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Sample records for beetle psacothea hilaris

  1. Post entry interception of the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle,Psacothea hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Italy Genbank Accession Number GU244486

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psacothea hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) known as the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle is native from eastern Asia (China, Japan including Ryukyu, Shikoku and Honshu archipelago and Taïwan) where it attacks plants belonging to Moraceae family, in particular to Morus and Ficus genera. In...

  2. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Loni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world.

  3. Endocrine changes associated with metamorphosis and diapause induction in the yellow-spotted longicorn beetle, Psacothea hilaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyiri, Florence N; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2004-11-01

    At 25 degrees C and under a long-day photoperiod, all 5th instar Psacothea hilaris larvae pupate at the next molt. Under a short-day photoperiod, in contrast, they undergo one or two additional larval molts and enter diapause; the 7th instar larvae enter diapause without further molt. The changes in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH III) titers, JH esterase activity, and ecdysteroid titers in pupation-destined, pre-diapause, and diapause-destined larvae were examined. JH titers of the 5th instar pupation-destined larvae decreased continuously from 1.3 ng/ml and became virtually undetectable on day 13, when JH esterase activity peaked. Ecdysteroids exhibited a small peak on day 8, 1 day before gut purge, and a large peak on day 11, 2 days before the larvae became pre-pupae. The two ecdysteroid peaks are suggested to be associated with pupal commitment and pupation, respectively. JH titers of the 5th instar pre-diapause larvae were maintained at approximately 1.5 ng/ml for 5 days and then increased to form a peak (3.3 ng/ml) on day 11. JH esterase activity remained at a low level throughout. Ecdysteroid levels exhibited a large peak of 40 ng/ml on day 18, coincident with the larval molt to the 6th instar. JH titers of the 7th instar diapause-destined larvae peaked at 1.9 ng/ml on day 3, and a level of approximately 1.1 ng/ml was maintained even 30-60 days into the instar, when they were in diapause. Ecdysteroid titers remained approximately 0.02 ng/ml. Diapause induction in this species was suggested to be a consequence of high JH and low ecdysteroid titers.

  4. A New Species of the Genus Psacothea Gahan (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae) from China%中国星斑天牛属一新种记述(鞘翅目: 天牛科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文凯; 蒋书楠; 郑乐怡

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with 1 new longicorn beetle species of the genus Psacothea Gahan from China, i. e., Psacothea nigrostigma, sp. nov.. Type specimen is deposited in the Department of Zoology, Tianjin Natural History Museum.

  5. Allantoin crystal formation in Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrada hilaris is a polyphagous herbivore recently reported as an invasive pest in the U.S. During the course of dissecting B. hilaris to understand ovarian morphology in relation to egg production and to determine sperm viability, unique crystals were observed in both the midgut and oviducts. Crys...

  6. Biology, Ecology, and Management of an Invasive Stink Bug, Bagrada hilaris, in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, John C; Perring, Thomas M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Reed, Darcy A

    2016-01-01

    The painted bug, Bagrada hilaris, native to eastern and southern Africa and Asia, was detected in California in 2008, and it has spread rapidly throughout several southwestern US states. A polyphagous insect, it is particularly damaging to the billion dollar cole crop industry. B. hilaris frequently causes damage when it migrates to newly planted crops from weedy hosts. Feeding produces circular or star-shaped chlorotic lesions that become necrotic, and infested plants may be distorted. Currently, no reliable sampling methods for B. hilaris exist, nor are there effective natural enemies in the United States. Therefore, management has relied on multiple applications of insecticides and cultural practices such as removal of weedy hosts, destruction of crop residues, timing of planting, and use of transplants. Several pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides are most effective for controlling the insect. Reliable sampling methods and further development of integrated pest management strategies to manage this invasive pest are urgently needed as its range continues to expand.

  7. Bark Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Ryan S.; McAvoy, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles are one of the most destructive forest pests in the world. They are different than the larger longhorned and roundheaded/metallic woodboring beetles commonly infesting the inner wood of trees. The largest bark beetle, the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens), reaches only 8.3 mm in length. Because of their tiny size, bark beetles are not effective tree killers as individuals.

  8. Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales), fungal pathogen of Bagrada hilaris and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae & Triozidae)in Mexico: Prevalence, bioassays, & environmental influences on conidial morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bagrada bug, Bagrada hilaris, and the potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, are key pests of horticulture in western North America. In 2014 and 2015, adult and juvenile B. hilaris and B. cockerelli killed by fungi in the genus Zoophthora were detected at separate localities near Saltill...

  9. La Teoría de la Referencia de Hilary Putnam en Meaning and Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Villalba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, I expose the proposal of revision of the metaphysical realism of Hilary Putnam in his "The John Locke Lectures". In them, it is key the idea of the possibility of equivalent descriptions in a realistic context of interpretation of the knowledge. With this change, his internal realism is glimpsed, amid a doctrinal body in transition. In accordance with this, it is of importance to determine the purpose of the writing; which topics from his previous period the philosopher leaves; which ideas are advanced; what precisions are pertinent, according to my opinion and from the light of the own objective of the work in question.

  10. Nineteenth-Century Digital Worlds: Hilary Fraser Interviews Jerome McGann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Fraser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilary Fraser discusses nineteenth-century digital humanities with Jerome McGann, thinking about the institutional history of '19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century' in the context of 'RaVoN', the 'Rossetti Archive', and NINES. The discussion addresses the institutional and disciplinary challenges in integrating digital skills in humanities training; digital environments that preserve, reconstitute, and enhance nineteenth-century scholarship online, supplement the transient nineteenth-century paper archive, and respond to the technical, ethnographic, and archaeological problems posed by work that cuts across medium boundaries.

  11. Dermestid Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Coats, Katherine; Roe, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    Dermestid beetles are in the family Dermestidae and order Coleoptera. These beetles are sometimes called larder beetles or carpet beetles. Adults range from 1 to 12 mm in length and have variable body coloration. In general, they are hairy, dark-colored, elongated, and have clubbed antennae. The larvae are light brown and can be up to 13 mm long. Many larvae have spines, called setae, on the back of the abdomen that are helpful with identification. Dermestid larvae and adults have chewing mou...

  12. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  13. Odnowa filozofii według Hilarego Putnama (Hilary Putnam's Renewal of Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Szubka

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hilary Putnam is widely considered as one of the most distinguished and important philosophers in the analytic tradition of the last fifty years. However, in his most recent publications he has started to emphasize various shortcomings and limitations of that powerful tradition, connected especially with its scientism andnaturalism. He has also insisted that what we really need is a serious renewal and transformation of philosophy, drawing upon other philosophical traditions, including pragmatism. We should realize that although philosophy overlaps in some parts with science, it cannot be turned into a science. It is a humanistic enterprise havingtwo dimensions, theoretical and moral, and it is unfortunate when we tend to forget about either of them.

  14. Principios de justificación en la racionalidad informal de Hilary Putnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Melogno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Razón, Verdad e Historia Hilary Putnam caracterizó la racionalidad informal como una alternativa que permite superar las limitaciones evidenciadas por las concepciones formalistas de la racionalidad. Se revisa inicialmente la caracterización ofrecida por Putnam y se establece que si bien Putnam niega todo principio universal de racionalidad, admite principios relativos, generales e indeterminados, que permanecen sujetos a necesidades de interrelación cognitiva con el entorno. A continuación, se muestra que los principios aceptan excepciones, y, a partir de aquí se defiende y analiza la posibilidad de revisión de principios cuya negación no resulta actualmente concebible. Finalmente, se afirma que tanto exponer como preservar creencias de la controversia constituyen elementos históricos que deben ser contemplados por una concepción informal de la racionalidad.In Reason, Truth and History, Hilary Putnam characterized informal rationality as an alternative that allows to overcome limitations evidenced by the formalist conceptions of rationality. Initially, the paper reviews the characterization provided by Putnam and establishes that, while Putnam denies any universal principle of rationality, he accepts relative, general and vague principles, that remain subject to needs of cognitive interrelationship with the environment. Secondly, we show that principles make exceptions and defend the possibility of reviewing principles whose denial is currently not conceivable. Finally, we state that both expressing and maintaining beliefs of controversy are historical elements that should be contemplated by an informal conception of rationality.

  15. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  16. Tourismological valorization of intangible cultural heritage of Serbia according to the Hilary du Cros method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Bjeljac

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The folk artistry of Serbia is rich in spiritual values tied to customs, celebrations, music, song, dance, games, stories and legends, and this kind of cultural heritage is presented through numerous festivals, events and tourist manifestations. In 2012, the network for the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage was formed, comprised of the National committee for intangible cultural heritage, the Commission for admission into the registry of intangible cultural heritage, a network of coordinators and the Center for intangible cultural heritage of Serbia. These institutions have chosen 6 elements of intangible cultural heritage, out of 27 suggestions: the slava, the Đurđevdan ritual, the kolo dance, singing accompanied by gusle, Slovakian naive painting, the custom of making and lighting farmers’ candles, Pirot carpet weaving, and Zlakusa pottery as elements of cultural heritage which reflect the national and cultural identity of the Serbian people, and Slavic minorities. These elements of intangible cultural heritage have a certain tourism potential and can represent an important factor in the forming of the tourist brand of Serbia. In order to determine the importance of the 27 suggestions of intangible cultural elements of Serbia, an analysis was conducted, using an adapted form of the Hilary du Cros method of tourist valorization.

  17. Water beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, G. N.; Nelson, B H; O'Connor, Á.

    2009-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Based on ca 37,000 records for Ireland, 244 taxa of beetle are evaluated for their conservation status using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) regional criteria. Of the wetland species, eight are considered to be regionally extinct, eight critically endangered, eleven endangered, twenty two vulnerable, twenty four near threatened, and the rest at lower risk, of least concern or data‐deficient. Ninety‐three taxa are mapped. The importance of h...

  18. Bark beetle management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guidebook is designed to provide a background to bark beetle management practices consistent with the British Columbia Forest Practices Code, as well as specific practices for managing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis), and Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae). It describes their general biology and distribution in British Columbia, their life cycles and population dynamics, and symptoms of bark beetle attack. General management strategies presented include prevention (a long-term approach), suppression, holding actions, and salvage. Strategies appropriate to specific bark beetles include aerial surveys, ground detection, baiting, harvesting, and use of insecticides. The guidebook includes brief mention of other bark beetles (Scolytids and other Dendroctonus species) and a glossary.

  19. The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

  20. What do dung beetles eat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2007-01-01

    Most adult coprophagous beetles feed on fresh dung of mammalian herbivores, confining ingestion to small particles with measured maximum diameters from 2-5 to 130 µm, according to body size and kind of beetle. This study explores benefits and costs of selective feeding in a ‘typical' dung beetle ...

  1. The Beetle comparator implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beuzekom, M G

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the comparator thresholds on a Beetle 1.1 chip show large variations. The width of the threshold distribution is several tenths of a MIP signal for a 300 µm silicon detector, which is more than can be corrected for by individual threshold settings. Monte Carlo simulations of the production-process parameters have been performed to track the cause of this large offset spread. The main cause of the offset variation is the spread in the threshold voltage of the MOSFETs. Since this cannot easily be solved by a change in the design of the comparator as such, the solution is to increase the range of the individual threshold settings while maintaining the same resolution. This implies an increase in the number of bits for the individual thresholds. The note describes measurements and simulations for the Beetle versions 1.1 and 1.2, and the changes in the design for the Beetle 1.3.

  2. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  3. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  4. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  5. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  6. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  7. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  8. Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bo eWang; Haichun eZhang; Edmund eJarzembowski

    2013-01-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoide...

  9. The Beetle Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Harnew, N; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K-T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Sexauer, E; Smale, N J; Trunk, U; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper details the port de nitions, electrical speci cations, modes of operation and programming sequences of the 128 channel readout chip Beetle . The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and ful lls the requirements of the silicon vertex detector, the inner tracker, the pile-up veto trigger and the RICH detector in case of multianode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preampli ers and shapers. The risetime of the shaped pulse is 25 ns with a 30% remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns. A comparator per channel with con gurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought o chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analogue pipeline with a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervalls and an integrated derandomizing bu er of 16 stages. For analog readout data is multiplexed with up to 40 MHz onto 1 or 4 ports...

  10. [Blister beetle dermatitis: Dermatitis linearis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterle, R; Faulde, M; Erkens, K

    2015-05-01

    Several families of beetles cause toxic reactions on exposed human skin. Cantharidin provokes nearly asymptomatic vesicles and blisters, while pederin leads to itching and burning erythema with vesicles and small pustules, later crusts. Paederi are attracted by fluorescent light especially after rain showers and cause outbreaks in regions with moderate climate. Clinical findings and patient history lead to the diagnosis: dermatitis linearis.

  11. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  12. Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

    1990-05-01

    Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed.

  13. From the turtle to the beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Romagosa Carrasquer, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    Beetle Blocks is a visual, blocks-based programming language/environment for 3D design and fabrication, implemented on top of Berkeley Snap! and the ThreeJS 3D graphics library. Beetle Blocks programs move a graphical beetle around a 3D world, where it can place 3D shapes, extrude its path as a tube and generate geometry in other ways. The resulting 3D geometry can be exported as a 3D-printable file. Beetle Blocks also aims to offer a cloud system and social platform meant to provide the comm...

  14. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  15. Rezension von: Hilary Brown, Gillian Dow (Eds.: Readers, Writers, Salonnières. Female Networks in Europe, 1700–1900. Frankfurt am Main u.a.: Peter Lang 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Korneeva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Im Sammelband von Hilary Brown und Gillian Dow werden die Kommunikationsnetze und der kulturelle Austausch zwischen den intellektuellen und schreibenden Frauen im Europa des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts untersucht. Insbesondere wird auf die Analyse der verzweigten Verbindungen gelehrter Frauen verschiedener Länder eingegangen, unter Berücksichtigung ihrer Briefwechsel, ihrer gegenseitigen Besuche und ihrer in literarischen Salons entstandenen Kontakte. Durch die Analyse von veröffentlichten und unveröffentlichten Quellen unterschiedlichster Gattungen (vom Roman über Poesie, Reisetagebücher und Märchen bis hin zur Autobiographie bietet der Band neue Einblicke in die literarischen Praxis und die Entwicklung der europäischen Tradition des weiblichen Schreibens.

  16. Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D J [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Berg, N G van der [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Prinsloo, L C [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Hodgkinson, I J [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2007-04-07

    In this paper we investigate the reflection of circularly polarized light from the exocuticle of the scarabaeid beetle Gymnopleurus virens. Reflection spectra are deeply modulated, exhibiting a number of relatively narrow well-defined peaks, which differ from previously studied specimens. By comparing model calculations and electron microscopy work with the recorded spectra, we can propose the presence of specific structural defects responsible for the unusual spectra.

  17. Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, D. J.; van der Berg, N. G.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Hodgkinson, I. J.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the reflection of circularly polarized light from the exocuticle of the scarabaeid beetle Gymnopleurus virens. Reflection spectra are deeply modulated, exhibiting a number of relatively narrow well-defined peaks, which differ from previously studied specimens. By comparing model calculations and electron microscopy work with the recorded spectra, we can propose the presence of specific structural defects responsible for the unusual spectra.

  18. Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales), a fungal pathogen of Bagrada hilaris and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Triozidae): Prevalence, pathogenicity, and interplay of environmental influence, morphology, and sequence data on fungal identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Acosta, Reyna Ivonne; Humber, Richard A; Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R

    2016-09-01

    The exotic bagrada bug or painted bug, Bagrada hilaris, and the native potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera (=Paratrioza) cockerelli, are key pests of horticulture in western North America. In 2014-2015, adult and juvenile B. hilaris and B. cockerelli killed by fungi in the genus Zoophthora were detected near Saltillo, northeastern Mexico. We report the field prevalence and observations of Zoophthora on these hosts. The morphology and growth characteristics of field-collected specimens and pure in vitro cultures, as well as molecular markers (ITS1 and ITS4) were analyzed to identify these Zoophthora populations. Although there were morphological spore differences detected among field collections from both insect hosts, the fungi causing these mycoses can be identified as the same species (Zoophthora radicans), according to morphometric data from in vitro cultures (where differences observed in field material were attenuated) and sequence data (96-99% identity for ITS1 and 4). These results underscore the plasticity of field collections and in vitro cultures, and the relevance of comprehensive morphological and molecular analysis from cultures under standard conditions. Dose-response bioassays were conducted with one Z. radicans strain against bagrada bug nymphs. Exposure to conidial showers from cultures induced 30-90% mortality. This is the first report of a natural enemy of bagrada bug in Mexico, and the first published report of entomophthoralean fungi naturally attacking bagrada bugs and potato psyllids. Z. radicans should be further investigated as a tool in the biological control of hemipterans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mites associated with bark beetles and their hyperphoretic ophiostomatoid fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...

  20. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  1. Polarisation vision: beetles see circularly polarised light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2010-07-27

    It has long been known that the iridescent cuticle of many scarab beetles reflects circularly polarised light. It now turns out that scarabs can also see this light, potentially using it as a covert visual signal.

  2. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  3. APPROACHES TO ENGINEER STABILITY OF BEETLE LUCIFERASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  4. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  5. Longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Majumder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of longhorned beetles of Chhattisgarh state has been attempted for the first time resulting in the enumeration of 10 species belonging to 8 genera and 6 tribes under 2 subfamilies. The descriptions of these species and distribution in Chhattisgarh and India are provided. Being economically important, the present account on longhorned beetles is important as it might help the state forest authorities to adopt control measures to minimize damage caused by these insects.

  6. New longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent data (Ilić, 2005 indicate the presence of 245 longhorn beetle species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in Serbia. Not included in the mentioned publication, the following five species should be added to the list: Cortodera discolor Fairmaire, 1866; Stenopterus similatus Holzschuh 1979; Chlorophorus aegyptiacus (Fabricius, 1775; Agapanthia osmanlis (Reiche, 1858; Agapanthia maculicornis (Gyllenhal, 1817 (Pil and Stojanović in press. A total number of 250 species are presently known for the Serbian longhorn beetle fauna.

  7. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  8. BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S. R.; Brown, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    BeetleBase () is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software component...

  9. Aquatic beetle species and their distributions in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ling; JIA Feng-long; Tursun Dilbar; ZHENG Zhe-min

    2009-01-01

    The species of aquatic beetles and their distributions in lotic and lentic habitats were investigated during July to August of 2005 and 2006 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. A total of 66 species belonging to 7 beetle families (Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Helophoridae, Noteridae, Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae) are recorded, of which 16 are new records of aquatic beetles for China.

  10. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  11. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  12. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  13. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Putchkov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  14. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

    1997-09-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

  15. Microbe inhibition by Tribolium flour beetles varies with beetle species, strain, sex, and microbe group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendeville, Holly R; Stevens, Lori

    2002-06-01

    Tribolium flour beetles produce defensive compounds, including quinones, putatively aimed at deterring predators and inhibiting microbes. Here we examine how effective the defensive secretions of Tribolium confusum and T. castaneum are at inhibiting growth of various microbes and how this varies with species, geographic strain, and sex of the beetles. We explore differences at both the kingdom and species level of common flour microbes in their susceptibility to defensive compounds. Beetle species and strains vary in their ability to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, microbes vary in their sensitivity to the beetles' defense compounds. The capability to suppress microbial growth is likely under stabilizing selection with optimum quinone production varying among populations and may be dependent on several environmental factors including temperature, humidity, and predators.

