of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia study (N = 2330) with SCD (subjective decline in memory with and without associated concerns) and ...

  18. A modelling study of air quality impact of odd-even day traffic restriction scheme before, during and after the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic air pollution control measures were designed and implemented to improve air quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. This study focuses on the evaluation of the air quality impacts of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS implemented before, during and after the Games, based on modelling simulation by a well validated urban-scale air quality model. Concentration levels of CO, PM10, NO2 and O3 were predicted for the pre- (10–19 July, during- (20 July–20 September and post-TRS (21–30 September periods, based on the on-line monitored traffic flows on a total of 334 road segments constituting the 2nd, 3rd, 4th Ring Roads (RR and the major Linkage Roads (LRs that were subject to the TRS policy and distributed around the main urban area of Beijing, and on the hourly sequential meteorological data from a representative Observatory. Subsequently, we used the predictions and observations at a roadside air quality monitoring site to evaluate the model, based on a widely used statistical framework for model evaluation, as well as on the dependence of model performance on time-of-the-day and on wind direction, and the model predictions turned out satisfactory. Results showed that daily average concentrations on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th RR and LRs during the TRS period decreased significantly, by about 35.8%, 38.5%, 34.9% and 35.6% for CO, about 38.7%, 31.8%, 44.0% and 34.7% for PM10, about 30.3%, 31.9%, 32.3% and 33.9% for NO2, and about 36.7%, 33.0%, 33.4% and 34.7% for O3, respectively, compared with the pre-TRS period. Besides, hourly average concentrations were also reduced significantly, particularly for the morning and evening peaks for CO and PM10, for the evening peak for NO2, and for the afternoon peak for O3. Consequently, both the daily and hourly concentration level of CO, PM10, NO2 and O3

  19. A modelling study of air quality impact of odd-even day traffic restriction scheme before, during and after the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, H.; Xie, S. D.

    2010-02-01

    Systematic air pollution control measures were designed and implemented to improve air quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. This study focuses on the evaluation of the air quality impacts of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS) implemented before, during and after the Games, based on modelling simulation by a well validated urban-scale air quality model. Concentration levels of CO, PM10, NO2 and O3 were predicted for the pre- (10-19 July), during- (20 July-20 September) and post-TRS (21-30 September) periods, based on the on-line monitored traffic flows on a total of 334 road segments constituting the 2nd, 3rd, 4th Ring Roads (RR) and the major Linkage Roads (LRs) that were subject to the TRS policy and distributed around the main urban area of Beijing, and on the hourly sequential meteorological data from a representative Observatory. Subsequently, we used the predictions and observations at a roadside air quality monitoring site to evaluate the model, based on a widely used statistical framework for model evaluation, as well as on the dependence of model performance on time-of-the-day and on wind direction, and the model predictions turned out satisfactory. Results showed that daily average concentrations on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th RR and LRs during the TRS period decreased significantly, by about 35.8%, 38.5%, 34.9% and 35.6% for CO, about 38.7%, 31.8%, 44.0% and 34.7% for PM10, about 30.3%, 31.9%, 32.3% and 33.9% for NO2, and about 36.7%, 33.0%, 33.4% and 34.7% for O3, respectively, compared with the pre-TRS period. Besides, hourly average concentrations were also reduced significantly, particularly for the morning and evening peaks for CO and PM10, for the evening peak for NO2, and for the afternoon peak for O3. Consequently, both the daily and hourly concentration level of CO, PM10, NO2 and O3 conformed to the CNAAQS (China National Ambient Air Quality Standards) Grade II during the Games. Besides, a notable ozone weekend effect was revealed

  20. Comparison of Outcomes before and after Ohio's Law Mandating Use of the FDA-Approved Protocol for Medication Abortion: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combellick, Sarah L.; Kohn, Julia E.; Roberts, Sarah C. M.

    2016-01-01

    the rate of requiring an additional intervention. The most common subsequent intervention in both periods was an additional misoprostol dose and was most commonly administered to treat incomplete abortion. The percentage of women requiring two or more follow-up visits increased from 4.2% (95% CI: 3.0%–5.3%) in the prelaw period to 6.2% (95% CI: 5.5%–8.0%) in the postlaw period (p = 0.003). Continuing pregnancy was rare (0.3%). Overall, 12.6% of women reported at least one side effect during their medication abortion: 8.4% (95% CI: 6.8%–10.0%) in the prelaw period and 15.6% (95% CI: 13.8%–17.3%) in the postlaw period (p abortions fell from 22% (95% CI: 20.8%–22.3%) of all abortions the year before the law went into effect (2010) to 5% (95% CI: 4.8%–5.6%) 3 y after (2014) (p abortion protocol that is associated with a greater need for additional intervention, more visits, more side effects, and higher costs for women relative to the evidence-based protocol. There is no evidence that the change in law led to improved abortion outcomes. Indeed, our findings suggest the opposite. In March 2016, the FDA-protocol was updated, so Ohio providers may now legally provide current evidence-based protocols. However, this law is still in place and bans physicians from using mifepristone based on any new developments in clinical research as best practices continue to be updated. PMID:27575488

  1. Muscle strength and function before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using semitendonosus and gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keays, S L; Bullock-Saxton, J; Keays, A C; Newcombe, P

    2001-10-01

    This study assessed the quadriceps and hamstring strength before and 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery using the hamstrings and related the findings to functional performance. Six months after surgery is a critical time for assessment as this is when players are returning to sport. Maximum isokinetic strength of 31 patients with complete unilateral ACL ruptures was measured at speeds of 60 degrees and 120 degrees per second. Functional assessment included the single hop, the triple hop, the shuttle run, side-step and carioca tests. All patients underwent a controlled quadriceps emphasized home-based physiotherapy program both before and after surgery. Results show that before surgery there was a 7.3% quadriceps strength deficit at 60 degrees per second compared to the uninjured leg but no hamstring strength deficit. After surgery there was a statistically significant but relatively small loss of muscle strength. The quadriceps strength deficit had increased to 12% and there was a 10% hamstring deficit. Post-operatively there was an 11% and 6.3% improvement in the hop tests, a 9% (P < 0.01) improvement in the shuttle run, a 15% (P < 0.001) improvement in the side step and a 24% (P < 0.001) improvement in the carioca tests (P < 0.001) despite the loss of muscle strength.

  2. Lobster and cod benefit from small-scale northern marine protected areas: inference from an empirical before-after control-impact study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben Moland; Knutsen, Halvor; Garrigou, Pauline; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Kleiven, Alf Ring; André, Carl; Knutsen, Jan Atle

    2013-03-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented as tools to conserve and manage fisheries and target species. Because there are opportunity costs to conservation, there is a need for science-based assessment of MPAs. Here, we present one of the northernmost documentations of MPA effects to date, demonstrated by a replicated before-after control-impact (BACI) approach. In 2006, MPAs were implemented along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast offering complete protection to shellfish and partial protection to fish. By 2010, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) had increased by 245 per cent in MPAs, whereas CPUE in control areas had increased by 87 per cent. Mean size of lobsters increased by 13 per cent in MPAs, whereas increase in control areas was negligible. Furthermore, MPA-responses and population development in control areas varied significantly among regions. This illustrates the importance of a replicated BACI design for reaching robust conclusions and management decisions. Partial protection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was followed by an increase in population density and body size compared with control areas. By 2010, MPA cod were on average 5 cm longer than in any of the control areas. MPAs can be useful management tools in rebuilding and conserving portions of depleted lobster populations in northern temperate waters, and even for a mobile temperate fish species such as the Atlantic cod. PMID:23303544

  3. Quality of life in adult patients with acne vulgaris before and after treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Akyazı; Davut Baltacı; Köksal Alpay; Çiçek Hocaoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate effect of acne treatment on quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris.Materials and methods: The study was prospective and conducted in a university hospital, enrolling the previously untreated patients with acne vulgaris. Before treatment, dermatology life quality index (DLQI) was applied to all participants of both study and control group. After 3rd and 6th months of treatment administration, DLQI tool was applied to patients in the study group, and scores we...

  4. The study of Computerized Numerical Controller acceleration/deceleration before and after interpolation overview%数控系统前后加减速研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月祥

    2014-01-01

    Acc/Dec control is a key technology of CNC, a better Acc/Dec control algorithm can enhance the machining efficiency and machining precision, which is a very important benchmark of CNC. Acc/Dec can divided into Acc/Dec before interpolation and Acc/Dec after interpolation base on its position of CNC, both have advantages and disadvantages. Article has compare and describe this two computerized numerical algorithm synthetically, and its implementation.%加减速控制是数控系统的关键技术,良好的加减速控制算法有利于提高加工效率和加工精度,是考验数控系统的重要性能指标。加减速根据其在整个数控系统中的位置,分为前加减速和后加减速,他们都有各自的优缺点,论文对这两种数控算法进行了综合的描述和比较,以及他们在数控系统中的实现过程。

  5. The Opinions of Economics Majors before and after Learning Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Michael R.; Routon, P. Wesley; Walker, Jay K.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on undergraduates from 463 American colleges and universities from 1994-99, the authors examine how majoring in economics affects student opinions on 13 social, political, and economic issues. Economics majors were found to begin and end their college tenure with differing opinions on several issues when compared to other…

  6. Environmental management systems - before, during and after construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an operational environmental managment system (EMS) as developed by TransCanada PipeLines, including an example of the application and concomitant benefits. The focus will be on the planning, construction, inspection and post-construction monitoring programs, covering approximately 3,190 kilometers of large diameter pipeline constructed between 1990 and 1996, across a wide range of Canadian land-uses and ecosystems. With the implementation of such systems, governments have recognized that corporate responsibility and self-management on environmental matters can result in effective, environmentally sound programs that minimize impacts and allow for a more cost-effective and streamlined regulatory approach. (au)

  7. Environmental management systems - before, during and after construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, T.L. [TransCanada PipeLines (Canada)

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an operational environmental managment system (EMS) as developed by TransCanada PipeLines, including an example of the application and concomitant benefits. The focus will be on the planning, construction, inspection and post-construction monitoring programs, covering approximately 3,190 kilometers of large diameter pipeline constructed between 1990 and 1996, across a wide range of Canadian land-uses and ecosystems. With the implementation of such systems, governments have recognized that corporate responsibility and self-management on environmental matters can result in effective, environmentally sound programs that minimize impacts and allow for a more cost-effective and streamlined regulatory approach. (au)

  8. Radionuclide evaluation before and after medical or surgical myocardial revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and radionuclide angiography performed in the resting state or during the course of exercise testing may provide clinically relevant information that is helpful in decision making in patients with coronary artery disease. These noninvasive techniques may be particularly useful in assessing the functional severity of coronary artery disease in patients presenting with chest pain, and could be employed to assist in differentiating between ischemic and infarcted or scarred myocardium. By the identification of high-risk and low-risk subsets based on certain radionuclide and exercise test findings, coronary arteriography with a view toward revascularization would be recommended in the former and medical therapy in the latter. Patients with mild symptoms and a low-risk scintigraphic pattern or functional response to stress could be spared an invasive procedure until symptoms became progressive and refractory to medical treatment. In this review, the value and limitations of /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy and radionuclide angiography in the patient being considered for coronary bypass surgery, transluminal angioplasty, or who receives thrombolytic therapy are discussed

  9. Use of alcohol before and after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro de Amorim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess alcohol intake in the bariatric surgery pre and postoperative periods. METHODS: Patients were interviewed atSurgery Clinic of the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - HC/UFPE (Brazil from July 2011 to March 2012. We analyzed socioeconomic, anthropometric and clinical variables. We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT C. RESULTS: One hundred nineteen patients were enrolled (mean age: 41.23+11.30 years, with a predominance of the female gender (83.2%, non-Caucasian race (55%, married individuals or in a stable union (65.5%, with a high school education (40.3%and active in the job market (37%. Weight and body mass index (BMI were 128.77+25.28Kg and 49.09+9.26Kg/m2,respectively in the preoperative period (class II obesity and 87.19+19.16Kg and 33.04+6.21Kg/m2, respectively in the postoperative period (class I obesity (p<0.001. Hypertension was the most frequent disease in the pre (66.6% and postoperative (36.5% periods. The prevalence of alcohol use was 26.6% in the preoperative period, of which 2.2% of high risk, and 35.1% in the postoperative period, of which 1.4% of probable dependence; this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.337. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of abusive alcohol intake and/or probable dependence was low in both the pre and postoperative periods, with little evidence of risky consumption among the patients submitted to bariatric surgery.

  10. Breast Cancer Patients’ Cognitive Functioning Before and After Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina Maar; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung;

    chemotherapy which interfere with their abilities to fulfill social and work-related responsibilities. However, since the cause of the cognitive problems is unknown, it is difficult for GPs to offer appropriate counseling on this issue. Aim: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available...... patients who were to receive chemotherapy scored higher on executive function than the controls (effect size (ES)=-0.202, p=0.011), but significantly lower on overall cognitive functioning as well as on the specific domains of attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, motor function, visual...

  11. Texture of onions before and after freeze-drying.

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Barroca, Maria João

    2010-01-01

    Dehydrated onion is widely used as flavor additive in the manufacture of processed foods and many other convenience foods. However, when drying shelf-stable vegetables it is absolutely essential to preserve their desired quality attributes. In the present work fresh and freeze-dried onions were analysed in terms of Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) to evaluate in what extent this operation influences the texture attributes of onions. From the ana...

  12. Cleanliness of endodontic files after use and before sterilization

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Lourdes Portella; Marcelo Azevedo Rios; Diana Santana de Albuquerque; Sinara Saúde Araújo; Cristina de Jesus Reiss Araújo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of two endodontic file cleaning methods: manual and with the use of ultrasonic vat Method: Sixty-six endodontic files were used for root canal preparations and afterwards divided into three groups: 1) manual cleaning; 2)ultrasonic cleaning; 3) files used in patients, but were not cleaned (positive control).Results: Statistical analysis showed that in the case of manually cleaned files, the percentage of cleaning was 0.4% while in those that were dirty it w...

  13. Occupational Stress and Mental Health of Employees of a Petrochemical Company before and after Privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahdad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many countries make many of their governmental sectors private. This transition, however, may affect their employees in numerous ways.Objective: To determine the level of occupational stress and mental health of employees of a petrochemical company in Isfahan, Central Iran, before and 3 months after privatization.Methods: Out of the 700 employees of the studied company, using a stratified random sampling technique, 140 persons were selected. We used Steinmetz occupational stress and GHQ-28 questionnaires to determine the level of stress and mental health status of participants.Results: The reliability of the questionnaires used was acceptable (Chronbach alpha coefficients: 0.85 and 0.86, respectively. Job stress level was significantly increased 3 months after privatization; the mean±SD job stress score before and after privatization were 22.9±10.43 and 28.3±12.25, respectively (p<0.001. The mean±SD mental health score after privatization (17.57±11.63 was also significantly (p<0.001 higher than that before the privatization (13.8±6.0. There was a significant (p<0.001 positive correlation between the mental health status score and job score (r=0.476.Conclusion: After privatization, the job stress of employees increased significantly. This increase was associated with a decrease in mental health. To lessen the side effects of privatization, the process should be performed cautiously.

  14. For one ritual before and after hundred years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev Galin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to present the role of one calendar rite first of all as factor for the development and the position of local Bulgarian communities in the conditions of dynamic social-economic and cultural-historic changes in the beginning of XXI c. The different feast-ritual forms can be examined as part of the strategies of the small ethnic groups for survival and preserving of their ethnocultural identity. The ethnographic researches in the village of Chushmeley (Krinichnoe, Bolgrad region, the district of Odessa, are made in connection with a project of The Ethnographic Institute with Museum-BAS for studding of the Bulgarians in the region of Bessarabia.

  15. The Cult of the Roman Emperor before and after Christianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warmind, Morten

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a complete set of rituals and certain connected ideas, namely the Roman emperor-cult, that had survived the change of religion from Roman religion to Christianity. The rituals endure, even while their mythological basis is perishing. The emperor-cult includes the ritu......This paper is concerned with a complete set of rituals and certain connected ideas, namely the Roman emperor-cult, that had survived the change of religion from Roman religion to Christianity. The rituals endure, even while their mythological basis is perishing. The emperor-cult includes...

  16. Italian electric systems before and after the law reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersani's reform is declared to get efficiency gains for the whole electric national system by introducing competitive incentives in the wholesale market. On the contrary, in this paper it is argued that differences in the treatment of the two kinds of consumers (large industrial consumers - free clients - and domestic users - constrained clients) will produce arbitrary re-distributive effects penalising domestic users

  17. ESTIMATION OF MALONDIALDEHYDE AND VITAMIN-E LEVELS IN NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA BEFORE AND AFTER PHOTOTHERAPY

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    Sidrah, Tandrapad Priyanka, Asiya Naaz, Lakshmi Chaitanya G, Sridevi D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common and benign problem in neonates worldwide. It is observed during the 1st week of life in approximately 60% of term neonates and 80% of preterm neonates. Phototherapy is most widely used as therapy for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Phototherapy is related to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The present study is undertaken to establish the relation between anti-oxidant status and the marker of lipid peroxidation in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia before and after phototherapy. Objectives: To estimate the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde and vit-E levels in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia before and after phototherapy. Material and Methods: A total of 30 patients were eligible for the study who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Blood sample was collected from neonates of preterm/full term age 1 to 10 days with hyperbilirubinemia undergoing phototherapy. Total Bilirubin, Direct Bilirubin, MDA and vit-E levels were estimated in serum by thiobarbituric acid (TBA method and Backer and Frank’s Method respectively. Results: The present study showed increase in Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin, MDA and decrease in vit-E levels before phototherapy when compared to control group and same subjects after phototherapy showed decrease in Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin, MDA and a further decrease in vit-E levels. Conclusion: From these results it is concluded though phototherapy had a beneficial effect in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, supplementation of vit-E is necessary in addition to phototherapy.

  18. The relationship between serum vitamin A and breast cancer staging before and after radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Matos; Carla Nogueira; Carlos Franca; Antônio Carvalho; Sérgio Lannes Vieira; Antônio Penna; Andréa Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Several adverse effects of radiotherapy have been associated with the process of increased oxidative stress in the organism. In this context, vitamin A noteworthy for its important role in combating oxidative stress, in addition to its chemoprotective effect. Objective: To assess the serum levels of vitamin A (retinol and β-carotene) and their relationship to breast cancer staging in patients before and after radiotherapy. Methods: This is a prospective study of women with breas...

  19. Patients’ expectation and satisfaction with complete denture before and after the therapy

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    Zou Yun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Difficulties in the acceptance of dentures are multifactorial including psychosocial ones. It is questionable whether the patients’ satisfaction depends only on the complete denture therapy characteristics. The aim of the study was to evaluated patients’ expectation and satisfaction with complete dentures before and after the treatment concerning phonetics, chewing, comfort of use and aesthetics. Methods. Forty complete edentulous patients rated their expectation before and satisfaction after the treatment based on a questionnaire scores. Patient-related variables regarding age, gender and previous experience (whether worn complete denture or not were also recorded. Results. Patients’ rating for expectations were higher than the satisfaction after treatment regarding phonetics, chewing, comfort of use and aesthetics. A negative significant correlation was shown between the items before and after the treatment rating for phonetics, chewing, comfort of use and aesthetics. No statistical correlation was found between all the evaluated aspects’ (i.e. phonetics, chewing, comfort of use and aesthetics of expectation and satisfaction, and age, gender, and previous experience except a weak negative correlation noticed between age and comfort of denture use. Conclusion. Patients’ expectations ratings significantly exceeded their satisfactions. Expectations and satisfaction ratings were irrespective of gender and patients previous experience.

  20. Significance of assess the iron reserves of severe renal anemia patients before and after blood transfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Fen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the significance of evaluating hemoglobin and iron reserves in the severe renal anemia patient before and after blood transfusion, to guide clinical treatment.Methods:Simple randomly selected 120 patients in phase 5 of chronic renal failure from the department of nephrology, who are regular dialysis with severe renal anemia, according to the situation of iron reserves before blood transfusion, patients will be divided into its reserves of iron deficiency and iron overload group and normal group, and the three groups were divided into 1 U and 2 U group. Comparing the change of different unit quantity of hemoglobin, serum iron, iron, protein and total iron binding force before and after blood transfusion and variation is compared between groups.Results: Three groups of patients with 1U blood transfusion ,Hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin, total iron binding force, transferrin saturation are higher before a blood transfusion,The differences were statistically significant; before and after blood transfusion hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin, total iron binding force, transferrin saturation change in 1 U group normal iron reserves compared with Insufficient iron reserves 1 U group has no statistically significant difference, iron overload 1 U group before and after blood transfusion hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin, total iron binding force, transferrin saturation change significantly greater than Insufficient iron reserves 1 U group and 1U with normal iron reserves group, the differences were statistically significant; Three groups of patients blood transfusion after 2 U, hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin, total iron binding force, transferrin saturation were higher before a blood transfusion, differences were statistically significant; iron overload 2 U group before and after blood transfusion hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin, total iron binding force, transferrin saturation change significantly greater than Insufficient iron reserves 2

  1. Student Flows and Employment Opportunities before and after Implementation of a Third Year in Vocational Programmes at Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Asa; Sundin, Sven

    2008-01-01

    The present study describes students flows before and after the latest reform of upper secondary school in which a third year as well as a new grading system and new entrance requirements were introduced in vocational programmes. Published and unpublished data on student flows through upper secondary school before and after implementation of the…

  2. Effect of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy on fibrinolytic variables before and after parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, Henk; Rotmans, Nel; Brommer, E.J.Ph.; Wallenburg, Henk

    1995-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of a daily oral dose of 60 to 80 mg of aspirin from 12 weeks gestation until delivery on fibrinolytic variables before and after parturition. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective controlled study labor was electively induced in 24 patients, eight receiving low-dose aspirin and 16 controls. Levels were determined in maternal and cord plasma of tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen and activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, plasminogen ...

  3. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    OpenAIRE

    Mari Vainionpää; Esa-Pekka Tienhaara; Marja Raekallio; Jouni Junnila; Marjatta Snellman; Outi Vainio

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures bef...

  4. Sexual behaviour reported by a sample of Italian MSM before and after HIV diagnosis

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    Laura Camoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 we conducted a cross-sectional study involving hospital clinical centres in five Italian cities to compare the sexual behaviour of HIV-positive MSM (men who have sex with men before and after the diagnosis of HIV infection. Each centre was asked to enrol 30 HIV-positive persons aged > 18 years. The questionnaire was administered to 143 MSM on average 9 years after HIV diagnosis. After diagnosis there was a decrease in the number of sexual partners: the percentage of persons who reported having had more than 2 partners decreased from 95.8% before diagnosis to 76.2% after diagnosis. After diagnosis, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of persons who had never (or not always used a condom with their stable partner for anal sex from 69.2% before diagnosis to 26.6% after diagnosis and for oral-genital sex from 74.8% before diagnosis to 51.7% after diagnosis. Though at-risk behaviour seems to decrease after diagnosis, seropositive MSM continue to engage in at-risk practices: one fourth of them did not use a condom during sexually transmitted infections (STI episodes, 12.5% of the participants had had sex for money, and 8.4% had paid for sex. The study shows that our sample of Italian HIV-positive MSM, though aware of being infected, engage in sexual behaviours that could sustain transmission of HIV and other STIs. The results could constitute the first step in implementing national prevention programs for persons living with HIV.

  5. Relationship Between Vertical Jump Height and Swimming Start Performance Before and After an Altitude Training Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; de la Fuente, Blanca; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Feriche, Belén

    2016-06-01

    García-Ramos, A, Padial, P, de la Fuente, B, Argüelles-Cienfuegos, J, Bonitch-Góngora, J, and Feriche, B. Relationship between vertical jump height and swimming start performance before and after an altitude training camp. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1638-1645, 2016-This study aimed (a) to analyze the development in the squat jump height and swimming start performance after an altitude training camp, (b) to correlate the jump height and swimming start performance before and after the altitude training period, and (c) to correlate the percent change in the squat jump height with the percent change in swimming start performance. Fifteen elite male swimmers from the Spanish Junior National Team (17.1 ± 0.8 years) were tested before and after a 17-day training camp at moderate altitude. The height reached in the squat jump exercise with additional loads of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of swimmers' pretest body weight and swimming start performance (time to 5, 10, and 15 m) were the dependent variables analyzed. Significant increases in the jump height (p ≤ 0.05; effect size [ES]: 0.35-0.48) and swimming start performance (p jump height before training (r = -0.56 to -0.77) and after training (r = -0.50 to -0.71). The change in the squat jump height was inversely correlated with the change in the start time at 5 m (r = -0.47), 10 m (r = -0.73), and 15 m (r = -0.62). These results suggest that altitude training can be suitable to enhance explosive performance. The correlations obtained between the squat jump height and start time in the raw and change scores confirm the relevance of having high levels of lower-body muscular power to optimize swimming start performance.