  16. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis spec

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  18. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  19. Tenebrionid Beetles of the West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcuzzi, Giorgio

    1962-01-01

    The present paper deals with the results of my investigations regarding the tenebrionid beetles of the Antilles, north of Trinidad. For this work, use has been made of the magnificent collections assembled by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK, of a number of specimens gathered by Dr. H. J. MAC GILLAVRY as

  20. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  1. Isolation of pristionchus nematodes from beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Robbie; Schlager, Benjamin; Sommer, Ralf J

    2008-10-01

    INTRODUCTIONIn this procedure, nematodes disembark from a beetle carcass and feed on Escherichia coli OP50. The nematodes are then monitored for a few days and identified using simple morphological characteristics. This method is rapid, easy, and biased for Pristionchus species.

  2. Cuticle formation and pigmentation in beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Adult beetles (Coleoptera) are covered primarily by a hard exoskeleton or cuticle. For example, the beetle elytron is a cuticle-rich highly modified forewing structure that shields the underlying hindwing and dorsal body surface from a variety of harmful environmental factors by acting as an armor plate. The elytron comes in a variety of colors and shapes depending on the coleopteran species. As in many other insect species, the cuticular tanning pathway begins with tyrosine and is responsible for production of a variety of melanin-like and other types of pigments. Tanning metabolism involves quinones and quinone methides, which also act as protein cross-linking agents for cuticle sclerotization. Electron microscopic analyses of rigid cuticles of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, have revealed not only numerous horizontal chitin-protein laminae but also vertically oriented columnar structures called pore canal fibers. This structural architecture together with tyrosine metabolism for cuticle tanning is likely to contribute to the rigidity and coloration of the beetle exoskeleton.

  3. The Japanese jewel beetle : a painter's challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, F.; Wilts, B.D.; Stavenga, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour visible

  4. The Japanese jewel beetle : a painter's challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, F.; Wilts, B.D.; Stavenga, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour

  5. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  6. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment.

  7. Explaining the saproxylic beetle diversity of a protected Mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Micó, Estefanía; García López, Alejandra; Brustel, Hervé; Padilla, Ascension; Galante, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Saproxylic beetle diversity is high at the Cabañeros National Park (central Spain), where woodland habitats exhibit remarkable heterogeneity. Our aim was to explain the diversity of saproxylic beetles, focusing on species turnover among mature woodland types. We surveyed five woodland types that represented the heterogeneity of the park’s woodland habitats. Beetles were collected using window traps over a period of 20 months. The Jaccard Similarity Index was used as indirect value of beta div...

  8. Monkey and dung beetle activities influence soil seed bank structure

    OpenAIRE

    Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François; Jouard, Sylvie; Gomez, Doris

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Neotropical forests, dung beetles act as efficient secondary dispersers of seeds that are dispersed primarily by red howler monkeys. Here, we investigated the origins of soil seed bank variability in relation to monkey and dung beetle activity, to assess the impact of dung beetles on seed fate, and their adaptability to resource availability. This question is important to better understand the process of tree regeneration, and is especially timely in the current con...

  9. Allozyme gene diversities in some leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafsur, E S

    1999-08-01

    Gene diversity at allozyme loci was investigated in the bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata Forster; the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller); the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricus; the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the southern corn rootworm, also called the spotted cucumber beetle, D. undecimpunctata howardi Baker; the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence; and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Six of these species are economically important pests of crops and display adaptive traits that may correlate with genetic diversity. Gene diversity H(E) in bean leaf beetles was 17.7 +/- 4.0% among 32 loci. In western corn rootworms, H(E) = 4.8 +/- 2.0% among 36 loci, and in spotted cucumber beetles, H(E) = 11.9 +/- 2.7% among 39 loci. Diversity among 27 loci was 10.5 +/- 4.3% in the Colorado potato beetle. The data were compared with gene diversity estimates from other leaf beetle species in which heterozygosities varied from 0.3 to 21% and no correlation was detected among heterozygosities, geographic ranges, or population densities. Distributions of single-locus heterozygosities were consistent with selective neutrality of alleles.

  10. Colorado potato beetle toxins revisited: evidence the beetle does not sequester host plant glycoalkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armer, Christine A

    2004-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle feeds only on glycoalkaloid-laden solanaceous plants, appears to be toxic to predators, and has aposematic coloration, suggesting the beetle may sequester alkaloids from its host plants. This study tested 4th instars and adults, as well as isolated hemolymph and excrement, to determine if the beetles sequester, metabolize, or excrete alkaloids ingested from their host plants. HPLC analysis showed: that neither the larvae nor the adults sequestered either solanine or chaconine from potato foliage; that any alkaloids in the beetles were at concentrations well below 1 ppm; and that alkaloids were found in the excrement of larvae at approximately the same concentrations as in foliage. Analysis of alkaloids in the remains of fed-upon leaflet halves plus excreta during 24 hr feeding by 4th instars, as compared to alkaloids in the uneaten halves of the leaflets, showed that equal amounts of alkaloids were excreted as were ingested. The aposematic coloration probably warns of a previously-identified toxic dipeptide instead of a plant-derived alkaloid, as the Colorado potato beetle appears to excrete, rather than sequester or metabolize, the alkaloids from its host plants.

  11. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed.

  12. What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios N. Avtzis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km2 of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree’s defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi. Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava. A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel

  13. Behavioral niche partitioning in a sympatric tiger beetle assemblage and implications for the endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Brosius, Tierney R.; Higley, Leon G.

    2013-01-01

    How behavioral patterns are related to niche partitioning is an important question in understanding how closely related species within ecological communities function. Behavioral niche partitioning associated with thermoregulation is well documented in tiger beetles as a group. Co-occurring species of salt flat tiger beetles have adapted many thermoregulatory behaviors to cope with this harsh ecosystem. On first examination these beetles appear to occur in overlapping microhabitats and theref...

  14. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra.

  15. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  16. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera) of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh; TIRGARI, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids ar...

  17. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  18. Proceedings from the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Associated Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Anthony Cognato; Kenneth Raffa

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings provide a synopsis of the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Association Microorganisms, which was held May 20-2, 2006 in Asheville, NC. Twenty- five participants from five countries attended the meeting. The proceedings are structured into four parts: Phylogenetics of Bark Beetles, Population Genetics of Bark Beetles, Bark Beetle Gene...

  19. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  20. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open...

  1. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  2. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  3. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. A

  4. Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)

  5. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  6. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...

  7. Interactions among the mountain pine beetle, fires, and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon; Christopher J. Fettig; Wesley G. Page; Barbara J. Bentz

    2014-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks and wildfires are principal drivers of change in western North American forests, and both have increased in severity and extent in recent years. These two agents of disturbance interact in complex ways to shape forest structure and composition. For example, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, epidemics alter forest fuels with...

  8. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  9. Microorganisms in the gut of beetles: evidence from molecular cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith

    2003-11-01

    We have regularly cultured yeasts from the gut of certain beetles in our ongoing research. In this study cloned PCR products amplified from the gut contents of certain mushroom-feeding and wood-ingesting beetles in four families (Erotylidae, Tenebrionidae, Ciidae, and Passalidae) were sequenced and compared with culture results. Cultural techniques detected some yeasts present in the gut of the beetles, including a Pichia stipitis-like yeast associated with wood-ingesting passalid beetles. Clone sequences similar to several ascomycete yeasts and Malassezia restricta, a fastidious basidiomycetous yeast requiring special growth media, however, were not detected by culturing. Unexpectedly, phylogenetic analysis of additional clone sequences discovered from passalid beetles showed similarity to members of the Parabasalia, protists known from other wood-ingesting insects, termites, and wood roaches. Examination of all gut regions of living passalids, however, failed to reveal parabasalids, and it is possible that they were parasites in the gut tissue present in low numbers.

  10. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the biology, ecology and management of spruce and spruce beetle populations. This paper is a review of literature on spruce beetle focusing on work published since the late 1970s and is intended as an addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies.

  11. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  12. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  13. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  14. New Writing of the Tudors -- An Analysis of Wolf Hall Written by Hilary Mantel%都铎王朝演绎“新”篇章——浅析希拉里·曼特尔《狼厅》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈烛明; 徐建纲

    2011-01-01

    2009年英国女作家希拉里.曼特尔凭借其长篇历史小说《狼厅》击败众多强劲对手,最终获得布克奖。作为一部描写人们耳熟能详的亨利八世都铎王朝时期风云变幻的长篇小说,《狼厅》何以蟾宫折桂.解决这个问题无疑是更好地理解这部文学作品的钥匙。%in 2009, a female British writer named Hilary Mantel won the Booker Prize by her historical novel Wolf Hall after defeating several great opponents. As a novel portraying the famous history of the Tudors ruled by King Henry VIII, how it could be the winne

  15. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  16. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Developmental Plasticity in Horned Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Valena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All developmental plasticity arises through epigenetic mechanisms. In this paper we focus on the nature, origins, and consequences of these mechanisms with a focus on horned beetles, an emerging model system in evolutionary developmental genetics. Specifically, we introduce the biological significance of developmental plasticity and summarize the most important facets of horned beetle biology. We then compare and contrast the epigenetic regulation of plasticity in horned beetles to that of other organisms and discuss how epigenetic mechanisms have facilitated innovation and diversification within and among taxa. We close by highlighting opportunities for future studies on the epigenetic regulation of plastic development in these and other organisms.

  17. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  18. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  19. Toxicity of Monoterpene Structure, Diversity and Concentration to Mountain Pine Beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae: Beetle Traits Matter More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mary L; Sekhon, Jagdeep K; LaFramboise, Lanielle M

    2017-03-03

    A high diversity of plant defenses may be a response to herbivore diversity or may be collectively more toxic than single compounds, either of which may be important for understanding insect-plant associations. Monoterpenes in conifers are particularly diverse. We tested the fumigant toxicity of four monoterpenes, alone and in combination, to mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae, in the context of the beetles' individual body traits. Chemical structures of tested monoterpene hydrocarbons had modest effects on beetle survival, mass loss, water content and fat content, with (R)-(+)-limonene tending to be more toxic than (-)-α-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, and (+)-3-carene. Monoterpene diversity (all qualitative combinations of one to four monoterpenes) did not affect toxicity. Concentration (0 to 1200 ppm) of individual monoterpenes was a strong determinant of toxicity. Beetle body size and body condition index strongly and positively affected survival during monoterpene treatments. Larger beetles in better condition lost proportionally less mass during exposure, where proportion mass loss negatively affected survivorship. Toxicity was much more associated with water loss than with fat loss, suggesting that a main cost of detoxification is excretion, a process that has received little attention. These results provide insight into the determinants of beetle success in historic and novel hosts that differ in monoterpene composition and concentration. We also suggest that water availability will affect beetle success directly through their ability to tolerate detoxification as well as indirectly through host responses to drought.

  20. Dew condensation on desert beetle skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Mongruel, A; Medici, M-G; Baquero, E; Parker, A R; Milimouk-Melnytchuk, I; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D

    2014-11-01

    Some tenebrionind beetles inhabiting the Namib desert are known for using their body to collect water droplets from wind-blown fogs. We aim to determine whether dew water collection is also possible for desert insects. For this purpose, we investigated the infra-red emissivity, and the wetting and structural properties, of the surface of the elytra of a preserved specimen of Physasterna cribripes (Tenebrionidæ) beetle, where the macro-structure appears as a series of "bumps", with "valleys" between them. Dew formation experiments were carried out in a condensation chamber. The surface properties (infra-red emissivity, wetting properties) were dominated by the wax at the elytra surface and, to a lower extent, its micro-structure. We performed scanning electron microscope on histological sections and determined the infra-red emissivity using a scanning pyrometer. The emissivity measured (0.95±0.07 between 8-14 μm) was close to the black body value. Dew formation occurred on the insect's elytra, which can be explained by these surface properties. From the surface coverage of the condensed drops it was found that dew forms primarily in the valleys between the bumps. The difference in droplet nucleation rate between bumps and valleys can be attributed to the hexagonal microstructure on the surface of the valleys, whereas the surface of the bumps is smooth. The drops can slide when they reach a critical size, and be collected at the insect's mouth.

  1. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  2. Flexible Wing Kinematics of a Free-Flying Beetle (Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus Dichotomus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Doyoung Byun; Hoon Choel Park; Minjun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Detailed 3-Dimensional (3D) wing kinematics was experimentally presented in free flight of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings.The kinematic parameters such as the wing tip trajectory,angle of attack and camber deformation were obtained from a 3D reconstruction technique that involves the use of two synchronized high-speed cameras to digitize various points marked on the wings.Our data showed outstanding characteristics of deformation and flexibility of the beetle's hind wing compared with other measured insects,especially in the chordwise and spanwise directions during flapping motion.The hind wing produced 16% maximum positive camber deformation during the downstroke.It also experienced twisted shape showing large variation of the angle of attack from the root to the tip during the upstroke.

  3. Monitoring of saproxylic beetles in Croatia: following the path of the stag beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Katušić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union, Croatia is obliged to report on the conservation status of 220 animal non-bird species listed in the annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC, for which purpose a monitoring system is being established. Concerning saproxylic beetles, seven species present in its territory have to be monitored: Lucanus cervus, Cerambyx cerdo, Morimus funereus, Rhysodes sulcatus, Cucujus cinnaberinus, Rosalia alpina and Osmoderma eremita complex. Out of these species, a monitoring programme has only been established for Lucanus cervus, which partially includes participation of non-experts. In 2015 and 2016, a public campaign was organised in order to collect observations of Lucanus cervus and two other saproxylic beetles that are easily recognisable by the public: Morimus funereus and Rosalia alpina. Data gathered through this campaign serve as an addition to the mapping activities and monitoring of the species’ range. So far, more than 650 citizen observations have been collected, providing data on species presence in 216 10×10 km2 grid cells intended for reporting on the species’ range. Besides the public campaign, since 2014, public institutions for managing nature protected values have been involved in population monitoring for which they received education through several workshops. Altogether, 21 sites have been included in the monitoring of the stag beetle so far. Data collected for Lucanus cervus on standard transects, by tree and ground pitfall traps and tree trunk surveys at night will be discussed. To the present time, eight public institutions have been involved in stag beetle population monitoring and the number has been continuously increasing.

  4. A survey of carrion beetles on Seier National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seier National Wildlife Refuge personnel conducted an inventory of flora and fauna found on the Refuge in 2011. The federally endangered American burying beetle...

  5. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  6. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  7. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  8. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  9. Untwisting the polarization properties of light reflected by scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Luke T.; Finlayson, Ewan D.; Vukusic, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The spectral and angle-dependent optical properties of two scarab beetle species belonging to the genus Chrysina are presented. The species display broadband reflectivity and selectively reflect left-circularly polarized light. We use electron microscopy to detail the left-handed, twisted lamellar structure present in these biological systems and imaging scatterometry to characterize their bidirectional reflectance distribution function. We show that the broadband nature of the beetles' reflectance originates due to the range of pitch dimensions found in the structure.

  10. Defense by foot adhesion in a beetle (Hemisphaerota cyanea)

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    The beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae; Cassidinae) responds to disturbance by activating a tarsal adhesion mechanism by which it secures a hold on the substrate. Its tarsi are oversized and collectively bear some 60,000 adhesive bristles, each with two terminal pads. While walking, the beetle commits but a small fraction of the bristles to contact with the substrate. But when assaulted, it presses its tarsi flatly down, thereby touching ground with all or nearly all of the bristles. ...

  11. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  12. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids are Mylabris impressa, M. guerini, Muzimes iranicus, Alosimus smyrnensis and Epicauta sharpi. Most cases of linear dermatitis in this country occur in areas bordering the Caspian Sea. This problem is caused by beetles of the genus Paederus which are present as adults from mid-April to October with particularly high incidences from May to August. Fars (in southern Iran ranks second in number of cases of insect-induced dermatitis. The third major region in which this type of dermatitis has been recorded is Hamedan Province, in the west of the country. Meloid dermatitis showed its highest severity in 2001, when a considerable number of patients sought medical help in Toyserkan and Nahavand counties. New cases of skin blistering were reported along the Persian Gulf coast and the agent was identified as Epicauta sharpi (Coleoptera: Meloidae. In all these regions, it was observed that recorded cases of lesions coincided precisely with the yearly peaks of the beetles. Paederus fuscipes and P. kalalovae are the predominant species along the Caspian Sea shore. It appears that P. fuscipes is homogeneously distributed throughout the Caspian Sea region while the distribution of the other species is more irregular. Paederus fuscipes is probably the major agent that causes linear dermatitis in northern Iran. Whereas this disease is a rural difficulty in the south, mainly in villages or small towns, it is an urban problem in northern provinces along the Caspian Sea shore

  13. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. PMID:26538537

  14. Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa.

  15. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Weber; Rowley, Daniel L.; Greenstone, Matthew H.; Athanas, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laborator...

  16. Sex chromosome rearrangements in Polyphaga beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, A M; Dutrillaux, B

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a parachute sex chromosome bivalent (Xyp) at metaphase I of male meiosis is a well-known characteristic of Coleoptera, present in almost all families of this order and assumed to represent their ancestral sex chromosome formula. Sex chromosomes appear to be manifold more frequently involved in inter-chromosomal rearrangements than the average of the nine autosomal pairs usually forming their karyotype. This leads to various formulae such as neo-sex, multiple sex and perhaps unique sex chromosomes. These rearrangements alter the intimate association between sex chromosomes and nucleolar proteins, which are usual components of the Xyp. Different situations, selected in a series of 125 mitotic and meiotic cytogenetic studies of Polyphaga beetle species, are reported and discussed, with the aim to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms of sex chromosome rearrangements, the relationships with nucleoli and the consequences on dosage compensation and chromosome segregation.

  17. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  18. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood.

  19. Biology, Behavior, and Management of Ambrosia Beetles Attacking Ornamental Nursery Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles are being increasingly recognized as significant pests of field-grown ornamental nursery stock. Two species are especially problematic in ornamental nurseries, namely the black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus, and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Ambrosia b...

  20. Status Report for South Dakota Refuges: American Burying Beetle Searches, 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo describes the efforts made throughout South Dakota attempting to locate American Burying Beetles. No beetles were found, but plans for a 1996 involve a...

  1. 2004 American Burying Beetle Annual Report - Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey efforts for the endangered American Burying Beetle at Pond Creek NWR in 2004 are reported from 14 sampling locations on the refuge. American buring beetle was...

  2. Population Status of Blister Beetle during Monsoon in Victoria Park Reserved Forest, Bhavnagar, Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Gohil; Devendra Solanki

    2013-01-01

    The Blister Beetles are widely distributed in the world. They have serious impacts, whether agronomic, veterinary or medical. The present investigation was carried out to know about population scenario of Blister Beetle in a reserve forest. Blister Beetle has special affinity to some plant species in particular season due to availability of food. In present study density of Blister Beetle was checked in form of density and its affinity towards plant Abutilon theophrastic was measured by RPE i...

  3. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? METHODOLOGY: We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores

  4. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  5. Mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine: Comparing methods for rating susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Barbara J. Bentz; Jesse A. Logan

    2000-01-01

    Two empirical methods for rating susceptibility of mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine were evaluated. The methods were compared to stand data modeled to objectively rate each sampled stand for susceptibly to bark-beetle attack. Data on bark-beetle attacks, from a survey of 45 sites throughout the Colorado Plateau, were modeled using logistic regression to...

  6. Mountain pine beetle population sampling: inferences from Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2006-01-01

    Lindgren pheromone traps baited with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) lure were deployed for three consecutive years in lodgepole pine stands in central Idaho. Mountain pine beetle emergence was also monitored each year using cages on infested trees. Distributions of beetles caught in...

  7. Losses of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees to southern pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1995-01-01

    Over an 1 l-year period (1983-1993), we examined the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation rate of single Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees on the Angelina National Forest in Texas. Southern pine beetles infested and killed 38 cavity trees during this period. Typically, within each cavity tree cluster, beetles infested only...

  8. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  9. Olfaction in the Colorado beetle at the onset of host plant selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Long-range olfactory orientation of the adult Colorado beetle was studied in a low- speed wind tunnel. The odour of fully grown potato plants elicits an upwind locomotory response in Colorado beetles (odour-conditioned positive anemotaxis), and increases the beetles' speed of locomotion (direct chem

  10. Direction of interaction between mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and resource-sharing wood-boring beetles depends on plant parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutsch, Jennifer G; Najar, Ahmed; Cale, Jonathan A; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-09-01

    Plant pathogens can have cascading consequences on insect herbivores, though whether they alter competition among resource-sharing insect herbivores is unknown. We experimentally tested whether the infection of a plant pathogen, the parasitic plant dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) altered the competitive interactions among two groups of beetles sharing the same resources: wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). We were particularly interested in identifying potential mechanisms governing the direction of interactions (from competition to facilitation) between the two beetle groups. At the lowest and highest disease severity, wood-boring beetles increased their consumption rate relative to feeding levels at moderate severity. The performance (brood production and feeding) of mountain pine beetle was negatively associated with wood-boring beetle feeding and disease severity when they were reared separately. However, when both wood-boring beetles and high severity of plant pathogen infection occurred together, mountain pine beetle escaped from competition and improved its performance (increased brood production and feeding). Species-specific responses to changes in tree defense compounds and quality of resources (available phloem) were likely mechanisms driving this change of interactions between the two beetle groups. This is the first study demonstrating that a parasitic plant can be an important force in mediating competition among resource-sharing subcortical insect herbivores.

  11. Hilary Pilkington: Venemaa on muutumas paindlikumaks / Hilary Pilkington ; intervjueerinud Maria Kupinskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilkington, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    Suurbritannia sotsioloog, subkultuuri uurija Vene noorteorganisatsioonist Naši ja rassistlike vaadetega Vene skinheadidest, valitsusvastaste aktsioonide võimalikkusest ja soorollide muutumisest Venemaal, Venemaa ühiskonna arengusuunast

  12. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  13. Defense by foot adhesion in a beetle (Hemisphaerota cyanea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    2000-06-01

    Departments of * Neurobiology and Behavior and Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 Contributed by Thomas Eisner, April 12, 2000 The beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae; Cassidinae) responds to disturbance by activating a tarsal adhesion mechanism by which it secures a hold on the substrate. Its tarsi are oversized and collectively bear some 60,000 adhesive bristles, each with two terminal pads. While walking, the beetle commits but a small fraction of the bristles to contact with the substrate. But when assaulted, it presses its tarsi flatly down, thereby touching ground with all or nearly all of the bristles. Once so adhered, it can withstand pulling forces of up to 0.8 g (≈60 times its body mass) for 2 min, and of higher magnitudes, up to >3 g, for shorter periods. Adhesion is secured by a liquid, most probably an oil. By adhering, the beetle is able to thwart attacking ants, given that it is able to cling more persistently than the ant persists in its assault. One predator, the reduviid Arilus cristatus, is able to feed on the beetle, possibly because by injecting venom it prevents the beetle from maintaining its tarsal hold.

  14. Flow Visualization of Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) in Free Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Hieu Trung Tran; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon; Doyoung Byun

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings,are investigated.Visualization experiments were conducted for various flight conditions of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus:free,tethered,hovering,forward and climbing flights.Leading edge,trailing edge and tip vortices on both wings were observed clearly.The leading edge vortex was stable and remained on the top surface of the elytron for a wide interval during the downstroke of free forward flight.Hence,the elytron may have a considerable role in lift force generation of the beetle.In addition,we reveal a suction phenomenon between the gaps of the hind wing and the elytron in upstroke that may improve the positive lift force on the hind wing.We also found the reverse clap-fling mechanism of the T.dichotomus beetle in hovering flight.The hind wings touch together at the beginning of the upstroke.The vortex generation,shedding and interaction give a better understanding of the detailed aerodynamic mechanism of beetle flight.

  15. Coarse woody material has value as habitat for saproxylic beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.M.; Spence, J.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept of Renewable Resources; Langor, D.W. [Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Biomass harvesting practices are expected to alter the abundance and natural range of variation in coarse woody material (CWM), which in turn may change soil productivity as well as the hydrological balance and structure of tree stands and habitats needed to ensure forest biodiversity. Ecosystem sustainability should be a main criterion for the development of biomass energy production schemes. Studies in northern Europe indicate that the hyperdiverse saproxylic fauna is sensitive to changes in CWM. Saproxylic beetles are dependent on decaying wood, and play an important role in forest nutrient cycling. Approximately 11 per cent of European saproxylic beetles are at risk of regional extirpation. This study sampled saproxylic beetle species from CWM in mature trembling aspen stands in Alberta. Over 150 species were collected, including 4 species new to science. The study showed that the beetles use numerous CWM habitats and exhibit high habitat specificity. A diversity of CWM substrates are needed to maintain saproxylic beetle habitats. Further research is needed to minimize the loss of species and their ecosystem functions.

  16. Adult cannibalism in an oligophagous herbivore, the Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Everett; Alyokhin, Andrei; Pinatti, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Cannibalism, or intraspecific predation, can play a major role in changing individual fitness and population processes. In insects, cannibalism frequently occurs across life stages, with cannibals consuming a smaller or more vulnerable stage. Predation of adult insects on one another is considered to be uncommon. We investigated adult cannibalism in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), which is an oligophagous herbivore specializing on plants in family Solanaceae, and an important agricultural pest. Under laboratory conditions, starvation and crowding encouraged teneral adults to feed upon each other, which reduced their weight loss during the period of starvation. However, pupae were attacked and consumed before adults. Injured beetles had a higher probability of being cannibalized than intact beetles. Males were more frequently attacked than females, but that appeared to be a function of their smaller size rather than other gender-specific traits. Cannibalizing eggs at a larval stage did not affect beetle propensity to cannibalize adults at an adult stage. When given a choice between conspecific adults and mealworms, the beetles preferred to eat conspecifics. Cannibalistic behavior, including adult cannibalism, could be important for population persistence in this species. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

    2013-02-18

    When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom.

  18. Benzoquinones of the beetles, Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, P W; Morrison, S E

    1995-08-01

    Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum were washed in HPLC-grade methanol, and the methanolic washes were analyzed by UV spectroscopy, reversed phase HPLC, and GC/MS. The methanolic washes from both species contained methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (MBQ) and ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (EBQ). The amounts of MBQ recovered from the two species were not significantly different, but the amounts of EBQ and total benzoquinones (MBQ+EBQ) recovered from T. castaneum were significantly greater than for those recovered from T. confusum. The methods described are superior to previous methods for isolating, identifying, and quantifying the benzoquinones in these beetles, since they are relatively simple, fast, do not require handling of the beetles, and are sensitive enough to quantify the benzoquinones of a single beetle.

  19. Observation and modeling of polarized light from scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Sam; de Silva, Lakshman; Hodgkinson, Ian; Leader, John

    2007-08-01

    The light reflected from scarab beetles illuminated with unpolarized white light is analyzed ellipsometrically and displayed as the sum of an elliptically polarized spectrum Ip and an unpolarized spectrum Iu. A chirped stack of chiral resonators, each with a characteristic Bragg wavelength and partial realignment of birefringent material to a fixed axis, is proposed as a model for simulation of both reflection and polarization spectra. Possible mechanisms that effectively eliminate impedance mismatch at the air-elytron interface and allow some beetles to exhibit nearly perfect circularly polarized reflections are discussed. Results are presented for three representative beetles, Ischiosopha bifasciata, which is shown to be a narrowband left-circular polarizer; Chrysophora chrysochlora, a broadband left-circular polarizer; and Chrysina woodi, an elliptical polarizer. The methods that are developed are applicable to the more general problem of synthesis of reflectors with prescribed reflection and polarization spectra.

  20. Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle's joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Zhendong; Stanislav; N.; Gorb

    2004-01-01

    Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS.The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle's joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3° ). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

  1. Dual-Color Click Beetle Luciferase Heteroprotein Fragment Complementation Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Victor; Naik, Snehal; Bruinsma, Monique; Dothager, Robin S.; Pan, Mei-Hsiu; Samrakandi, Mustapha; Moss, Britney; Elhammali, Adnan; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2010-01-01

    Summary Understanding the functional complexity of protein interactions requires mapping biomolecular complexes within the cellular environment over biologically-relevant time scales. Herein we describe a novel set of reversible, multicolored heteroprotein complementation fragments based on various firefly and click beetle luciferases that utilize the same substrate, D-luciferin. Luciferase heteroprotein fragment complementation systems enabled dual-color quantification of two discreet pairs of interacting proteins simultaneously or two distinct proteins interacting with a third shared protein in live cells. Using real-time analysis of click beetle green and click beetle red luciferase heteroprotein fragment complementation applied to β-TrCP, an E3-ligase common to the regulation of both β-catenin and IκBα, GSK3β was identified as a novel candidate kinase regulating IκBα processing. These dual-color protein interaction switches may enable directed dynamic analysis of a variety of protein interactions in living cells. PMID:20851351

  2. Multivariate intralocus sexual conflict in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David; Berg, Elena C; Widegren, William; Arnqvist, Göran; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2014-12-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) is pervasive because males and females experience differences in selection but share much of the same genome. Traits with integrated genetic architecture should be reservoirs of sexually antagonistic genetic variation for fitness, but explorations of multivariate IaSC are scarce. Previously, we showed that upward artificial selection on male life span decreased male fitness but increased female fitness compared with downward selection in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Here, we use these selection lines to investigate sex-specific evolution of four functionally integrated traits (metabolic rate, locomotor activity, body mass, and life span) that collectively define a sexually dimorphic life-history syndrome in many species. Male-limited selection for short life span led to correlated evolution in females toward a more male-like multivariate phenotype. Conversely, males selected for long life span became more female-like, implying that IaSC results from genetic integration of this suite of traits. However, while life span, metabolism, and body mass showed correlated evolution in the sexes, activity did not evolve in males but, surprisingly, did so in females. This led to sexual monomorphism in locomotor activity in short-life lines associated with detrimental effects in females. Our results thus support the general tenet that widespread pleiotropy generates IaSC despite sex-specific genetic architecture.

  3. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark beetle infestation were not related to total height, diameter, length of live and dead crown or crown class. As severity of oxidant injury increased, live crown ratio decreased and incidence of bark beetle infestation increased. One hundred noninfested trees in each of three disease categories, advanced, intermediate, and healthy, were examined for evidence of prior beetle attacks. Thirty-six percent of the advanced-diseased trees versus only 5% of the healthy trees were attacked. Thus, the beetles may discriminate between healthy and diseased trees at a distance, upon contact with the host, or both. These studies indicate strongly that atmospheric pollution injury predisposes ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestations. 3 references, 7 tables.

  4. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...... showed a high percentage of tunnellers, probably because of the food shortage and, for dog scats, of the high dehydration rate. A comparison with other Roman scarab communities enhanced that: (1) the change in food resource determined a higher difference in species composition respect to other parameters...

  5. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berl.Eggplant cultivations are constantly attacked by a number of serious pests (e.g. the fruit and shoot borer, the Colorado potato beetle, soil-borne fungi)...

  6. Approaches to mimic the metallic sheen in beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Aggerbeck, Martin; Nielsen, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A range of different beetles exhibits brilliant colours and metallic sheen. One of the most spectacular species is the Plusiotis resplendens from Central America with gold metal appearance. The beetle shells are made from chitin and have a number of unique properties that apart from spectacular...... aesthetic effects include metal sheen from non-metal surfaces combined with electric and thermal insulation. The reflection mechanism has been studied by a number of authors and is well understood. Basically there are 2 different reflection principles. One is the multilayer reflector where alternating...

  7. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Abatzoglou, John T; Raffa, Kenneth F; Logan, Jesse A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks. We developed a statistical model of the probability of whitebark pine mortality in the GYE that included temperature effects on beetle development and survival, precipitation effects on host tree condition, beetle population size, and stand characteristics. Estimated probability of whitebark pine mortality increased with higher winter minimum temperature, indicating greater beetle winter survival; higher fall temperature, indicating synchronous beetle emergence; lower two-year summer precipitation, indicating increased potential for host tree stress; increasing beetle populations; stand age; and increasing percent composition of whitebark pine within a stand. The recent outbreak occurred during a period of higher-than-normal regional winter temperatures, suitable fall temperatures, and low summer precipitation. In contrast to lodgepole pine systems, area with mortality was linked to precipitation variability even at high beetle populations. Projections from climate models indicate future climate conditions will likely provide favorable conditions for beetle outbreaks within nearly all current whitebark pine habitat in the GYE by

  8. [Co-adaptation between mites (Arachnida: Klinckowstroemiidae) and Passalidae beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  10. Current status of small hive beetle infestation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of the small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida) is rapidly expanding. From sub-Saharan Africa where it is considered indigenous, SHB has successfully invaded other continents, is prevalent in Australia and North America, and has recently been introduced into Europe (summarized by FE...

  11. Use of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) to deflesh human jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, D; Colard, T; Becart, A; Hedouin, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe new experimental data for the defleshing of human bones using larder beetles (Dermestes haemorrhoidalis) (Küster, 1852). Although the ability of larder beetles to feed on vertebrate remains has been, and still is, used by taxidermists to deflesh skulls and bones, this method has never been documented from a quantitative perspective and has over time become ignored in most forensic anthropology or odontology laboratories. To promote the rational and efficient use of this method, we performed experiments to estimate the quantity of food consumed by larvae. From the 2nd instar to nymphosis, each larva consumed a mean of 0.13±0.03 g of dry beef muscle. We then used 100±50 D. haemorrhoidalis adults and 100±50 larvae to deflesh human maxillae and mandibles sampled within a forensic context (victim identification). Each sample was weighed and photographed before, during and after the experiment. According to our experiments, 20-25 days were sufficient to completely deflesh all of the samples. We concluded that a small number of larder beetles can be used to efficiently deflesh human jaws. According to this result, the use of larder beetles appears to be an inexpensive, simple and efficient way to clean mandibles and maxillae. Furthermore, this method is DNA-safe (compared to usual maceration techniques) and thus allows the samples to be used for subsequent DNA and drug analyses.

  12. Checklist of the Iranian Ground Beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-09-30

    An up-to-date checklist of the ground beetles of Iran is presented. Altogether 955 species and subspecies in 155 genera belonging to 26 subfamilies of Carabidae are reported; 25 taxa are recorded for Iran for the fist time. New localities are listed and some previous distributional records are discussed.

  13. New longhorn beetles (Coleopterta: Cerambycidae from Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific analysis of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae collected on the mountain Fruška Gora from 2000 to 2004 has shown the presence of six new species for the fauna of Serbia and Montenegro. In addition to these four species were new for the fauna of Serbia.

  14. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  15. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the

  16. Rove Beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae of Lanjak Entimau, Sarawak, East Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the abundance of rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae was conducted from 15 to 28 June, 2008 at the dipterocarp forest of Lanjak Entimau, Sarawak, Malaysia. Collections were made at five sites namely Kawi River, Menyaring II, Satap, Begua and Joh River. A total of 175 rove beetles comprising of 17 species were sampled from all 5 sites of Lanjak Entimau. There was a high abundance (Margalef index, 3.097 and moderate diversity (Simpson diversity index, 0.798 of rove beetles at Lanjak Entimau. Four species were identified to species level, Orphnebius bakerianus Motschulscky, 1858, Eleusis kraatzi LeConte, 1863, Belonuchus quadratu Nordman, 1837, Bledius gracilicornis Casey, 1889. Seven species were identified to genus level Orphnebius sp., Coproporus sp., Paederus sp1, Paederus sp2, Hesperus sp., Lispinus sp., Bledius sp. and six species could not be identified even to genus level. Six unidentified species probably new for Science. Moderate diversity and high abundance of rove beetles at Lanjak Entimau are due to diverse habitats. Some differences in species sampled from peninsular Malaysia is explained in terms of isolation between Sarawak in Borneo island with peninsular Malaysia.

  17. Spruce beetle-induced changes to Engelmann spruce foliage flammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon

    2014-01-01

    Intermountain Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm) stands affected by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) represent a unique and growing fuel complex. In this study, we quantified and compared the changes in moisture content, chemistry, and flammability of foliage from trees in three crown condition classes: unattacked (green [G]),...

  18. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  19. Patterns of saproxylic beetle succession in loblolly pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; James Hanula

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of insect succession in dead wood remain unclear, particularly beyond the first several years of decay. In the present study, saproxylic beetles were sampled from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) logs aged between 1 month and 9 years old using both emergence traps attached to logs in the field and rearing bags in the laboratory.

  20. Surveying an endangered saproxylic beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Mediterranean woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiari, Stefano; Zauli, Agnese; Mazziotta, Adriano;

    2013-01-01

    . Detection probability and population size estimates were drawn from each of these four capture methods. There were strong differences in detection probability among methods. Despite using pheromone and beetle manipulation, capture histories were not affected by trap-happiness or trap-shyness. Population...

  1. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are…

  2. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are naturally more eye-catching…

  3. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denell, Robin; Gibbs, Richard; Muzny, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to inte...

  4. Redbay ambrosia beetle: basic and applied chemical ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U.S. in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. Females of X. glabratus vector a fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Over...

  5. Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (xyleborus glabratus eichoff) (coleoptera: curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Hanula; Albert E. Mayfield

    2014-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, and its associated fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrl, Fraedrich & Aghgayeva are exotic species, recently invasive to the United States. Together, they cause a vascular wilt disease that is highly destructive to some species in the Lauraceae (Fraedrich et al., 2008). Xyleborus glabratus is a member of the...

  6. Chemical ecology of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U.S. in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. Females of X. glabratus vector a newly-described fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae...

  7. Drought induces spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks across northwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Eisenhart, Karen S; Jarvis, Daniel; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2014-04-01

    This study examines influences of climate variability on spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak across northwestern Colorado during the period 1650 2011 CE. Periods of broad-scale outbreak reconstructed using documentary records and tree rings were dated to 1843-1860, 1882-1889, 1931-1957, and 2004-2010. Periods of outbreak were compared with seasonal temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and indices of ocean-atmosphere oscillation that include the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Classification trees showed that outbreaks can be predicted most successfully from above average annual AMO values and above average summer VPD values, indicators of drought across Colorado. Notably, we find that spruce beetle outbreaks appear to be predicted best by interannual to multidecadal variability in drought, not by temperature alone. This finding may imply that spruce beetle outbreaks are triggered by decreases in host tree defenses, which are hypothesized to occur with drought stress. Given the persistence of the AMO, the shift to a positive AMO phase in the late 1990s is likely to promote continued spruce beetle disturbance.

  8. Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-10-07

    Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.

  9. Aspects of host-plant relationship of the Colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W.

    1970-01-01

    Host plant choice, suitability of and conditioning to the host in Leptinotarsa decemlineata SAY were studied under controlled conditions.