  6. Life quality of low-vision elderly people: before and after hearing and speech intervention

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    Mayla Myrina Bianchim Monteiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate life quality of elderly people with acquired low vision before and after hearing and speech intervention. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was made with 52 elderly people with acquired low vision. Two questionnaires that measures life quality were used in this study. The first was ‘Low Quality of Life Vision (LVQOL’ and the second the ‘National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEIVFQ-25’. The study included people with more than 60 years with acquired low vision and who accepted to participate signing the consent form. The hearing and speech therapy were made into three months, one meeting a week. The questionnaires were applied in the first and last day of the intervention. Results: The age ranged between 60 and 91 years. The macular disorder (38%, such as age-related macular degeneration, macular hole and high myopia were the main causes of visual loss. Although the tests show superior performance after the intervention, there was no statistically significant difference. On the question about difficulties seeing in general, 17 participants answered that they had much more difficulty before the intervention and only 5 participants have reported having much difficulty after the intervention. Conclusion: The intervention trended to positive results, and after the meetings, participants showed improvements in aspects of the two questionnaires used in the study, decreasing the degree of difficulty in performing activities.

  7. Determination of element composition in CoffeeBricks before and after incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Fröling, Annika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to determine the element composition in CoffeeBricks before and after incineration. The difference between element composition in CoffeeBricks (barbecue briquettes made out of spent coffee grounds) and regular barbecue briquettes was also evaluated in this study. Aqua regia digests from the ash residues of CoffeeBricks and the ash residues of regular barbecue briquettes were analyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). H2SO4/H...

  8. Pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in adult idiopathic scoliosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, C. A.; Cole, A. A.; L. Watson; Webb, J K; Johnston, I. D.; Kinnear, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long term effects of anterior spinal surgery on pulmonary function in adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis. A study was therefore undertaken of pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in this group of patients. METHODS: Fourteen patients (12 women) of mean age 26.5 years (range 17-50, 10 > or = 20 years) were studied. All 14 patients underwent thoracotomy and anterior arthrodesis, and five also underwent posterior arthrodesis. Scol...

  9. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in men with liver cirrhosis before and after liver transplantation

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    Bruno T. Zacharias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of end-stage liver disease and orthotopic liver transplantation in the pituitary function and hormone metabolism before and after liver transplantation. Methods: In a prospective study, serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2 and prolactin (PRL of 30 male patients with cirrhosis were determined two to four hours before and six months after liver transplantation. The results were compared according to the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD. Results: male patients with liver cirrhosis have hypogonadism. FSH was normal, but inappropriately low due to androgen failure; E2 and PRL, on their turn, were high. After liver transplantation, FSH and LH levels increased (p 18. The severity of cirrhosis had no influence on FSH, PRL and LH.

  10. Requests for euthanasia in general practice before and after implementation of the Dutch Euthanasia Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alphen, Jojanneke E; Donker, Gé A; Marquet, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Background The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in 2002. It is unknown whether legalising euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. Aim To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasia in Dutch general practice after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Design of study Retrospective dynamic cohort study comparing 5 years before (1998–2002) and 5 years after (2003–2007) implementation of the Act. Method Standardised registration forms were used to collect data on requests for euthanasia via the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. This network of 45 general practices is nationally representative by age, sex, geographic distribution, and population density. Results The mean annual incidence of requests before implementation amounted to 3.1/10 000 and thereafter to 2.8/10 000 patients. However, trends differed by sex. The number of requests by males decreased significantly from 3.7/10 000 to 2.6/10 000 (P = 0.008); the requests by females increased non-significantly from 2.6/10 000 to 3.1/10 000. Before and after implementation, cancer remained the major underlying disease for requesting euthanasia: 82% versus 77% for men; 73% versus 75% for females. Pain was a major reason for a request, increasing in the period before implementation (mean 27%), but declining in the period thereafter (mean 22%). Loss of dignity became a less important reason after implementation (from 18% to 10%, P = 0.04), predominantly due to a marked decrease in the number of females citing it as a reason (from 17% to 6%, P = 0.02). Conclusion There was no increase in demand for euthanasia after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Pain as a reason for requesting euthanasia showed an increasing trend before implementation, but declined thereafter. Loss of dignity as a reason declined, especially in females. PMID:20353671

  11. Ultrastructure of the seminiferous tubules in human testes before and after varicocelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgür, H; Kaya, M; Doran, S; Solmaz, S

    2003-12-01

    Ultrastructure of the membrana propria and the seminiferous epithelium was studied in infertile human testis both before and 3-6 months after varicocelectomy. The frequent alterations, observed before and after the operation, were extremely thickened membrana propria, deep invaginations, multilamination and knob-like formation of basal laminae and formation of multinucleated spermatids, which were all considered as the common response of the testis to different noxious agents. Although the cells of the seminiferous epithelium were clearly affected by varicocele before varicocelectomy, many areas exhibited normal features after the operation. Furthermore, multinucleated cells, sharing common features of Sertoli cell and spermatogonium, were observed, as well as presence of well-developed annulate lamellae in the Sertoli cells, exhibiting centrioles in the vicinity of their nuclei after varicocelectomy. These multiple ultrastructural observations indicate that Sertoli cell division takes place. This study suggests that if the observation period of the tissue samples after varicocelectomy is long enough, the reversible changes of the tubular cells would be seen much more frequently. PMID:14618398

  12. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of benign and malignant breast lesions before and after contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Many publications describe the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in breast MRI. This article addresses the question of when to apply the DWI sequence in the course of the scan protocol. The effect of T1-shortening contrast media (CM) on the ADC values of breast lesions is investigated. Materials and Methods: Data were acquired on a 1.5 T scanner. 60 patients with 79 lesions (20 benign, 59 malignant) were included. The DWI sequence (4 mm slice thickness, b-values: 50, 400, 800) was applied before and after CM administration. Before calculating the ADC map, the b50, b400 and b800 series were analyzed concerning lesion displacement. ADC values before and after CM application were compared. Results: The mean lesion size was 1.5 ± 0.8 cm. On the basis of the b50 and b400 measurements, the mean ADC value of benign lesions was 1.89 ± 0.30 x 10-3 mm2/s before and 1.85 ± 0.28 x 10-3 mm2/s after CM administration. The consecutive values for two pure mucinous carcinomas were 1.88 x 10-3 mm2/s and 1.81 x 103 mm2/s and for the remaining malignant lesions 1.00 ± 0.18 x 10-3 mm2/s and 0.88 ± 0.21 x 10-3 mm2. On the basis of the b50, b400 and b800 measurements, the mean ADC value of benign lesions was 1.99 ± 0.37 x 10-3 mm2/s before and 1.97 ± 0.30 x 10-3 mm2/s after CM application, whereas the mean ADC value of the malignant lesions was 0.90 ± 0.14 x 10-3 mm2/s before and 0.80 ± 0.14 x 10-3 mm2/s after CM application. While there was no significant change for benign lesions, the ADC value decrease in post-contrast malignant lesions was highly significant. Conclusion: DWI after CM is possible and even leads to slightly better lesion discrimination between benign and malignant. However, further studies need to be performed to verify this. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of fecal microorganisms of children with cleft palate before and after palatoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Almeida Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study isolated and quantified intestinal bacteria of children with cleft palate before and after palatoplasty. A prospective study was conducted from May 2007 to September 2008 on 18 children with cleft palate, aged one to four years, of both genders, attending a tertiary cleft center in Brazil for palatoplasty, to analyze the effect of surgical palate repair on the concentration of anaerobes Bacteroides sp, Bifidobacterium sp and microaerophiles Lactobacillus sp in feces of infants with cleft palate before and 24 hours after treatment with cefazolin for palatoplasty. There was significant reduction of Lactobacillus sp (p < 0.002, Bacteroides sp (p < 0.001 and Bifidobacterium sp (p = 0.021 after palatoplasty, revealing that surgery and utilization of cefazolin significantly influenced the fecal microbiota comparing collections before and after surgery. However, due to study limitations, it was not possible to conclude that other isolated factors, such as surgical stress, anesthetics and other medications used in palatoplasty might have a significant influence on the microbiota. Considering the important participation of the intestinal microbiota on both local and systemic metabolic and immunological activities of the host, professionals should be attentive to the possible influence of these changes in patients submitted to cleft repair.

  14. Importance of Proprioceptive Information for Postural Control in Children with Strabismus before and after Strabismus Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Maria P.; Soufi, Hayette; Villeneuve, Philippe; Colleville, Lucile; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Lions, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the role of proprioception in postural balance in children with strabismus before and after realignment of their visual axes by eye surgery. Postural recordings were made with the TechnoConcept® force platform in 23 children. Several conditions were studied, whether the subjects had both eyes open, or either the dominant or the non-dominant eye open, without and with foam pads of 4 mm underfoot. Recordings were performed before and after strabismus surgery. The surface area, the length and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) were analyzed. Before strabismus surgery, all children showed better stability with both eyes open with respect to the condition with the non-dominant eye open; furthermore postural stability improved in the presence of foam pads. After surgery, the surface area of CoP decreased significantly, especially in the non-dominant eye viewing condition. We suggest that strabismic children use mainly proprioceptive information in order to control their posture, but also visual inputs, which are important for obtaining a good postural stability. The alignment of the visual axes after surgery provides enhanced postural stability, suggesting, again the major role of visual inputs in the control of posture. Proprioceptive plasticity after strabismus surgery may allow better visual rehabilitation. PMID:27656133

  15. Depression and anxiety before and after percutaneous coronary intervention and their relationship to age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyong Zhao; Jing Luo; Jianmei Wang; Yan Su

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is becoming a common practice in the treatment of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) of all age.Depression is considered to be a risk factor for the development of CHD and deteriorates the outcome after cardiac rehabilitation efforts.The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of clinically relevant anxiety and depression in patients before and after PCI.Additionally we evaluated their relationship to age because of the increasing number of elderly patients undergoing PCI.Methods One hundred and twelve consecutive patients in three Sanatoria for Retired Cadres in Beijing who underwent PCI were asked to fill in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure depression and anxiety scores two days before and ten days after PCI.Differences between these pre- and post-surgical scores were then calculated as means for changes,and the amount of elevated scores was appraised,in order to investigate the relationship between age and anxiety and depression,respectively,Spearman correlations between age and the difference scores were calculated.In addition,ANOVA procedures with the factor "age group" and McNemar tests were calculated.Results 25.8% of the patients were clinically depressed before and 17.5% after PCI;34.0% of the patients were clinically anxious before and 24.7% after PCI.This overall change is not significant.We found a significant negative correlation between age and the difference between the two time points for anxiety (Spearman rho = -.218,P = 0.03),but not for depression (Spearman rho = -.128,P = 0.21).ANOVA and McNemar tests revealed that anxiety scores and the number of patients high in anxiety declined statistically meaningful only in the youngest patient group.Such a relationship could not be found for depression.Conclusions Our data show a relationship between age and anxiety.Younger patients are more anxious before PCI than older ones and show a decline in symptoms while elderly

  16. Analysis of Water Properties and Geostrophic Currents in Fiji Waters Before and After Tropical Cyclone Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivneel Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Water properties influence ocean primary production and drive the ocean food chain. This study depicts changes in temperature and salinity and its effects on geostrophic currents near Fiji before and after Tropical Cyclone (TC Gene. Approach: Available Argo float data from 6 January-4 February 2008 were used for analysis since TC Gene passed the area on 28 January 2008. The dynamic height and geostrophic current data were obtained from the Aviso website. Results: The thermocline depth increased by 20 m after the cyclone. A temperature drop of approximately 3°C was also noticed in the study area. Using this drop in temperature, the heat energy removed by the cyclone was calculated to be 0.095 MWh m-2. Salinity profiles showed an increase of 0.42 psu to a depth of 35 m after the cyclone. Changes in salinity and temperature of water may also cause changes in the dynamic height and in turn the geostrophic current patterns. After plotting the geostrophic current vectors, it was observed that the current patterns changed significantly after TC gene. Seasonal changes were also evident before the cyclone. Conclusion/Recommendations: Although the lifespan of TC gene was short, its effect on the water properties near Fiji was significant as it completely changed the geostrophic current patterns and this can have a huge implication on marine life.

  17. Biochemical Evaluation of Serum Adiponectin Level in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients before and after Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, serum adiponectin level was evaluated in 35 primary breast cancer patients and 10 healthy females, before and after treatment to assess if there is a relation between it and breast cancer, and to find out if it has a prognostic value. Serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in all and postmenopausal breast cancer patients before taking any type of treatment, and non-significantly lower in locally advanced breast cancer patients after treatment by 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy than healthy controls. Non-significant elevations was shown after treatment by surgery, and also after completing treatment by surgery followed by taking 2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy followed by treatment by radiotherapy in case of premenopausal locally advanced breast cancer patients. Triglycerides showed significantly higher level in all groups of patients. There was statistical negative correlation between serum adiponectin level and body mass index (BMI) in postmenopausal healthy controls, and between serum adiponectin level and BMI, triglycerides in all and postmenopausal breast cancer patients before taking any type of treatment. In conclusion, this study suggests that low serum adiponectin level is likely to be associated with increased breast cancer risk, particularly among postmenopausal women. The association between obesity and breast cancer risk might be partly explained by adiponectin

  18. TCF7L2 polymorphisms and inflammatory markers before and after treatment with fenofibrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabagambe Edmond K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is implicated in causing diabetes. We tested whether transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146, consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, are associated with plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers before and after three weeks of daily treatment with fenofibrate. Methods Men and women in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study (n = 1025, age 49 ± 16 y were included. All participants suspended use of lipid-lowering drugs for three weeks and were then given 160 mg/day of fenofibrate for three weeks. Inflammatory markers and lipids were measured before and after fenofibrate. ANOVA was used to test for differences across TCF7L2 genotypes. Results Under the additive or dominant model, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the concentrations of inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 across TCF7L2 genotypes in the period before or after treatment. For both rs12255372 and rs7903146, homozygote T-allele carriers had significantly higher (P Conclusion Overall these data show no association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the inflammatory markers suggesting that the effects of TCF7L2 on diabetes may not be via inflammation.

  19. Absolute near-infrared oximetry for urology: a quantitative study of the tissue hemoglobin saturation before and after testicular torsion in a rabbit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-02-01

    We present an experimental study on four rabbits to demonstrate the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy in the noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion. We used a multi-distance frequency-domain method, based on a fixed detector position and a 9-mm linear scan of the illumination optical fibers, to measure absolute values of pre- and post-operative testicular oxygen saturation. Unilateral testicular torsions (by 0°, 540° or 720°) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgeries (no torsion) on control testes were performed and studied. Our results showed (a) a consistent baseline absolute tissue oxygen saturation value of 78% +/- 5%; (b) a comparable absolute saturation of 77% +/- 6% on the control side (testes after sham surgery); and (c) a significantly lower tissue oxygen saturation of 36% +/- 2% on the experimental side (testes after 540° or 720° torsion surgery). These results demonstrate the capability of frequency domain nearinfrared spectroscopy in the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, and show promise as a potential method to serve as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  20. Psychological evaluation of patients with a thyroid nodule before and after surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čaparević Zorica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Association between endocrine and mental disorders has been recognized a long time ago, as well as their mutual dependence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological structure of patients with thyroid nodule before and after surgical treatment. Material and methods In order to establish the type and degree of psychological disorders, we have examined 60 patients with thyroid nodule before and after surgical treatment by using DSM-IV classification of mental disorders and psychological instruments: semi structured psychiatric interview, MMPI, Zung Depression Scale and a list of panic symptoms. Patients with nonautonomous ("cold" nodules presented as euthyroid, and those with autonomous ("hot" nodules (after a period of drug therapy if they were hyperthyroid, required surgery. After a period of drug therapy two groups of patients were compared: group 1- euthyroid with "cold" nodules and group 2 - euthyroid with "hot" nodules. Before surgical treatment both groups under went psychological evaluation. Group 2 presented with: anxiety, depression and panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (72%, 46%, 28% while group 1 presented with following results: 48%, 23%, 14% respectively. After surgical treatment patients from group 1 presented with psychologic disorders in less than 1%. Discussion and conclusion In some physical disorders, psychologic factors contribute directly or indirectly to the etiology, in others, psychologic symptoms are the direct results of a lesion affecting neural or endocrine organs. One of the key etiological factors is often a short-time or long-time stress and its direct consequence is altered functioning of various hormonal systems. Unexpected high percentage of psychological disorders in patients with thyroid disorders suggests that psychological evaluation before and after surgical treatment is unavoidable for good assessment and choice of treatment. These patients need psychotherapeutic and

  1. Cosmic Rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Alessandro [INFN and Università di Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, I-33100 Udine (Italy); LIP/IST Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  2. Cosmic Rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  3. In vivo P-glycoprotein function before and after epilepsy surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Zeitlinger, Markus; Liu, Joan; Koepp, Matthias J.; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Müller, Markus; Pataraia, Ekaterina; Langer, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the functional activity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using (R)-[11C]verapamil (VPM)-PET before and after temporal lobe surgery to assess whether postoperative changes in seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug load are associated with changes in Pgp function. Methods: Seven patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy underwent VPM-PET scans pre- and postsurgery. Patient...

  4. A comparison before and after lamotrigine use in long term continuation treatment: effect of blood level

    OpenAIRE

    Kesebir, Sermin; Akdeniz, Fisun; Demir, Aysun; Bilici, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis of this study is that the efficacy of lamotrigine is related with blood level in bipolar disorder. Our aim is to compare the periods before and after lamotrigine use in cases with bipolar disorder and to investigate whether there has been any relation between lamotrigine blood level and clinical progress or not. Method: For this aim, 40 consecutive cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I according to DSM-IV criteria, using lamotrigine for at least two years i...

  5. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    OpenAIRE

    Homayoun Amini; Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa; Saeed Shoar; Hosein Kaviani; Mehdi Samimi-Ardestani; Amir Shabani; Sara Esmaeili; Yasaman Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics. Method In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences) were asked to participate an...

  6. A Water Rehabilitation Program in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis Before and After Total Hip Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łyp, Marek; Kaczor, Ryszard; Cabak, Anna; Tederko, Piotr; Włostowska, Ewa; Stanisławska, Iwona; Szypuła, Jan; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Background Pain associated with coxarthrosis, typically occurring in middle-aged and elderly patients, very commonly causes considerable limitation of motor fitness and dependence on pharmacotherapy. This article provides an assessment of a rehabilitation program with tailored water exercises in patients with osteoarthritis before and after total hip replacement. Material/Methods A total of 192 patients (the mean age 61.03±10.89) suffering from hip osteoarthritis (OA) were evaluated before and after total hip replacement (THR). The clinical study covered measurements of hip active ranges of motion (HAROM) and the forces generated by pelvis stabilizer muscles. Pain intensity was assessed according to analogue-visual scale of pain (VAS) and according to the Modified Laitinen Questionnaire. The patients were divided into 6 groups (4 treatment and 2 control). We compared 2 rehabilitation programs using kinesitherapy and low-frequency magnetic field. One of them also had specially designed exercises in the water. Statistical analysis was carried out at the significance level α=0.05. This was a cross-sectional study. Results A positive effect of water exercises on a number of parameters was found in patients with OA both before and after total hip replacement surgery. We noted a significant reduction of pain (pdegree of degenerative deforming lesions and the effects of the treatment process (p<0.01). Conclusions 1. The rehabilitation program including water exercises most significantly reduced pain in patients with OA before and after total hip replacement surgery. 2. Inclusion of water exercises in a rehabilitation program can reduce the use of medicines in patient with OA and after THR. PMID:27455419

  7. Urinary Ghrelin Concentration in Children With Urinary Tract Infections Before and After Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are common in children. They can lead to hypertension and end stage renal disease (ESRD. Ghrelin is a regulatory hormone that maintains fat tissues and body composition. Ghrelin is mainly produced in the stomach and in smaller amounts in kidneys. It stimulates release of growth hormone (GH, increases food intake, and causes weight gain. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine weather urinary Ghrelin concentration is involved in anorexia in patients with UTI and its urinary concentration changes with treatment. Patients and Methods This study was performed on 40 hospitalized children with UTI at Mofid children’s hospital during years 2013 to 2014. Ghrelin and Creatinine were measured before and after treatment. statistical analyzes were performed using the SPSS software version 18 by student t test, Wilcoxon test and Spearman coefficient and differences were considered as significant if P < 0.05. Results Mean age was 4.5 ± 3.8 years and 34 (85% were females; 14 children (35% had proteinuria, nine patients (29% had Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR, eight (20% scare, five (12.5% hydronephrosis and 33 (82.5% anorexia. Mean urinary acylated Ghrelin before and after treatment were 138.4 ± 70.9 and 147.2 ± 72.6, respectively (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between mean urinary Ghrelin before and after treatment in children with UTI with or without anorexia. Acylated Ghrelin had a direct correlation with the incidence of renal scarring (r = 0.37, P = 0.034. Conclusions Urinary Ghrelin concentration was lower before treatment of UTI and significantly increased after cessation of inflammation. Further studies are required for more definite results.

  8. Biological hazard evaluation of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after a photo-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Luna, Karen Adriana; Mendoza-Zepeda, Arisbeht; Natividad, Reyna; Romero, Rubi; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological hazard of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after treatment. For the former, the determined 96h-LC50 value was 1.2%. The photo-Fenton treatment catalyzed with an iron-pillared clay reduced this parameter by 341.7%. Statistically significant increases with respect to the control group (PPCT, oxidative stress, genotoxic damage and LC50 in Hyalella azteca. PMID:27392336

  9. Biological hazard evaluation of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after a photo-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Luna, Karen Adriana; Mendoza-Zepeda, Arisbeht; Natividad, Reyna; Romero, Rubi; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological hazard of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after treatment. For the former, the determined 96h-LC50 value was 1.2%. The photo-Fenton treatment catalyzed with an iron-pillared clay reduced this parameter by 341.7%. Statistically significant increases with respect to the control group (Pphoto-Fenton process decreases the presence of PCT, oxidative stress, genotoxic damage and LC50 in Hyalella azteca.

  10. Psychosocial disability before, during, and after a major depressive episode - A 3-wave population-based study of state, scar, and trait effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Nolen, WA; Vollebergh, W

    2004-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial disability after remission from a unipolar major depressive episode (MDE) can be due to (1) residual symptoms (state effect), (2) the continuation of premorbid disability (trait effect), and/or (3) disability that developed during the MDE and persisted beyond recovery (scar

  11. Idiopathic sudden hearing loss: Oxidative status before and after corticoid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaleriu Bogdan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels after systemic corticoid therapy (Solu-Medrol, 250mg/day, for 7 days. The effects of corticoid treatment on superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity were investigated. Fifteen patients diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss were enrolled. Serum markers of oxidative stress were measured using spectrophotometric methods. In ten cases, the SOD and GPX activities and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels before and after corticoid treatment were investigated. Corticoid treatment enhanced antioxidant activity by increasing SOD and GPX activities and decreasing MDA serum levels.

  12. Coral-Bacterial Communities before and after a Coral Mass Spawning Event on Ningaloo Reef

    OpenAIRE

    Janja Ceh; Jean-Baptiste Raina; Soo, Rochelle M; Mike van Keulen; Bourne, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria associated with three coral species, Acropora tenuis, Pocillopora damicornis and Tubastrea faulkneri, were assessed before and after coral mass spawning on Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia. Two colonies of each species were sampled before and after the mass spawning event and two additional samples were collected for P. damicornis after planulation. A variable 470 bp region of the 16 S rRNA gene was selected for pyrosequencing to provide an understanding of potential variations in ...

  13. DSM-IV Diagnoses and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children Before and 1 Year after Adenotonsillectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, James E.; Blunden, Sarah; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Guire, Kenneth E.; Champine, Donna; Weatherly, Robert A.; Hodges, Elise K.; Giordani, Bruno J.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    DSM-IV criteria-based psychiatric diagnoses done in children before and one year after adenotonsillectomy are assessed to record any improvement in behavior. It is found that surgery might be associated with reduced behavioral morbidity.

  14. Occurrence of neuropathies in patients with severe heart failure before and after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Sergio; Minà, Chiara; Sant'Angelo, Antonino; Boccagni, Cristina; Prestandrea, Caterina; Caronia, Alessandra; Clemenza, Francesco; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Neuropathies may affect heart reinnervation and functional outcome after heart transplantation (HT). In this study, neurological evaluations, standard nerve conduction studies, and electromyography were performed in 32 HT candidates without a previous history of neuromuscular disorder. Ten patients underwent HT and were revaluated 3 months later. We found that before HT 10 (31.3%) patients had sensorimotor polyneuropathy (18.8%) or sensory polyneuropathy (12.5%). After HT, the percentage of patients with a neuromuscular disorder increased to 70%, most of them showing new or worsening neuropathies or neuromyopathies. The most sensitive abnormality that indicated neuromuscular involvement after HT was a reduction of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of the deep peroneal nerve. In conclusion, neuromuscular disorders are common in HT candidates, and they further increase in occurrence after HT. A reduction of the deep peroneal nerve CMAP amplitude after HT may help to identify patients who need a more detailed neurophysiological evaluation. The diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders before and after HT may contribute to the development of more accurate therapeutic and rehabilitative strategies for these patients. PMID:26573590

  15. Mucosal gene expression of antimicrobial peptides in inflammatory bowel disease before and after first infliximab treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Arijs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs protect the host intestinal mucosa against microorganisms. Abnormal expression of defensins was shown in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, but it is not clear whether this is a primary defect. We investigated the impact of anti-inflammatory therapy with infliximab on the mucosal gene expression of AMPs in IBD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mucosal gene expression of 81 AMPs was assessed in 61 IBD patients before and 4-6 weeks after their first infliximab infusion and in 12 control patients, using Affymetrix arrays. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm microarray data. The dysregulation of many AMPs in colonic IBD in comparison with control colons was widely restored by infliximab therapy, and only DEFB1 expression remained significantly decreased after therapy in the colonic mucosa of IBD responders to infliximab. In ileal Crohn's disease (CD, expression of two neuropeptides with antimicrobial activity, PYY and CHGB, was significantly decreased before therapy compared to control ileums, and ileal PYY expression remained significantly decreased after therapy in CD responders. Expression of the downregulated AMPs before and after treatment (DEFB1 and PYY correlated with villin 1 expression, a gut epithelial cell marker, indicating that the decrease is a consequence of epithelial damage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that the dysregulation of AMPs in IBD mucosa is the consequence of inflammation, but may be responsible for perpetuation of inflammation due to ineffective clearance of microorganisms.

  16. Topical drug delivery in chronic rhinosinusitis patients before and after sinus surgery using pulsating aerosols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Möller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a common chronic disease of the upper airways and has considerable impact on quality of life. Topical delivery of drugs to the paranasal sinuses is challenging, therefore the rate of surgery is high. This study investigates the delivery efficiency of a pulsating aerosol in comparison to a nasal pump spray to the sinuses and the nose in healthy volunteers and in CRS patients before and after sinus surgery. METHODS: (99mTc-DTPA pulsating aerosols were applied in eleven CRSsNP patients without nasal polyps before and after sinus surgery. In addition, pulsating aerosols were studied in comparison to nasal pump sprays in eleven healthy volunteers. Total nasal and frontal, maxillary and sphenoidal sinus aerosol deposition and lung penetration were assessed by anterior and lateral planar gamma camera imaging. RESULTS: In healthy volunteers nasal pump sprays resulted in 100% nasal, non-significant sinus and lung deposition, while pulsating aerosols resulted 61.3+/-8.6% nasal deposition and 38.7% exit the other nostril. 9.7+/-2.0 % of the nasal dose penetrated into maxillary and sphenoidal sinuses. In CRS patients, total nasal deposition was 56.7+/-13.3% and 46.7+/-12.7% before and after sinus surgery, respectively (p<0.01. Accordingly, maxillary and sphenoidal sinus deposition was 4.8+/-2.2% and 8.2+/-3.8% of the nasal dose (p<0.01. Neither in healthy volunteers nor in CRS patients there was significant dose in the frontal sinuses. CONCLUSION: In contrast to nasal pump sprays, pulsating aerosols can deliver significant doses into posterior nasal spaces and paranasal sinuses, providing alternative therapy options before and after sinus surgery. Patients with chronic lung diseases based on clearance dysfunction may also benefit from pulsating aerosols, since these diseases also manifest in the upper airways.

  17. Evaluation of physiological parameters before and after respiratory physiotherapy in newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    S Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Feitosa, Sérgio; de Castro Selestrin, Cláudia; Vitor E. Valenti; de Sousa, Fernando H; F Siqueira, Arnaldo A; Petenusso, Márcio; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis. Method This was a cross sectional observational study in 30 newb...

  18. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  19. Hafnium-implanted nickel studied with TDPAC and RBS/channeling before and after laser-surface melting and thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Buene, L.; McDonald, M.L.; Kotthaus, J.; Freitag, K.; Vianden, R.; Draper, C.W.

    1982-09-15

    The Hf implanted Ni system has been studied by the time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique and by Rutherford backscattering (RBS)/channeling. Low fluence implants were thermally annealed in vacuum at increasing temperature in order to study the evolution of substitutional and defect-associated solutes using TDPAC. Both detrapping and precipitation (or segregation) effects have been observed. Higher fluence implants were studied by both TDPAC and RBS/channeling in as-implanted as well as laser-surface-melted regimes. 10 figures.

  20. Bacterial infection, airway and systemic inflammation and clinical outcomes before and after treatment of AECOPD, a longitudinal and cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun; Zhu, Hong; Shen, Ning; Chen, Yahong; He, Bei; Zhao, Jiangchao; Yao, Wanzhen

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Bacterial infection is a major cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), which are associated with significantly increased airway and systemic inflammation. However, the relationship among bacteriology, the resolution of inflammation and clinical outcomes is largely unknown. In this study, we recruited consecutive patients hospitalized for AECOPD with purulent sputum. We measured the airway and systemic inflammation levels, the COPD assessment test (CAT) score and adverse outcomes between patients with and without potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPM). Among sputum samples collected from the 135 episodes of AECOPD, 42 (31.1%) were PPM-positive at admission. Compared with those in the PPM-negative group, more patients in the PPM-positive group had ≥2 exacerbations in previous year and Anthonisen type I at admission and higher drop in sputum neutrophil, serum hs-CRP and CAT value from exacerbation to the subsequent baseline. No significant differences in the adverse outcomes between the two groups were observed. Among the 38 PPM-positive patients who survived and were discharged from hospital, 19 remained PPM-positive (bacterial persistence group) and 19 PPM-negative (bacterial clearance group). Both inflammation indices and CAT score decreased compared to admission in the two groups, regardless of the bacteriology at discharge. Our data suggest uncultivated bacteria and/or virus might also play important roles in causing inflammation and AECOPD.

  1. Quantitative Assessment of the T2 Relaxation Time of the Gluteus Muscles in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a Comparative Study Before and After Steroid Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. Eleven boys with DMD (age range: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). The remaining nine boys had no increase in fatty infiltration. Of these, three showed an increased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05), two showed no change and four showed a decreased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). T2 mapping is a feasible technique to evaluate the longitudinal muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable

  2. Quantitative Assessment of the T2 Relaxation Time of the Gluteus Muscles in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a Comparative Study Before and After Steroid Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Wong, Brenda [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Horn, Paul S. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. Eleven boys with DMD (age range: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). The remaining nine boys had no increase in fatty infiltration. Of these, three showed an increased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05), two showed no change and four showed a decreased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). T2 mapping is a feasible technique to evaluate the longitudinal muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable.

  3. Domestic abuse on women in China before, during, and after pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素芳; 吴久玲; 渠川琰; 严仁英

    2004-01-01

    Background Some researchers found that partner-perpetrated physical violence increased in frequency and severity during the postpartum period compared with the antenatal period, however, limited data exists describing abuse of women in China. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of abuse in China before, during, and after pregnancy, and explore possible factors related to abuse. Methods A community-based face-to-face survey of a representative group of women who had a child aged 6 to 18 months in 32 communities of Tianjin, Liaoning, Henan, and Shaanxi provinces was carried out between November 1, 2001 and February 28, 2002. Results The prevalence of domestic abuse (emotional, sexual, or physical) occurring in any period (before, during, or after pregnancy) was 12.6%. The prevalence of abuse during the approximate 9 months of pregnancy (4.3%) was relatively lower compared with the prevalence of abuse during the 12 months before pregnancy (9.1%) and after delivery (8.3%) during the mean 11-month postpartum period studied. Abuse before pregnancy was a strong risk factor for abuse during pregnancy and abuse after pregnancy, and abuse during any previous period was a strong risk factor for subsequent abuse. Many women who suffered abuse of any kind generally experienced multiple acts over time and most acts were not severe. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that the factors associated with abuse during pregnancy included women previously witnessing domestic violence, a poor relationship with the partner, socioeconomic level, alcohol consumption, and smoking.Conclusions It is necessary to do in-depth training and to raise awareness of partner abuse among all health professionals. Routine screening of abuse in maternity clinics is advocated to decrease the adverse impact of abuse on women and fetuses.

  4. Clinical effect and necessity of interventional treatment in diabetic foot before and after amputation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the clinical effect and necessity of interventional treatment in diabetic foot before and after amputation. Methods: Combined intravascular angioplasty with intraarterial medicine perfusing were carried out in fourteen patients with diabetic foot including 10 patients treated before amputation and 4 after amputation involving superficial femoral, deep femoral, tibial and fitular arteries. Among them seventeen vessels with irregular stenosis and obstruction were treated by intravascular angioplasty through balloon dilation. Results: The technical successful rate was 100%, no complication happened. The symptoms were relieved in all patients after treatment, including promotion of lower extremity arterial blood perfusion, reducing range of amputation and wound healing after amputation. Conclusions: Intravascular interventional treatment is safe, effective and valuable in diabetic foot before and after amputation. (authors)

  5. [OPEN FIELD BEHAVIOR AS A PREDICTIVE CRITERIA REFLECTING RATS CORTICOSTERONELEVEL BEFORE AND AFTER STRESS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umriukhin, P E; Grigorchuk, O S

    2015-12-01

    In the presented study we investigated the possibility to use the open field behavior data for prediction of corticosterone level in rat blood plasma before and after stress. It is shown that the most reliable open field behavior parameters, reflecting high probability of significant upregulation of corticosterone after 3 hours of immobilization, are the short latency of first movement and low locomotor activity during the test. Rats with high corticosterone at normal non-stress conditions are characterized by low locomotor activity and on the contrary long latency period for the entrance of open field center.

  6. Pilot study assessing 18F-fluorothymidine PET/CT in cervical and vaginal cancers before and after external beam radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda P. Cho

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: The tumor SUV of FLT at diagnosis was lower than that of FDG-PET. FLT uptake was markedly decreased after chemoRT. Results indicate that there may not be a significant effect of inflammation on FLT uptake in gynecologic cancers. FLT may be a useful tool when assessing the effects of chemoRT on gynecologic malignancies and planning for postchemoRT brachytherapy treatments.

  7. Impurities especially titanium in the rare earth metal gadolinium-before and after solid state electrotransport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗睿瑛; 张小伟; 朱琼; 张志琦; 王志强; 颜世宏; 陈德宏; 周林; 李宗安

    2014-01-01

    Gadolinium was prepared by conventional procedures of fluorination, reduction, distillation and solid state electrotransport (SSE). The electronegativities of the metals were found to have an important influence on the electrotransport process and result of the impurity element. Meanwhile, titanium particles in the distilled gadolinium as major metallic impurities were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before and after solid state electrotransport. The results showed that impurities especially titanium transported from anode to cathode during SSE. In the metal before SSE, there were impurities of titanium in strip shape or embedded round shape. After SSE processing, titanium particles in the metal smaller than 50 nm in the cathode, but existed 6 to 10 times bigger in the anode.

  8. [Variations of IR-spectra of three coating materials before and after spraying on urea fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-bin; Chen, Li-jun; Wu, Zhi-jie; Zhang, Guang-na

    2009-09-01

    Coated fertilizer is a hot spot in the domain of fertilizer research. Related researches mainly focused on the action mechanisms of coating materials in controlling the nutrient release from coated fertilizers, but less information is available on the structural variation of the coating materials before and after spraying on fertilizers, which is the key to whether we can directly use coating materials to extrapolate its mechanisms in controlling coated fertilizers' nutrient release. With polylactic acid (PLA), poly (butynelenes succinate) (PBS), and polycarbonate (PC) as test materials, the variations of their IR spectra before and after spraying on urea fertilizer were determined, which was aimed to supply theoretical basis for further studying the action mechanisms of coating materials in controlling coated fertilizers nutrient release. The results showed that PLA and PC had less variation in their IR spectra before and after spraying on urea fertilizer, while PBS acted in reverse, suggesting that the former two coating materials could be directly used for studying the patterns of nutrient release from coated fertilizers.

  9. [Variations of IR-spectra of three coating materials before and after spraying on urea fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-bin; Chen, Li-jun; Wu, Zhi-jie; Zhang, Guang-na

    2009-09-01

    Coated fertilizer is a hot spot in the domain of fertilizer research. Related researches mainly focused on the action mechanisms of coating materials in controlling the nutrient release from coated fertilizers, but less information is available on the structural variation of the coating materials before and after spraying on fertilizers, which is the key to whether we can directly use coating materials to extrapolate its mechanisms in controlling coated fertilizers' nutrient release. With polylactic acid (PLA), poly (butynelenes succinate) (PBS), and polycarbonate (PC) as test materials, the variations of their IR spectra before and after spraying on urea fertilizer were determined, which was aimed to supply theoretical basis for further studying the action mechanisms of coating materials in controlling coated fertilizers nutrient release. The results showed that PLA and PC had less variation in their IR spectra before and after spraying on urea fertilizer, while PBS acted in reverse, suggesting that the former two coating materials could be directly used for studying the patterns of nutrient release from coated fertilizers. PMID:19950629

  10. Exercise-induced increase in dog adipose tissue blood flow before and after denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was examined during rest and exercise in the inguinal fat pads of four female dogs using the Xe wash-out technique. The experiments were performed before and after denervation of one of the pads. No difference between the resting flows in the two pads could...... be demonstrated either before or after denervation. The flow increased about two-fold on average from rest to exercise. This response was similar before and after denervation. It is concluded that direct sympathetic innervation is not involved in the regulation of adipose tissue blood flow during exercise....

  11. Comparative Proteomics Study on Human High-metastatic Large Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines Before and After Transfecting with nm23-H1 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei GAO

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective As a tumor metastasis suppressor gene, the functions of nm23-H1 gene are still unclear. The aim of this study is to better understand the mechanism of lung cancer metastasis and to find new biomarkers for early diagnosis and new target for therapy by conducting comparative proteomics between the human high-metastatic large cell lung cancer cell lines (L9981 and L9981-nm23-H1 (constructed with transfecting nm23-H1 gene into the L9981 cell line. Methods The total proteins of L9981 and L9981-nm23-H1 were separated by immobilized pH gradient (IPG-based 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE; the significantly differently expressed proteins were examined by mass spectrometry and analyzed by bioinformatics. Results It was observed that nm23-H1 gene transfection caused remarkable changes of the proteome of L9981 compared with L9981-nm23-H1 cells: 5 proteins were deleted, 9 proteins appeared, 16 proteins downregulated, and 12 proteins up-regulated. These proteins are involved in cell framework, signal transduction, metabolism, proliferation and metastasis. Conclusion After nm23-H1 gene is transfected into L9981, proteome in L9981 is remarkably changed. These changes of the proteome could serve as a basis for reversing the invasive and metastatic phenotype in lung cancer and elucidating the machanisms of the metastasis of lung cancer.

  12. Cardiac function in growth hormone deficient patients before and after 1 year with replacement therapy: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens Oscar; Petersen, Claus Leth;

    2011-01-01

    gold standard method cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and measurements of circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptides. Sixteen patients (8 males and 8 females, mean age 49 years (range 18-75)) with severe GHD and 16 matched control subjects were included. CMRI was performed at baseline......Assessed by conventional echocardiography the influence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and effects of replacement therapy on left ventricle (LV) function and mass (LVM) have shown inconsistent results. We aimed to evaluate cardiac function before and during replacement therapy employing the...... (range 63-80%), cardiac output index and levels of BNP and NT-proBNP were similar at baseline in patients compared to controls (P-values from 0.09 to 0.37). The patients had significantly smaller LV end-diastolic volume index (P = 0.032) and end-systolic volume index (P = 0.038). No significant change in...

  13. Relationship Between Vertical Jump Height and Swimming Start Performance Before and After an Altitude Training Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; de la Fuente, Blanca; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Feriche, Belén

    2016-06-01

    García-Ramos, A, Padial, P, de la Fuente, B, Argüelles-Cienfuegos, J, Bonitch-Góngora, J, and Feriche, B. Relationship between vertical jump height and swimming start performance before and after an altitude training camp. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1638-1645, 2016-This study aimed (a) to analyze the development in the squat jump height and swimming start performance after an altitude training camp, (b) to correlate the jump height and swimming start performance before and after the altitude training period, and (c) to correlate the percent change in the squat jump height with the percent change in swimming start performance. Fifteen elite male swimmers from the Spanish Junior National Team (17.1 ± 0.8 years) were tested before and after a 17-day training camp at moderate altitude. The height reached in the squat jump exercise with additional loads of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of swimmers' pretest body weight and swimming start performance (time to 5, 10, and 15 m) were the dependent variables analyzed. Significant increases in the jump height (p ≤ 0.05; effect size [ES]: 0.35-0.48) and swimming start performance (p < 0.01; ES: 0.48-0.52) after the training period were observed. The start time had similar correlations with the jump height before training (r = -0.56 to -0.77) and after training (r = -0.50 to -0.71). The change in the squat jump height was inversely correlated with the change in the start time at 5 m (r = -0.47), 10 m (r = -0.73), and 15 m (r = -0.62). These results suggest that altitude training can be suitable to enhance explosive performance. The correlations obtained between the squat jump height and start time in the raw and change scores confirm the relevance of having high levels of lower-body muscular power to optimize swimming start performance. PMID:26473522

  14. A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Communication/Language Development in a Japanese Child with Profound Hearing Loss Before and After Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Kretschmer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study described the communication and spoken language development of a Japanese girl with profound hearing loss who used a cochlear implant from 19 months of age. The girl, Akiko, was born in Belgium where her family was living at that time. After she was identified as deaf at birth, she and her parents were provided with support services. The family relocated to Japan when Akiko was 1 year 5 months of age. When she was 1 year 6 months of age Akiko underwent cochlear implantation. The cochlear implant device was activated when Akiko was 1 year 7 months of age. The parents routinely made video recordings of Akiko interacting with family members and teachers at home and at school. The video recordings taken by the parents used as the data for this study contained scenes of Akiko from the time she was 3 months of age until she was 4 years 11 months of age. Micro-ethnographic methods were used to analyze the dynamics and development of selected communicative interactions over this age span of fifty-six months. The original pool of video recordings contained 213 scenes.As a result of video viewing and editing, Akiko’s communication development was found to follow expected patterns of development as described by other child language researchers of children with normal hearing. There were seven demarcations that represent Akiko’s communication and spoken language development: 1 perlocutionary, 2 transition of perlocutionary to illocutionary, 3 illocutionary, 4 transition of illocutionary to locutionary, 5 locutionary, 6 dialogue, and 7 narrative.

  15. The Higgs boson and the physics of $WW$ scattering before and after Higgs discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Szleper, Michał

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive overview of the physics of vector boson scattering (VBS) in the dawn of Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Recalled here are some of its most basic physics principles, the historical relation between vector boson scattering and the Higgs boson, then discussed is the physics of VBS processes after Higgs discovery, and the prospects for future VBS measurements at the LHC and beyond. This monograph reviews the work of many people, including previously published theoretical work as well as experimental results, but also contains a portion of original simulation-based studies that have not been published before.

  16. Comparison of Bolton’s Ratios before and after Treatment in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Taliee, Rojin

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The correct relationship of the total mesiodistal width of the mandibular teeth to that of the maxillary teeth (Bolton’s ratios) is among the main factors considered in obtaining an optimal occlusion. The present study was conducted to determining the Bolton’s ratios before and after treatment in skeletal class I patients. Materials and methods In this descriptive analytical study, 200 study casts of 100 patients (including 73 females and 27 males) were selected from 1,700 patient files with fixed, non-extraction orthodontic treatment protocol. The greatest mesiodistal width of teeth was measured using a digital caliper. The total Bolton index (TBI) and anterior Bolton index (ABI) were calculated for subjects and the obtained results were compared with the values reported by Bolton using one-sample t-test. The alterations in these indexes before and after treatment were compared with paired t-test. Results Post-treatment ABI and TBI in patients were 77.35% ± 4.12% and 91.2% ± 1.66%, respectively. No significant difference was detected in ABI and TBI of patients after treatment when compared with the results of Bolton’s study (P > 0.05). However, a significant correlation was observed in values of ABI (P < 0.001) and TBI (P < 0.01) before and after treatment. Conclusion These findings suggest that patients with mild hypodontia have narrower teeth than normal subjects espe-cially in posterior segments, which may have clinical implications during the orthodontic treatment process. PMID:23487005

  17. The patient safety culture as perceived by staff at two different emergency departments before and after introducing a flow-oriented working model with team triage and lean principles: a repeated cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Burström, Lena; Letterstal, Anna; Engström, Marie-Loise Walker; Berglund, Anders; Enlund, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patient safety is of the utmost importance in health care. The patient safety culture in an institution has great impact on patient safety. To enhance patient safety and to design strategies to reduce medical injuries, there is a current focus on measuring the patient safety culture. The aim of the present study was to describe the patient safety culture in an ED at two different hospitals before and after a Quality improvement (QI) project that was aimed to enhance patient safety...

  18. Hematologic profile of hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fernandes de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats play an important role in the rabies lifecycle. This study describes the hematological profile of these bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus. Methods Cells counts were performed in a Neubauer chamber. Results The average values of erythrocytes and leucocytes counts in blood before experimental infections were 9.97 × 106mm3 and 4.80 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 69.9% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 26.9%. Following the experimental infections, the average numbers of erythrocytes and leucocytes was 9.43 × 106mm3 and 3.98 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 40% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 59%. Conclusions The hematological profile given in this study can serve as reference values for D. rotundus bats.

  19. Use of symptom-relieving drugs before and after surgery for urinary incontinence in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg; Brostrøm, Søren; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler;

    2013-01-01

    To describe the use of symptom-relieving drugs (antimuscarinic drugs or duloxetine) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antimuscarinic drugs or duloxetine before surgery, to estimate the risk of being a postoperative user, relative to those without use...

  20. Asthma medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: A population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Maitland-Van Der Zee, Anke-Hilse; De Boer, Anthonius; Souverein, Patrick; Arets, Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) have a decreased lung function. Studies on the association of T1DM and asthma in children show controversial results. Objectives: The aim of this study was to quantify asthma medication use in children and adolescents with an

  1. Memory Function Before and After Whole Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With and Without Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prospectively compare the effect of prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) on memory function in patients with and without brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with and without brain metastases (n = 44) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before RT (T0), after starting RT (T1), at the end of RT (T2), and 6-8 weeks (T3) after RT completion. Data were obtained from small-cell lung cancer patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation, patients with brain metastases treated with therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), and breast cancer patients treated with RT to the breast. Results: Before therapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation patients performed worse than TCI patients or than controls on most test scores. During and after WBRT, verbal memory function was influenced by pretreatment cognitive status (p < 0.001) and to a lesser extent by WBRT. Acute (T1) radiation effects on verbal memory function were only observed in TCI patients (p = 0.031). Subacute (T3) radiation effects on verbal memory function were observed in both TCI and prophylactic cranial irradiation patients (p = 0.006). These effects were more pronounced in patients with above-average performance at baseline. Visual memory and attention were not influenced by WBRT. Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that WBRT causes cognitive dysfunction immediately after the beginning of RT in patients with brain metastases only. At 6-8 weeks after the end of WBRT, cognitive dysfunction was seen in patients with and without brain metastases. Because cognitive dysfunction after WBRT is restricted to verbal memory, patients should not avoid WBRT because of a fear of neurocognitive side effects

  2. Proxy assessment of patients before and after radiotherapy for brain metastases. Results of a prospective study using the DEGRO brain module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, D. [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Vordermark, D. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Geinitz, H. [Technische Univ. Munich (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Aschoff, R. [St.-Josef-Hospital, Gelsenkirchen-Horst (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Bayerl, A. [Krems Hospital, Krems (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Gerstein, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Hipp, M.; Schaefer, C. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Oorschot, B. van [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Wypior, H.J. [Landshut Hospital, Landshut (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Proxies of patients with poor performance status could give useful information about the patients' quality of life (QoL). We applied a newly developed questionnaire in a prospective QoL study of patients undergoing radiotherapy for brain metastases in order to make the first move to validate this instrument, and we compared the results with scores obtained using validated patient-completed instruments. Materials and methods: From January 2007 to June 2010, 166 patients with previously untreated brain metastases were recruited at 14 centers in Germany and Austria. The EORTC-QLQ-C15-PAL and the brain module BN20 were used to assess QoL in patients at the start of treatment and 3 months later. At the same time points, 141 of their proxies estimated the QoL with the new DEGRO brain module (DBM), a ten-item questionnaire rating the general condition as well as functions and impairment by symptoms in areas relevant to patients with brain metastases. Results: At 3 months, 85 of 141 patients (60%) with initial response by a proxy were alive. Sixty-seven of these patients (79% of 3-month survivors) and 65 proxies completed the second set of questionnaires. After 3 months, QoL significantly deteriorated in all items of proxy-assessed QoL except headache. Correlations between self-assessed and proxy-assessed QoL were high in single items such as nausea, headache, and fatigue. Conclusions: The high correlation between self-assessment and proxy ratings as well as a similar change over time for both approaches suggest that in patients with brain metastases, proxy assessment using the DBM questionnaire can be an alternative approach to obtaining QoL data when patients are unable to complete questionnaires themselves. Our self-constructed and first applied DBM is the only highly specific instrument for patients with brain metastases, but further tests are needed for its final validation. (orig.)