    The literature on historical and geographical distribution of the Colorado beetle has been reviewed and an extensive survey is given of the

  10. Interactions between imidacloprid and Metarhizium brunneum on adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Calum W; Ugine, Todd A; Hajek, Ann E

    2010-11-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a longhorned beetle species native to Asia, has been introduced into several North American and European cities. Currently eradication and preventive measures are limited to identifying and destroying infested trees and protecting uninfested trees with trunk or soil-injections of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid. Because entomopathogenic fungi like Metarhizium brunneum Petch have been identified as virulent against these beetles we conducted several tests to determine the compatibility of the two agents in combination. Radial hyphal growth and the sporulation capacity of M. brunneum on Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast were not significantly affected by the presence of imidacloprid. In a 2×3 factorial experiment investigating interactions between exposure to imidacloprid and M. brunneum we observed no effect of imidacloprid alone on beetle survival when beetles were given a single dose of 10 or 100 ppm compared to control insects. We observed a significant effect of exposure to M. brunneum, and a significant interaction between imidacloprid and M. brunneum representing a synergistic effect of dual treatment. Beetles exposed to the fungus alone lived significantly longer compared to insects treated with a single dose of 100 ppm imidacloprid (9.5 vs. 6.5d). Consumption of striped maple twigs by beetles exposed to imidacloprid, across concentrations, was reduced 48% compared to control insects, where as consumption by M. brunneum-exposed beetles was reduced by 16% over the first 6-days of the test period. Beetles fed 100 ppm imidacloprid consumed 32% less over the first 3d compared to beetles not exposed to imidacloprid and thereafter consumed as much as beetles not fed 100 ppm imidacloprid. M. brunneum-exposed beetles consumed significantly less food than control insects throughout the test period, and beetles treated with imidacloprid produced significantly fewer conidia compared to beetles

  11. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and wildfires

  12. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Gotoh

    Full Text Available The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer, juvenile hormone (JH titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  13. Impacts of silvicultural thinning treatments on beetle trap captures and tree attacks during low bark beetle populations in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, M L; Hofstetter, R W; Wagner, M R

    2010-10-01

    Our research used a combination of passive traps, funnel traps with lures, baited trees, and surveys of long-term thinning plots to assess the impacts of different levels of stand basal area (BA) on bark beetle tree attack and on trap captures of Ips spp., Dendroctonus spp., and their predators. The study occurred at two sites in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests, from 2004 to 2007 during low bark beetle populations. Residual stand BA ranged from 9.0 to 37.0 m2/ha. More predators and bark beetles were collected in passive traps in stands of lower BA than in stands of higher BA; however, significance varied by species and site, and total number of beetles collected was low. Height of the clear panel passive traps affected trap catches for some species at some sites and years. When pheromone lures were used with funnel traps [Ips pini (Say) lure: lanierone, +03/-97 ipsdienol], we found no significant difference in trap catches among basal area treatments for bark beetles and their predators. Similarly, when trees were baited (Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte lure: myrcene, exo-brevicomin and frontalin), we found no significant difference for days to first bark beetle attack. Surveys of long-term thinning treatments found evidence of bark beetle attacks only in unthinned plots (approximately 37 m2/ha basal area). We discuss our results in terms of management implications for bark beetle trapping and control.

  14. Efficacy of fipronil for protecting individual pines from mortality attributed to attack by western pine beetle and mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Fettig; A.S. Munson; C.I. Jorgenson; D.M. and Grosman

    2010-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: C~rculionidae, Scolytinae) are commonly recognized as important tree mortality agents in coniferous forests of the western U.S. Most species feed on the phloem and cambium, or xylem tissue of woody plants; and a few are recognized as the most destructive of all forest insect pests. The last decade has seen elevated levels of bark beetle caused...

  15. Nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone protect individual ponderosa pines from attack by western pine beetle and red turpentine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Christopher P. Dabney; Stepehen R. McKelvey; Dezene P.W. Huber

    2008-01-01

    Nonhost angiosperm volatiles (NAV) and verbenone were tested for their ability to protect individual ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws., from attack by western pine beetle (WPB), Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, and red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae). A combination of (

  16. Population structure of mountain pine beetle symbiont Leptographium longiclavatum and the implication on the multipartite beetle-fungi relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Kin-Ming Tsui

    Full Text Available Over 18 million ha of forests have been destroyed in the past decade in Canada by the mountain pine beetle (MPB and its fungal symbionts. Understanding their population dynamics is critical to improving modeling of beetle epidemics and providing potential clues to predict population expansion. Leptographium longiclavatum and Grosmannia clavigera are fungal symbionts of MPB that aid the beetle to colonize and kill their pine hosts. We investigated the genetic structure and demographic expansion of L. longiclavatum in populations established within the historic distribution range and in the newly colonized regions. We identified three genetic clusters/populations that coincide with independent geographic locations. The genetic profiles of the recently established populations in northern British Columbia (BC and Alberta suggest that they originated from central and southern BC. Approximate Bayesian Computation supports the scenario that this recent expansion represents an admixture of individuals originating from BC and the Rocky Mountains. Highly significant correlations were found among genetic distance matrices of L. longiclavatum, G. clavigera, and MPB. This highlights the concordance of demographic processes in these interacting organisms sharing a highly specialized niche and supports the hypothesis of long-term multipartite beetle-fungus co-evolutionary history and mutualistic relationships.

  17. Population structure of mountain pine beetle symbiont Leptographium longiclavatum and the implication on the multipartite beetle-fungi relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Farfan, Lina; Roe, Amanda D; Rice, Adrianne V; Cooke, Janice E K; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Hamelin, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Over 18 million ha of forests have been destroyed in the past decade in Canada by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) and its fungal symbionts. Understanding their population dynamics is critical to improving modeling of beetle epidemics and providing potential clues to predict population expansion. Leptographium longiclavatum and Grosmannia clavigera are fungal symbionts of MPB that aid the beetle to colonize and kill their pine hosts. We investigated the genetic structure and demographic expansion of L. longiclavatum in populations established within the historic distribution range and in the newly colonized regions. We identified three genetic clusters/populations that coincide with independent geographic locations. The genetic profiles of the recently established populations in northern British Columbia (BC) and Alberta suggest that they originated from central and southern BC. Approximate Bayesian Computation supports the scenario that this recent expansion represents an admixture of individuals originating from BC and the Rocky Mountains. Highly significant correlations were found among genetic distance matrices of L. longiclavatum, G. clavigera, and MPB. This highlights the concordance of demographic processes in these interacting organisms sharing a highly specialized niche and supports the hypothesis of long-term multipartite beetle-fungus co-evolutionary history and mutualistic relationships.

  18. Outbreaks of three leaf beetles species in Salix plantations; Insektsskadegoerelse i Salixodlingar - bladbaggar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, Solveig; Eklund, Karin; Bjoerkman, Christer [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology

    1999-07-01

    Several species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have caused economic damage in coppiced willow plantations in Britain. In Sweden we have observed outbreaks of three species; Phratora vulgatissima, Galerucella lineola and Lochmaea caprea. One feature of leaf beetles is that both adults and larvae feed on plants. The adults make holes in willow leaves when feeding whereas larvae skeletonize the leaves by eating on the leaf underside. Willows attacked by high densities of P. vulgatissima may show a yield loss of up to 40%. Leaf beetles have a large reproduction capacity. Each female can lay 10-20 eggs per day for several weeks. Without natural control the beetles would be very common in plantations. The egg and the first larval stages seem to be the most vulnerable to predation. With more knowledge about the biology of leaf beetle enemies it will perhaps be possible to use natural biological control programs as a method for managing these beetles.

  19. Interpatch movement of the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus: individual responses to patch size and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Stephen F

    1996-03-01

    Individual movement patterns and the effects of host plant patch size and isolation on patch occupancy were examined for red milkweed beetles, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus, residing in a heterogeneous landscape. Male beetles were found to move both more often and farther between host plant patches than female beetles, and this difference affected the patterns of patch occupancy observed. Overall, unoccupied milkweed patches were smaller and more isolated than patches occupied by beetles. Patches uninhabited by females tended to be more isolated, but not necessarily smaller, than patches with female beetles, indicating that females may be affected more by patch isolation than patch size. Presence of male beetles on patches showed a stronger response to patch size than to patch isolation. Differences in movement between males and females illustrate the need for demographically based dispersal data. Comparisons of Tetraopes interpatch movement patterns between landscapes composed of patches of different size revealed that landscapes with overall smaller patches may have greater rates of interpatch movement.

  20. Small beetle, large-scale drivers: how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the European spruce bark beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Müller, Jörg; Hothorn, Torsten; Bässler, Claus; Heurich, Marco; Kautz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1. Unprecedented bark beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. 2. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus (Col., Scol.), we analysed drivers across seven orders of magnitude in scale (from 103 to 1010 m2) over a 23-year period, focusing on the Bavarian Forest National Park. Time-discrete hazard modelling was used to account for local factors and temporal dependencies. Subsequently, beta regression was applied to determine the influence of regional and landscape factors, the latter characterized by means of graph theory. 3. We found that in addition to stand variables, large-scale drivers also strongly influenced bark beetle infestation risk. Outbreak waves were closely related to landscape-scale connectedness of both host and beetle populations as well as to regional bark beetle infestation levels. Furthermore, regional summer drought was identified as an important trigger for infestation pulses. Large-scale synchrony and connectivity are thus key drivers of the recently observed bark beetle outbreak in the area. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our multiscale analysis provides evidence that the risk for biotic disturbances is highly dependent on drivers beyond the control of traditional stand-scale management. This finding highlights the importance of fostering the ability to cope with and recover from disturbance. It furthermore suggests that a stronger consideration of landscape and regional processes is needed to address changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management. PMID:27041769

  1. Darkling beetle populations (Tenebrionidae) of the Hanford site in southcentral Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.; Woodley, N.; Sheldon, J.K.; Uresk, V.A.

    1978-02-01

    This 3-yr study documents the taxonomic composition, relative abundance, and seasonal distribution of darkling beetles occupying the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. A taxonomic key and species diagnosis are provided to assist in identification by the nonspecialist. Analysis of food plant availability and selection serves to identify transfer pathways through beetle populations and permits construction of food web diagrams depicting the flow of materials through the darkling beetle component.

  2. Tiger Beetles' (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) pupal stage: current state of knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, André S; Mermudes, José R M

    2017-01-26

    The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.

  3. Social encapsulation of beetle parasites by Cape honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, P.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Solbrig, A. J.; Ratnieks, F. L. W.; Elzen, P. J.; Baxter, J. R.

    2001-05-01

    Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis) encapsulate the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), a nest parasite, in propolis (tree resin collected by the bees). The encapsulation process lasts 1-4 days and the bees have a sophisticated guarding strategy for limiting the escape of beetles during encapsulation. Some encapsulated beetles died (4.9%) and a few escaped (1.6%). Encapsulation has probably evolved because the small hive beetle cannot easily be killed by the bees due to its hard exoskeleton and defensive behaviour.

  4. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2013-02-01

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

  5. Polarizing properties and structure of the cuticle of scarab beetles from the Chrysina genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández del Río, Lía; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of several scarab beetles have been previously studied but few attempts have been made to compare beetles in the same genus. To determine whether there is any relation between specimens of the same genus, we have studied and classified seven species from the Chrysina genus. The polarization properties were analyzed with Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry and the structural characteristics with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the Chrysina beetles are green colored or have a metallic look (gold or silver). The results show that the green-colored beetles polarize reflected light mainly at off-specular angles. The gold-colored beetles polarize light left-handed near circular at specular reflection. The structure of the exoskeleton is a stack of layers that form a cusplike structure in the green beetles whereas the layers are parallel to the surface in the case of the gold-colored beetles. The beetle C. gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along the elytras and exhibits both types of effects. The results indicate that Chrysina beetles can be classified according to these two major polarization properties.

  6. Investigation of the Beetle.1.1 chip in the X7 testbeam

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Bulten, H J; Jans, E; Ketel, T; Klous, S; Snoek, H; Verkooijen, H

    2003-01-01

    Two Beetle1.1 chips, bonded to a Hamamatsu PR01 VELO Phi-detector, have been tested for the first time in a testbeam. The main goal was to measure the signal to noise ratio of the Beetle1.1 connected to a prototype VELO Phi-detector. Furthermore we investigated the general behaviour of the Beetle1.1 to adapt the design of the chip if desirable. This note presents the measured S/N numbers as well as some features and characteristics (e.g. rise time, spillover) of the Beetle1.1 chip.

  7. Checklist of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from the state of Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Clark, Shawn M; Toledo-Hernández, Victor Hugo; Corona-López, Angélica María; Jones, Robert W

    2016-03-07

    We record 116 genera and 366 species of Chrysomelidae from the state of Morelos, Mexico. This represents an increase of 9.3% in the species richness of these beetles for the state. Also, Morelos is currently the third most diverse state in leaf beetles within Mexico, with 16.78% of total species recorded for the country. The most diverse genera were Calligrapha, Disonycha, Blepharida, Leptinotarsa, Cryptocephalus, Systena, Alagoasa, Diabrotica and Pachybrachis, each with more than eight species. Most of these genera contain large, showy beetles. When the chrysomelid fauna is more fully understood, some of the genera of tiny beetles will likely prove to be more diverse.

  8. Population Dynamics of Bean Leaf Beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on Edamame Soybean Plants In Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Edamame soybeans are a speciality food item for fresh and processed markets and they are harvested at a physiologically immature (R6 stage. Bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, is a sporadic pest of soybean in Nebraska, however, its pest status and abundance has increased in the recent years due to an increase in soybean acreage. This was a field experiment aimed at determining the population growth rate of bean leaf beetle on two edamame soybean cultivars, ‘Butterbeans’ and ‘Envy,’ at two planting dates during 2004 and 2005 in Nebraska. The population growth of beetles was significantly higher on 'Butterbeans' than on 'Envy' for both the first and second planting periods in both 2004 and 2005 seasons. The beetle infestation differences were noticed on plants at the late reproductive growth stages, R5 and R6. Additionally, the beetle infestation on 'Butterbeans' growth stages in 2004 and 2005 was significantly different for the first and second planting dates. On average, the beetles were higher on plants at the late reproductive stages than the other stages for first and second planting periods. Similarly, ‘Envy’ growth stages showed significant difference in beetle infestation during the first and second planting dates. Significantly high beetle infestations were observed at the vegetative growth stages. The study revealed that population growth of bean leaf beetles on edamame soybeans is affected by the planting date, season and cultivar choice.

  9. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulcr, Jiri; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-11-01

    Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood. Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts. Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs. We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini.

  10. Presence and diversity of Streptomyces in Dendroctonus and sympatric bark beetle galleries across North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulcr, Jiri; Adams, Aaron S; Raffa, Kenneth; Hofstetter, Richard W; Klepzig, Kier D; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-05-01

    Recent studies have revealed several examples of intimate associations between insects and Actinobacteria, including the Southern Pine Beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and the Spruce Beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis. Here, we surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria co-occurring with 10 species of Dendroctonus bark beetles across the United States, using both phylogenetic and community ecology approaches. From these 10 species, and 19 other scolytine beetles that occur in the same trees, we obtained 154 Streptomyces-like isolates and generated 16S sequences from 134 of those. Confirmed 16S sequences of Streptomyces were binned into 36 distinct strains using a threshold of 0.2% sequence divergence. The 16S rDNA phylogeny of all isolates does not correlate with the distribution of strains among beetle species, localities, or parts of the beetles or their galleries. However, we identified three Streptomyces strains occurring repeatedly on Dendroctonus beetles and in their galleries. Identity of these isolates was corroborated using a house-keeping gene sequence (efTu). These strains are not confined to a certain species of beetle, locality, or part of the beetle or their galleries. However, their role as residents in the woodboring insect niche is supported by the repeated association of their 16S and efTu from across the continent, and also having been reported in studies of other subcortical insects.

  11. Study on co-infection of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes persulcatus in Charles Hilary, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region%新疆维吾尔自治区夏尔西里自然保护区全沟硬蜱复合感染蜱媒病原研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓明; 张桂林; 刘然; 孙响; 郑重; 邱尔臣; 马晓玲

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解新疆维吾尔自治区(新疆)夏尔西里自然保护区全沟硬蜱蜱媒病原复合感染情况.方法 2012年6月至2013年6月在新疆夏尔西里自然保护区采用布旗法采集全沟硬蜱,通过巢式PCR方法对蜱体内莱姆病伯氏疏螺旋体[Borrelia(B.) burgdorferi] 5S~ 23S rRNA基因间隔区、无形体(Anaplasma)16S rRNA基因、斑点热立克次体(Rickettsia) ompA基因、Q热贝氏柯克斯体Coxiella(C.)burneti的com1基因、巴贝西原虫(Babesia)的Nss-rRNA基因进行扩增.结果 204只全沟硬蜱中104只蜱病原检测阳性,阳性率为50.98%,其中伯氏疏螺旋体阳性率为34.31%(n=70),斑点热立克次体阳性率为28.92%(n=59),嗜吞噬细胞无形体阳性率为9.31%(n=19),未检出Q热贝氏柯克斯体和巴贝西原虫.x2检验显示,不同病原感染率差异有统计学意义(x2=38.517,P=0.000).204只蜱中有39只存在复合感染,复合感染率为19.12%(39/204),在病原检测阳性蜱中复合感染率为37.50%(39/104).伯氏疏螺旋体与斑点热立克次体复合感染率为16.18%(n=33);伯氏疏螺旋体与嗜吞噬细胞无形体复合感染率为4.90%(n=10),斑点热立克次体与嗜吞噬细胞无形体复合感染率为2.94%(n=6),3种病原体复合感染率为2.45%(n=5).经x2检验,3种病原混合感染率差异有统计学意义(x2=41.328,P=0.000).结论 新疆夏尔西里自然保护区全沟硬蜱存在伯氏疏螺旋体、嗜吞噬细胞无形体、斑点热立克次体的自然感染,并存在2~3种病原的复合感染.%Objective To study the co-infection of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes persulcatus collected in Charles Hilary,Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region (Xinjiang).Methods Ticks were collected by flagging in grassy areas in Charles Hilary,Xinjiang from June 2012 to June 2013.The 5S-23S rRNA intergenic region from Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi,16S rRNA gene from Anaplasma,ompA gene from spotted fever group Rickettsia,comI gene from Coxiella (C

  12. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusu...

  13. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle-plant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Duane D; Scully, Erin D; Pauchet, Yannick; Hoover, Kelli; Kirsch, Roy; Geib, Scott M; Mitchell, Robert F; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Arsala, Deanna; Benoit, Joshua B; Blackmon, Heath; Bledsoe, Tiffany; Bowsher, Julia H; Busch, André; Calla, Bernarda; Chao, Hsu; Childers, Anna K; Childers, Christopher; Clarke, Dave J; Cohen, Lorna; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dolan, Amanda; Duan, Jian J; Dugan, Shannon; Friedrich, Markus; Glastad, Karl M; Goodisman, Michael A D; Haddad, Stephanie; Han, Yi; Hughes, Daniel S T; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Johnston, J Spencer; Jones, Jeffery W; Kuhn, Leslie A; Lance, David R; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lee, Sandra L; Lin, Han; Lynch, Jeremy A; Moczek, Armin P; Murali, Shwetha C; Muzny, Donna M; Nelson, David R; Palli, Subba R; Panfilio, Kristen A; Pers, Dan; Poelchau, Monica F; Quan, Honghu; Qu, Jiaxin; Ray, Ann M; Rinehart, Joseph P; Robertson, Hugh M; Roehrdanz, Richard; Rosendale, Andrew J; Shin, Seunggwan; Silva, Christian; Torson, Alex S; Jentzsch, Iris M Vargas; Werren, John H; Worley, Kim C; Yocum, George; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen

    2016-11-11

    Relatively little is known about the genomic basis and evolution of wood-feeding in beetles. We undertook genome sequencing and annotation, gene expression assays, studies of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and other functional and comparative studies of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important tree species. Complementary studies of genes encoding enzymes involved in digestion of woody plant tissues or detoxification of plant allelochemicals were undertaken with the genomes of 14 additional insects, including the newly sequenced emerald ash borer and bull-headed dung beetle. The Asian longhorned beetle genome encodes a uniquely diverse arsenal of enzymes that can degrade the main polysaccharide networks in plant cell walls, detoxify plant allelochemicals, and otherwise facilitate feeding on woody plants. It has the metabolic plasticity needed to feed on diverse plant species, contributing to its highly invasive nature. Large expansions of chemosensory genes involved in the reception of pheromones and plant kairomones are consistent with the complexity of chemical cues it uses to find host plants and mates. Amplification and functional divergence of genes associated with specialized feeding on plants, including genes originally obtained via horizontal gene transfer from fungi and bacteria, contributed to the addition, expansion, and enhancement of the metabolic repertoire of the Asian longhorned beetle, certain other phytophagous beetles, and to a lesser degree, other phytophagous insects. Our results thus begin to establish a genomic basis for the evolutionary success of beetles on plants.