  3. Thermographic imaging of the superficial temperature in racing greyhounds before and after the race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs. PMID:23097633

  4. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vainionpää

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  5. Following an HIV Regimen: Steps to Take Before and After Starting HIV Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Following an HIV Regimen: Steps to Take Before and After Starting HIV Medicines (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) ... maintain long-term medication adherence. Before starting an HIV regimen, talk to your health care provider about ...

  6. Impact of STROBE statement publication on quality of observational study reporting: interrupted time series versus before-after analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bastuji-Garin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In uncontrolled before-after studies, CONSORT was shown to improve the reporting of randomised trials. Before-after studies ignore underlying secular trends and may overestimate the impact of interventions. Our aim was to assess the impact of the 2007 STROBE statement publication on the quality of observational study reporting, using both uncontrolled before-after analyses and interrupted time series. METHODS: For this quasi-experimental study, original articles reporting cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies published between 2004 and 2010 in the four dermatological journals having the highest 5-year impact factors (≥ 4 were selected. We compared the proportions of STROBE items (STROBE score adequately reported in each article during three periods, two pre STROBE period (2004-2005 and 2006-2007 and one post STROBE period (2008-2010. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was also performed. RESULTS: Of the 456 included articles, 187 (41% reported cohort studies, 166 (36.4% cross-sectional studies, and 103 (22.6% case-control studies. The median STROBE score was 57% (range, 18%-98%. Before-after analysis evidenced significant STROBE score increases between the two pre-STROBE periods and between the earliest pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2004-05 48% versus median score2008-10 58%, p<0.001 but not between the immediate pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2006-07 58% versus median score2008-10 58%, p = 0.42. In the pre STROBE period, the six-monthly mean STROBE score increased significantly, by 1.19% per six-month period (absolute increase 95%CI, 0.26% to 2.11%, p = 0.016. By segmented analysis, no significant changes in STROBE score trends occurred (-0.40%; 95%CI, -2.20 to 1.41; p = 0.64 in the post STROBE statement publication. INTERPRETATION: The quality of reports increased over time but was not affected by STROBE. Our findings raise

  7. CHEMICAL AND ENERGETIC CONTENT OF CORN BEFORE AND AFTER PRE-CLEANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Iara Furtado Costa Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    correlated (P<0.05 with foreign material (0.63 and fragments (0.76, while proportion of damaged corn was positively correlated with foreign material (0.68, fragments (0.58 and broken corn (0.83. In this study, even in samples classified as excellent quality before pre-cleaning, the pre-cleaning process was effective in reducing humidity and water activity which helps control the growth of fungi or other microorganisms. Starch and fiber levels increased after pre-cleaning while apparent metabolizable energy levels was not improved by pre-cleaning.

  8. [Perceived attractiveness and other characteristics of different male facial types before and after orthognathic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, D M; Shmuly, T

    2015-07-01

    Orthognathic intervention has not only profound implications on the individual's function and esthetics, but also on the perception of his surrounding environment. In this study, frontal and profile photographs of 3 groups of men (a control group with normal profile and prognathic and retrognathic profiles, before and after orthognathic surgery) were shown in random order to a group of 83 women, who were asked to rate the pictures according to attractiveness and several personality traits on an analog scale. Results show that men with normal profiles got the most positive scores on all categories. Men with prognathic profiles were perceived as more aggressive and assertive, while men with retrognathic profiles were perceived as less intelligent and reliable. After orthognathic intervention both retrognathic and prognathic groups had a significant improvement in their scores, which were closer to the normal profile group. PMID:26548147

  9. Electronic and Optical Properties of Aluminum Oxide Before and After Surface Reduction by Ar+ Bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tahir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and optical properties of a-Al2O3 after induced by 3-keV Ar+ sputtering have been studied quantitatively by use of reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS spectra. The band gap values of a-Al2O3 was determined from the onset values of the energy loss spectrum to the background level of REELS spectra as a function of time Ar+ bombardment. The bandgap changes from 8.4 eV before sputtering to 6.2 eV after 4 minutes of sputtering.The optical properties of α-Al2O3 thin films have been determined by comparing the experimental cross section obtained from reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy with the theoretical inelastic scattering cross section, deduced from the simulated energy loss function (ELF by using QUEELS-ε(k-REELS software. The peak assignments are based on ELF and compared with reported data on the electronic structure of α-Al2O3 obtained using different techniques. The results demonstrate that the electronic and optical properties before and after surface reduction will provide further understanding in the fundamental properties of α-Al2O3 which will be useful in the design, modeling and analysis of devices applications performance.

  10. INSIDER OWNERSHIP AND BANK PERFORMANCE BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER THE RECENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Shen Yan; Xun Meng

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between insider ownership and bank performance. We use a sample of U.S. Bank Holding Companies in 2005 (before crisis), 2008 (during crisis) and 2011 (after crisis). We use Tobin’s Q, market-to-book ratio, return on asset and return on equity as the dependent variables, and insider ownership as the independent variable in the regressions. We findthat insider ownership is strongly related to bank performance before the recent financial crisis, but unrelated...

  11. Comet 17P/Holmes: contrast in activity between before and after the 2007 outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Kim, Yoonyoung; Warjurkar, Dhanraj S.; Ham, Ji-Beom [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Junhan [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Vaubaillon, Jeremie J. [Observatoire de Paris, I.M.C.C.E., Denfert Rochereau, Bat. A., F-75014 Paris (France); Ishihara, Daisuke [Department of Physics, School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Sarugaku, Yuki; Hasegawa, Sunao [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kasuga, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Jun-ichi [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kuroda, Daisuke [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, Kamogata-cho, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Narusawa, Shin-ya; Takahashi, Jun [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Akisawa, Hiroki, E-mail: ishiguro@astro.snu.ac.kr [Himeji City Science Museum, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2222 (Japan)

    2013-11-20

    A Jupiter-family comet, 17P/Holmes, underwent outbursts in 1892 and 2007. In particular, the 2007 outburst is known as the greatest outburst over the past century. However, little is known about the activity before the outburst because it was unpredicted. In addition, the time evolution of the nuclear physical status has not been systematically studied. Here, we study the activity of 17P/Holmes before and after the 2007 outburst through optical and mid-infrared observations. We found that the nucleus was highly depleted in its near-surface icy component before the outburst but that it became activated after the 2007 outburst. Assuming a conventional 1 μm sized grain model, we derived a surface fractional active area of 0.58% ± 0.14% before the outburst whereas the area was enlarged by a factor of ∼50 after the 2007 outburst. We also found that large (≥1 mm) particles could be dominant in the dust tail observed around aphelion. Based on the size of the particles, the dust production rate was ≳170 kg s{sup –1} at a heliocentric distance of r{sub h} = 4.1 AU, suggesting that the nucleus was still active around the aphelion passage. The nucleus color was similar to that of the dust particles and average for a Jupiter-family comet but different from that of most Kuiper Belt objects, implying that color may be inherent to icy bodies in the solar system. On the basis of these results, we concluded that more than 76 m of surface material was blown off by the 2007 outburst.

  12. The cost of hospital care in the year before and after parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, M; Lawlor, M; Corcoran, P; Kelleher, M J

    1999-01-01

    This study, based in Ireland in the Limerick centre of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study of Parasuicide, tests the hypothesis that the uptake of hospital services increases significantly following an act of parasuicide. To investigate this, the costs of hospital attendance in the year before and in the year after an act of parasuicide are measured and compared. The sample is comprised of the first 100 individuals who attended an acute general hospital following an act of parasuicide after July 1, 1995. Using a computerized patient record system, every hospital attendance is identified, for each individual, in the 12 months before and after the parasuicide act. This includes every visit to the Emergency Room as well as both general and psychiatric inpatient admissions and outpatient attendances. There was a 50% increase in the uptake of hospital services--32% of the sample attended hospital in the year before compared with 48% in the year after. The total yearly costs for the 100 patients almost doubled from IR 53,652 Pounds (Euro 68,138) to IR 104,454 Pounds (Euro 132,657). Generalizing to the 539 individuals who engaged in parasuicide in the Limerick catchment area, total costs increased from IR 289,184 Pounds (Euro 367,264) to IR 563,007 Pounds (Euro 715,019). This study is an initial step toward the more complex task of estimating to what extent the increased uptake of hospital services is due to the consequences of parasuicide and how much is due to other aspects of the patient's health. PMID:10680285

  13. Health-related quality of life among blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C: longitudinal study before and after diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Augusto Porto Ferreira; Cesar de Almeida-Neto; Maria Cristina Dias Teixeira; Edna Strauss

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: There is evidence that patients suffering from chronic hepatic diseases, including chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C, have a reduced health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the notification of test results for hepatitis B and hepatitis C on the quality of life of blood donors. Methods: Over a 29-month period, this study assessed the quality of life of 105 blood donors with positive serological screening tests for ...

  14. Effect of TRPV1 gene mutation on bronchial asthma in children before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Liang; Li, Hong; Xing, Xiao-Hong; Guan, Hai-Shan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a worldwide disease with high incidence. It not only harms children's physical and mental health, but it also brings a heavy burden to their families as well as the society. However, the trigger and pathogenesis of the disease remain unclear. This study aimed to analyze TRPV1 gene mutation and expression of cytokines in children with acute bronchial asthma before and after treatment, thus providing theoretical guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of bronchial asthma in children. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was adopted to detect TRPV1 mRNA expression level and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay was used to detect the serum total IgE level, eosinophil (EOS) number, IL-4, IL-5, and interferon (IFN) gamma levels in peripheral venous blood of children in the healthy control group and asthma group before and after treatment. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the most essential factor inducing bronchial asthma in children. TRPV1 mRNA level of peripheral blood in the asthma group was higher than that in the control group before treatment (p asthma in children. TRPV1 gene mutation was closely related to bronchial asthma in children, which provided a theoretical basis for the treatment and prognosis of children with bronchial asthma.

  15. Routine testing of liver function before and after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is it necessary?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Liver function tests (LFTs) include alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin. The role of routine testing before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was evaluated in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 355 patients were retrospectively analyzed by examining the LFTs the day before, the day after, and 3 weeks after the surgery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Student t test were performed to determine statistical significance. RESULTS: Alterations in the serum AST, ALT, and GGT were seen on the first postoperative day. Minor changes were seen in bilirubin and ALP. An overall disturbance in the LFTs was seen in more than two-thirds of the cases. Repeat LFTs performed after 3 weeks on follow-up were found to be within normal limits. CONCLUSION: Mild-to-moderate elevation in preoperative LFTs may not be associated with any deleterious effect, and, in the absence of clinical indications, routine preoperative or postoperative liver function testing is unnecessary.

  16. Party Candidate Selection before and after the Change of Ruling Parties: A Study of the 2005 and 2009 Local Executive Elections in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Fell, Dafydd; Sullivan, Jonathan; Sapir, Eliyahu

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how Taiwan’s parties conducted candidate selection in the 2005 and 2009 local executive elections and the consequences of these processes. It has adopted standard methods for measuring candidate selection and applied them to Taiwanese parties. It shows that, although both major parties employed very similar inclusive nomination methods in 2005, they diverged four years later, with the Democratic Progressive Party using a highly centralized candidate selection mechanism. We...

  17. Investigation of Microstructures of AlAs Oxides Before and After Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; JIA Hai-Qiang; MAI Zhen-Hong; JIA Quan-Jie; JIANG Xiao-Ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ The effect of lateral oxidation on microstructures of the GaAs/AlAs/GaAs heterostructure was studied by x-ray specular reflectivity, nonspecular scattering and diffraction. The GaAs/Al2Oa/GaAs multilayer was obtained after oxidation of the GaAs/AlAs/GaAs sample. The results show that, before oxidation, there are two 40-Athick intermixing layers, one located between the AlAs sublayer and the GaAs substrate, and the other between the AlAs sublayer and the upper GaAs sublayer. After oxidation, these two intermixing sublayers disappear. The AlAs was oxidized into amorphous Al2O3 totally. The surface and interface roughnesses of the sample also decrease after oxidation.

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Overnight Body Fluid Shift before and after Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Mihalache, Alexandra; Pruijm, Menno; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Cornette, Françoise; Bassi, Isabelle; Haba Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload may promote obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ESRD through an overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck soft tissues. Body fluid shift and severity of obstructive sleep apnea before and after hemodialysis were compared in patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventeen patients with hemodialysis and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were included. Polysomnographies were performed the night before and after hemodialysis to assess obstructive sleep apnea, and bioimpedance was used to measure fluid overload and leg fluid volume. Results The mean overnight rostral fluid shift was 1.27±0.41 L prehemodialysis; it correlated positively with fluid overload volume (r=0.39; P=0.02) and was significantly lower posthemodialysis (0.78±0.38 L; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index before and after hemodialysis (46.8±22.0 versus 42.1±18.6 per hour; P=0.21), but obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly lower posthemodialysis (−10.1±10.8 per hour) in the group of 12 patients, with a concomitant reduction of fluid overload compared with participants without change in fluid overload (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index +8.2±16.1 per hour; P<0.01). A lower fluid overload after hemodialysis was significantly correlated (r=0.49; P=0.04) with a lower obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Fluid overload—assessed by bioimpedance—was the best predictor of the change in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index observed after hemodialysis (standardized r=−0.68; P=0.01) in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Fluid overload influences overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea severity in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Although no benefit of hemodialysis on obstructive sleep apnea severity

  19. Changes in angiotensin II receptor bindings in the hen neurohypophysis before and after oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Nozaki, Y; Nakagawa-Mizuyachi, K; Nakayama, H; Kawashima, M

    2011-11-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate whether the angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor exists in the plasma membrane fraction of the neurohypophysis in hens, to estimate the time of action of ANG II on the neurohypophysis before and after oviposition, and to examine relationships between the action of ANG II on the neurohypophysis and those of estrogen and prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) in relation to arginine vasotocin (AVT) release. The specific binding had a binding specificity to chicken ANG II (cANG II), reversibility, and saturation in the [(125)I]cANG II binding assay. Scatchard analysis revealed that the binding sites are of a single class. The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) obtained by kinetic analysis and Scatchard analysis suggested a high affinity, and the maximum binding capacity (B(max)) obtained by Scatchard analysis suggested a limited capacity. These results suggest that an ANG II receptor exists in the neurohypophysis of hens. The K(d) and the B(max) value was significantly smaller in laying hens than in nonlaying hens, which suggests that bindings of the cANG II receptor change, depending on the difference in laying condition. Values of the K(d) and the B(max) decreased approximately 15 min before oviposition in laying hens, and decreased 1 h after an intramuscular injection of estradiol-17β and 5 min after an intravenous injection of cANG II in nonlaying hens. The amount of specific binding of PGF(2α) receptor in the neurohypophysis also decreased and AVT concentration in blood increased after the cANG II injection. It seems likely that the action of cANG II in the neurohypophysis increases due to the effect of estrogen approximately 15 min before oviposition, and the cANG II action stimulates AVT release through the increase in the PGF(2α) action in this tissue. PMID:22010242

  20. Energy consumption and indoor climate in a residential building before and after comprehensive energy retrofitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen; Christen Mørck, Ove;

    2016-01-01

    before and after the retrofit. In three of the flats in Traneparken measurements of ventilation conditions were performed using passive tracer gas technique together with continuous registration of the room air temperature, the relative humidity and the CO2-concentration using programmable data loggers....... including new facades, new windows, additional insulation, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and a photovoltaic installation on the roof. The measured energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water before and after renovation was 139.1 kWh/m2/year and 95.6 kWh/m2/year respectively...

  1. Comparing the Effect of Dexamethasone before and after Tracheal Intubation on Sore Throat after Tympanoplasty Surgery: A Randomized Controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Eidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of a sore throat after surgery is a common side effect of general anesthesia with intratracheal intubation and can cause discomfort for the patient and prolong the recovery process. In this study we compared the effect of dexamethasone before and after intubation on the incidence of sore throat after tympanoplasty surgery.   Materials and Methods: In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 70 patients aged 30–60 years with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status I or II who were candidates for tympanoplasty under anesthetic conditions were studied in two separate groups. The first group received intravenous (IV dexamethasone (8 mg 30 mins prior to intubation while the second group received the same dose of dexamethasone 30 mins after intubation. The incidence and severity of the sore throat in both groups were then evaluated.   Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in intensity of sore throat (62.9% vs. 57.1%, cough (65.7% vs. 62.9%, or hoarseness (62.9% vs. 65.7% within 24 h after surgery. Detection of blood in oral secretions or on the tracheal tube was the same in both groups (5.7%. The incidence of coughs during the extubation was 0% in first group and 11.4% in second group.   Conclusion:  According to the results of this research there was no significant difference in incidence and intensity of sore throat in patients receiving dexamethasone before or after intubation. Further, no significant difference in intensity of coughs or hoarseness was observed.  

  2. Bromatological and mycotoxin analysis on soybean meal before and after the industrial process of micronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Daga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone take part of the most studied mycotoxin groups due to their toxic effects on animal and human health. This research evaluated samples of soybeans meal used in animal food industry. A hundred and twenty one soybean meal samples were analyzed, so that 66 were analyzed before the industrial processing of micronization and 55 after it. The bromatological average of samples before micronization showed the following answers: 12.4% moisture; 46.4% protein; 79.5% protein solubility; 5.9% ash content; 2.2% fat; 4.3% fiber and 0.02 (ΔpH of urease activity. The samples of micronization soybean meal showed 7.0% average values for moisture and 48.6% for crude protein. The mycotoxin levels were low in natura soybean meal; therefore, average values were 0.5μg kg-1, 29.6μg kg-1 and 56.8μg kg-1 for aflatoxin, zearelenone and fumonisin, respectively. After micronization, the average values for the studied samples were 1.3μg kg-1, 67.5μg kg-1 and 89.1μg kg-1, respectively for the same mycotoxins. The results for bromatological and mycotoxin analyses indicate similarity with the established patterns according to the Brazilian Compendium for Animal feed and reference literature. However, at least one of the three studied mycotoxin was detected in all of the analyzed samples and there was greater contamination of soybeans meal after the micronization process.

  3. Condition of hearing sense and tinnitus before and after the treatment of otosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Negra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Otosclerosis is an osteodystrophy disease of the bony labyrinth of the ear which leads to stapes fixation and to bradyecoia of a conductive type. The microsurgical treatment by the use of a stapes prosthesis provides hearing improvement and a reduction or disappearing of tinnitus. The aim of our study was to determine the hearing condition and tinnitus before and after the treatment of otosclerosis. Material and methods. A hundred patients with otosclerosis, aged 20 to 70, were surgically treated at the Otorhinolaryngology Clinic and the Functional Diagnostics, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. After the treatment, the audiometric examinations were performed in order to assess the hearing condition and tinnitus was assessed by a questionnaire. The subjective assessment of tinnitus was ranged as present, reduced or absent. Results. Before the treatment, hearing impairment was present in all the patients, while tinnitus was found in 91% of them. One year following the surgical treatment hearing improvement was found in 96% of the patients, and tinnitus cessation in 89% of them. Conclusion. The surgical treatment can result in hearing improvement and cessation or reduction of tinnitus.

  4. Inflammation and Growth in Young Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome before and after Adenotonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Nachalon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with growth impairment that usually improves following effective treatment. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying the growth processes in young children diagnosed with OSA, before and after adenotonsillectomy (T&A. Methods. Young children (6–36 months old were enrolled and evaluated before and several months after T&A surgery for height, weight, circulating high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 levels. Caloric intake was assessed by a validated Short Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ. Results. Following T&A, children added 4.81 cm and 1.88 kg to their height and weight, respectively (P<0.001 for both and had a significant increase in BMI Z score (P=0.002. Increased caloric intake of 377 kcal/day was noted (P<0.001, with increased protein and decreased fat intake. The decrease in CRP levels correlated with the increase in body weight in boys (P<0.05, adjusted for caloric intake. Conclusions. Adenotonsillectomy results in enhanced somatic growth in young children that correlates with a decrease in systemic inflammation and caloric intake increment. Our findings imply that systemic inflammation may have an important role in this OSA-related morbidity.

  5. Whole transcriptome analyses of six thoroughbred horses before and after exercise using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Kyung-Do

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thoroughbred horses are the most expensive domestic animals, and their running ability and knowledge about their muscle-related diseases are important in animal genetics. While the horse reference genome is available, there has been no large-scale functional annotation of the genome using expressed genes derived from transcriptomes. Results We present a large-scale analysis of whole transcriptome data. We sequenced the whole mRNA from the blood and muscle tissues of six thoroughbred horses before and after exercise. By comparing current genome annotations, we identified 32,361 unigene clusters spanning 51.83 Mb that contained 11,933 (36.87% annotated genes. More than 60% (20,428 of the unigene clusters did not match any current equine gene model. We also identified 189,973 single nucleotide variations (SNVs from the sequences aligned against the horse reference genome. Most SNVs (171,558 SNVs; 90.31% were novel when compared with over 1.1 million equine SNPs from two SNP databases. Using differential expression analysis, we further identified a number of exercise-regulated genes: 62 up-regulated and 80 down-regulated genes in the blood, and 878 up-regulated and 285 down-regulated genes in the muscle. Six of 28 previously-known exercise-related genes were over-expressed in the muscle after exercise. Among the differentially expressed genes, there were 91 transcription factor-encoding genes, which included 56 functionally unknown transcription factor candidates that are probably associated with an early regulatory exercise mechanism. In addition, we found interesting RNA expression patterns where different alternative splicing forms of the same gene showed reversed expressions before and after exercising. Conclusion The first sequencing-based horse transcriptome data, extensive analyses results, deferentially expressed genes before and after exercise, and candidate genes that are related to the exercise are provided in this

  6. Dynamics of the aorta before and after endovascular aneurysm repair: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, J.W. van; Prehn, J. van; Prokop, M.; Moll, F.L.; Herwaarden, J.A. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An overview of the knowledge of thoracic (TAA), and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) dynamics, before and after endovascular repair, is given. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane database were searched for relevant articles. After inclusion and exclusion, 25 relevant articles reporti

  7. Dynamics of the Aorta Before and After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keulen, J. W.; van Prehn, J.; Prokop, M.; Moll, F. L.; van Herwaarden, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: An overview of the knowledge of thoracic (TAA), and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) dynamics, before and after endovascular repair, is given. Methods: Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane database were searched for relevant articles. After inclusion and exclusion, 25 relevant articles reporti

  8. Factors affecting isokinetic muscle strength before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Halil Yalçin; Erkan, Serkan; Uzun, Macit

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting muscle strength of ACL-deficient knees before and after ACL reconstruction. The study included 122 male patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Preoperative loss and change in muscle strength in both extensor and flexor muscle groups after ACL reconstruction were calculated separately at 60 degrees/sec and 180 degrees/sec angular velocities. We evaluated the effect of surgical delay on the preoperative deficit and on its change after surgery. Muscle strength change after ACL reconstruction was also evaluated in relation to patient compliance to treatment. The longer the delay of ACL reconstruction the more the muscle strength deficit of flexor and extensor muscles increased. In the ACL deficient knees with high strength deficit, improvement in muscle strength was higher after ACL reconstruction for both muscle groups. When delay of ACL reconstruction was short and the patient was compliant to treatment, flexor muscle strength recovery was early. Shortening the delay to reconstruction had a positive influence on muscle strength after ACL reconstruction when preoperative muscle strength deficit was high. PMID:21846002

  9. The Market Reaction Around Ex-Dates of Stock Splits Before and After Decimalization

    OpenAIRE

    Robin K. Chou; Wan-Chen Lee; Sheng-Syan Chen

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the stock price behavior around the ex-split dates both before and after the decimalization on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). We find that the abnormal ex-split day returns decrease and the abnormal trading volume increases in the 1/16th and decimal pricing eras, relative to the 1/8th pricing era. These findings are consistent with the microstructure-based explanations for the ex-day price movements. Our study also supports the hypothesis that short-term traders perfo...

  10. Assessment of Arterial Oxygen Saturation by Pulse Oximetry Before, During and After Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Tarig

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is used widely in psychiatric practice. The goal of anesthesia for ECT is the prevention of complications such as discomfort, fractures, aspiration of gastric contents and hypoxia. However, general anesthesia can cause some adverse effects as hypoxia. Prevention and treatment of hypoxia is important due to its undesirable effects on seizure duration and cardiovascular system. This study was designed to detect the incidence and probable times of desaturation in patients receiving ECT. Materials & Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out on 100 patients (18-50 y/o with ASA I or II who were scheduled for ECT. After pre-oxygenation and similar anesthesia induction the patients received ECT. The patients were ventilated by oxygen and face masked until the return of their spontaneous respiration with adequate tidal volume and respiratory rate. Then they were transferred to recovery room where there was no oxygen supplementation. Oxygen saturation was measured by a Nell core pulse oximeter and was recorded at six stages: before and after anesthesia induction, during ECT, after ECT, 5 minutes after entering recovery room and before leaving there. The data were analyzed by standard statistical tests using SPSS software Results: Data analysis revealed that desaturation was not noticed at any stage except for the 5th stage (5 minutes after entering recovery room, when 13% of patients developed Sao2% less than 90%. Also there was a significant difference between Sao2% of patients between this stage (5th and other stages (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to our findings, appropriate oxygen supplementation and pulse oximetry monitoring during recovery period after ECT can be recommend

  11. The severity of cutaneous leishmaniasis before and after the earthquake in Bam, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Iraj; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Kermanizadeh, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major disease with significant public health concerns in Iran. The objective of this study was to compare the severity of CL among the patients before and after the earthquake in the city and suburbs of Bam, southeastern Iran. This study was carried out as a descriptive-analytical manner by house-to-house visits in 2010 in Bam, southeastern Kerman province of Iran, where a massive earthquake has recently occurred. Overall, 1,481 individuals were selected as a cluster random sampling. Suspected lesions were detected by direct smear preparation and X(2) test was used for statistical significance at P risk factors particularly after a major natural disaster. Possibly the establishment of the CL health clinic to serve patients and to coordinate various activities had a major role in planning control strategies and thus reduction in severity of the CL disease. PMID:26688645

  12. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Amini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics.Method: In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65% completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship.Results: Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3 % and 18.3 % before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7% students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49, and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57.Conclusion: It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future

  13. Comparison of Perceptual Signs of Voice before and after Vocal Hygiene Program in Adults with Dysphonia

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    Seyyedeh Maryam khoddami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vocal abuse and misuse are the most frequent causes of voice disorders. Consequently some therapy is needed to stop or modify such behaviors. This research was performed to study the effectiveness of vocal hygiene program on perceptual signs of voice in people with dysphonia.Methods: A Vocal hygiene program was performed to 8 adults with dysphonia for 6 weeks. At first, Consensus Auditory- Perceptual Evaluation of Voice was used to assess perceptual signs. Then the program was delivered, Individuals were followed in second and forth weeks visits. In the last session, perceptual assessment was performed and individuals’ opinions were collected. Perceptual findings were compared before and after the therapy.Results: After the program, mean score of perceptual assessment decreased. Mean score of every perceptual sign revealed significant difference before and after the therapy (p≤0.0001. «Loudness» had maximum score and coordination between speech and respiration indicated minimum score. All participants confirmed efficiency of the therapy.Conclusion: The vocal hygiene program improves all perceptual signs of voice although not equally. This deduction is confirmed by both clinician-based and patient-based assessments. As a result, vocal hygiene program is necessary for a comprehensive voice therapy but is not solely effective to resolve all voice problems.

  14. Energy consumption and indoor climate in a residential building before and after comprehensive energy retrofitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen; Christen Mørck, Ove;

    2016-01-01

    including new facades, new windows, additional insulation, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and a photovoltaic installation on the roof. The measured energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water before and after renovation was 139.1 kWh/m2/year and 95.6 kWh/m2/year respectively, and...

  15. Effect of Paying for Performance on Utilisation, Quality, and User Costs of Health Services in Tanzania: A Controlled Before and After Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Binyaruka

    evidence of an effect on the average amount paid.This study adds to the very limited evidence on the effects of P4P at scale and highlights the potential risks of such schemes in relation to non-targeted service use. Further consideration of the design of P4P schemes is required to enhance progress towards universal health coverage, and close monitoring of effects on non-targeted services and user costs should be encouraged.

  16. Quality Improvement in Surgery Combining Lean Improvement Methods with Teamwork Training: A Controlled Before-After Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Robertson

    Full Text Available To investigate the effectiveness of combining teamwork training and lean process improvement, two distinct approaches to improving surgical safety. We conducted a controlled interrupted time series study in a specialist UK Orthopaedic hospital incorporating a plastic surgery team (which received the intervention and an Orthopaedic theatre team acting as a control.We used a 3 month intervention with 3 months data collection period before and after it. A combined teamwork training and lean process improvement intervention was delivered by an experienced specialist team. Before and after the intervention we evaluated team non-technical skills using NOTECHS II, technical performance using the glitch rate and WHO checklist compliance using a simple 3 point scale. We recorded complication rate, readmission rate and length of hospital stay data for 6 months before and after the intervention.In the active group, but not the control group, full compliance with WHO Time Out (T/O increased from 14 to 71% (p = 0.032, Sign Out attempt rate (S/O increased from 0% to 50% (p<0.001 and Oxford NOTECHS II scores increased after the intervention (P = 0.058. Glitch rate decreased in the active group and increased in the control group (p = 0.001. Complications and length of stay appeared to rise in the control group and fall in the active group.Combining teamwork training and systems improvement enhanced both technical and non-technical operating team process measures, and were associated with a trend to better safety outcome measures in a controlled study comparison. We suggest that approaches which address both system and culture dimensions of safety may prove valuable in reducing risks to patients.

  17. The focus parameters and their correlation from small earthquakes before and after the 1995 Douhe earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on seismic source spectrum solution by multi-station and multi-event coda method, applying Brune seismic source model, we have got the source factors and spectra of 48 small earthquakes occurred before and after the Douhe earthquake of October 6 in 1995. The seismic moments, corner frequencies and stress drops are estimated from the spectra, and their correlation and variation with time before and after the Douhe earthquake are discussed. The results indicate that the source factors show good stability, their peak frequencies and variation with frequency appear quite similar. Some events with higher stress drops occurred about one year before the Douhe earthquake. Taking into the account that the stress drop is calculated from seismic moment and frequency, as well as the correlation between them, we emphasis that the higher stress drop mentioned here just implies the higher corner frequency than the normal value.

  18. The Truth Before and After: Brain Potentials Reveal Automatic Activation of Event Knowledge during Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S

    2015-11-01

    How does knowledge of real-world events shape our understanding of incoming language? Do temporal terms like "before" and "after" impact the online recruitment of real-world event knowledge? These questions were addressed in two ERP experiments, wherein participants read sentences that started with "before" or "after" and contained a critical word that rendered each sentence true or false (e.g., "Before/After the global economic crisis, securing a mortgage was easy/harder"). The critical words were matched on predictability, rated truth value, and semantic relatedness to the words in the sentence. Regardless of whether participants explicitly verified the sentences or not, false-after-sentences elicited larger N400s than true-after-sentences, consistent with the well-established finding that semantic retrieval of concepts is facilitated when they are consistent with real-world knowledge. However, although the truth judgments did not differ between before- and after-sentences, no such sentence N400 truth value effect occurred in before-sentences, whereas false-before-sentences elicited an enhanced subsequent positive ERPs. The temporal term "before" itself elicited more negative ERPs at central electrode channels than "after." These patterns of results show that, irrespective of ultimate sentence truth value judgments, semantic retrieval of concepts is momentarily facilitated when they are consistent with the known event outcome compared to when they are not. However, this inappropriate facilitation incurs later processing costs as reflected in the subsequent positive ERP deflections. The results suggest that automatic activation of event knowledge can impede the incremental semantic processes required to establish sentence truth value. PMID:26244719

  19. The Truth Before and After: Brain Potentials Reveal Automatic Activation of Event Knowledge during Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S

    2015-11-01

    How does knowledge of real-world events shape our understanding of incoming language? Do temporal terms like "before" and "after" impact the online recruitment of real-world event knowledge? These questions were addressed in two ERP experiments, wherein participants read sentences that started with "before" or "after" and contained a critical word that rendered each sentence true or false (e.g., "Before/After the global economic crisis, securing a mortgage was easy/harder"). The critical words were matched on predictability, rated truth value, and semantic relatedness to the words in the sentence. Regardless of whether participants explicitly verified the sentences or not, false-after-sentences elicited larger N400s than true-after-sentences, consistent with the well-established finding that semantic retrieval of concepts is facilitated when they are consistent with real-world knowledge. However, although the truth judgments did not differ between before- and after-sentences, no such sentence N400 truth value effect occurred in before-sentences, whereas false-before-sentences elicited an enhanced subsequent positive ERPs. The temporal term "before" itself elicited more negative ERPs at central electrode channels than "after." These patterns of results show that, irrespective of ultimate sentence truth value judgments, semantic retrieval of concepts is momentarily facilitated when they are consistent with the known event outcome compared to when they are not. However, this inappropriate facilitation incurs later processing costs as reflected in the subsequent positive ERP deflections. The results suggest that automatic activation of event knowledge can impede the incremental semantic processes required to establish sentence truth value.

  20. Use of Cough and Cold Medications in Severe Bronchiolitis Before and After a Health Advisory Warning against Their Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donnell, Katherine; Mansbach, Jonathan M.; LoVecchio, Frank; Cheng, John; Piedra, Pedro A.; Clark, Sunday; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    We compared the use of cough and cold medications in two multicenter studies of young children hospitalized with bronchiolitis before and after the 2008 Food and Drug Administration cough and cold medications advisory. Although cough and cold medications use decreased after the advisory, nearly 20% of children age 12–23.9 months with severe bronchiolitis received cough and cold medications. PMID:25888349

  1. Physical functioning before and after total hip arthroplasty : Perception and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Stevens, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Self-report and performance-based measures of physical functioning in people before and after total hip arthroplasty seem to present different information. The relationship between these different measures is not well understood, and little information is available about chan

  2. Marginal microleakage of class V composite restorations before and after AFP gel application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Abdolrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: The most effective preventing tooth decay method is fluoride compounds applications. Some studies suggested that APF gels caused changes on the superficial physical properties of composite. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of class V composite restorations before and after AFP gel application.   Materials and Methods: The class V cavities in buccal surfaces of 45 molar teeth were made in such a way that occlusal margin was placed in enamel and cervical margin in cement. In group 1, at first fluoride-therapy and then cavity preparation and restoration by composite resin was done. In group 2, at first the class V cavities were prepared and restored, then fluoride-therapy was carried out. In group 3, cavities were prepared and restored with no fluoride-therapy. The dye penetration rate in occlusal and cervical margins was examined by stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test.   Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups ( P=0.975.   Conclusion: Fluoride-therapy using AFP gel before and after class V composite restorations, had no significant effect on the microleakage of dentin and enamel margins.

  3. Isokinetic Identification of Knee Joint Torques before and after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Czaplicki

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the serial change of isokinetic muscle strength of the knees before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR in physically active males and to estimate the time of return to full physical fitness. Extension and flexion torques were measured for the injured and healthy limbs at two angular velocities approximately 1.5 months before the surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after ACLR. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in peak knee extension and flexion torques, hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q strength ratios, uninvolved/involved limb peak torque ratios, and the normalized work of these muscles between the four stages of rehabilitation were identified. Significant differences between extension peak torques for the injured and healthy limbs were also detected at all stages. The obtained results showed that 12 months of rehabilitation were insufficient for the involved knee joint to recover its strength to the level of strength of the uninvolved knee joint. The results helped to evaluate the progress of the rehabilitation and to implement necessary modifications optimizing the rehabilitation training program. The results of the study may also be used as referential data for physically active males of similar age.

  4. Isokinetic Identification of Knee Joint Torques before and after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicki, Adam; Jarocka, Marta; Walawski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the serial change of isokinetic muscle strength of the knees before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in physically active males and to estimate the time of return to full physical fitness. Extension and flexion torques were measured for the injured and healthy limbs at two angular velocities approximately 1.5 months before the surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after ACLR. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in peak knee extension and flexion torques, hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios, uninvolved/involved limb peak torque ratios, and the normalized work of these muscles between the four stages of rehabilitation were identified. Significant differences between extension peak torques for the injured and healthy limbs were also detected at all stages. The obtained results showed that 12 months of rehabilitation were insufficient for the involved knee joint to recover its strength to the level of strength of the uninvolved knee joint. The results helped to evaluate the progress of the rehabilitation and to implement necessary modifications optimizing the rehabilitation training program. The results of the study may also be used as referential data for physically active males of similar age.

  5. Renal function and morphology in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale M Y Smets

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR, renal structural changes and proteinuria in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone (HC administration. Eleven Beagle dogs ≥10 years old were treated with either hydrocortisone (HC group, n = 6 or placebo (control group, n = 5. Urinary markers, GFR and kidney biopsies were evaluated before (T0, during (T16 wks and after discontinuing HC administration (T24 wks. Results indicate that HC administration causes a significant increase in GFR. At all time points except T16 wks, proteinuria was higher in the control group than in the HC group, and there was no significant difference in urinary markers between groups. At T16 wks, proteinuria, urinary albumin-to-creatinine (c ratio, immunoglobulin G/c and retinol-binding protein/c were higher compared to baseline in the HC group. At T0, rare to mild renal lesions were detected in all HC dogs and rare to moderate changes in all control dogs. Glomerulosclerosis progressed in both groups until T24 wks. Tubular atrophy was detected in three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, but also in five control dogs throughout the study. At every time point, five HC dogs and all control dogs had rare to moderate interstitial inflammation. Rare to mild interstitial fibrosis was found in up to three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, and severe fibrosis in one HC dog at T24 wks. Up to four control dogs had rare to mild fibrosis at all time points. These findings indicate that clinically healthy, aged Beagle dogs may have considerable renal lesions and proteinuria, which could have implications for experimental or toxicological studies. Additional research is needed to elucidate glucocorticoid effects on renal structure, but functional changes such as hyperfiltration and proteinuria warrant attention to kidney function of canine patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving exogenous glucocorticoids.

  6. Feasibility and impact of doctor-nurse task delegation in preventive child health care in the netherlands, a controlled before-after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, S. Janine; Damen, Maurice L W; Van Stel, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background  In the Netherlands a need is felt for more flexible Child Health Care services, both efficient and tailored to needs.We set up a study on impact and feasibility of task delegation to child health care nurses performing all regular checkups on children aged 2 months to 4 years. Abnormal f

  7. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  8. Patient's Guide to Detecting and Treating Hypothyroidism Before, During, and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting and Treating Hypothyroidism Before, During, and After Pregnancy A Patient’s Guide Pregnancy causes major changes in the levels of hormones made by ... thyroid hormone, doctors call this underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism . Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is not common. However, the ...

  9. MITOCHONDRIAL DYNAMICS IN PRE- AND POSTPUBERTAL PIG OOCYTES BEFORE AND AFTER IN VITRO MATURATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H. S.; Løvendahl, P.; Nikolaisen, N. K.;

    2013-01-01

    Oocytes from prepubertal (PRE) or postpubertal (POST) pigs are used in, for example, somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro fertilization. Here we describe mitochondrial dynamics in pig oocytes of different sizes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM), isolated from PRE or POST animals...

  10. Orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus volumes in obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Mermi, Osman; Yildirim, Hanefi; Gurok, M Gurkan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we focused on the key brain regions, OFC and thalamus, to investigate the roles of antiobsessional agents on volume changes of these brain regions after 12 weeks of anti-obsessional treatment in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fourteen patients with OCD and the same number of healthy controls were included in the study. At baseline, the volumes of the OFC and thalamus were compared by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between groups. The volumes of OFC and thalamus were evaluated before and after the anti-obsessional drug treatment solely in the patient group. Our study revealed that thalamus volumes were reduced statistically significantly throughout the treatment period. However, we found that OFC volumes did not change statistically significantly throughout the treatment period. In summary, our study found that anti-obsessional drug treatment had an effect on thalamus volumes throughout the treatment period for both sides but not on OFC volumes. However, future studies with larger sample are required. PMID:26311393

  11. Focus Group Study of Chinese International Students' Knowledge and Beliefs About HPV Vaccination, Before and After Reading an Informational Pamphlet About Gardasil(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijuan; Okoror, Titilayo A; Hyner, Gerald C

    2016-10-01

    An increasing need for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in China remains unmet in the mainland and the knowledge and intentions of Chinese youth regarding vaccination is unknown. In the fall of 2013, 44 Chinese international students (CIS) attending a university in the United States Midwest participated in 10 focus group discussions (five female and five male). Result showed that participants have limited awareness and knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination, participants erroneously believed that the causes of cervical cancer are abortion and miscarriage. Participants rely heavily on informal sources such as Chinese-based social media platforms and personal social networks for information on sexually transmitted infections. Sexual cultures and behaviors are perceived differently between CIS born in the 1990s and 1980s. Interestingly, participants' perceived stigma about HPV infection decreased with improving knowledge level during group discussions. In conclusion, HPV vaccine should be further promoted alongside sex education among CIS. PMID:26831655

  12. Association of Psoriasis Severity with Serum Prolactin, Thyroid Hormones, and Cortisol before and after Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza M. Robati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prolactin (PRL level is proposed to be associated with the severity of psoriasis although the previous studies reported different results. Objective. To find the association between PRL levels and severity of psoriasis before and after treatment. In addition, we aimed to find a difference in prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4, and cortisol levels between patients with psoriasis and normal controls. Methods. First, the levels of hormones were measured in 30 patients with psoriasis and 30 matched controls. The severity was assessed by psoriasis area and severity index (PASI. Then, patients were treated, and PASI was assessed every week until achieving PASI-75 response. At this time, the hormones were measured again and compared to the baseline. Results. No statistical significant difference was observed in the mean PRL, T3, T4, TSH, and cortisol levels between cases and controls. Comparing to the baseline, a significant decrease in PRL levels and a significant increase in T3 and serum cortisol levels were observed after treatment (P<0.05, while the changes in other hormones were not significant. Conclusion. After treatment, PRL significantly decreased, and T3 and cortisol levels significantly increased. No correlation between hormone levels and improvement of PASI score existed.

  13. Iodine intake before and after mandatory iodization in Denmark: results from the Danish Investigation of Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases (DanThyr) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Carle, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben Walther;

    2008-01-01

    concentration, increased significantly in all age and sex groups. However, the iodine intake was still below the recommended in the youngest age groups in both cities and in women 40-45 years of age living in Aalborg. Intake of milk and salt had strong significant direct associations with iodine excretion (P...

  14. Effect of transparency on changing views regarding nuclear energy before and after Fukushima accident

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMURA, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Using cross-country data, this paper examines the influence of government transparency on changing views regarding nuclear energy before and after Japan’s natural and nuclear disasters of 2011. It was observed that in the majority of countries the rate of favoring nuclear energy declined after the disaster. However, empirical results have shown that this rate is less likely to decrease in a more transparent country, even after a disaster. This implies that views regarding nuclear energy were ...

  15. Immune dysfunction in patients with obstructive jaundice before and after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abeed H; Camara, Miguel; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Zaitoun, Abed M; Eremin, Oleg; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Lobo, Dileep N

    2016-09-01

    This prospective observational study investigated monocyte cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in patients with obstructive jaundice (OJ) before and after endoscopic biliary drainage. Dendritic cell (DC) subsets and their expression of co-stimulatory molecules were also studied. Forty patients with OJ and ten non-jaundiced patients with normal gastroscopy findings were recruited. Ten healthy volunteers provided control blood samples for immunological assays. Patients with OJ had blood and duodenal mucosa sampled at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and further blood sampled during the recovery phase. Monocyte cytokine responses to LPS, DC subsets and co-stimulatory molecule expression were compared with controls. Duodenal morphology and occludin expression were also assessed. Monocytes obtained before ERCP from jaundiced patients demonstrated reduced cytokine responses to endotoxin compared with controls (IL-1β: 2678 compared with 4631 pg/ml, P=0.04 and IL-6: 3442 compared with 6157 pg/ml, P=0.002). Monocytes from patients with malignancy had poorer responses to endotoxin than from those with benign OJ (IL-1β: 2025 compared with 3332 pg/ml, P=0.001). After ERCP, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes obtained from jaundiced patients increased (IL-1β: 2150 compared with 2520 pg/ml, P=0.03 and IL-6: 2488 compared with 3250 pg/ml, P=0.01). Occludin expression (85 compared with 95%, P=0.004) and mean duodenal villus height (334 compared with 404 μm, P=0.03) were lower in jaundiced patients. Before biliary drainage, patients with OJ had a higher percentage of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and greater mDC expression of CD40 (P=0.04) and CD86 (P=0.04). Monocytes from patients with OJ had lower proinflammatory cytokine secretion in response to LPS, an effect reversed following biliary drainage. PMID:27252406

  16. Aboveground biomass of an invasive tree Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) before and after herbivory by adventive and introduced natural enemies: a temporal case-study in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plants may respond to injury from natural enemies by altering the quantity and distribution of biomass among woody materials, foliage, fruits, and seeds. Melaleuca, an Australian tree that has naturalized in south Florida, USA, has been reunited with two natural enemies: a weevil introduce...

  17. The effect of an e-learning course on nursing staff’s knowledge of delirium: a before-and-after study

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Steeg, Lotte; IJkema, Roelie; Wagner, Cordula; Langelaan, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    Background Delirium is a common condition in hospitalized patients, associated with adverse outcomes such as longer hospital stay, functional decline and higher mortality, as well as higher rates of nursing home placement. Nurses often fail to recognize delirium in hospitalized patients, which might be due to a lack of knowledge of delirium diagnosis and treatment. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an e-learning course on nurses’ delirium knowledge, describe nursing ...

  18. Before and after study of bar workers' perceptions of the impact of smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pursell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Objectives: To compare support for, and perceptions of, the impacts of smoke-free workplace legislation among bar workers in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) pre- and post-implementation, and to identify predictors of support for the legislation. METHODS: Setting: Public houses (pubs) in three areas of the ROI. Design: Comparisons pre- and post-implementation of smoke-free workplace legislation. Participants: From a largely non-random selection, 288 bar workers volunteered for the baseline survey; 220 were followed up one year later (76.4%). Outcome measures: Level of support for the legislation, attitude statements concerning potential impacts of the law and modelled predictors of support for the legislation. RESULTS: Pre-implementation 59.5% of participants supported the legislation, increasing to 76.8% post-implementation. Support increased among smokers by 27.3 percentage points from 39.4% to 66.7% (p < 0.001) and among non-smokers by 12.4% percentage points from 68.8% to 81.2% (p = 0.003).Pre-legislation three-quarters of participants agreed that the legislation would make bars more comfortable and was needed to protect workers\\' health. Post-legislation these proportions increased to over 90% (p < 0.001). However, negative perceptions also increased, particularly for perceptions that the legislation has a negative impact on business (from 50.9% to 62.7%, p = 0.008) and that fewer people would visit pubs (41.8% to 62.7%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for relevant covariates, including responses to the attitude statements, support for the ban increased two to three-fold post-implementation. Regardless of their views on the economic impact, most participants agreed, both pre- and post-implementation, that the legislation was needed to protect bar workers\\' health. CONCLUSION: Smoke-free legislation had the support of three-quarters of a large sample of bar workers in the ROI. However, this group holds complex sets of both positive and negative

  19. Effects of a 12-month multi-faceted mentoring intervention on knowledge, quality, and usage of spirometry in primary care: a before-and-after study

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Samir; Moosa, Dilshad; MacPherson, Ana; Allen, Christopher; Tamari, Itamar E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in adults. International guidelines have emphasized the importance of regular spirometry for asthma control evaluation. However, spirometry use in primary care remains low across jurisdictions. We sought to design and evaluate a knowledge translation intervention to address both the poor quality of spirometry and the underuse of spirometry in primary care. Methods We designed a 1-year intervention consisting of initial interactive ed...

  20. Prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergy among female patients with dermatitis before and after Danish government regulation: a 23-year retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of nickel allergy prompted the Danish government to prohibit excessive nickel release (ie, >0.5 microg nickel/cm(2)/wk) from consumer products in 1990. Concomitant allergy to nickel and cobalt is often observed among patients with dermatitis, probably as a result...... with isolated cobalt allergy than among patients with nickel allergy (P older patients, probably...

  1. 5-HMF and carbohydrates content in stingless bee honey by CE before and after thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biluca, Fabíola C; Della Betta, Fabiana; de Oliveira, Gabriela Pirassol; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to assess 5-hydroximethylfurfural and carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) in 13 stingless bee honey samples before and after thermal treatment using a capillary electrophoresis method. The methods were validated for the parameters of linearity, matrix effects, precision, and accuracy. A factorial design was implemented to determine optimal thermal treatment conditions and then verify the postprocedural 5-HMF formation, but once 5-HMF were carbohydrate levels ranged from 48.59% to 69.36%. In the same conditions of thermal treatment, Apis mellifera honey presented higher 5-HMF content than stingless bee honey. Results suggest that a high temperature related to briefer thermal treatment could be an efficient way to extend shelf life without affecting 5-HMF content in stingless bee honey.