  14. The 3D lightweight structural characteristics of the beetle forewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinxiang; Tuo, Wanyong; Guo, Zhensheng; Yan, Lili

    2017-02-01

    The present paper renewedly expounds upon the characteristics of the 3D lightweight structure of beetle forewings and notes that two biomimetic structures (models) that have appeared in recent years do not comply with these characteristics based on a comparison of the structures of the biological prototypes. The first model features transverse tubules based on observations of circular holes in cross-sectional figures of the Cybister forewing. The second is a biomimetic spherical cavity model with hollow trabeculae that reportedly exhibits superior mechanical properties because its structures are most similar to the biological prototype. Finally, a false biomimetic proposition that the mechanical properties of biomimetic structures with "fiber winding" patterns are superior to those of structures constructed of pure "epoxy" is also noted. Hopefully, the present study can serve to improve the state of research on biomimetic applications of beetle forewing structures.

  15. Structural origin of circularly polarized iridescence in jeweled beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crne, Matija; Sharma, Vivek; Park, Jung O.; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2010-03-01

    The iridescent metallic green beetle, Chrysina gloriosa, selectively reflects left circularly polarized light. The exoskeleton is decorated by hexagonal cells (˜10 micron) that coexist with pentagons and heptagons. We find that the fraction of hexagons decreases with an increase in curvature. In bright field microscopy, each cell contains a bright yellow core, placed in a greenish cell with yellowish border, but the core disappears in the dark field. Using confocal microscopy, we observe that these cells consist of nearly concentric, nested arcs that lie on surface of a shallow cone. We infer that the patterns are structurally and optically analogous to the focal conic domains formed spontaneously on the free surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal. The microstructure provides the bases for the morphogenesis as well as key insights for emulating the intricate optical response the exoskeleton of scarab beetles.

  16. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  17. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-11-26

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.

  18. Modeling Phloem Temperatures Relative to Mountain Pine Beetle Phenology

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Matthew Jared

    2011-01-01

    We explore a variety of methods to estimate phloem temperatures from ambient air temperatures suitable for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. A model's ability to induce the same phenology generated from observed phloem temperatures measures its effectiveness rather than a simple reconstruction of phloem temperatures. From a model's phenology results we are able to ascertain whether the model produces a similar amount of developmental energy exhibited by observed phloem temper...

  19. Studies of the Beetle 1.2 Pipeline Homogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M; Blouw, J; Schmelling, M; Hofmann, W; Schwingenheuer, B; Pugatch, V; Volyanskyy, D; Jiménez-Otero, S; Tran, M T; Voss, H; Bernhard, R P; Köstner, S; Lehner, F; Lois, C; Needham, M; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A

    2003-01-01

    The pipeline homogeneity in general and the behaviour of the edge channels of the Beetle 1.2 readout chip [1] were studied with data taken during the Silicon Tracker test beam period in May 2003. A contribution of roughly 10\\% from pipeline inhomogeneities to the strip noise was observed. All channels including the first and the last one were found to be fully functional.

  20. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  1. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  2. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicole A; Zhao, Anthony; Munshi-South, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970's. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970's were not detected in 2015. These results indicate that

  3. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  4. Intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), between adjacent cotton and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastola, Anup; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, R Patrick; Shrestha, Ram B; Chen, Fa-Jun; Carroll, Stanley C

    2016-02-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to characterize the intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) between adjacent cotton and alfalfa. A dual protein-marking method was used to assess the intercrop movement of the lady beetles in each crop. In turns field collected lady beetles in each crop were assayed by protein specific ELISA to quantify the movement of beetles between the crops. Results indicated that a high percentage of convergent lady beetles caught in cotton (46% in 2008; 56% in 2009) and alfalfa (46% in 2008; 71% in 2009) contained a protein mark, thus indicating that convergent lady beetle movement was largely bidirectional between the adjacent crops. Although at a much lower proportion, lady beetles also showed unidirectional movement from cotton to alfalfa (5% in 2008 and 6% in 2009) and from alfalfa to cotton (9% in 2008 and 14% in 2009). The season-long bidirectional movement exhibited by the beetles was significantly higher in alfalfa than cotton during both years of the study. The total influx of lady beetles (bidirectional and unidirectional combined) was significantly higher in alfalfa compared with that in cotton for both years. While convergent lady beetles moved between adjacent cotton and alfalfa, they were more attracted to alfalfa when cotton was not flowering and/or when alfalfa offered more opportunities for prey. This study offers much needed information on intercrop movement of the convergent lady beetle that should facilitate integrated pest management decisions in cotton utilizing conservation biological control. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicole A.; Zhao, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970’s. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970’s were not detected in 2015. These results indicate

  6. Stellar performance: mechanisms underlying Milky Way orientation in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James J; El Jundi, Basil; Smolka, Jochen; Khaldy, Lana; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Byrne, Marcus J; Dacke, Marie

    2017-04-05

    Nocturnal dung beetles (Scarabaeus satyrus) are currently the only animals that have been demonstrated to use the Milky Way for reliable orientation. In this study, we tested the capacity of S. satyrus to orient under a range of artificial celestial cues, and compared the properties of these cues with images of the Milky Way simulated for a beetle's visual system. We find that the mechanism that permits accurate stellar orientation under the Milky Way is based on an intensity comparison between different regions of the Milky Way. We determined the beetles' contrast sensitivity for this task in behavioural experiments in the laboratory, and found that the resulting threshold of 13% is sufficient to detect the contrast between the southern and northern arms of the Milky Way under natural conditions. This mechanism should be effective under extremely dim conditions and on nights when the Milky Way forms a near symmetrical band that crosses the zenith. These findings are discussed in the context of studies of stellar orientation in migratory birds and itinerant seals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Is dimethyldecanal a common aggregation pheromone of Tribolium flour beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Ludovic; Lognay, Georges; Verscheure, Marjolaine; Leenaers, Lionel; Gaspar, Charles; Haubruge, Eric

    2002-03-01

    Flour beetles are cosmopolitan and common pests in grain stores and flour mills. Their ability to exploit a wide variety of stored products has contributed to their status as major pests of stored food. Although it was previously reported that the same aggregation pheromone, 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD), is shared by three flour beetles species (Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, and T. freemani), the volatiles released by the other Tribolium species associated with stored products have not yet been examined. In the present study, the volatiles produced by males and females of eight Tribolium species were examined by solid phase microextraction (SPME). SPME samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experiments were conducted to identify volatiles emitted by the adults of different Tribolium species and to determine whether DMD is a common aggregation pheromone. We observed that DMD is not a common pheromone of the eight species tested, but is common to T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. freemani, and T. madens. Two other volatiles were detected, 1-pentadecene, which is shown here to be a common semiochemical of flour beetles, and 1,6-pentadecadiene, which was detected in five species (T. audax, T. brevicornis, T. destructor, T. freemani, and T. madens).

  8. NUTRITIONAL STUDIES ON THE CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CONFUSUM DUVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Royal N.

    1924-01-01

    The confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum) was chosen for this study because it lives in a food which ordinarily contains no living organisms. The death rates are greater in cultures which are handled daily than in those which are not handled but when all are handled alike the results are comparable. The results from experiments with individual beetles in various kinds of flour were plotted with instars (larval stages) on the ordinate and time in days on the abscissa, using the results from control experiments in wheat flour to determine the length of the various instars from an "x = y" formula. The curves of development were found to be straight lines throughout all but the last instar. The curve for the last instar during which the larva transformed deviated from the straight line in certain foods, notably rice flour. When mass cultures were used the death and transformation curves were plotted for each synthetic food. A comparison of the curves from wheat flour and the synthetic foods shows that the first parts of the curves are very much alike in all cases and that a few resemble the control in every respect except that the transformation curve has been moved back for a considerable time. The death curves for the mass cultures are not smooth but show sudden increase in death at approximately the times of molting. These curves may therefore be compared with the records from individual beetles. PMID:19872096

  9. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  10. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects.

  11. DETECTION OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES IN 9975 PACKAGES USING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, D.

    2013-03-04

    This report documents the initial feasibility tests performed using a commercial acoustic emission instrument for the purpose of detecting beetles in Department of Energy 9975 shipping packages. The device selected for this testing was a commercial handheld instrument and probe developed for the detection of termites, weevils, beetles and other insect infestations in wooden structures, trees, plants and soil. The results of two rounds of testing are presented. The first tests were performed by the vendor using only the hand-held instrument’s indications and real-time operator analysis of the audio signal content. The second tests included hands-free positioning of the instrument probe and post-collection analysis of the recorded audio signal content including audio background comparisons. The test results indicate that the system is promising for detecting the presence of drugstore beetles, however, additional work would be needed to improve the ease of detection and to automate the signal processing to eliminate the need for human interpretation. Mechanisms for hands-free positioning of the probe and audio background discrimination are also necessary for reliable detection and to reduce potential operator dose in radiation environments.

  12. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  13. Pre-treatment assemblages of wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Cerambycidae) of the hardwood ecosystem experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Holland; John T. Shukle; Hossam Eldien M. Abdel Moniem; Thomas W. Mager; Kapil R. Raje; Kyle Schnepp; Shulin. Yang

    2013-01-01

    Longhorned beetles are a diverse and important group of insects in forest ecosystems; several species attack weakened or stressed trees, relatively few attack healthy trees, and most species use only dead and decomposing wood. We surveyed longhorned beetles and metallic wood-boring beetles using four different types of traps at 36 Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (Indiana...

  14. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove bee...... (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). Two individuals of Anotylus rugosus were found to have a dual infection of Zoophthora philonthi and Beauveria bassiana...

  15. Natural flightless morphs of the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata improve biological control of aphids on single plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, S.T.E.; Middendorp, C.W.; Luijten, C.A.; Schelt, van J.; Brakefield, P.M.; Jong, de P.W.

    2008-01-01

    The challenge of using ladybird beetles for biological control of insect pests such as aphids is that the adult beetles tend to fly away from the host plants. Therefore, flightless ladybirds might improve biocontrol. There are several artificial ways to obtain flightless beetles, but it may be prefe

  16. Predicting live and dead basal area in bark beetle-affected forests from discrete-return LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Ben Bright; Jose Negron; Robert McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2012-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have been widespread and severe. High tree mortality due to bark beetles affects the fundamental ecosystem processes of primary production and decomposition that largely determine carbon balance (Kurz et al. 2008, Pfeifer et al. 2011, Hicke et al. 2012). Forest managers need accurate data on beetle-induced tree...

  17. Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle, rice flour beetle)--an occupational allergen in bakers: demonstration of IgE antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Zachgo, W; Rotermund, H; Wiewrodt, R; Merget, R; Wahl, R; Burow, G; zur Strassen, R

    1991-01-01

    Specific IgE to proteins from Tribolium confusum (TC), a flour beetle, was detected in 9/125 sera of subjects exposed to rye and wheat flour. TC RAST was not inhibited by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, rye or wheat flour. Immunoblot experiments showed specific binding to three proteins from adult TC or pupae, not present in rye or wheat flour. These findings suggest that TC might act as an occupational allergen in a proportion of bakers.

  18. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  19. Infection of Tribolium beetles with a tapeworm: variation in susceptibility within and between beetle species and among genetic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, G; Norman, S

    1995-02-01

    Host susceptibility and resistance to parasites are often hypothesized to be genetically variable traits. We tested 2 species of Tribolium flour beetles for among-strain variation in susceptibility to the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. Twelve genetic strains of Tribolium confusum and 11 strains of Tribolium castaneum were examined. We found T. castaneum was more susceptible to the tapeworm than T. confusum. There was significant among-strain and between-sex variation for both beetle species in infection intensity and prevalence. Among-vial variation was marginally significant. These results add to evidence that host susceptibility to a parasite is a genetically variable trait. We view these results as important findings for understanding natural selection on host-parasite interactions. Traits that are genetically variable can respond to natural selection. Thus, if a beetle's susceptibility to the tapeworm is correlated with fitness and heritable, susceptibility can evolve. Susceptibility is likely to be pleiotropic and have important consequences on issues ranging from parasite transmission to host species interactions and community structure.

  20. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald C; Rowley, Daniel L; Greenstone, Matthew H; Athanas, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laboratory comparisons suggest that L. juncta, the presumptive original host, best supports the development of the parasitoid larval L. grandis, based on 43.6% successful emergence of the adult carabid parasitoid, compared to 11.5% from the two other Leptinotarsa species. L. grandis adults accept eggs and larvae of all 3 Leptinotarsa species as adult food. Naive, newly-emerged adults show no preference when presented the 3 species of third-instar larvae, which they consume at a mean rate of 3.3 per day, a rate which does not differ significantly by sex, larval host, or weight at emergence. When presented with equal amounts by weight of the 3 species of Leptinotarsa eggs, such adults consume the equivalent of 23.0 L. decemlineata eggs per day, with consumption of L. juncta eggs 67% higher by weight than L. decemlineata consumption. Insight into the biotic and abiotic limitations on L. grandis should aid in determining its potential for suppression of Colorado potato beetle by biological control in diverse agroecosystems.

  1. Mountain pine beetle in high-elevation five-needle white pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Elizabeth Campbell; Ken Gibson; Sandra Kegley; Jesse Logan; Diana Six

    2011-01-01

    Across western North America mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), populations are growing at exponential rates in pine ecosystems that span a wide range of elevations. As temperature increased over the past several decades, the flexible, thermally-regulated life-history strategies of mountain pine beetle have allowed...

  2. Effectiveness of hand removal for small-scale management of Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Paul V; Cumming, Ryan M

    2014-02-01

    Hand removal is often recommended as a method for small-scale control of Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman). In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of daily hand removal for controlling damage by Japanese beetles on grape plants. We also investigated whether the timing of the removal (at 0800, 1400, or 1900 hours, or at all 3 periods) influenced the effectiveness of the technique. We found that hand removal significantly lowered the number of beetles on, and consequently the damage to, grape plants relative to nonremoval controls. Of the single removal treatments, removal of beetles at 1900 hours was most effective, with results similar to removing beetles three times per day. The majority of beetles removed from plants during the experiment were female, a pattern that matches our understanding of aggregation formation behavior in the species, and which may serve to enhance the benefits of hand removal. Hand removal seems to work by decreasing the number of feeding beetles, which in turn reduces the release of aggregation kairomones from the plant, and subsequently decreases the attractiveness of the plant to future beetles.

  3. Factors influencing bark beetle outbreaks after forest fires on the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, María J; Ayres, Matthew P

    2011-10-01

    Fires are among the most globally important disturbances in forest ecosystems. Forest fires can be followed by bark beetle outbreaks. Therefore, the dynamic interactions between bark beetle outbreaks and fire appear to be of general importance in coniferous forests throughout the world. We tested three hypotheses of how forest fires in pine ecosystems (Pinus pinaster Alton and P. radiata D. Don) in Spain could alter the population dynamics of bark beetles and influence the probability of further disturbance from beetle outbreaks: fire could affect the antiherbivore resin defenses of trees, change their nutritional suitability, or affect top-down controls on herbivore populations. P. radiata defenses decreased immediately after fire, but trees with little crown damage soon recovered with defenses higher than before. Fire either reduced or did not affect nutritional quality of phloem and either reduced or had no effect on the abundance, diversity, and relative biomass of natural enemies. After fire, bark beetle abundance increased via rapid aggregation of reproductive adults on scorched trees. However, our results indicate that for populations to increase to an outbreak situation, colonizing beetles must initiate attacks before tree resin defenses recover, host trees must retain enough undamaged phloem to facilitate larval development, and natural enemies should be sufficiently rare to permit high beetle recruitment into the next generation. Coincidence of these circumstances may promote the possibility of beetle populations escaping to outbreak levels.

  4. Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Xyleborus glabratus, the redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), and Euwallacea fornicatus, the tea shot hole borer (TSHB). Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d...

  5. Integrating kaolin clay for ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) management in ornamental tree nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Invasive ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are an important pest problem at ornamental tree nurseries. Available chemical measures are not completely effective, and due to the length of the beetle dispersal period and product breakdown, repeated treatments can become costly in ...

  6. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  7. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  8. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001 and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20, gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  9. A Phloem Sandwich Unit for Observing Bark Beetles, Associated Predators, and Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald N. Kim; Mitchel C. Miller

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a phloem sandwich that allows observation of parent beetles, their brood, and associates within the inner bark, and permits observation of predator and parasite behavior on the bark surface. The construction of the unit permits the introduction of multiple pairs of beetles into a single sandwich.

  10. Hilltopping on termitaries by the Indochinese tiger beetle, Heptodonta analis (Cincindelidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILLIAMH.SCHAEDLA

    2005-01-01

    Spot surveys conducted during the early part of the monsoon season in northeastern Thailand indicated territorial hilltopping on termitaries by the tiger beetle,Heptodonta analis. Such behavior has not been reported for this genus. Unlike other tiger beetles, H. analis may take advantage of termitaries adventitiously, without specializing on them.

  11. Analysis of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production by southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduvali Valiev; Zumrut B. Ogel; Dier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the production of extracellular enzymes by fungi associated with southern pine beetle was investigated for the first time. Cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production were analyzed for three beetle associated fungi. Only the mutualistic symbiont Entomocorticium sp. A was found to produce cellulases and polyphenol oxidase....

  12. Genetic differentiation between resistance phenotypes in the phytophagous flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.W.; Breuker, C.J.; Vos, de H.; Vermeer, K.M.C.A.; Oku, K.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Nielsen, J.K.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is genetically polymorphic for resistance against the defences of one of its host plants, Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae). Whereas resistant flea beetles are able to use B. vulgaris as well as other cruciferous pl

  13. Biological Aspects for Forecasting of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    Summary The cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest in winter oilseed rape (WOSR) Brassica napus L. with variation in abundance and damage between years. The adult beetles invade fields at the time of crop emergence and cause...

  14. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  15. Got Dung? Resource Selection by Dung Beetles in Neotropical Forest Fragments and Cattle Pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, A; Escobar, F; MacGregor-Fors, I; Moreno, C E

    2016-10-01

    Both the impact of habitat modification on the food preferences of species and its impact on ecosystem functioning are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed food selection by dung beetles in 80 tropical forest fragments and their adjacent cattle pastures in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Ten pitfall traps were placed at each site, half baited with human dung and the other half with fish carrion. We assessed dung beetle food selection and classified any specialization in resource use quantitatively using a multinomial classification model. We collected 15,445 beetles belonging to 42 species, 8747 beetles (38 species) in forest fragments and 6698 beetles (29 species) in cattle pastures. Twenty-five species were present in both habitats. Of all the beetles captured, 76% were caught in dung traps (11,727 individuals) and 24% in carrion traps (3718 individuals). We found 21 species of dung specialists, 7 carrion specialists, 8 generalists, and 6 species too rare to classify. The bait most frequently selected by beetles in this study was dung in both forests and pastures. Specialists tended to remain specialists in both habitats, while generalists tended to change their selection of bait type depending on the habitat. In summary, our results show that replacing forests with cattle pastures modifies the patterns of resource selection by dung beetles and this could affect ecosystem functioning.