  2. Integration of Provider, Pharmacy, and Patient-Reported Data to Improve Medication Adherence for Type 2 Diabetes: A Controlled Before-After Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Brian E.; Alzeer, Abdullah H; Phillips, Erin O'Kelly; Marrero, David G

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes often have poor adherence to using medications as prescribed. The reasons why, however, are not well understood. Furthermore, most health care delivery processes do not routinely assess medication adherence or the factors that contribute to poor adherence. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of an integrated informatics approach to aggregating and displaying clinically relevant data with the potential to identify issues that may...

  3. Are the benefits of the 'Healthy Start' food support scheme sustained at three months postpartum? Results from the Sheffield 'before and after' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Ford, Fiona A; Wademan, Sarah E; Fraser, Robert B

    2010-10-01

    Early results examining nutritional behaviour of Caucasian, English-speaking, postpartum women living in Sheffield, who were beneficiaries or eligible for the Welfare Food Scheme (WFS) or the Healthy Start (HS) scheme, suggested significant between-groups differences. The aim of this study was to examine whether differences observed at 4 weeks postpartum were sustained over time. Eighty-six WFS and 64 HS participants were recruited at baseline and, thereafter, 53 WFS and 33 HS participants at week 8, and 47 WFS and 39 HS participants at week 12. Dietary intakes were assessed by an interviewer-administered, semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire. At 4 weeks, HS women had higher energy intakes compared to WFS women, (9.7 MJ and 8.1 MJ, respectively). Differences were also sustained at 8 weeks, (8.8 MJ and 7.2 MJ) and 12 weeks (9.4 MJ and 7.6 MJ) for the HS and WFS participants, respectively. Within-groups, energy and most of nutrient intakes did not change appreciably over time. Consumption of fruit and vegetables at baseline, were significantly higher (P = 0.023) for participants under the HS scheme (3.4 portions) compared to WFS participants (2.7 portions). Differences were sustained over time as HS women reported consuming 4.1 and 3.7 portions/day respectively at 8 and 12 weeks, as opposed to 2.8 and 2.7 portions/day reported by WFS women. The study findings provided evidence of the potential effectiveness of the HS scheme in a population subgroup at risk of dietary deficiencies. Early findings could provide a useful snapshot of the diet of such mobile population and should be further exploited.

  4. Prescribing Patterns in Outpatient Clinics of Township Hospitals in China: A Comparative Study before and after the 2009 Health System Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Pan, Qingxia; Shan, Linghan; Liu, Chaojie; Gao, Lijun; Hao, Yanhua; Song, Jian; Ning, Ning; Cui, Yu; Li, Ye; Qi, Xinye; Liang, Chao; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: China introduced a series of health reforms in 2009, including a national essential medicines policy and a medical insurance system for primary care institutions. This study aimed to determine the changing prescribing patterns associated with those reforms in township hospitals. Methods: A multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted to identify 29 township hospitals from six counties in three provinces. A total of 2899 prescriptions were collected from the participating township hospitals using a systematic random sampling strategy. Seven prescribing indicators were calculated and compared between 2008 and 2013, assessing use of medicines (antibiotics and adrenal corticosteroids) and polypharmacy, administration route of medicines (injections), and affordability of medicines. Results: Significant changes in prescribing patterns were found. The average number of medicines and costs per-prescription dropped by about 50%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring antibiotics declined from 54% to 38%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring adrenal corticosteroid declined from 14% to 4%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring injections declined from 54% to 25%. Despite similar changing patterns, significant regional differences were observed. Conclusions: Significant changes in prescribing patterns are evident in township hospitals in China. Overprescription of antibiotics, injections and adrenal corticosteroids has been reduced. However, salient regional disparities still exist. Further studies are needed to determine potential shifts in the risk of the inappropriate use of medicines from primary care settings to metropolitan hospitals. PMID:27399732

  5. Prescribing Patterns in Outpatient Clinics of Township Hospitals in China: A Comparative Study before and after the 2009 Health System Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ding

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: China introduced a series of health reforms in 2009, including a national essential medicines policy and a medical insurance system for primary care institutions. This study aimed to determine the changing prescribing patterns associated with those reforms in township hospitals. Methods: A multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted to identify 29 township hospitals from six counties in three provinces. A total of 2899 prescriptions were collected from the participating township hospitals using a systematic random sampling strategy. Seven prescribing indicators were calculated and compared between 2008 and 2013, assessing use of medicines (antibiotics and adrenal corticosteroids and polypharmacy, administration route of medicines (injections, and affordability of medicines. Results: Significant changes in prescribing patterns were found. The average number of medicines and costs per-prescription dropped by about 50%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring antibiotics declined from 54% to 38%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring adrenal corticosteroid declined from 14% to 4%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring injections declined from 54% to 25%. Despite similar changing patterns, significant regional differences were observed. Conclusions: Significant changes in prescribing patterns are evident in township hospitals in China. Overprescription of antibiotics, injections and adrenal corticosteroids has been reduced. However, salient regional disparities still exist. Further studies are needed to determine potential shifts in the risk of the inappropriate use of medicines from primary care settings to metropolitan hospitals.

  6. Acoustical analysis of trained and untrained singers onsite before and after prolonged voice use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christophe E.

    Controlled acoustic environments are important in voice research. Recording environment affects the quality of voice recordings. While sound booths and anechoic chambers are examples of controlled acoustic environments widely used in research, they are both costly and not portable. The long-term goal of this project is to compare the voice usage and efficiency of trained and untrained singers onsite immediately before and after vocal performance. The specific goal of this project is the further of development a Portable Sound Booth (PSB) and standardization of onsite voice recording procedures under controlled conditions. We hypothesized that the simple and controlled acoustic environment provided by the PSB would enable consistent reliable onsite voice recordings and the immediate differences as a consequence of voice usage were measurable. Research has suggested that it would be possible to conduct onsite voice recordings. Proof of concept research titled "Construction and Characterization of a Portable Sound Booth for Onsite Measurement" was conducted before initiating the full research effort. Preliminary findings revealed that: (1) it was possible to make high-quality voice recordings onsite, (2) the use of a Portable Sound Booth (PSB) required further acoustic characterization of its inherent acoustic properties, and (3) testable differences before and after performance were evident. The specific aims were to (1) develop and refine onsite objective voice measurements in the PSB and (2) evaluate use of the PSB to measure voice quality changes before and after voice usage.

  7. Sleep depth and continuity before and after chronic exercise in older men: electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2015-03-01

    During later life sleep depth (slow-wave sleep, SWS) and maintenance exhibit deleterious changes, with possible negative effects on daytime function. This study assessed the effect of chronic, supervised exercise on sleep using laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) and repeated measures in older adults. Thirteen men aged 64±3served as their own controls and had their sleep measured for a total of 6 nights: 3 before and 3 after the 16-week training intervention. Each sequence involved 1 familiarization trial followed by 2 experimental nights (exercise night; nonexercise night) measured using 13-channel PSG (combined electroencephalography, electromyography, and electro-oculography). The exercise challenges consisted of inclined treadmill brisk walking (60min, 68-69% V˙O2peak). The intervention successfully improved some parameters of aerobic fitness, i.e. ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 (Psleep in comparison with the nonexercise condition before training, respectively 2.4% and 1.4% (Psleep continuity by decreasing total wake time. These results show that aerobic training could increase sleep depth and continuity, during active days, in elderly men. In habitual exercisers, these effects of aerobic exercise on sleep, although modest, might counteract those resulting from aging. PMID:25540930

  8. Alveolar dead space and capnographic variables before and after thrombolysis in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mello Moreira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Marcos Mello Moreira1, Renato G G Terzi1, Carlos Heitor N Carvalho2, Antonio Francisco de Oliveira Neto3, Mônica Corso Pereira4, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal41Department of Surgery, State University of Campinas, School of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Cardiology, State University of Campinas, School of Medical Sciences; 3Intensive Care Unit of the State University of Campinas, School of Medical Sciences; 4Department of Pulmonology, State University of Campinas, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas, BrazilAbstract: Pulmonary embolism (PE is a common condition. The central aim of this study was to describe the use of volumetric capnography (VCap before and after fibrinolytic treatment of major PE. Lung scintigraphy was used as a base of comparison for the results of this treatment. We describe the cases of two conscious and spontaneously breathing patients (20- and 24-year-old women with major PE undergoing thrombolysis. Curves of CO2 were obtained by VCap and associated with arterial blood gas analysis and D-dimer. The pattern of VCap was compared with the VCap of health volunteers. Parameters also calculated were: P(a-etCO2 gradient, alveolar dead space fraction (AVDSf , late dead space fraction (f Dlate, and slope phase III (Slp III. The VCap results before and after thrombolysis for patients 1 and 2 were, respectively, P(a-etCO2: 12.6 to 5.8 and 7.9 to 1.6 (mmHg; AVDSf: 0.46 to 0.18 and 0.25 to 0.05; fDlate: 0.46 to 0.21 and 0.24 to 0.04; Slp III: 1.75 to 5.10 and 1.21 to 5.61 (mmHg/L. Lung scintigraphy was used to compare VCap results from the two subjects with VCap results from healthy volunteers and pigs before and after treatment associated with arterial blood gas, D-dimer, and showed satisfactory agreement.Keywords: pulmonary embolism, capnography, respiratory dead space, thrombolysis, fibrin fibrinogen degradation products/fibrin fragment D

  9. Immunostimulatory effects of extract of Pulicaria crispa before and after Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, Amany S; Shalaby, Nagwa; Abd-Alla, Howida I; Ahmed, Samia A; Khaled, Hussein M; Bahgat, Mahmoud M

    2010-01-01

    The immunostimulatory effects of methanolic extract from Pulicaria crispa were investigated in mice before and after infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Mice were subjected for daily intra-peritoneal injection by the extract (33 ng/mouse) for 10 successive days followed by infecting every mouse with 100 S. mansoni cercariae. Treatment with the extract induced significant increase (p < 0.05) in sera-IL-2 before and after infection. Upon using soluble worm antigen preparation or cancer bladder homogenates as antigens in ELISA, the detected levels of IgG were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sera from treated-infected mice than untreated P. crispa infected mice. Using crude Escherichia coli lysate as an antigen in ELISA, it was detected a significant (p < 0.05) increase in IgG levels in sera from the extract-treated mice before and after infection.

  10. Microstructure studies of air-plasma-spray-deposited CoNiCrAlY coatings before and after thermal cyclic loading for high-temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dipak; Pandey, K. N.; Das, Dipak Kumar

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, bond-coats for thermal barrier coatings were deposited via air plasma spraying (APS) techniques onto Inconel 800 and Hastelloy C-276 alloy substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to investigate the phases and microstructure of the as-sprayed, APS-deposited CoNiCrAlY bond-coatings. The aim of this work was to study the suitability of the bond-coat materials for high temperature applications. Confirmation of nanoscale grains of the γ/γ'-phase was obtained by TEM, high-resolution TEM, and AFM. We concluded that these changes result from the plastic deformation of the bond-coat during the deposition, resulting in CoNiCrAlY bond-coatings with excellent thermal cyclic resistance suitable for use in high-temperature applications. Cyclic oxidative stability was observed to also depend on the underlying metallic alloy substrate.

  11. Analysis of variabilities of serum proteomic spectra in patients with gastric cancer before and after operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Ren; Ning Du; Gang Liu; Heng-Tong Hu; Wei Tian; Zhi-Ping Deng; Jing-Sen Shi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the variabilities of serum proteomic spectra in patients with gastric cancer before and after operation in order to detect the specific protein markers that can be used for quick diagnosis of gastric cancer.METHODS: Proteomic spectra of 46 serum samples from patients with gastric cancer before and after operation and 40 from normal individuals were generated by IMAC-Cu protein chip and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Fourteen differentially expressed proteins in serum were screened by analysis of proteomic spectra of preoperative patients and normal individuals. We obtained 4 proteins (heat shock protein 27, glucoseregulated protein, prohibitin, protein disulfide isomerase A3) making up marker pattern which was able to class the patient-team and normal-team. These marker patterns yielded 95.7% sensitivity and 92.5% specificity,respectively. The proteins over-expressed in serum of preoperative patients were obviously down-regulated.CONCLUSION: Specific protein markers of gastric cancer can be used for the quick diagnosis of gastric cancer and judgment of prognosis. SELDI-TOF-MS is a useful tool for the detection and identification of new protein markers in serum.

  12. The study of cell and tissue mechanisms of the homeostasis of "helminth-host" system at muscle trichinellosis before and after the administration of a herb biostimulator and anthelminthic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsessian, Sergei; Goncharova, Galina; Asatrian, Ashot; Nikoghossian, Mania; Malczewski, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Results of micromorphological and histological studies of larvae of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, as well as, muscles, liver and small intestine of the rat-host before and after biostimulator administration of phytohemagglutinin and phytoanthelminthic were presented. It has been established that rats with Trichinella larvae of both species developed unspecific allergic angiomyositis, hepatitis, cholangitis, and erosio-haemorrhagic enterocolitis in the host's organism on the 35th day after infection. Furthermore, processes of compensatory hypertrophy, that support the host's (rats) homeostasis, on cell and tissue levels, were observed at histodestructional and morpho functional deficiency. It has been revealed that phytohemagglutinin, biostimulator injected into the host's organism before infection, is of immunostimulating nature and partially destroys the larvae of Trichinella. The phytoanthelminthic produces a significant trichinellocide effect: RNA synthesis and glycogen is intensified in the organs of the treated animals, their pathomicromorphogenesis weakened, and their compensatory and regenerative processes were observed. The combined use of the phytohemagglutinin and phytoanthelminthic fails to intensify the mentioned effect. PMID:16889026

  13. Immuno-histochemical study of the expression of ICAM-1 in the skin of mice under the effect of exposure to ultra violet rays type-B, before and after topical Retinoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaya H. Mohamed*, Fouad M. Badr*, Howayda Abed El-Aal,Rushdy W

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR become a medical problem, not just cosmetics or aesthetic concern, but for their skin photoaging and photodamage. The naturally and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A (Retinoids may have a role in treatment and prophylaxis against skin photodamage. The current work studied the effect of ultraviolet-B rays on the ICAM-1 expression of mice's skin, before and after topical retinoids acid. Thirty-six mice were subjected to ultraviolet-B rays in dose of 1.4J/cm2 for 15minutes every other day for 10weeks. The mice were subdivided into 3 equal groups; Radiated, Prophylactic, Treated, besides the non-exposed skin samples, which considered as control group. The prophylactic mice were subjected to topical Retinoic acid one day before UVR exposure, the mice of treated groups were subjected to topical Retinoic acid after the last UVR exposure 3times weekly for 10weeks. Paraffin sections slides were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin stains for study the morphology. The immuno-histochemical study for detection of ICAM-1 expression was performed using labeled streptavidin biotin technique (Dako with the monoclonal antibody {ICAM-1 (G-5}. The ICAM-1 expression was evaluated as optical density, and the obtained data was statistically analyzed by using student's t-test. The study revealed a clinical signs of photodamaged skin only in radiated group mice. Histologically epidermal thickness associated with keratinocytic atypia, and necrotic cells were observed in radiated group mice. There was a statistically significant increase in the optical density of ICAM-1 expression in radiated and prophylactic groups mice (p<0.001 and p< 0.005 respectively.. The study concluded that retinoic acid given after UVB completely reversed the morphological, histological and ICAM-1 expression changes induced by UVB exposure and retinoic acid given before UVB prevented some of the morphological, histological and ICAM-1

  14. Hematopoietic SCT with cryopreserved grafts: adverse reactions after transplantation and cryoprotectant removal before infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Z; Heimfeld, S; Gao, D

    2014-04-01

    Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been successfully developed as a part of treatment protocols for a large number of clinical indications, and cryopreservation of both autologous and allogeneic sources of HSC grafts is increasingly being used to facilitate logistical challenges in coordinating the collection, processing, preparation, quality control testing and release of the final HSC product with delivery to the patient. Direct infusion of cryopreserved cell products into patients has been associated with the development of adverse reactions, ranging from relatively mild symptoms to much more serious, life-threatening complications, including allergic/gastrointestinal/cardiovascular/neurological complications, renal/hepatic dysfunctions, and so on. In many cases, the cryoprotective agent (CPA) used-which is typically dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-is believed to be the main causal agent of these adverse reactions and thus many studies recommend depletion of DMSO before cell infusion. In this paper, we will briefly review the history of HSC cryopreservation, the side effects reported after transplantation, along with advances in strategies for reducing the adverse reactions, including methods and devices for removal of DMSO. Strategies to minimize adverse effects include medication before and after transplantation, optimizing the infusion procedure, reducing the DMSO concentration or using alternative CPAs for cryopreservation and removing DMSO before infusion. For DMSO removal, besides the traditional and widely applied method of centrifugation, new approaches have been explored in the past decade, such as filtration by spinning membrane, stepwise dilution-centrifugation using rotating syringe, diffusion-based DMSO extraction in microfluidic channels, dialysis and dilution-filtration through hollow-fiber dialyzers and some instruments (CytoMate, Sepax S-100, Cobe 2991, microfluidic channels, dilution-filtration system, etc.) as well. However

  15. Self-Reported Cognitive Outcomes in Patients With Brain Metastases Before and After Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Ansa Maer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Scherwath, Angela [Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Ernst, Gundula [Department of Medical Psychology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Institute for Neuroradiology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Bremer, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Steinmann, Diana, E-mail: steinmann.diana@mh-hannover.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with brain metastases may experience treatment-related cognitive deficits. In this study, we prospectively assessed the self-reported cognitive abilities of patients with brain metastases from any solid primary cancer before and after irradiation of the brain. Methods and Materials: The treatment group (TG) consisted of adult patients (n=50) with brain metastases who received whole or partial irradiation of the brain without having received prior radiation therapy (RT). The control group (CG) consisted of breast cancer patients (n=27) without cranial involvement who were treated with adjuvant RT. Patients were recruited between May 2008 and December 2010. Self-reported cognitive abilities were acquired before RT and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after irradiation. The information regarding the neurocognitive status was collected by use of the German questionnaires for self-perceived deficits in attention (FEDA) and subjectively experienced everyday memory performance (FEAG). Results: The baseline data showed a high proportion of self-perceived neurocognitive deficits in both groups. A comparison between the TG and the CG regarding the course of self-reported outcomes after RT showed significant between-group differences for the FEDA scales 2 and 3: fatigue and retardation of daily living activities (P=.002) and decrease in motivation (P=.032) with an increase of attention deficits in the TG, but not in the CG. There was a trend towards significance in FEDA scale 1: distractibility and retardation of mental processes (P=.059) between the TG and the CG. The FEAG assessment presented no significant differences. An additional subgroup analysis within the TG was carried out. FEDA scale 3 showed significant differences in the time-related progress between patients with whole-brain RT and those receiving hypofractionated stereotactic RT (P=.025), with less decrease in motivation in the latter group. Conclusion: Self-reported attention declined in

  16. Self-Reported Cognitive Outcomes in Patients With Brain Metastases Before and After Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patients with brain metastases may experience treatment-related cognitive deficits. In this study, we prospectively assessed the self-reported cognitive abilities of patients with brain metastases from any solid primary cancer before and after irradiation of the brain. Methods and Materials: The treatment group (TG) consisted of adult patients (n=50) with brain metastases who received whole or partial irradiation of the brain without having received prior radiation therapy (RT). The control group (CG) consisted of breast cancer patients (n=27) without cranial involvement who were treated with adjuvant RT. Patients were recruited between May 2008 and December 2010. Self-reported cognitive abilities were acquired before RT and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after irradiation. The information regarding the neurocognitive status was collected by use of the German questionnaires for self-perceived deficits in attention (FEDA) and subjectively experienced everyday memory performance (FEAG). Results: The baseline data showed a high proportion of self-perceived neurocognitive deficits in both groups. A comparison between the TG and the CG regarding the course of self-reported outcomes after RT showed significant between-group differences for the FEDA scales 2 and 3: fatigue and retardation of daily living activities (P=.002) and decrease in motivation (P=.032) with an increase of attention deficits in the TG, but not in the CG. There was a trend towards significance in FEDA scale 1: distractibility and retardation of mental processes (P=.059) between the TG and the CG. The FEAG assessment presented no significant differences. An additional subgroup analysis within the TG was carried out. FEDA scale 3 showed significant differences in the time-related progress between patients with whole-brain RT and those receiving hypofractionated stereotactic RT (P=.025), with less decrease in motivation in the latter group. Conclusion: Self-reported attention declined in

  17. Use of Health Care Services Before and After a Natural Disaster Among Survivors With and Without PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Susanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Andersen, Henrik Steen;

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS Ten months after the December 26, 2004, Southeast Asian tsunami, Danish tourists who had been in areas exposed to the disaster were mailed a questionnaire asking about demographic characteristics and exposure to the tsunami. The questionnaire included the PTSD Checklist, which measures symptoms...... on annual number of contacts with health care services before (2002-2004) and after (2005-2007) the tsunami. RESULTS Survivors with PTSD or partial PTSD used health care services more than survivors without PTSD before and after the tsunami. The severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms was positively......OBJECTIVE This study used a questionnaire to identify individuals who met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ten months after surviving a disaster and compared their use of health care services before and after the disaster with that of survivors who did not meet criteria for PTSD...

  18. Canine distemper virus infection among wildlife before and after the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junko; Nishio, Yohei; Kameo, Yuki; Terada, Yutaka; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Maeda, Ken

    2015-11-01

    In 2007-2008, a canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic occurred among wild animals in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, and many mammals, including the wild boar and deer, were infected. In this study, CDV prevalence among wild animals was surveyed before and after the epidemic. At first, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated protein A/G was established to detect CDV antibodies in many mammalian species. This established ELISA was available for testing dogs, raccoons and raccoon dogs as well as virus-neutralization test. Next, a serological survey of wild mammalians was conducted, and it was indicated that many wild mammalians, particularly raccoons, were infected with CDV during the epidemic, but few were infected before and after the epidemic. On the other hand, many raccoon dogs died during the epidemic, but CDV remained prevalent in the remaining population, and a small epidemic occurred in raccoon dogs in 2012-2013. These results indicated that the epidemic of 2007-2008 may have been intensified by transmission to raccoons. PMID:26074342

  19. Anthropometric Measures and Fasting Insulin Levels in Children Before and after Cure of Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Margaret F; Graf, Jennifer; Gokarn, Nirmal; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Children with Cushing syndrome present with growth delay and excess adiposity that tends to be generalized rather than centripetal. There are no prospective studies of this phenotype as it evolves before and after treatment in children. The aims of this study were to evaluate children prior to and one-year after surgical cure compared to controls and to determine fasting insulin levels and their possible association with waist circumference and waist-height ratio, pre- and post-cure of Cushing syndrome. Methods 30 children with Cushing syndrome were evaluated prior to and one-year post-treatment and compared to 14 age and body mass index-matched controls. Results Only triceps skin fold z- score showed a significant difference between patients with active Cushing syndrome and controls. A positive correlation between fasting insulin levels and waist circumference z- score was found for children with Cushing syndrome; this association persisted one-year following cure. Conclusions Unlike adults affected with Cushing syndrome, upper arm muscle area of children with Cushing syndrome did not differ from obese children without Cushing syndrome. The persistence of a positive correlation between waist circumference and fasting insulin despite remission of Cushing syndrome suggests that children with a history of Cushing syndrome may have an increased risk for adverse long-term effects of increased abdominal fat mass. Clinical Trial numbers: NCT00001595, NCT00001452, NCT00005927 PMID:22154461

  20. Abortion and infant mortality before and after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L S

    1981-07-01

    The 50 states of the US were compared in 1971-72 and 1974-75 with respect to percentage apparent conceptions aborted and infant mortality rates attributed to various causes. Only nonvehicle accidental deaths were consistently related to abortion. The correlation is nonlinear; nonvehicle accidental deaths were especially high in states with little or no abortion. A decline in nonvehicle accidental deaths from before to after the Supreme Court decision was most pronounced in states where there were fewest abortions before the decision and where increases in abortion followed the decision.