  16. Traditional African plant products to protect stored cowpeas against insect damage : the battle against the beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of the cowpea plant, Vigna unguiculata , a tropical crop, are very susceptible to attack by the cowpea beetle. This specialist beetle needs only the beans to reproduce rapidly.Most farmers in West Africa have few possibilities to treat the beans and they face their stored supply

  17. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  18. Jumping without using legs: the jump of the click-beetles (Elateridae is morphologically constrained.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ribak

    Full Text Available To return to their feet, inverted click-beetles (Elateridae jump without using their legs. When a beetle is resting on its dorsal side, a hinge mechanism is locked to store elastic energy in the body and releases it abruptly to launch the beetle into the air. While the functional morphology of the jumping mechanism is well known, the level of control that the beetle has over this jumping technique and the mechanical constraints governing the jumps are not entirely clear. Here we show that while body rotations in air are highly variable, the jumps are morphologically constrained to a constant "takeoff" angle (79.9°±1.56°, n = 9 beetles that directs 98% of the jumping force vertically against gravity. A physical-mathematical model of the jumping action, combined with measurements from live beetle, imply that the beetle may control the speed at takeoff but not the jumping angle. In addition, the model shows that very subtle changes in the exact point of contact with the ground can explain the vigorous rotations of the body seen while the beetle is airborne. These findings suggest that the evolution of this unique non-legged jumping mechanism resulted in a jumping technique that is capable of launching the body high into the air but it is too constrained and unstable to allow control of body orientation at landing.

  19. Estimating the probability of mountain pine beetle red-attack damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A Wulder; J. C. White; Barbara J Bentz; M. F. Alvarez; N. C. Coops

    2006-01-01

    Accurate spatial information on the location and extent of mountain pine beetle infestation is critical for the planning of mitigation and treatment activities. Areas of mixed forest and variable terrain present unique challenges for the detection and mapping of mountain pine beetle red-attack damage, as red-attack has a more heterogeneous distribution under these...

  20. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2002-01-01

    We examined the major bark beetles and associated fungi colonizing subcortical tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in the Great Lakes region. Trees were felled at one northwestern Wisconsin site in a preliminary study in 1997 and at 10 sites throughout northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1998. Fungal isolations were made from beetles...

  1. Genetics and characteristics of a pigmentation defective laboratory strain of the lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetles in the family Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, lady beetles, or ladybirds, are easily identifiable and popular beneficial insects. The species complex Coleomegilla maculata is commonly found in North American agroecosystems and widespread on the North American continent. It is impo...

  2. A system for harvesting eggs from the pink-spotted lady beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink spotted lady beetle. Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Adult beetles placed in square transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on t...

  3. Evaluation of traps used to monitor southern pine beetle aerial populations and sex ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Cronin; Jane L. Hayes; Peter. Turchin

    2000-01-01

    Various kinds of traps have been employed to monitor and forecast population trends of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann; Coleoptera: Scolytidae), but their accuracy in assessing pine-beetle abundance and sex ratio in the field has not been evaluated directly.In trus study, we...

  4. Traditional African plant products to protect stored cowpeas against insect damage : the battle against the beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of the cowpea plant, Vigna unguiculata , a tropical crop, are very susceptible to attack by the cowpea beetle. This specialist beetle needs only the beans to reproduce rapidly.

    Most farmers in West Africa have few

  5. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin;

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...

  6. Linking Increasing Drought Stress to Scots Pine Mortality and Bark Beetle Infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dobbertin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dry Swiss Rhone Valley, Scots pine forests have experienced increased mortality in recent years. It has commonly been assumed that drought events and bark beetles fostered the decline, however, whether bark beetle outbreaks increased in recent years and whether they can be linked to drought stress or increasing temperature has never been studied.

  7. Biogeochemistry of beetle-killed forests: Explaining a weak nitrate response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. Rhoades; James H. McCutchan; Leigh A. Cooper; David Clow; Thomas M. Detmer; Jennifer S. Briggs; John D. Stednick; Thomas T. Veblen; Rachel M. Ertz; Gene E. Likens; William M. Lewis

    2013-01-01

    A current pine beetle infestation has caused extensive mortality of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in forests of Colorado and Wyoming; it is part of an unprecedented multispecies beetle outbreak extending from Mexico to Canada. In United States and European watersheds, where atmospheric deposition of inorganic N is moderate to low (<10 kg�ha�y), disturbance of...

  8. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process.

  9. Colours and metallic sheen in beetle shells - A biomimetic search for material structuring principles causing light interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Barfoed, Michael

    2008-01-01

    are long lasting as some of the beetles we have studied at the zoological museum are more than 200 years old and have colours and brightness as if they were still alive. Furthermore, the beetles in nature are part of sustainable ecosystems, which means that they are made from renewable materials...... that are broken down and recycled when the beetle dies. Beetles also possess another and very attractive property: Their metallic look originates from structures in organic materials which is both electrically and thermal insulating. The industrial perspective is to be able to manufacture products with attractive...... industrially manufactured beetle-like surfaces with properties such as sustainability, aesthetics, insulation, durability etc....

  10. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals.

  11. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vasquez

    Full Text Available The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae, which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065 for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104 won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88 won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033, not highest (p = 0.266, nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034. Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals.

  12. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change.

  13. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization.

  14. Effect of larval growth conditions on adult body mass and long-distance flight endurance in a wood-boring beetle: Do smaller beetles fly better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stav; Soroker, Victoria; Ribak, Gal

    2017-04-01

    The tropical fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer, is a large beetle that is a pest on a number of fruit trees, including fig and mango. Adults feed on the leaves and twigs and females lay their eggs under the bark of the tree. The larvae bore into the tree trunk, causing substantial damage that may lead to the collapse and death of the host tree. We studied how larval development under inferior feeding conditions (experienced during development in dying trees) affects flight endurance in the adult insect. We grew larvae either in their natural host or on sawdust enriched with stale fig tree twigs. Flight endurance of the adults was measured using a custom-built flight-mill. Beetles emerging from the natural host were significantly larger but flew shorter distances than beetles reared on less favourable substrates. There was no difference in the allometric slope of wing area with body mass between the beetles groups; however flight muscle mass scaled with total body mass with an exponent significantly lower than 1.0. Hence, smaller beetles had proportionally larger flight muscles. These findings suggest that beetles that developed smaller as a result from poor nutritional conditions in deteriorating hosts, are better equipped to fly longer distances in search of a new host tree.

  15. Quantitative characterization of cantharidin in the false blister beetle, Oedemera podagrariae ventralis, of the southern slopes of Mount Elborz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, S M; Nikbakhtzadeh, M R; Vatandoost, H; Mehdinia, A; Rahimi-Foroshani, A; Shayeghi, M

    2012-01-01

    Cantharidin, a potent vesicant and antifeedant agent, is produced by two families of beetles, Meloidae and Oedemeridae (Coleoptera). In this study, the cantharidin content of oedemerid beetles of central Iran was investigated using the GC-MS method. Cantharidin in both sexes of Oedemera podagrariae ventralis Meïneïtrieãs (Oedemeridae) was found in an average of 3.89 µg/beetle in males and 21.68 µg/beetle in females, which are amounts sufficient to irritate human skin. The average of cantharidin in virgin and coupled beetles was 1.35 and 1.62 (µg cantharidin/mg of beetle) respectively. Females had five to six times more cantharidin in their bodies than males, but there was no significant difference between the amount of cantharidin in virgin and coupled females. The results of this study revealed the production of cantharidin in both sexes of beetle.

  16. Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, B.J.; Powell, J.A.; Logan, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks to nearby trees. Observations of the daily spatial and temporal attack process of mountain pine beetles (nonepidemic) attacking lodgepole pine suggest that beetles switch attacks to a new host tree before the original focus tree is fully colonized, and that verbenone, an antiaggregating pheromone, may be acting within a tree rather than between trees.

  17. EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Zuojian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. Results We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA libraries for larval and pupal Onthophagus taurus and sequenced 3,488 ESTs that assembled into 451 contigs and 2,330 singletons. We present the annotation and a comparative analysis of the conservation of the sequences. Microarrays developed from the combined libraries were then used to contrast the transcriptome of developing primordia of head horns, prothoracic horns, and legs. Our experiments identify a first comprehensive list of candidate genes for the evolution and diversification of beetle horns. We find that developing horns and legs show many similarities as well as important differences in their transcription profiles, suggesting that the origin of horns was mediated partly, but not entirely, by the recruitment of genes involved in the formation of more traditional appendages such as legs. Furthermore, we find that horns developing from the head and prothorax differ in their transcription profiles to a degree that suggests that head and prothoracic horns are not serial homologs, but instead may have evolved independently from each other. Conclusion We have laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the genetic basis of horned beetle development and diversification with the potential to contribute significantly to several major frontiers in evolutionary developmental biology.

  18. Ground beetles from Sǎlaj county (Romania (coleoptera: carabidae

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    Kutasi Cs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a faunistical exploration of Sǎlaj county carried out in 2014 and 2015, 207 ground beetle (Carabidae species were recorded from the area. Considering the earlier literature data the total number of carabid species known from the county is 246. Carabus variolosus Fabricius, 1787 is a Natura 2000 species, Pterostichus bielzii Fuss, 1878 is a species endemic to the Western Apuseni Mountains. Further rare species from the area: Dromius quadraticollis A. Morawitz, 1862, Elaphropus parvulus (Dejean, 1831, Lebia marginata (Geoffroy, 1785, Ophonus ardosiacus (Lučnik, 1922, Trechus amplicollis Fairmaire, 1859.

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Arthropoda Tribolium_castaneum_L.png Tribolium_cast...aneum_NL.png Tribolium_castaneum_S.png Tribolium_castaneum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+cas...taneum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=NS ...

  20. Electrophysiological responses of chafer beetle, Holotrichia serrata (F. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

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    Kesavan Subaharan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The chafer beetle, Holotrichia serrata F. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in its larval stage is a serious pest on sugarcane, vegetables, groundnut and coconut in many parts of India. The antennal response of adults to host volatiles and pheromone gland extracts was assessed by electroantennography. Among the preferred host of H. serrata, the volatiles from neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf extract elicited higher antennal response than gulmohar Delonix regia L. flowers and Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb leaf extracts. The order of response was the same irrespective of the sex. In general the antennal response to pheromone gland and host extracts was higher in males than in females.

  1. Occurrence of the hermit beetle (Osmoderma eremita), in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsson, Kjell; Hedin, Jonas; Jansson, Niklas; Nilsson, Sven; Ranius, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have compiled data on the occurrence of a threatened beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Sweden. The species inhabits tree hollows with wood mould. The data were compiled from field surveys conducted in 1993-2003, using pitfall traps at 401 localities and using wood mould sampling at 104 localities. We have also gone through published data and all larger Swedish museums and registered old records. O. eremita was recorded at about 30% of the field surveys. In Sweden, oak is by far the most import...

  2. Indirect closing of elytra by the prothorax in beetles (Coleoptera): general observations and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid

    2012-02-01

    Voluntary movements of the prothorax and the elytra in tethered flying beetles and manually induced movements of these parts in fresh dead beetles were recorded in 30 species representing 14 families. Participation of prothoracic elevation in the closing of the elytra was demonstrated in three ways. (i) The elevation was always simultaneous with elytral closing, in contrast to depression and elytral opening; a rare exception occurred in Lucanus cervus, whose elytra sometimes started to close before the cessation of wing strokes and the elevation of the prothorax. (ii) The manipulated elevation always induced closing of the spread elytra; the mechanical interaction between the hind edge of the pronotum and the roots of the elytra is a universal mechanism of closing the elytra in beetles. (iii) The prevention of pronoto-elytral contact in live beetles by the excision of the hind edge of the pronotum in front of the root prevented elytral closing after normal flight. Exceptions to this rule included some beetles that were able to close their elytra after such an excision: tiger beetles and diving beetles (seldomly) and rose chafers (always). This ability in Adephaga may be explained by attachments of the muscle actuating the 4th axillary plate, which differ from the attachments in Polyphaga. Cetoniinae open their elytra only by a small amount. It is proposed that their small direct adductors in combination with the elasticity of the sclerites are enough to achieve elytral closing without additional help from the prothorax.

  3. Attractiveness of native mammal's feces of different trophic guilds to dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoni, Juliano A; Hernández, Malva I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammal feces are the primary food and nesting resource for the majority of dung beetle species, and larval development depends on the quantity and quality of that resource. Physiological necessities, competitive interactions, and resource sharing are common and suggest that dung beetles may show preferences for feces of greater nutritional quality, which may in turn impact beetle assemblages and community structure. This study investigated whether attractiveness of dung beetles to different resource (feces) types varies depending on mammal trophic guild and associated nutritional content. This study was conducted in Atlantic Forest fragments in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil. To evaluate attractiveness, the feces of the carnivore Puma concolor, the omnivores Cerdocyon thous and Sapajus nigritus, and the herbivore Tapirus terrestris were utilized as bait. Dung was collected from zoo animals fed a standard diet. Sampling was performed in triplicate in five areas in the summer of 2013. Four pitfall traps were established in each area, and each trap was baited with one type of mammal feces. Food preference of the species was analyzed by calculating Rodgers' index for cafeteria-type experiments. In total, 426 individuals from 17 species were collected. Rodgers' index showed that omnivorous mammal feces (C. thous) were most attractive to all dung beetle species, although it is known that dung beetles are commonly opportunistic with respect to search for and allocation of food resources. These results suggest that mammal loss could alter competitive interactions between dung beetles.

  4. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasaki, Vanesca; Lopes, José; Gardner Brown, George; Louzada, Julio

    2013-06-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness, abundance, composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We evaluated the community aspects (abundance, richness, composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat, rotten fish, pig dung and decaying banana). A total of 1 719 individuals were collected, belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes. The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness. The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits. Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment, all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type. Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities, even small ones, can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae. © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Limited Transmission of the Ectoparasitic Fungus Hesperomyces virescens between Lady Beetles

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    Ted E. Cottrell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of different lady beetle species supports horizontal transmission of H. virescens. We used laboratory assays to determine whether H. axyridis or Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant harboring H. virescens (i.e., source beetles transmit the fungus to noninfected target beetles H. axyridis, O. v-nigrum, Coccinella septempunctata L., Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, or Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville. Results indicate that intraspecific transmission (i.e., for the source beetles H. axyridis and O. v-nigrum was common but interspecific transmission (i.e., from source H. axyridis or O. v-nigrum to target species was low. Interspecific transmission occurred at low rates from H. axyridis to both C. septempunctata and O. v-nigrum and from O. v-nigrum to both C. septempunctata and H. convergens. Based upon our laboratory assays of forced pairings/groupings of source and target beetles, we predict that horizontal transmission of H. virescens between species of aphidophagous coccinellids is possible but likely rare.

  6. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; PTaenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  7. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

  8. Influence of bark beetles outbreaks on the carbon balance of western United States forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently bark beetle outbreaks have been increasing in western United States forests due to increases in temperatures and prolonged occurrence of droughts. Bark beetle outbreaks transfer carbon from the live photosynthesizing pools to the dead respiring pool where carbon slowly decomposes into the atmosphere causing landscapes to change from a net sink to source of carbon. Previous studies have usually been conducted at small localized areas, focused only on one or two bark beetle types or encompass a single outbreak event. The literature largely ignores the influence of bark beetle mortality on carbon balance at both local and regional scales by focusing on multiple bark beetles types and events. This study uses a combination of the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model driven by remotely sensed biophysical observations, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) derived post-disturbance biomass regeneration trajectories, and mortality rates obtained from Aerial Detection Survey (ADS) insect outbreak polygons. The synthesis of the carbon cycle based modeling approach and different data products results in characteristic carbon trajectories for Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP), Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration associated with insect outbreaks. This study demonstrates that bark beetle events change landscapes from a sink to source of carbon at a local scale but at a larger regional level the influence of bark beetle outbreaks are not prominent compared to other disturbance agents.

  9. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanesca Korasaki; José Lopes; George Gardner Brown; Julio Louzada

    2013-01-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina,Paraná,Brazil.This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness,abundance,composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.We evaluated the community aspects (abundance,richness,composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat,rotten fish,pig dung and decaying banana).A total of 1719 individuals were collected,belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes.The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness.The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits.Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment,all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type.Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities,even small ones,can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae.

  10. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  11. Functional value of elytra under various stresses in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, David M.; Hu, Alan W.; Sitvarin, Michael I.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is a massively successful order of insects, distinguished by their evolutionarily modified forewings called elytra. These structures are often presumed to have been a major driving force for the successful radiation of this taxon, by providing beetles with protection against a variety of harsh environmental factors. However, few studies have directly demonstrated the functional significance of the elytra against diverse environmental challenges. Here, we sought to empirically test the function of the elytra using Tribolium castaneum (the red flour beetle) as a model. We tested four categories of stress on the beetles: physical damage to hindwings, predation, desiccation, and cold shock. We found that, in all categories, the presence of elytra conferred a significant advantage compared to those beetles with their elytra experimentally removed. This work provides compelling quantitative evidence supporting the importance of beetle forewings in tolerating a variety of environmental stresses, and gives insight into how the evolution of elytra have facilitated the remarkable success of beetle radiation. PMID:27708390

  12. Bacterial gut symbionts contribute to seed digestion in an omnivorous beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G Lundgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obligate bacterial symbionts alter the diets of host animals in numerous ways, but the ecological roles of facultative bacterial residents that colonize insect guts remain unclear. Carabid beetles are a common group of beneficial insects appreciated for their ability to consume insect prey and seeds, but the contributions of microbes to diet diversification in this and similar groups of facultative granivores are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and terminal restriction fragment (tRF length polymorphism analyses of these genes, we examined the bacterial communities within the guts of facultatively granivorous, adult Harpalus pensylvanicus (Carabidae, fed one of five dietary treatments: 1 an untreated Field population, 2 Seeds with antibiotics (seeds were from Chenopodium album, 3 Seeds without antibiotics, 4 Prey with antibiotics (prey were Acheta domesticus eggs, and 5 Prey without antibiotics. The number of seeds and prey consumed by each beetle were recorded following treatment. Harpalus pensylvanicus possessed a fairly simple gut community of approximately 3-4 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU per beetle that were affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Alphaproteobacteria, and Mollicutes. Bacterial communities of the host varied among the diet and antibiotic treatments. The field population and beetles fed seeds without antibiotics had the closest matching bacterial communities, and the communities in the beetles fed antibiotics were more closely related to each other than to those of the beetles that did not receive antibiotics. Antibiotics reduced and altered the bacterial communities found in the beetle guts. Moreover, beetles fed antibiotics ate fewer seeds, and those beetles that harbored the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis consumed more seeds on average than those lacking this symbiont. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the relationships

  13. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-07-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O{sub 3} level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O{sub 3} levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species.

  14. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  15. The saproxylic beetle assemblage associated with different host trees in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Xiao-Dong Yu; Hong-Zhang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Dead wood is a habitat for many insects and other small animals,some of which may be rare or endangered and in need of effective protection.In this paper,saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with different host trees in the subtropical forests in southwestern China were investigated.A total of 277 species (1 439 specimens) in 36 beetle families were collected from 117 dead wood samples,of which 101 samples were identified and respectively belonged to 12 tree genera.The number of saproxylic beetle species varied greatly among logs of different tree genera,with the highest diversity on logs of Juglans.Generally,broad-leaved trees had a higher richness and abundance of saproxylic species than coniferous trees.Cluster analysis revealed that assemblages from broad-leaved tree genera were generally similar (except for Betula) and assemblages from coniferous trees formed another distinct cluster.The subsequent indicator analysis proposed that there are different characteristic species for different cluster groups of host tree genera.In our study,log diameter has no positive influence on beetle species density.Conversely,comparisons of individual-based rarefaction curves suggested that beetle species richness was highest in the small diameter class both in coniferous and broad-leaved tree genera.With increased wood decay,proportion of habitat specialists (saproxylic beetles living on one tree genus)decreased,whereas proportion of habitat generalists (living on more than three tree genera)increased.The beetle species density was found to be higher in early stages,and decreased in later stages as well.A negative influence of altitude on saproxylic beetle species richness and abundance was detected.It was indicated that different tree genera and altitudes possibly display cross effects in modulating the altitudinal distribution and host preference of the beetles.

  16. Behavioral niche partitioning in a sympatric tiger beetle assemblage and implications for the endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tierney R. Brosius

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available How behavioral patterns are related to niche partitioning is an important question in understanding how closely related species within ecological communities function. Behavioral niche partitioning associated with thermoregulation is well documented in tiger beetles as a group. Co-occurring species of salt flat tiger beetles have adapted many thermoregulatory behaviors to cope with this harsh ecosystem. On first examination these beetles appear to occur in overlapping microhabitats and therefore compete for resources. To determine if behavioral niche partitioning is allowing multiple species to occur within the same harsh salt flat ecosystem we observed Cicindela nevadica lincolniana, Cicindela circumpicta, Cicindela fulgida, and Cicindela togata between 8:00 h and 21:00 h and recorded all behaviors related to thermoregulation using a digital voice recorder. Results of this study strongly indicate that competition among these species for resources has been reduced by the adaptation of different thermoregulatory behaviors such as spending time in shallow water, avoiding the sun during the hottest parts of the day, and by positioning their body against or away from the soil. The endangered C. n. lincolniana appears to rely most heavily on the shallow water of seeps for their diurnal foraging behavior (potentially limiting their foraging habitat, but with the advantage of allowing foraging during the hottest times of the day when potential competitors are less frequent. Ironically, this association also may help explain C. n. lincolniana’s susceptibility to extinction: beyond the loss of saline wetlands generally, limited seeps and pools even within remaining saline habitat may represent a further habitat limitation within an already limited habitat.

  17. Behavioral niche partitioning in a sympatric tiger beetle assemblage and implications for the endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Tierney R; Higley, Leon G

    2013-01-01

    How behavioral patterns are related to niche partitioning is an important question in understanding how closely related species within ecological communities function. Behavioral niche partitioning associated with thermoregulation is well documented in tiger beetles as a group. Co-occurring species of salt flat tiger beetles have adapted many thermoregulatory behaviors to cope with this harsh ecosystem. On first examination these beetles appear to occur in overlapping microhabitats and therefore compete for resources. To determine if behavioral niche partitioning is allowing multiple species to occur within the same harsh salt flat ecosystem we observed Cicindela nevadica lincolniana, Cicindela circumpicta, Cicindela fulgida, and Cicindela togata between 8:00 h and 21:00 h and recorded all behaviors related to thermoregulation using a digital voice recorder. Results of this study strongly indicate that competition among these species for resources has been reduced by the adaptation of different thermoregulatory behaviors such as spending time in shallow water, avoiding the sun during the hottest parts of the day, and by positioning their body against or away from the soil. The endangered C. n. lincolniana appears to rely most heavily on the shallow water of seeps for their diurnal foraging behavior (potentially limiting their foraging habitat), but with the advantage of allowing foraging during the hottest times of the day when potential competitors are less frequent. Ironically, this association also may help explain C. n. lincolniana's susceptibility to extinction: beyond the loss of saline wetlands generally, limited seeps and pools even within remaining saline habitat may represent a further habitat limitation within an already limited habitat.

  18. [Histological structure of tripartite mushroom bodies in ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera: Carabidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to members of the suborder Polyphaga; ground beetles have been found to possess tripartite mushroom bodies, which are poorly developed in members of basal taxa and maximally elaborated in evolutionarily advanced groups. Nevertheless, they do not reach the developmental stage, which has been previously found in particular families of beetles. It has been pointed out that anew formation of the Kenyon cells occurs during at least the first months of adult life, and inactive neuroblasts are found even in one-year-old beetles. It has been suggested that there is a relation between the Kenyon cell number and development of the centers of Kenyon cell new-formation.

  19. Influence of simulated weightlessness on the rate of anomalies of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegleb, W; Neubert, J; Schatz, A; Sinapius, F

    1975-01-01

    Experiments with Tribolium confusum showed that the morphological characteristics of the beetles are modified by simulated weightlessness (fast running clinostat). Because of possible side effects due to differences in fertility of inbred lines, the first experiments were made with a genetically heterogeneous stock. Thereafter experiments were confirmed with inbred beetles. For both stocks a rise of mainly wing anomalies resulted from rotation of whole cultures of beetles within horizontal tubes. The extent to which these anomalies are teratogenetic or genetic has not yet been analysed in detail.

  20. Target-site resistance to pyrethroids in European populations of pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauen, Ralf; Zimmer, Christoph T; Andrews, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was implicated in the resistance of several pollen beetle populations from different European regions. Here, we have also investigated the possible occurrence of a target-site mechanism caused by modification of the pollen beetle para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene. We....... No super-kdr mutations (e.g. M918T) known to cause resistance to pyrethroids were detected. The implications of these results for resistance management strategies of pollen beetle populations in oilseed rape crops are discussed....

  1. Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an Savanna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Ieradi, Michele

    2010-01-01

    In the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, we compared the scarab beetle assemblages in the dung of three wild ungulates (African buffalo, a ruminant foregut fermenter; hippopotamus, nonruminant foregut fermenter; and warthog, nonruminant hindgut fermenter). Dung was collected from two sandy......-clay soils with different percentage of coarse sand. We aimed at investigating habitat resource selection by dung beetle species within a savanna natural contest with abundant and diverse food availability. Analyses were performed to detect differences for dung beetle assemblages in abundance, diversity...

  2. Build-up of lead in the bodies of beetles living in an environment contaminated by automotive exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhulidov, A.V.; Yemets, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Lead in automobile exhaust gases gets deposited on and builds up in roadside soils, grasses, plants, trees, shrubs, mosses, and the bodies of birds and mammals. Insects, and particularly beetles, have not been studied in this respect. This gap is now filled by investigating the build-up of lead in the bodies of the beetles inhabiting these milieux. To this end, insects of 12 species were gathered from forested areas in neighborhood of a heavily traveled highway, along with samples of soil and vegetation. The lead content in all these samples was determined in the form of the colloidal ash of a sulfur compound. For comparison, beetles of 5 species gathered in the same area during 1930 to 1939 were also analyzed. The build-up of lead in the beetles was markedly higher than in the soil and vegetation samples. The lead content of the beetles varied depending on species: the soil-infesting beetles (Carabidae) contained much more lead in their bodies than the plant infesting beetles such as the Scarabeidae, the Buprestidae, and the Cerambycidae. Compared with the beetles collected during 1930 to 1939, the beetles collected in 1975 in the Voronezh Natural Preserve (through which the highway runs) display a much higher lead content. The build-up of lead in beetle bodies can be used as an index of environmental pollution to monitor the state of roadside ecosystems. This is particularly important for natural preserves on which, in general, heavy motor vehicle traffic is not justified.

  3. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin.

  4. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-05-01

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association between permanent inbreeding and diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Male-killing Wolbachia in a flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, R F; Stevens, L

    2000-01-01

    The bacteria in the genus Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited symbionts of arthropods. Infection often causes profound changes in host reproduction, enhancing bacterial transmission and spread in a population. The reproductive alterations known to result from Wolbachia infection include cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), parthenogenesis, feminization of genetic males, fecundity enhancement, male killing and, perhaps, lethality Here, we report male killing in a third insect, the black flour beetle Tribolium madens, based on highly female-biased sex ratios of progeny from females infected with Wolbachia. The bias is cytoplasmic in nature as shown by repeated backcrossing of infected females with males of a naturally uninfected strain. Infection also lowers the egg hatch rates significantly to approximately half of those observed for uninfected females. Treatment of the host with antibiotics eliminated infection, reverted the sex ratio to unbiased levels and increased the percentage hatch. Typically Wolbachia infection is transmitted from mother to progeny, regardless of the sex of the progeny; however, infected T. madens males are never found. Virgin females are sterile, suggesting that the sex-ratio distortion in T. madens results from embryonic male killing rather than parthenogenesis. Based on DNA sequence data, the male-killing strain of Wolbachia in T. madens was indistinguishable from the CI-inducing Wolbachia in Tribolium confusum, a closely related beetle. Our findings suggest that host symbiont interaction effects may play an important role in the induction of Wolbachia reproductive phenotypes. PMID:10983833

  6. Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, William E; Clevenger, Garrett M; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2004-08-01

    Introductions of two ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis, into North America for aphid biocontrol have been followed by declines in native species. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) between larvae of these two exotic species and larvae of the two most abundant native coccinellids in eastern Washington State, C. transversoguttata and Hippodamia convergens. In pairings between the two native species in laboratory microcosms containing pea ( Pisum sativum) plants, neither native had a clear advantage over the other in IGP. When the natives were paired with either Harmonia axyridis or C. septempunctata, the natives were more frequently the victims than perpetrators of IGP. In contrast, in pairings between the exotic species, neither had an IGP advantage, although overall rates of IGP between these two species were very high. Adding alternative prey (aphids) to microcosms did not alter the frequency and patterns of relative IGP among the coccinellid species. In observations of encounters between larvae, the introduced H. axyridis frequently survived multiple encounters with the native C. transversoguttata, whereas the native rarely survived a single encounter with H. axyridis. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species face increased IGP following invasion by C. septempunctata and H. axyridis, which may be contributing to the speed with which these exotic ladybird beetles displace the natives following invasion.

  7. Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae by Amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Sloggett

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura, with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups.

  8. Approaches to mimic the metallic sheen in beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenau, Torben A.; Aggerbeck, Martin; Nielsen, Steffen

    2009-08-01

    A range of different beetles exhibits brilliant colours and metallic sheen. One of the most spectacular species is the Plusiotis resplendens from Central America with gold metal appearance. The beetle shells are made from chitin and have a number of unique properties that apart from spectacular aesthetic effects include metal sheen from non-metal surfaces combined with electric and thermal insulation. The reflection mechanism has been studied by a number of authors and is well understood. Basically there are 2 different reflection principles. One is the multilayer reflector where alternating layers have high and low refractive index. The other is the Bouligand structure where birefringent chiral nanofibres are organised in spiral structures. The paper describes work done to explore different approaches to mimic these structures using polymer based materials and production methods that are suitable for more complex double curved geometry. One approach is to use alternating layers of 2 different polymers applied by dipping and another is applying cholesteric liquid crystals in paint. However, none of them can yet make the desired metal-looking free-form surfaces.

  9. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Vergnon, Remi; van Nes, Egbert H.; Cuppen, Jan G. M.; Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.; Leijs, Remko; Nilsson, Anders N.

    2015-01-01

    While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world’s 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are either very similar in size or differ by at least 35%. Surprisingly, intermediate size differences (10–20%) are rare. As body-size strongly reflects functional aspects such as the food that these generalist predators can eat, these beetles thus form relatively distinct groups of functional look-a-likes. The striking global regularity of these patterns support the idea that a self-organizing process drives such species-rich groups to self-organize evolutionary into clusters where functional redundancy ensures resilience through an insurance effect. PMID:26447476

  10. Specialized adaptations for springtail predation in Mesozoic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Cai, Chen-Yang; Huang, Di-Ying; Li, Li-Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Insects exhibit a variety of morphological specializations specific to particular behaviors, and these permit the reconstruction of palaeobiological traits. Despite the critical importance of predator-prey strategies in insect evolution, the appearance of particular aspects of predation are often difficult to determine from the fossil record of hexapods. Here we report the discovery of highly specialized, mid-Cretaceous ant-like stone beetles (Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae) displaying morphological modifications unknown among living scydmaenids and associated with predation on springtails (Collembola), a widespread and abundant group of significantly greater geological age. Cascomastigus monstrabilis gen. et sp. nov. exhibits an extremely large body size, elongate clubbed maxillary palpi, toothed mandibles, and more importantly, slender and highly modified antennae that functioned as an antennal setal trap. Such an antennal modification is analogous to that of the modern ground beetle genus Loricera (Carabidae: Loricerinae), a group possessing a specialized antennal setal trap exclusively for the capture of springtails. The presence of an identical antennal setal trap in C. monstrabilis demonstrates a unique and dramatic form of obligate predation among the late Mesozoic insects.

  11. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmayr, Pietro; Giorgi, Filippo; Casale, Achille; Colombetta, Giorgio; Mariotti, Laura; Vigna Taglianti, Augusto; Weber, Friedrich; Pizzolotto, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920-30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets.

  12. Effects of nitrogen application on beetle communities in tea plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Bo Chen; Zhi-Juan Wei; Zhao-Hua Zeng; Li-Lin Chen; Hui-Tao Chen; Min-Sheng You

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to grassland and forest ecosystems, little is known about insect response to nitrogen deposition in agricultural ecosystems. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of short-term (1-2 years) nitrogen application (0, 172.5, 345.0, 690.0, families, 89 species of beetles, was obtained from a tea plantation in Wuyishan, China. Among them, herbivores, predators and detritivores had 52, 29, and eight species, respectively. Species richness, effective diversity and abundance (measured as the number of individuals and insect biomass) of the beetle community were not significantly related to the rate of nitrogen application. However, nitrogen application changed the species distribution and weakly increased the evenness of species distribution, while this did not significantly change the species evenness. Species richness and abundance of herbivores and predators were not significantly related to the rate of nitrogen application. However, there were some variations in trophic responses to nitrogen. Species richness and abundance of detritivores increased with increasing nitrogen application.

  13. Biosynthesis of the defensive alkaloid cicindeloine in Stenus solutus beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierling, Andreas; Dettner, Konrad; Schmidt, Jürgen; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2012-08-01

    To protect themselves from predation and microorganismic infestation, rove beetles of the genus Stenus produce and store bioactive alkaloids like stenusine, 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine, and cicindeloine in their pygidial glands. The biosynthesis of stenusine and 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine was previously investigated in Stenus bimaculatus and Stenus similis, respectively. Both molecules follow the same biosynthetic pathway, where the N-heterocyclic ring is derived from l-lysine and the side chain from l-isoleucine. The different alkaloids are finally obtained by slight modifications of shared precursor molecules. The piperideine alkaloid cicindeloine occurs as a main compound additionally to ( E)-3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine and traces of stenusine in the pygidial gland secretion of Stenus cicindeloides and Stenus solutus. Feeding of S. solutus beetles with [D,15N]-labeled amino acids followed by GC/MS analysis techniques showed that cicindeloine is synthesized via the identical pathway and precursor molecules as the other two defensive alkaloids.

  14. Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloggett, John J

    2012-07-18

    Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura), with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata) eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups.

  15. Associational Patterns of Scavenger Beetles to Decomposition Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Nestor D

    2015-07-01

    Beetles associated with carrion play an important role in recycling organic matter in an ecosystem. Four experiments on decomposition, one per season, were conducted in a semirural area in Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Melyridae are reported for the first time of forensic interest. Apart from adults and larvae of Scarabaeidae, thirteen species and two genera of other coleopteran families are new forensic records in Argentina. Diversity, abundance, and species composition of beetles showed differences between stages and seasons. Our results differed from other studies conducted in temperate regions. Four guilds and succession patterns were established in relation to decomposition stages and seasons. Dermestidae (necrophages) predominated in winter during the decomposition process; Staphylinidae (necrophiles) in Fresh and Bloat stages during spring, summer, and autumn; and Histeridae (necrophiles) and Cleridae (omnivores) in the following stages during those seasons. Finally, coleopteran activity, diversity and abundance, and decomposition rate change with biogeoclimatic characteristics, which is of significance in forensics. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Malpighian tubule development in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benedict; Denholm, Barry

    2014-11-01

    Malpighian tubules (MpTs) are the major organ for excretion and osmoregulation in most insects. MpT development is characterised for Drosophila melanogaster, but not other species. We therefore do not know the extent to which the MpT developmental programme is conserved across insects. To redress this we provide a comprehensive description of MpT development in the beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), a species separated from Drosophila by >315 million years. We identify similarities with Drosophila MpT development including: 1) the onset of morphological development, beginning when tubules bud from the gut and proliferate to increase organ size. 2) the tubule is shaped by convergent-extension movements and oriented cell divisions. 3) differentiated tip cells activate EGF-signalling in distal MpT cells through the ligand Spitz. 4) MpTs contain two main cell types - principal and stellate cells, differing in morphology and gene expression. We also describe development of the beetle cryptonephridial system, an adaptation for water conservation, which represents a major modification of the MpT ground plan characterised by intimate association between MpTs and rectum. This work establishes a new model to compare MpT development across insects, and provides a framework to help understand how an evolutionary novelty - the cryptonephridial system - arose during organ evolution.

  17. Larval RNA interference in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, David M; Clark-Hachtel, Courtney M; Borràs-Castells, Ferran; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2014-10-13

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a repertoire of experimental tools for genetic and developmental studies, including a fully annotated genome sequence, transposon-based transgenesis, and effective RNA interference (RNAi). Among these advantages, RNAi-based gene knockdown techniques are at the core of Tribolium research. T. castaneum show a robust systemic RNAi response, making it possible to perform RNAi at any life stage by simply injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the beetle's body cavity. In this report, we provide an overview of our larval RNAi technique in T. castaneum. The protocol includes (i) isolation of the proper stage of T. castaneum larvae for injection, (ii) preparation for the injection setting, and (iii) dsRNA injection. Larval RNAi is a simple, but powerful technique that provides us with quick access to loss-of-function phenotypes, including multiple gene knockdown phenotypes as well as a series of hypomorphic phenotypes. Since virtually all T. castaneum tissues are susceptible to extracellular dsRNA, the larval RNAi technique allows researchers to study a wide variety of tissues in diverse contexts, including the genetic basis of organismal responses to the outside environment. In addition, the simplicity of this technique stimulates more student involvement in research, making T. castaneum an ideal genetic system for use in a classroom setting.

  18. The Influence of Exotic Lady Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Establishment on the Species Composition of the Native Lady Beetle Community in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepenbrock, Lauren M; Fothergill, Kent; Tindall, Kelly V; Losey, John E; Smyth, Rebecca R; Finke, Deborah L

    2016-08-01

    The diversity and abundance of native lady beetles (Coccinellidae) in North America has declined in recent decades. This decline is often correlated with the introduction and establishment of exotic lady beetle species, including Coccinella septempunctata L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, suggesting that exotic species precipitated the decline of native lady beetles. We examined species records of native coccinellids in Missouri over 118 yr and asked whether the species composition of the community experienced a shift following the establishment of the exotic species. We found that the contemporary native coccinellid community is different from the community that was present nearly a century ago. However, there was no evidence for a recent abrupt shift in composition triggered by the establishment of exotic species. Instead, our data suggest that the native lady beetle community has been undergoing consistent and gradual change over time, with some species decreasing in abundance and others increasing. While not excluding exotic species as a factor contributing to the decline of native lady beetle species, our findings suggest that other continuous factors, like land use change, may have played a more influential role in determining the composition of the native coccinellid communities within our region. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.

  20. Reproductive isolation between populations from Northern and Central Europe of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Hilker, M.; Gross, J.