  1. Effect of warning symbols in combination with education on the frequency of erroneously crushing medication in nursing homes: an uncontrolled before and after study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Welie, Steven; Wijma, Linda; Beerden, Tim; van Doormaal, Jasperien; Taxis, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Residents of nursing homes often have difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), which complicates the administration of solid oral dosage formulations. Erroneously crushing medication is common, but few interventions have been tested to improve medication safety. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of warning symbols in combination with education on the frequency of erroneously crushing medication in nursing homes. Setting This was a prospective uncontrolled intervention study with a preintervention and postintervention measurement. The study was conducted on 18 wards (total of 200 beds) in 3 nursing homes in the North of the Netherlands. Participants We observed 36 nurses/nursing assistants (92% female; 92% nursing assistants) administering medication to 197 patients (62.9% female; mean age 81.6). Intervention The intervention consisted of a set of warning symbols printed on each patient's unit dose packaging indicating whether or not a medication could be crushed as well as education of ward staff (lectures, newsletter and poster). Primary outcome measure The relative risk (RR) of a crushing error occurring in the postintervention period compared to the preintervention period. A crushing error was defined as the crushing of a medication considered unsuitable to be crushed based on standard reference sources. Data were collected using direct (disguised) observation of nurses during drug administration. Results The crushing error rate decreased from 3.1% (21 wrongly crushed medicines out of 681 administrations) to 0.5% (3/636), RR=0.15 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.51). Likewise, there was a significant reduction using data from patients with swallowing difficulties only, 87.5% (21 errors/24 medications) to 30.0% (3/10) (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.89). Medications which were erroneously crushed included enteric-coated formulations (eg, omeprazole), medication with regulated release systems (eg, Persantin; dipyridamol) and toxic substances (eg, finasteride). Conclusions

  2. Evaluation of a strict protocol approach in managing women with severe disease due to hypertension in pregnancy: A before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backer Fèbè

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the introduction of a strict protocol based on the systemic evaluation of critically ill pregnant women with complications of hypertension affected the outcome of those women. Method Study group: Indigent South African women managed in the tertiary hospitals of the Pretoria Academic Complex. Since 1997 a standard definition of women with severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM, also referred to as a Nearmiss, has been used in the Pretoria Academic Complex. All cases of SAMM and maternal deaths (MD were entered on the Maternal Morbidity and Mortality Audit System programme (MaMMAS. A comparison of outcome of severely ill women who had complications of hypertension in pregnancy was performed between 1997–1998 (original protocol and 2002–2003 (strict protocol. Data include women referred from outside the Pretoria Academic Complex area to the tertiary hospitals. Results Between 1997–1998 there were 79 women with SAMM and 18 maternal deaths due to complications of hypertension, compared with 91 women with SAMM and 13 maternal deaths in 2002–2003. The mortality index (MI declined from 18.6% to 12.5% (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.27–1.45. Statistically significant fewer women had renal failure (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.21 – 0.66 and cerebral complications (RR 0.52, 95%CI 0.34 – 0.81 during the second period, and liver dysfunction (RR 0.27 95%CI 0.06 – 1.25 tended to be lower. However, there tended to be an increase in the number of women, who had immune system failure (RR 4.2 95%CI 0.93 – 18.94 and respiratory failure (RR 1.42 95%CI 0.88 – 2.29 although it did not reach significance. Cardiac failure remained constant (RR 0.84 95%CI 0.54 – 1.30. Conclusion The strict protocol approach based on the systemic evaluation of severely ill pregnant women with complications of hypertension and an intensive, regular feedback mechanism has been associated with a reduction in the number of patients with renal failure and

  3. Sleep hygiene intervention for youth aged 10 to 18 years with problematic sleep: a before-after pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Evan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study aimed to examine the changes following a sleep hygiene intervention on sleep hygiene practices, sleep quality, and daytime symptoms in youth. Methods Participants aged 10–18 years with self-identified sleep problems completed our age-appropriate F.E.R.R.E.T (an acronym for the categories of Food, Emotions, Routine, Restrict, Environment and Timing sleep hygiene programme; each category has three simple rules to encourage good sleep. Participants (and parents as appropriate completed the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC, Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS, and wore Actical® monitors twice before (1 and 2 weeks and three times after (6, 12 and 20 weeks the intervention. Anthropometric data were collected two weeks before and 20 weeks post-intervention. Results Thirty-three youths (mean age 12.9 years; M/F = 0.8 enrolled, and retention was 100%. ASHS scores significantly improved (p = 0.005 from a baseline mean (SD of 4.70 (0.41 to 4.95 (0.31 post-intervention, as did PSQI scores [7.47 (2.43 to 4.47 (2.37; p  Conclusions Our findings suggest the F.E.R.R.E.T sleep hygiene education programme might be effective in improving sleep in children and adolescents. However because this was a before and after study and a pilot study with several limitations, the findings need to be addressed with caution, and would need to be replicated within a randomised controlled trial to prove efficacy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000649819

  4. Changes in myocardial collagen content before and after left ventricular assist device application in dilated cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hong 梁红; Roland Hetzer; Johannes Müller; WENG Yu-guo 翁渝国; Gerd Wallukat; FU Ping 付平; LIN Han-sheng 林汉生; Sabina Bartel; Christoph Knosalla; Reinhard Pregla

    2004-01-01

    Background The purposes of this study were to confirm the changes in myocardial collagen level after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), find the relation between these changes and prognosis, and test a practical method to assess the level of myocardial collagen.Methods Left ventricular samples were collected from DCM patients with different prognosis (transplanted group n=8, weaning group n=10) at the time when the LVADs were implanted and again during cardiac transplantation (n=8). The level of neutral salt soluble collagen (NSC) and acid soluble collagen (ASC) was measured by Sircol collagen assay, and that of total collagen and insoluble collagen (ISC) by quantification of hydroxyproline (Hyp). Serum samples were collected from a portion of these patients (transplanted group, n=6; weaning group n=7) at the time the LVADs were implanted, 1 month after implantation and on explantation. Circulating concentration of carboxy-terminal propeptide of type Ⅰ procollagen (PⅠCP), amino-terminal propeptide of type Ⅰ procollagen (PⅠNP), amino-terminal propeptide of type Ⅲ procollagen (PⅢNP) and type Ⅰ collagen telopeptide (ⅠCTP) were measured by the equilibrium type radioimmunoassay. Results Before LVAD implantation the level of NSC and ISC in the weaning group was higher but ASC in the transplanted group was lower than in the controls (P<0.05). After LVAD support, the level of total collagen was higher, but ASC was also lower in the transplanted group than in the controls (P<0.05). In comparison of the pre- and post-LVAD subgroups of the transplanted and weaning groups, all collagen fraction levels before LVAD implantation were lower in the transplanted group than in the weaning group (P<0.05); but this difference disappeared after LVAD support. Comparison of the pre- and post-LVAD subgroups of the transplanted group showed increased level of NSC and total collagen after LVAD support. The changes of serum peptide

  5. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of salivary glands with gustatory stimulation - Comparison before and after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunyan; Gu, Yajia; Peng, Weijun; Mao, Jian; Lei, Yue; Shen, Xigang [Dept. of Radiology, Fudan Univ. Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Dept. of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China); Ou, Dan; He, Xiayun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Fudan Univ. Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Dept. of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China)

    2013-10-15

    Background: Xerostomia is the most prominent complication in patients with head and neck carcinoma after radiotherapy (RT). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) with gustatory stimulation may contribute to the evaluation of salivary gland function. Purpose: To investigate the value of DWI for quantifying physiological changes of the parotid gland during gustatory stimulation in patients before and after RT. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 28 consecutive patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before and after RT and clinical xerostomia was also assessed. A DWI sequence was performed once at rest and continually repeated seven times during stimulation with ascorbic acid. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for parotid glands at different time points and the range of increase with stimulation were calculated. Paired two-tailed Student t tests were used to compare the ADC values before and after stimulation, and before and after RT. Results: Before RT, the ADC showed an initial increase (P<0.001) and then fluctuated during stimulation. After RT, as the clinical xerostomia changed from Grade 0 to Grade 2, the mean ADC at rest increased compared with the pre-RT value (P<0.001). A similar response to stimulation was observed, but the range of increase between the maximum ADC during stimulation and the baseline value at rest was higher post-RT than pre-RT (P=0.022). The minimum ADC during stimulation was higher than the baseline value post-RT (P=0.028), but there was no difference pre-RT (P=0.603). Conclusion: DWI combined with gustatory stimulation seems to display the physiological changes of the parotid gland following RT and may be a potential tool for non-invasively assessing salivary gland function.

  6. Circulating tumor DNA detection in lung cancer patients before and after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nannan; Lou, Feng; Ma, Yongfu; Li, Jie; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wei; Ye, Hua; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Zhao, Ming-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jun; Shi, Rong; Jones, Lindsey; Chen, Katherine S.; Huang, Xue F.; Chen, Si-Yi; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in peripheral blood is a “liquid biopsy” that contains representative tumor information including gene mutations. Additionally, repeated ctDNA samples can be easily obtained to monitor response to treatment and disease progression, which may be especially valuable to lung cancer patients with tumors that cannot be easily biopsied or removed. To investigate the changes in ctDNA after surgical tumor resection, tumor and blood samples obtained before and after surgery were collected prospectively from 41 non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Somatic driver mutations in tumor DNA (tDNA) and pre- and post-op plasma ctDNA sample pairs were identified by targeted sequencing in several genes including EGFR, KRAS, and TP53 with an overall study concordance of 78.1% and sensitivity and specificity of 69.2% and 93.3%, respectively. Importantly, the frequency of 91.7% of ctDNA mutations decreased after surgery and these changes were observed as little as 2 days post-op. Moreover, the presence of ctDNA had a higher positive predictive value than that of six tumor biomarkers in current clinical use. This study demonstrates the use of targeted sequencing to reliably identify ctDNA changes in response to treatment, indicating a potential utility of this approach in the clinical management of NSCLC. PMID:27641744

  7. Imaging of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors before and after Imatinib Mesylate Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, S.; Dundamadappa, S.K.; Karam, A.R. (Radiology Dept., Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States)); Stay, R.M. (Radiology Dept., Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Sonnenberg, E. van (Radiology Dept., Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (United States))

    2009-10-15

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. Recent advances in treatment using the molecular targeting agent imatinib mesylate have shown startling response rates and variegated imaging findings. We present the various imaging appearances of GIST on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both before and after treatment.

  8. Television Entertainment Shows in Romania before and after the Revolution Moment in 1989

    OpenAIRE

    Calinciuc, Iulia Andreea

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the television entertainment shows before and after the revolution moment in 1989, focusing on the messages transmitted, as well as the type of entertainment, censorship, values and relationships between the technical and artistic teams at the Romanian public television (TVR)

  9. Quality assessment of diagnostic before-after studies: development of methodology in the context of a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Clare F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality assessment tools for primary studies of test accuracy are relatively well developed, although only one is validated (QUADAS, but very little work has been done to develop tools to quality-assess studies evaluating the impact of diagnostic testing on management of patients (diagnostic or therapeutic yield. The recent draft NICE Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal (2007 suggests QUADAS "as a useful starting point for appraising studies that evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a test" but does not mention how to quality assess diagnostic or therapeutic yield studies, in particular diagnostic before-after studies. In the context of undertaking a rapid systematic review of structural neuroimaging in psychosis for NICE, we describe the modifications that we made to QUADAS, our experience of this in practice and in relation to published theory on diagnostic or therapeutic yield studies. Methods The QUADAS tool was assessed for use in the review by two systematic reviewers with in-depth knowledge of the clinical area being reviewed and the types of studies being found in the searches that could answer the clinical question. Modifications were made following discussion as considered appropriate. Results Two QUADAS questions were removed altogether and. four additional questions were developed to capture additional quality issues not addressed by QUADAS. However, the developed checklist only partially helped to discern implications of the study designs on the results given. Conclusion The division between topic-specific and more generic quality items of relevance to diagnostic before-after studies is important. With more time, further work could have been done to create a better quality assessment tool, for example by incorporating some of the issues mentioned in previous work in this area. This paper is a discussion around quality assessment and is intended to offer insights into the types of issues that

  10. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: correlation with tumour response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate the decrease in background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and tumour response measured with MRI in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). One hundred and forty-six MRI examinations of 73 patients with 80 biopsy-proven breast cancers who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were retrospectively analysed. All images were reviewed by two blinded readers, who classified BPE into categories (BEC; 1 = minimal, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked) before and after NAC. Histopathological and morphological tumour responses were analysed and compared. The distribution of BEC 1/2/3/4 was 25/46/18/11 % before and 78/20/2/0 % after NAC. On average, BPE decreased by 0.87 BEC. Cohen's kappa showed substantial agreement (k = 0.73-0.77) before and moderate agreement (k = 0.43-0.60) after NAC and moderate agreement (k = 0.62-0.60) concerning the change in BEC. Correlating the change in BPE with tumour response, the average decrease in BEC was 1.3 in cases of complete remission, 0.83 in cases with partial response, 0.85 in cases with stable disease and 0.40 in cases with progressive disease. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the decrease in BEC and tumour response (r = -0.24, p = 0.03). BPE decreased by, on average, 0.87 BEC following NAC for breast cancer. The degree of BPE reduction seemed to correlate with tumour response. (orig.)

  11. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: correlation with tumour response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preibsch, H.; Wanner, L.; Bahrs, S.D.; Wietek, B.M.; Nikolaou, K.; Wiesinger, B. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Siegmann-Luz, K.C. [Diagnostic Center for Breast Cancer and Screening Mammography Brandenburg Ost, Koenigs Wusterhausen (Germany); Oberlecher, E.; Hahn, M. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, A. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    To correlate the decrease in background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and tumour response measured with MRI in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). One hundred and forty-six MRI examinations of 73 patients with 80 biopsy-proven breast cancers who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were retrospectively analysed. All images were reviewed by two blinded readers, who classified BPE into categories (BEC; 1 = minimal, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked) before and after NAC. Histopathological and morphological tumour responses were analysed and compared. The distribution of BEC 1/2/3/4 was 25/46/18/11 % before and 78/20/2/0 % after NAC. On average, BPE decreased by 0.87 BEC. Cohen's kappa showed substantial agreement (k = 0.73-0.77) before and moderate agreement (k = 0.43-0.60) after NAC and moderate agreement (k = 0.62-0.60) concerning the change in BEC. Correlating the change in BPE with tumour response, the average decrease in BEC was 1.3 in cases of complete remission, 0.83 in cases with partial response, 0.85 in cases with stable disease and 0.40 in cases with progressive disease. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the decrease in BEC and tumour response (r = -0.24, p = 0.03). BPE decreased by, on average, 0.87 BEC following NAC for breast cancer. The degree of BPE reduction seemed to correlate with tumour response. (orig.)

  12. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a child: HRCT findings before and after bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a child before and after bronchoalveolar lavage. The CT pattern in our case differs from the pattern described in previous reports. We found a more homogeneous distribution of the pulmonary changes and a ''crazy paving'' pattern. High-resolution CT may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of this rare disease and in the follow-up of the pulmonary changes after bronchoalveolar lavage. (orig.)

  13. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  14. Electrocortical Dynamics in Children with a Language-Learning Impairment Before and After Audiovisual Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Sabine; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April A

    2016-05-01

    Detecting and discriminating subtle and rapid sound changes in the speech environment is a fundamental prerequisite of language processing, and deficits in this ability have frequently been observed in individuals with language-learning impairments (LLI). One approach to studying associations between dysfunctional auditory dynamics and LLI, is to implement a training protocol tapping into this potential while quantifying pre- and post-intervention status. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are highly sensitive to the brain correlates of these dynamic changes and are therefore ideally suited for examining hypotheses regarding dysfunctional auditory processes. In this study, ERP measurements to rapid tone sequences (standard and deviant tone pairs) along with behavioral language testing were performed in 6- to 9-year-old LLI children (n = 21) before and after audiovisual training. A non-treatment group of children with typical language development (n = 12) was also assessed twice at a comparable time interval. The results indicated that the LLI group exhibited considerable gains on standardized measures of language. In terms of ERPs, we found evidence of changes in the LLI group specifically at the level of the P2 component, later than 250 ms after the onset of the second stimulus in the deviant tone pair. These changes suggested enhanced discrimination of deviant from standard tone sequences in widespread cortices, in LLI children after training. PMID:26671710

  15. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with screening-detected celiac disease, before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, a prospective nested case-referent study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordyke Katrina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease (CD is a chronic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals in which a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy is precipitated by dietary gluten. It can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms may be absent, subtle, or not recognized as CD related and therefore not prompt testing within routine clinical practice. Thus, most people with CD are undiagnosed and a public health intervention, which involves screening the general population, is an option to find those with unrecognized CD. However, how these screening-detected individuals experience the diagnosis and treatment (gluten-free diet is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of adolescents with screening-detected CD before and one year after diagnosis and treatment. Methods A prospective nested case-referent study was done involving Swedish adolescents who had participated in a CD screening study when they were in the sixth grade and about 12 years old. Screening-detected adolescents (n = 103 and referents without CD who participated in the same screening (n = 483 answered questionnaires at the time of the screening and approximately one year after the screening-detected adolescents had received their diagnosis that included the EQ-5D instrument used to measure health status and report HRQoL. Results The HRQoL for the adolescents with screening-detected CD is similar to the referents, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of the gluten-free diet, except in the dimension of pain at follow-up. In the pain dimension at follow-up, fewer cases reported problems than referents (12.6% and 21.9% respectively, Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94. However, a sex stratified analysis revealed that the significant difference was for boys at follow-up, where fewer screening-detected boys reported problems (4.3% compared to referent boys (18.8% (Adjusted OR 0

  16. Tracking the evolution of crossmodal plasticity and visual functions before and after sight restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Dormal, Giulia; Lepore, Franco; Harissi-Dagher, Mona; Albouy, Geneviève; Bertone, Armando; Rossion, Bruno; COLLIGNON, olivier

    2014-01-01

    Visual deprivation leads to massive reorganization in both the structure and function of the occipital cortex, raising crucial challenges for sight restoration. We tracked the behavioral, structural, and neurofunctional changes occurring in an early and severely visually impaired patient before and 1.5 and 7 mo after sight restoration with magnetic resonance imaging. Robust presurgical auditory responses were found in occipital cortex despite residual preoperative vision. In primary visual co...

  17. Medical Brain Drain in Romania: Trends before and after Accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Boncea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the impact of Romania’s accession to the European Union on medical emigration, analyzing the evolution of the phenomenon before and after 2007. Prior work in this field consists in theoretical and qualitative studies, highlighting the push and pull factors contributing to the emigration of Romanian physicians, the impact and the possible measures. Emigration trends before integration are analyzed using a data set existing in the literature. For the following period, between 2007 and 2010, the data set was filled by collecting statistics on the medical doctors trained in Romania and practicing abroad from the destination countries. The results confirm the concern rose about the massive emigration of medical doctors following the integration, compared to the previous period: between 2007 and 2010, Romania lost 8131 physicians. This study has major implications for academics with interest in modeling the effects of medical brain drain on economic development. Also it is a valuable instrument for policy makers, offering an overview of the magnitude of this phenomenon, helpful in adopting the right policy measures. The article offers a unique data set on the emigration of physicians, constituting a starting point in the attempt of implementing a monitoring system.

  18. Inhibin secretion in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome before and after treatment with progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anifandis George

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives It has been suggested that inhibin secretion is altered in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. However, the contribution of a preceding luteal phase has not been taken into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether progesterone in the context of a simulated luteal phase affects basal and FSH-induced inhibin secretion in women with PCOS and elevated LH. Methods Ten women with PCOS and 8 normally cycling women participated in an experimental procedure (Exp involving the administration of a single injection of recombinant FSH (450 IU sc. In the women with PCOS, the procedure was performed before (Exp 1 and after a 20-day treatment with progesterone (Exp 2, while in the normal women on day 2 of the cycle (Exp 3. Inhibin A and B levels were measured in blood samples taken before and 24 hours after the FSH injection. Results Basal LH levels were significantly higher and inhibin A levels were significantly lower in the PCOS group compared to the control group, while inhibin B levels were comparable in the two groups. In the PCOS group, after treatment with progesterone inhibin A and LH but not inhibin B levels decreased significantly (p Conclusions In women with PCOS, as compared to control women, the dissimilar pattern of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion in response to FSH appears to be independent of a preceding simulated luteal phase. It is possible that compared to normal ovaries, the PCOS ovaries are less sensitive to endogenous LH regarding inhibin A secretion and more sensitive to exogenous FSH stimulation in terms of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion.

  19. ‘‘Omics’’ of Selenium Biology: A Prospective Study of Plasma Proteome Network Before and After Selenized-Yeast Supplementation in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low selenium levels have been linked to a higher incidence of cancer and other diseases, including Keshan,Chagas, and Kashin–Beck, and insulin resistance. Additionally, muscle and cardiovascular disorders, immune dysfunction, cancer, neurological disorders, and endocrine function have been associate...

  20. Straylight before and after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis or laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lapid-Gortzak; J.W. van der Linden; I.J.E. van der Meulen; C.P. Nieuwendaal; M.P. Mourits; T.J.T.P. van den Berg

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare straylight values before and 3 months after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) and determine the cause of any change SETTING Private refractive surgery clinic, Driebergen, The Netherlands DESIGN Comparative case serie

  1. Peer Review in Higher Education: Student Perceptions before and after Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Raoul A.; Pearce, Jon M.; Baik, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is integral to academic endeavour, but opportunities for students to benefit from peer review in higher education remain limited, and relatively little is known about how student perceptions influence their appreciation of peer review. University student perceptions were examined before and after experiencing student peer review in…

  2. Patients’ experiences of changes in health complaints before, during, and after removal of dental amalgam

    OpenAIRE

    Therese T. Sjursen; Binder, Per-Einar; Lygre, Gunvor B.; Helland, Vigdis; Dalen, Knut; Björkman, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how patients with health complaints attributed to dental amalgam experienced and gave meaning to changes in health complaints before, during, and after removal of all amalgam fillings. We conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with 12 participants from the treatment group in a Norwegian amalgam removal trial. Interviews took place within a couple months of the final follow-up 5 years after amalgam removal. Using the NVivo9 software, we conducted an explora...

  3. Mechanical and structural characterization of tibial prosthetic interfaces before and after aging under simulated service conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, A; Ramalho, A; Pais, S; Durães, L

    2015-03-01

    Prosthesis interface is one of the most important components to promote individual׳s health and comfort, as it establishes direct contact with the skin and transfers loads generated during gait. The aim of this study was to mechanically characterize, three commercial interfaces (block copolymer, silicone gel and silicone elestomer), under static and dynamic conditions, before and after undergoing a process of chemical aging in synthetic sweat for periods up to 90 days. Static mechanical compression tests were performed on the materials, as well as fatigue tests to assess their static and dynamic mechanical behaviors, respectively. For the second, a sinusoidal load was applied with an appropriate range of deformation for each material. Several analytical techniques were also used to characterize the materials, namely Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and morphology characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). All the tested materials have strong viscoelastic behavior, showing a linear response for small deformations, followed by a nonlinear behavior for higher deformation. The block copolymer and the silicone gel are affected by aging in synthetic sweat in a similar way, with a significant increase of their rigidity after 30 days, followed by a progressive reduction. The silicone elastomer displays a continuous increase of rigidity along the 90 days of storage, being the most sensitive to aging affects. It also exhibits the lowest stiffness value, being suitable for uses that require maximum comfort. All materials demonstrate chemical and structural stability under service simulated conditions. PMID:25554916

  4. Assessment of preclinical students’ academic motivation before and after a three-day academic affair program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung MN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1 Juraiporn Somboonwong,2 Vorapol Jaroonvanichkul,1 Pongsak Wannakrairot3 1Medical Education Unit, 2Quality Management Division and Department of Physiology, 3Academic Affairs Division, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students’ motivation to study.Design and methods: An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students’ academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS. Cronbach’s alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance.Results: Students’ academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students’ self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (P<0.001. Moreover, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment increased significantly (P<0.001. This is related to the enjoyment of passing academic milestones, and a step

  5. CHEMICAL AND ENERGETIC CONTENT OF CORN BEFORE AND AFTER PRE-CLEANING

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Iara Furtado Costa Rodrigues; José Henrique Stringhini; Márcio Ceccantini; Antonio Mário Penz Júnior; Andrea Machado Leal Ribeiro; Vanessa Peripolli; Concepta Margaret McManus Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    The poultry industry normally has little control over the raw material that arrives at the processing plant. This experiment aimed to evaluate chemical and energetic quality of corn obtained in a feed mill before and after pre-cleaning. Twenty samples of 30 kg of corn each were taken from trucks delivering corn to the mill. The trucks were then unloaded and the material passed through a pre-cleaning process when another sample was taken. Samples were graded and physical properties evaluated: ...

  6. Assessment of preclinical students’ academic motivation before and after a three-day academic affair program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students’ motivation to study. Design and methods An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students’ academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Cronbach’s alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance. Results Students’ academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students’ self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (Pmotivation toward accomplishment increased significantly (Pacademic milestones, and a step ahead of autonomous motivation. Amotivation level declined significantly (Pacademic motivational constructs before and after the intervention was altogether significant (P=0.036, multivariate analysis of variance). Conclusion After experiencing a three-day intervention, the new students’ motivation advanced along the continuum of self-determination toward

  7. CT value analysis and clinical significance before and after percutaneous lumbar discectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雷; 裴福兴; 宋跃明; 沈彬; 周宗科; 宋文锴; 张聪

    2002-01-01

    To provide theoretical basis for effect and mechanism of percutaneous lumbar discectomy in clinic. Methods: A total of 180 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were evaluated by CT on the fifth day before and after operation. Meanwhile, CT value was measured in the determined level and region. Results: After operation, CT value of the central and posterior determined point of herniated intervertebral disc was lower significantly than that before operation (P<0.01), but CT value of the anterior determined point was different insignificantly. The excellent and good results of the patients together were 83% postoperatively. Conclusions: The curative effect of percutaneous lumbar discectomy is achieved through reduction of lumbar intradiscal pressure.

  8. Before and after study of bar workers' perceptions of the impact of smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullally Bernie J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives: To compare support for, and perceptions of, the impacts of smoke-free workplace legislation among bar workers in the Republic of Ireland (ROI pre- and post-implementation, and to identify predictors of support for the legislation. Methods Setting: Public houses (pubs in three areas of the ROI. Design: Comparisons pre- and post-implementation of smoke-free workplace legislation. Participants: From a largely non-random selection, 288 bar workers volunteered for the baseline survey; 220 were followed up one year later (76.4%. Outcome measures: Level of support for the legislation, attitude statements concerning potential impacts of the law and modelled predictors of support for the legislation. Results Pre-implementation 59.5% of participants supported the legislation, increasing to 76.8% post-implementation. Support increased among smokers by 27.3 percentage points from 39.4% to 66.7% (p Pre-legislation three-quarters of participants agreed that the legislation would make bars more comfortable and was needed to protect workers' health. Post-legislation these proportions increased to over 90% (p Conclusion Smoke-free legislation had the support of three-quarters of a large sample of bar workers in the ROI. However, this group holds complex sets of both positive and negative perspectives on the legislation. Of particular importance is that negative economic perceptions did not diminish the widely held perception that the ban is needed to protect workers' health.

  9. Improving the management of people with a family history of breast cancer in primary care: before and after study of audit-based education.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi, I.; Chowdhury, S.; Chan, T.; Jubber, I; Tahir, M.; de Lusignan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background In England, guidance from National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) states women with a family history of breast cancer presenting to primary care should be reassured or referred. We reviewed the evidence for interventions that might be applied in primary care and conducted an audit of whether low risk women are correctly advised and flagged. Methods We conducted a literature review to identify modifiable risk factors. We extracted routinely collected data from the computer...

  10. Effects of two commercial electronic prescribing systems on prescribing error rates in hospital in-patients: a before and after study.

    OpenAIRE

    Westbrook, Johanna I.; Margaret Reckmann; Ling Li; Runciman, William B.; Rosemary Burke; Connie Lo; Baysari, Melissa T; Jeffrey Braithwaite; Day, Richard O

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Medication errors—for example, prescribing the wrong drug or giving a drug by the wrong route—frequently occur in health care settings and are responsible for thousands of deaths every year. Until recently, medicines were prescribed and dispensed using systems based on hand-written scripts. In hospitals, for example, physicians wrote orders for medications directly onto a medication chart, which was then used by the nursing staff to give drugs to their patients. Ho...

  11. Exploration with Ct before and after cranial irradiation in ALL and NHL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 72 children (44 boys and 28 girls, 1 to 14 years old) with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) or malignant non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), computed tomography was used for exploration of the brain before and up to 8 years after the radiation therapy. Thus, 67 normal and 25 pathological findings resulted; nevertheless, in 10 of the children examined prior to radiation therapy, computed tomography had already shown pathological findings. (orig.)

  12. The impact of type of manual medication cart filling method on the frequency of medication administration errors : A prospective before and after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmel, Anneliene M.; Becker, Matthijs L.; van den Bout, Tilly; Taxis, Katja; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The medication cart can be filled using an automated system or a manual method and when using a manual method the medication can be arranged either by round time or by medication name. For the manual methods, it is hypothesized that the latter method would result in a lower frequency of

  13. Impact of continuing medical education in cancer diagnosis on GP knowledge, attitude and readiness to investigate - a before-after study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Berit Skjødeberg; Bro, Flemming; Falborg, Alina Zalounina;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuing medical education (CME) in earlier cancer diagnosis was launched in Denmark in 2012 as part of the Danish National Cancer Plan. The CME programme was introduced to improve the recognition among general practitioners (GPs) of symptoms suggestive of cancer and improve...

  14. Time will tell: community acceptability of HIV vaccine research before and after the “Step Study” vaccine discontinuation

    OpenAIRE

    Frew, Paula M.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Su-I Hou; et al

    2010-01-01

    Paula M Frew1,2,3,4, Mark J Mulligan1,2,3, Su-I Hou5, Kayshin Chan3, Carlos del Rio1,2,3,61Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Emory Center for AIDS Research, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 3The Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center, Decatur, Georgia, USA; 4Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 5Department of Health Promotion a...

  15. Internal Exposure of a Seoul Subway Passenger due to Radon Inhalation: Before and After PSD Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is the major source of public exposure to natural radiation and is also known to cause lung cancer. Platform screen doors (PSD) were installed primarily for passenger's safety purposes. Radon concentration and aerosol distribution have been changed since PSD installation. In this study, we have assessed the annual effective dose of regular subway passengers, before and after PSD installation, by employing current available data on air concentration of radon in Seoul subways with aerosol size distributions taken into account. ICRP recommends that the reference value for internal dose from radon be between 1.0 and 20.0 mSv. Korean Ministry of Environment enacted the indoor radon regulation, which requires the indoor radon level should not exceed 148 Bq/m3. Radon concentrations in Seoul subways and annual dose estimates meet the requirements

  16. Health Care Service Utilization of Dementia Patients before and after Institutionalization: A Claims Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Schwarzkopf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-based and institutional dementia care has been compared in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal information on the effect of institutionalization on health care service utilization is sparse. Methods: We analyzed claims data from 651 dementia patients via Generalized Estimation Equations to assess health care service utilization profiles and corresponding expenditures from four quarters before to four quarters after institutionalization. Results: In all domains, utilization increased in the quarter of institutionalization. Afterwards, the use of drugs, medical aids, and non-physician services (e.g., occupational therapy and physiotherapy remained elevated, but use of in- and outpatient treatment decreased. Cost of care showed corresponding profiles. Conclusion: Institutional dementia care seems to be associated with an increased demand for supportive services but not necessarily for specialized medical care.

  17. Health Care Service Utilization of Dementia Patients before and after Institutionalization: A Claims Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Hao, Yi; Holle, Rolf; Graessel, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based and institutional dementia care has been compared in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal information on the effect of institutionalization on health care service utilization is sparse. Methods We analyzed claims data from 651 dementia patients via Generalized Estimation Equations to assess health care service utilization profiles and corresponding expenditures from four quarters before to four quarters after institutionalization. Results In all domains, utilization increased in the quarter of institutionalization. Afterwards, the use of drugs, medical aids, and non-physician services (e.g., occupational therapy and physiotherapy) remained elevated, but use of in- and outpatient treatment decreased. Cost of care showed corresponding profiles. Conclusion Institutional dementia care seems to be associated with an increased demand for supportive services but not necessarily for specialized medical care. PMID:25337076

  18. Comparison of CT numbers of organs before and after plastination using standard S-10 technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, Pauline; Singh, Rabi Raja; Gibikote, Sridhar; Rabi, Suganthy

    2015-05-01

    Plastination is the art of preserving biological tissues with curable polymers. Imaging with plastinates offers a unique opportunity for radiographic, anatomical, pathological correlation to elucidate complex anatomical relationships. The aim of this study was to make plastinates from cadavers using the standard S-10 plastination technique and to compare the radiological properties of the tissue before and afterwards to examine the suitability of plastinates as phantoms for planning radiotherapy treatment. An above-diaphragm and a below-diaphragm specimen were obtained from a male and a female cadaver, respectively, and subjected to the standard S-10 plastination technique. CT images were obtained before and after plastination and were compared using Treatment Planning System for anatomical accuracy, volume of organs, and CT numbers. The plastinated specimens obtained were dry, robust, and durable. CT imaging of the plastinated specimens showed better anatomical detail of the organs than the preplastinate. Organ volumes were estimated by contouring the organs' outline in the CT images of the preplastinated and postplastinated specimens, revealing an average shrinkage of 25%. CT numbers were higher in the plastinated specimens except in bones and air-filled cavities such as the maxillary air sinus. Although plastination by the standard S-10 technique preserves anatomical accuracy, it increases the CT numbers of the organs because of the density of silicone, making it unsuitable for radiation dosimetry. Further improvements of the technique could yield more suitable plastinated phantoms. PMID:25708008

  19. Radioimmunological investigation of calcitonine in patients with reccurent calcium nephrolithiasis before and after calcium loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of the changes in the calcitonine serum levels for differentiation of different types of hypercalciuria was assessed. The investigation was carried out with 15 patients with recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria, 4 - with primary hyperparathyroidism, 3 - with renal hypercalciuria, 7 - with absorptive hypercalciuria and 1 -with adenomectomy of the parathyroid glands. The calcitonine serum was determined before and after loading with 1000 mg Ca. A double-antibody radioimmunological method with high specificity, accuracy and sensitivity was used for calcitonine determination. The results of the study revealed that the serum calcitonine cannot serve as differential diagnostic criterion in determination of the type of hypercalciuria, but could be useful in the diagnosis of the medullary cancer of the thyroid gland. 3 figs., 5 refs

  20. Mechanical properties of water hyacinth fibers – polyester composites before and after immersion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Moisture absorption of water hyacinth (WH) fibers was measured. • WH fibers polyester composites immersed in water decreased mechanical properties. • Improvement fibers fraction in polyester increases mechanical properties. - Abstract: This study reported moisture absorption of untreated and treated individual water hyacinth (WH) fibers as well as comparison the mechanical properties of WH fibers – unsaturated polyester (UPR) matrix composites after and before immersion in water. The result shows that the individual WH fibers treated with various alkali concentration did not exhibit significantly decreases of their moisture absorption. SEM photograph in cross section of the treated WH fibers shows swollen cell wall containing more nano and micro hollows. Tensile and flexure strength of the wet composite samples are lower than that of dried ones. However, increases volume fraction of the WH fibers in UPR matrix affected slightly on enhancement mechanical properties of the composite samples

  1. Tc1 Cells Percentage in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis before and after Treatment with Glucantime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohajery

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various responses and different prognosis to specific treatment in different patients from one hand, and importance of IFN-γ producer cells on the other hand impressed us to study Tc1. Methods: The study was conducted in Ghaem Medical Center and Bu-Ali Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran from 2001 to 2002. Lymphocytes of 36 patients were counted and cultured. Percentage of different responsible immunity cells in 29 patients, were determined by Flow Cytometry System before and after medication with glucantime (IM. Patients who showed improvement after the treatment were put into group 1 and those who did not recover were labeled group 2. In this self-control clinical trial, sampling method was consecutive non-probability and the results were analyzed by t-test consequently. Results: The percentage of Tc1 cells showed a significant increase despite of being stimulated with Phorpol-Mristate-Acetate (PMA among the whole studied patients and group 1 (P= 0.069 and P= 0.040, respectively. While no significant change was observed among patients in group 2. Conclusion: This verifies the influence of Tc1 cells for the treatment of patients with CL and perhaps the role of glucantime in improving the cell immunity response through increasing such cells.

  2. Statistical processing of natality data for the Czech Republic before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All available data regarding natality in Czechoslovakia (or the Czech Republic) before and after the Chernobyl accident are summarized. Data from the databases of the Czech Statistical Office and of the State Office for Nuclear Safety were used to analyze natality and mortality of children in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination and the change in the sex ratio at time of birth that was observed in some areas in November of 1986. Although the change in the ratio of newborn boys-to-girls ratio was statistically significant, no direct relationship between that ratio and the level of contamination was found. Statistically significant changes in the sex ratio also occurred in Czechoslovakia (or in the Czech Republic) in the past, both before and after the accident. Furthermore, no statistically significant changes in the rate of stillbirths and multiple pregnancies were observed after the Chernobyl accident

  3. Coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses before and after functional endoscotic sinus surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses and the ostiomeatal complex (OMC) was performed before and 12 months after bilateral functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in 30 patients with sinusitis and 12 patients with nasal polyposis. The extent of sinus mucosal thickening was graded, and the patency of the OMC was evaluated. After FESS, the percentage of open OMCs had increased from 42% to 83% in the sinusitis group, and from 8% to 45% in the polyposis group. There was only a small improvement in mucosal score in sinuses with opened OMC, so that the overall extent of sinus opacification before and after FESS was almost the same. Despite this, 91% of the patients reported clinical relief of symptoms. Preoperative coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses serves as an anatomical map for the surgeon, but there is no benefit of routine postoperative CT. (orig.)

  4. SELECTIVE EVALUATION OF TWO URINARY ENZYMES (NAG AND AAP BEFORE AND AFTER UNILATERAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Nikoobakht

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological effects extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is not precisely known. We have evaluated two urinary enzymes activity N-acetyl-B-D-glucosamine (NAG and alanine amino peptidase (AAP before and after unilateral ESWL as markers for renal parenchymal damage. Forty eight patients with kidney stones (mean age 39 who had presented for the first time or at least one year after their previous lithotripsy underwent ESWL. Urinary specimens were collected before and after first, third and seventh days of lithotripsy and NAG, AAP were evaluated. These enzymes displayed the greatest activity 24 hours after ESWL with significant difference compared to the control group, (P < 0.05 versus 0.02. Elevation of urinary enzymes activity correlated with stone size particularly stones larger than 2 cm. These data suggest that there is some tubular and parenchymal damage induced by ESWL that needs time to get improved. The higher urinary enzyme activity in patients with larger stones ( > 2 cm is probably related to injury resulting from passage of smaller stones, produced after lithotripsy of a large stone, and it is suggested that these patients are treated with a safer procedure.

  5. Pelvic organ function before and after laparoscopic bowel resection for rectosigmoid endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riiskjaer, M; Greisen, S; Glavind-Kristensen, M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess urinary, sexual, and bowel function before and after laparoscopic bowel resection for rectosigmoid endometriosis. DESIGN: Prospectively collected data regarding the function of the pelvic organs. SETTING: Tertiary endometriosis referral unit, Aarhus University Hospital. SAMPLE......: A cohort of 128 patients who underwent laparoscopic bowel resection for endometriosis. METHODS: The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ), Sexual Function-Vaginal Changes Questionnaire (SVQ), and the Low Anterior Resection Syndrome (LARS) questionnaire were answered before.......40; P = 0.002) of increased incontinence problems (I-score) 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSION: A significant and clinically relevant improvement in urinary and sexual function 1 year after laparoscopic bowel resection for endometriosis was found. Except for anastomotic leakage, this could be observed...

  6. Normative topographic ERP analyses of speed of speech processing and grammar before and after grammatical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J; Molfese, Dennis; Murray, Micah M; Key, Alexandra P F

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) preschoolers and age-matched preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) received event-related potentials (ERPs) to four monosyllabic speech sounds prior to treatment and, in the SLI group, after 6 months of grammatical treatment. Before treatment, the TD group processed speech sounds faster than the SLI group. The SLI group increased the speed of their speech processing after treatment. Posttreatment speed of speech processing predicted later impairment in comprehending phrase elaboration in the SLI group. During the treatment phase, change in speed of speech processing predicted growth rate of grammar in the SLI group.

  7. Smoking Behaviour before, during, and after Pregnancy: The Effect of Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lauria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data for this study were obtained from a population-based follow-up study in 25 Italian Local Health Units (LHUs to evaluate pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care in Italy. A sample of 3534 women was recruited and interviewed within a few days of their giving birth and at 3, 6, and 12 months after delivery, by trained interviewers using questionnaires. The objective of the study was to evaluate changes in smoking behaviour from one interview to the next. Of 2546 women who completed the follow-up, smoking prevalences before and during pregnancy were 21.6% and 6.7%; smoking prevalences and smoking relapse at 3, 6, and 12 months were 8.1% and 18.5%, 10.3% and 30.3%, and 10.9% and 32.3%, respectively. Smoking during and after pregnancy was more likely among women who were less educated, single, not attending antenatal classes, employed, and not breastfeeding. The results show that women who are breastfeeding smoke less than not breastfeeding women, even after controlling for other predictors (i.e.,  smoking relapse at 12 months: OR=0.43, 95%  CI:  0.19, 0.94. A low maternal mood increases the risk of smoking relapse within 6 months of about 73%. This study also suggests that prolonged breastfeeding reduces the risk of smoking relapse and that this reduction may be persistent in time. Interventions targeting breastfeeding promotion may also indirectly support smoking cessation, even in absence of specific interventions.

  8. Hypothalamus-Anchored Resting Brain Network Changes before and after Sertraline Treatment in Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sertraline, one of the oldest antidepressants, remains to be the most efficacious treatment for depression. However, major depression disorder (MDD is characterized by altered emotion processing and deficits in cognitive control. In cognitive interference tasks, patients with MDD have shown excessive hypothalamus activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of antidepressant treatment (sertraline on hypothalamus-anchored resting brain circuitry. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on depressed patients (n=12 both before and after antidepressant treatment. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, patients with depression showed significantly increased connectivity between the hypothalamus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, putamen, caudate, and claustrum. By contrast, decreased connectivity of the hypothalamus-related areas was primarily located in the inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, cingulated gyrus, precuneus, thalamus, and cerebellum. After eight weeks of antidepressant therapy, 8 out of the 12 depressed subjects achieved 70% reduction or better in depressive symptoms, as measured on the Hamilton depression rating scale. Our findings may infer that antidepressant treatment can alter the functional connectivity of the hypothalamus resting brain to achieve its therapeutic effect.

  9. Change of risk information disclosure in annual report. Before and after earthquake disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research examines how risk information disclosure is changing in annual report before and after East Japan Great Earthquake Disaster. Company voluntary disclose risk information in annual report. Manager can decide a style and items of risk information. This paper explores risk information disclosures of Tokyo Electric Power Company, Chubu Power Electric Company, Kansai Electric Power Company and Toyota Motor Corporation. The managers except Tokyo Electric Company are likely to disclose own catastrophe risk before the disaster. However, they do not try to reduce their risk. Corporations' risk information do not link with own risk management. (author)

  10. Radiocesium in Canadian Arctic Beluga and Caribou Before and After the Fukushima Accident of 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, Trevor J.; Pellerin, Eric; Bergman, Lauren; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Genovesi, Linda; Cooke, Michael; Todd, Bonnie; Sandles, Diane; Whyte, Jeff [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, AL6302D, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Whitehorse, Yukon (Canada); Loseto, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Wang, X. [Environment Canada, Burlington Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, northern Canadians expressed concerns about the levels of radioactive contaminants in important traditional foods. Therefore, a study has been conducted to measure the levels of radionuclides in Arctic caribou and beluga whales. The main radionuclide of concern is cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30 years and is chemically similar to potassium, thereby easily accumulating in plants and animals. Cesium-137 was released into the atmosphere during nuclear weapons tests in the 1950's-60's and during nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl. Previous studies have been made on the cesium-137 levels in Canadian caribou herds from 1958 to 2000, allowing researchers to determine the amount of cesium-137 in caribou specifically attributable to atmospheric weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. Samples of lichens, mushrooms, caribou and beluga whales taken before and after the Fukushima accident were freeze dried, homogenized, and measured using gamma ray spectroscopy to identify the radionuclides present and determine the radioactivity concentration in the samples. To determine the efficiency of the detectors for the different sized samples, physical calibration standards were used and virtual simulations were also performed. A comparison of the caribou samples from before and after the accident has indicated no increase in radioactivity as a result of the Fukushima accident. Results are consistent with pre-Fukushima levels for these caribou. No Cs-137 was found in the pre-Fukushima beluga whale samples, even if all the measurements were combined into one spectrum. In the individual post-Fukushima beluga whale samples, Cs-137 was also not found. However, when the post-Fukushima beluga whale measurements were combined, an insignificant amount of radioactive Cs-137 was found. The amount of this Cs-137 was about 200 times smaller than the natural radioactive potassium in the samples. Most likely the

  11. Radiocesium in Canadian Arctic Beluga and Caribou Before and After the Fukushima Accident of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, northern Canadians expressed concerns about the levels of radioactive contaminants in important traditional foods. Therefore, a study has been conducted to measure the levels of radionuclides in Arctic caribou and beluga whales. The main radionuclide of concern is cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30 years and is chemically similar to potassium, thereby easily accumulating in plants and animals. Cesium-137 was released into the atmosphere during nuclear weapons tests in the 1950's-60's and during nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl. Previous studies have been made on the cesium-137 levels in Canadian caribou herds from 1958 to 2000, allowing researchers to determine the amount of cesium-137 in caribou specifically attributable to atmospheric weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. Samples of lichens, mushrooms, caribou and beluga whales taken before and after the Fukushima accident were freeze dried, homogenized, and measured using gamma ray spectroscopy to identify the radionuclides present and determine the radioactivity concentration in the samples. To determine the efficiency of the detectors for the different sized samples, physical calibration standards were used and virtual simulations were also performed. A comparison of the caribou samples from before and after the accident has indicated no increase in radioactivity as a result of the Fukushima accident. Results are consistent with pre-Fukushima levels for these caribou. No Cs-137 was found in the pre-Fukushima beluga whale samples, even if all the measurements were combined into one spectrum. In the individual post-Fukushima beluga whale samples, Cs-137 was also not found. However, when the post-Fukushima beluga whale measurements were combined, an insignificant amount of radioactive Cs-137 was found. The amount of this Cs-137 was about 200 times smaller than the natural radioactive potassium in the samples. Most likely the Cs-137

  12. Bioimpedance spectroscopy for assessment of volume status in patients before and after general anaesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthäus Ernstbrunner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Technically assisted assessment of volume status before surgery may be useful to direct intraoperative fluid administration. We therefore tested a recently developed whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy device to determine pre- to postoperative fluid distribution. METHODS: Using a three-compartment physiologic tissue model, the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius Medical Care, Germany measures total body fluid volume, extracellular volume, intracellular volume and fluid overload as surplus or deficit of 'normal' extracellular volume. BCM-measurements were performed before and after standardized general anaesthesia for gynaecological procedures (laparotomies, laparoscopies and vaginal surgeries. BCM results were blinded to the attending anaesthesiologist and data analysed using the 2-sided, paired Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: In 71 females aged 45 ± 15 years with body weight 67 ± 13 kg and Duration of anesthesia 154 ± 69 minutes [corrected] duration of anaesthesia 154 ± 68 min, pre- to postoperative fluid overload increased from -0.7 ± 1.1 L to 0.1 ± 1.0 L, corresponding to -5.1 ± 7.5% and 0.8 ± 6.7% of normal extracellular volume, respectively (both p<0.001, after patients had received 1.9 ± 0.9 L intravenous crystalloid fluid. Perioperative urinary excretion was 0.3 ± 0.2 L [corrected]. The increase in extracellular volume was paralleled by an increase in total body fluid volume, while intracellular volume increased only slightly and without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.15. Net perioperative fluid balance (administered fluid volume minus urinary excretion was significantly associated with change in extracellular volume (r(2 = 0.65, but was not associated with change in intracellular volume (r(2 = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Routine intraoperative fluid administration results in a significant, and clinically meaningful increase in the extracellular compartment. BCM-measurements yielded

  13. Tracking the evolution of crossmodal plasticity and visual functions before and after sight restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormal, Giulia; Lepore, Franco; Harissi-Dagher, Mona; Albouy, Geneviève; Bertone, Armando; Rossion, Bruno; Collignon, Olivier

    2015-03-15

    Visual deprivation leads to massive reorganization in both the structure and function of the occipital cortex, raising crucial challenges for sight restoration. We tracked the behavioral, structural, and neurofunctional changes occurring in an early and severely visually impaired patient before and 1.5 and 7 mo after sight restoration with magnetic resonance imaging. Robust presurgical auditory responses were found in occipital cortex despite residual preoperative vision. In primary visual cortex, crossmodal auditory responses overlapped with visual responses and remained elevated even 7 mo after surgery. However, these crossmodal responses decreased in extrastriate occipital regions after surgery, together with improved behavioral vision and with increases in both gray matter density and neural activation in low-level visual regions. Selective responses in high-level visual regions involved in motion and face processing were observable even before surgery and did not evolve after surgery. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that structural and functional reorganization of occipital regions are present in an individual with a long-standing history of severe visual impairment and that such reorganizations can be partially reversed by visual restoration in adulthood. PMID:25520432

  14. Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Fabiana da Silva; Ramos, Clecio Souza, E-mail: fasiaquino@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: clecio@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva, E-mail: aquino@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considera