    2006-01-01

    Allopatric populations of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica are known to feed upon either willow (Salicaceae) or birch (Betulaceae). This study aimed to elucidate the differentiation process of these allopatric populations. We investigated whether these allopatric populations specialized on diffe

  1. Sequencing and characterizing odorant receptors of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert F; Hughes, David T; Luetje, Charles W; Millar, Jocelyn G; Soriano-Agatón, Flor; Hanks, Lawrence M; Robertson, Hugh M

    2012-07-01

    Odorant receptors (Ors) are a unique family of ligand-gated ion channels and the primary mechanism by which insects detect volatile chemicals. Here, we describe 57 putative Ors sequenced from an antennal transcriptome of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae (Gahan). The male beetles produce a pheromone blend of nine compovnents, and we functionally characterized Ors tuned to three of these chemicals: receptor McOr3 is sensitive to (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol; McOr20 is sensitive to (2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol; and McOr5 is sensitive to 2-phenylethanol. McOr3 and McOr20 are also sensitive to structurally-related chemicals that are pheromones of other cerambycid beetles, suggesting that orthologous receptors may be present across many cerambycid species. These Ors are the first to be functionally characterized from any species of beetle and lay the groundwork for understanding the evolution of pheromones within the Cerambycidae.

  2. Immunocytochemical studies on peptidergic neurons in the Colorado potato beetle and some other insect species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the distribution, numbers, and morphology of peptidergic neurons and neurosecretory cells in the Colorado potato beetle, as detected with immunocytochemistry with antisera to various regulatory peptides from vertebrates, as well as to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide FMRF

  3. The Effects of the Intensification of Agriculture on Northern Temperate Dung Beetle Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen A. Hutton; Paul S. Giller

    2003-01-01

    .... To assess the impact of farm management on one group of important insects, the dung beetles, their abundance, biomass, diversity and species richness were examined using dung-baited pitfall traps...

  4. Identification and localisation of selected myotropic neuropeptides in the ventral nerve cord of tenebrionid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Paweł; Szymczak, Monika; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Audsley, Neil; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2013-09-01

    MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS techniques were used for the isolation and identification of neuropeptides from the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of two beetle species Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus. Two peptides, proctolin and myosuppressin (Zopat-MS), with well-established myotropic properties were identified as well as Trica-NVPL-4trunc. The presence of proctolin and myosuppressin was confirmed by immunocytochemical studies in adults and larvae of both beetles. In addition, the myosuppressin gene in Z. atratus was sequenced and expression analyses showed that it is present in all parts of the beetle central nervous system. Results suggest that the identified peptides act as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators in beetles, regulate visceral muscle contractions and indirectly influence important physiological processes such as feeding and reproduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dung Beetles Associated with Agroecosystems of Southern Brazil: Relationship with Soil Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrícia Menegaz de Farias; Malva Isabel Medina Hernández

    ABSTRACT Knowing the biodiversity of dung beetles in agricultural and livestock environments is the basis for understanding the contribution that these organisms make in nutrient cycling and ecosystem functions...

  6. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  7. Characterisation of Ophiostoma species associated with pine bark beetles from Mexico, including O. pulvinisporum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xudong; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Cibrian, David; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) are common vectors of Ophiostoma species. These fungi include primary tree pathogens and important sapstain agents. In Mexico, Ips calligraphus and Dendroctonus mexicanus occur on many species of pine. Pinus maximinoi and P. pseudostrobus are the hosts of both species of insects. Little research has been done on ophiostomatoid fungi associated with pine bark beetles in Mexico. We recently obtained specimens of these bark beetles and their galleries from Mexico. The aim of the study was to isolate and identify Ophiostoma species associated with the two beetle species. In total, six ophiostomatoid species were found to be associated with them. These included Ceratocystiopsis minuta, Ophiostoma pluriannulatum, an O. galeiformis-like species, two unidentified Sporothrix spp., as well as a new species similar to O. adjuncti, O. ips, and O. montium, that we name as O. pulvinisporum sp. nov.

  8. Allozyme analysis of host selection by bark beetles in central Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vargas C.F; Lopez A; Sanchez H; Rodriguez B

    2002-01-01

    A study was done to determine if the bark beetles Dendroctonus adjunctus Blandford and Dendroctonus valens LeConte exhibit a nonrandom selection pattern of susceptible Pinus lawsonii Rozel and Pinus montezumae Lamb...

  9. First record of the beetle family Clambidae (Coleoptera: Scirtoidea in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hun Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The beetle family Clambidae, represented by Clambus formosanus japonicus Endrödy-Younga, is identified for the first time in Korea. A habitus photograph, diagnosis, and illustrations of diagnostic characters of the species are provided.

  10. Cobreeding in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides : Tolerance rather than cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Schrama, Maarten J. J.; Meijer, Kim; Moore, Allen J.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2013-01-01

    Under intra- and interspecific competition, cooperative behaviour can provide direct fitness benefits if individuals work together to expel intruders. In the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, a relatively small species, multiple unrelated pairs can breed together, and individuals are weak com

  11. Contrasting diets reveal the metabolic plasticity of the tree-killing beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-feeding insects encounter challenging diets with low quantities of protein, recalcitrant sources of carbohydrates, and high levels of defensive compounds. These insects have multiple, complementary mechanisms to contend with these digestive challenges. The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora g...

  12. Beetle forewings: Epitome of the optimal design for lightweight composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Gang

    2013-01-16

    Based on studies of the forewings of two beetles, Allomyrina dichotoma and Prosopocoilus inclinatus, this paper reviews and identifies the potential benefits of studying the structure of the beetle forewing and the associated development of lightweight biomimetic composite materials. The forewings of both beetle species consist of an integrated border frame structure and a large center part with distributed trabecular supports in the hollow core. The forewings of the male A. dichotoma are constructed to reflect a lightweight honeycomb design. However, the forewings of P. inclinatus are a durable structure. The biological significance of these structures is also discussed. This work proposes an integrated honeycomb structure inspired by the beetle forewing. A series of biological models are also proposed for lightweight integrated honeycomb structures and durable sandwich structures with a trabecular core, which are intended to establish a new direction in the development of biomimetic composite materials.

  13. Using lake sediment records to reconstruct bark beetle disturbances in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Lee Morris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of native bark beetles in western North America is unprecedented in severity and scale, at least during the historical period. The aim of this work is to develop a proxy-based methodology to understand how bark beetle disturbances are recorded in lake sediments. Three hypotheses are tested to determine how the ecological impacts of severe spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis disturbances are recorded following mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii. Outbreaks are hypothesized to: (1 decrease the ratio of spruce to fir pollen; (2 increase soil erosion and mobilize terrestrial C; and (3 leach foliar N, enhancing algal productivity. To test these hypotheses, sediment cores from spruce beetle-affected basins were analyzed for pollen, insect remains, organic and minerogenic content, and isotopic and elemental concentrations. The dataset was tested statistically using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs to determine if the response variables differed significantly between outbreak and non-outbreak periods. 

  14. Cantharidin biosynthesis in a blister beetle: inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate causes chemical disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, J E; Doom, J P; McCormick, J P

    1986-07-15

    Biosynthesis of cantharidin in a blister beetle, Lytta polita, is effectively inhibited by 6-fluoromevalonate. Inhibition is attributed specifically to the fluorine substituent. Biochemical inhibition has not been demonstrated previously for an arthropod's defensive substance.

  15. Description of Histiostoma Conjuncta (New Comb.) (Acari: Anoetidae), An Associate of Central American Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Woodring; John C. Moser

    1975-01-01

    The adult female and male plus the tritonymph of Histiostoma conjuncta (Woodring and Moser, 1970) (new comb.) and described. The species is known to be associated with various pine bark beetles from Honduras, Guatemala, and Louisiana.

  16. Biannual monitoring of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility in Danish pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Caroline; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2015-01-01

    The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) is a serious pest in the northern countries in oilseed rape. To determine the present level of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility of Danish pollen beetle populations, standardized methods recommended by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee......) were used. Pollen beetle populations were collected from 47 locations of Denmark with the help of the consultants and the farmers of the various regions in 2014. Further six populations were tested from Sweden and one from Germany. In the following year 2015, the monitoring continued to find out......, if the resistance level which was determined in 2014 was stable in selected regions. Therefore pollen beetle populations from 14 locations in Denmark and five locations in Germany have been tested. For all tests the standardised methods for pyrethroids, the Adult-vial-test No. 11 and the Adult-vials-test No. 21...

  17. Ascarosides coordinate the dispersal of a plant-parasitic nematode with the metamorphosis of its vector beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Xinxing; Wei, Yanan; Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Peijun; Chinta, Satya; Kong, Xiangbo; Liu, Yunpeng; Yu, Haiying; Hu, Songnian; Zou, Zhen; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Insect vectors are required for the transmission of many species of parasitic nematodes, but the mechanisms by which the vectors and nematodes coordinate their life cycles are poorly understood. Here, we report that ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones, are produced not only by a plant-parasitic nematode, but also by its vector beetle. The pinewood nematode and its vector beetle cause pine wilt disease, which threatens forest ecosystems world-wide. Ascarosides secreted by the dispersal third-stage nematode LIII larvae promote beetle pupation by inducing ecdysone production in the beetle and up-regulating ecdysone-dependent gene expression. Once the beetle develops into the adult stage, it secretes ascarosides that attract the dispersal fourth-stage nematode LIV larvae, potentially facilitating their movement into the beetle trachea for transport to the next pine tree. These results demonstrate that ascarosides play a key role in the survival and spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27477780

  18. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    OpenAIRE

    West, Daniel R; Elisa J. Bernklau; Louis B. Bjostad; William R. Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB). We asked two questions: (1) do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin) and (2) the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpen...

  19. The Role of the Beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Mango Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Ferreira, Dalton de Oliveira; Santana Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Arcanjo, Lucas de Paulo; Queiroz, Elenir Aparecida; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2017-06-01

    The knowledge of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogens and their vectors is an important step in determining the pathogen dispersion pattern and the role of vectors in disease dynamics. However, in the case of mango wilt little is known about its spatiotemporal dynamics and the relationship of its vector [the beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing 1914)] to these dynamics. The aim of this work was to determine the spatial-seasonal dynamic of H. mangiferae attacks and mango wilt in mango orchards and to verify the importance of H. mangiferae in the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease. Two mango orchards were monitored during a period of 3 yr. The plants in these orchards were georeferenced and inspected monthly to quantify the number of plants attacked by beetles and the fungus. In these orchards, the percentage of mango trees attacked by beetles was always higher than the percentage infected by the fungus. The colonization of mango trees by beetles and the fungus occurred by colonization of trees both distant and proximal to previously attacked trees. The new plants attacked by the fungus emerged in places where the beetles had previously begun their attack. This phenomenon led to a large overlap in sites of beetle and fungal occurrence, indicating that establishment by the beetle was followed by establishment by the fungus. This information can be used by farmers to predict disease infection, and to control bark beetle infestation in mango orchards. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Spatial and environmental correlates of species richness and turnover patterns in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Freijeiro,Andrea; Baselga, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite some general concordant patterns (i.e. the latitudinal richness gradient), species richness and composition of different European beetle taxa varies in different ways according to their dispersal and ecological traits. Here, the patterns of variation in species richness, composition and spatial turnover are analysed in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline leaf beetles, assessing their environmental and spatial correlates. The underlying rationale to use environmental and...

  1. Climate and host plant availability impact the future distribution of the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzitis, Emily A; Minigan, Jordan N; Hallett, Rebecca H; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-09-01

    The bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, has become a major pest of soybean throughout its North American range. With a changing climate, there is the potential for this pest to further expand its distribution and become an increasingly severe pest in certain regions. To examine this possibility, we developed bioclimatic envelope models for both the bean leaf beetle, and its most important agronomic host plant, soybean (Glycine max). These two models were combined to examine the potential future pest status of the beetle using climate change projections from multiple general circulation models (GCMs) and climate change scenarios. Despite the broad tolerances of soybean, incorporation of host plant availability substantially decreased the suitable and favourable areas for the bean leaf beetle as compared to an evaluation based solely on the climate envelope of the beetle, demonstrating the importance of incorporating biotic interactions in these predictions. The use of multiple GCM-scenario combinations also revealed differences in predictions depending on the choice of GCM, with scenario choice having less of an impact. While the Norwegian model predicted little northward expansion of the beetle from its current northern range limit of southern Ontario and overall decreases in suitable and favourable areas over time, the Canadian and Russian models predict that much of Ontario and Quebec will become suitable for the beetle in the future, as well as Manitoba under the Russian model. The Russian model also predicts expansion of the suitable and favourable areas for the beetle over time. Two predictions that do not depend on our choice of GCM include a decrease in suitability of the Mississippi Delta region and continued favourability of the southeastern United States.

  2. Enhancing floral diversity to increase the robustness of grassland beetle assemblages to environmental change

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, B. A.; Bullock, J.M.; Nowakowski, M.(Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1E No. 18A-10, Santafe de Bogota, Colombia); Orr, R; Tallowin, J. R. B.; Pywell, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    Intensive grassland management has produced floristically species poor swards supporting a limited invertebrate fauna. Low cost seed mixtures can be used to increase floristic diversity and so diversify the food resource of phytophagous invertebrate. We quantify trophic links between plants and phytophagous beetles in grasslands established using three seed mixtures. Using food webs, we model secondary extinctions from the beetle communities caused by the loss of host-plants. Plant species we...

  3. Evaluation of damage, food attractants and population dynamics of strawberry sap beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Fornari,Rodrigo A; Machota Junior,Ruben; Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Pastori,Patrik Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry sap beetle [Lobiopa insularis (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)] is one of the most important pests of strawberry crops. This study aimed to determine the relationship between strawberry fruit maturation stages and the feeding of sap beetle in laboratory and to evaluate food attractants and population dynamics of this species during the crop season. To evaluate the feeding preference of strawberry fruits 'Camarosa' at different maturation stages [green (G), semi-ripe (SM) a...

  4. A New Seed Beetle Species to the Bulgarian Fauna: Bruchidius siliquastri, Delobel (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelia M. Stojanova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A seed beetle Bruchidius siliquastri DELOBEL, 2007 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae was reared from ripe pods of Cercis siliquastrum (Fabaceae in Bulgaria and this is the first record of the species to the Bulgarian fauna. New host plants of the bruchid species were established on the basis of material collected in Hungary: Cercis occidentalis, Cercis chinensis and Cercis griffithii. A rich hymenopteran complex associated with the seed beetle was reared and comments on it are presented.

  5. A New Seed Beetle Species to the Bulgarian Fauna: Bruchidius siliquastri, Delobel (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Anelia M. Stojanova; Zoltán György; Zoltán László

    2011-01-01

    A seed beetle Bruchidius siliquastri DELOBEL, 2007 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reared from ripe pods of Cercis siliquastrum (Fabaceae) in Bulgaria and this is the first record of the species to the Bulgarian fauna. New host plants of the bruchid species were established on the basis of material collected in Hungary: Cercis occidentalis, Cercis chinensis and Cercis griffithii. A rich hymenopteran complex associated with the seed beetle was reared and comments on it are prese...

  6. Applying imidacloprid via a precision banding system to control striped cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J; Darr, M; Ozkan, E; Precheur, R

    2009-12-01

    The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a key pest of cucurbit crops throughout its range. A novel precision band applicator was designed to inject a solid stream of imidacloprid solution in-furrow directly over the seed during planting to reduce beetle leaf feeding on pumpkin, zucchini, and cucumber crops. In 2004 and 2005, bioassays at the cotyledon through fifth leaf were conducted on striped cucumber beetles using seedling leaf tissue grown from seeds treated using both continuous and precision banded in-furrow imidacloprid solution applications. In 2004, 80% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 70% of the bioassay trials showed no significant difference in mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments. In 2005, 79% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 100% of the bioassays showed no significant difference in beetle mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments at the same insecticide rate. The environmental savings of precision banded treatments compared with continuous in-furrow treatment reduced imidacloprid up to 84.5% on a per hectare basis for all cucurbits tested in 2004 and 2005, translating into an economic savings up to $215/ha. In separate bioassay trials conducted in 2005 on pumpkin, where insecticide band length and injection volume were manipulated independently, several treatments had significantly higher beetle mortality than the check. There was a trend of increased beetle mortality in treatments using shorter band lengths combined with higher insecticide solution volumes.

  7. Studies of MaPMTs with beetle-chip read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Muheim, F

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the 64-channel Multianode Photo-Multiplier (MaPMT) with 8-stage dynodes for the LHCb RICH detectors. With a Beetle1.2 chip to read-out the MaPMT, we have demonstrated that the MaPMT performance is as expected using particle beams and LED light sources. We have also measured the pulse shape from 12-stage dynode MaPMTs, read out with the Beetle1.2-MA0 chip.

  8. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  9. Studies of MaPMTs with beetle-chip read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Muheim, F

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the 64-channel Multianode Photo-Multiplier (MaPMT) with 8-stage dynodes for the LHCb RICH detectors. With a Beetle 1.2 chip to read-out the MaPMT, we have demonstrated that the MaPMT performance is as expected using particle beams and LED light sources. We have also measured the pulse shape from 12-stage dynode MaPMTs, read out with the Beetle 1.2-MA0 chip.

  10. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  11. Sustainable control of taro beetles via scoliid wasps\\ud and Metarhizium anisopliae

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Taro Scarab beetles (Papuana uninodis, Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) inflict severe damage on important root crops and plants such as Taro or Cocoyam, yam, sweet potatoes, oil palm and coffee tea plants across Africa and Asia resulting in economic hardship and starvation in some nations. Scoliid wasps and Metarhizium anisopliae fungus - bio-control agents; are shown to be able to control the population of Scarab beetle adults and larvae using a newly created simulation model based on non-linear o...

  12. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena I Hanson

    Full Text Available In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  13. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  14. Geosmithia associated with bark beetles and woodborers in the western USA: taxonomic diversity and vector specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Hulcr, Jiri; Tisserat, Ned; De Beer, Wilhelm; Kostovčík, Martin; Kolaříková, Zuzana; Seybold, Steven J; Rizzo, David M

    2017-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are frequent associates of bark beetles and woodborers that colonize hardwood and coniferous trees. One species, Geosmithia morbida, is an economically damaging invasive species. The authors surveyed the Geosmithia species of California and Colorado, USA, to (i) provide baseline data on taxonomy of Geosmithia and beetle vector specificity across the western USA; (ii) investigate the subcortical beetle fauna for alternative vectors of the invasive G. morbida; and (iii) interpret the community composition of this region within the emerging global biogeography of Geosmithia. Geosmithia was detected in 87% of 126 beetle samples obtained from 39 plant species. Twenty-nine species of Geosmithia were distinguished, of which 13 may be new species. Bark beetles from hardwoods, Cupressus, and Sequoia appear to be regular vectors, with Geosmithia present in all beetle gallery systems examined. Other subcortical insects appear to vector Geosmithia at lower frequencies. Overall, most Geosmithia have a distinct level of vector specificity (mostly high, sometimes low) enabling their separation to generalists and specialists. Plant pathogenic Geosmithia morbida was not found in association with any other beetle besides Pityophthorus juglandis. However, four additional Geosmithia species were found in P. juglandis galleries. When integrated with recent data from other continents, a global pattern of Geosmithia distribution across continents, latitudes, and vectors is emerging: of the 29 Geosmithia species found in the western USA, 12 have not been reported outside of the USA. The most frequently encountered species with the widest global distribution also had the broadest range of beetle vectors. Several Geosmithia spp. with very narrow vector ranges in Europe exhibited the similar degree of specialization in the USA. Such strong canalization in association could reflect an ancient origin of each individual association, or a

  15. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined...

  16. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Grace, James B.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle–leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  17. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  18. Predaceous diving beetle, Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) larvae avoid cannibalism by recognizing prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoda, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Larvae of diving beetles such as the various Dytiscus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) are carnivorous and usually prey on other aquatic animals. Cannibalism among larvae of Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Wehncke) was observed to begin when they were starved for more than two days under artificial breeding conditions. However, the 2-day starved larvae did not show cannibalism in the presence of intact, motionless, frozen tadpoles, or frozen shrimps. The beetle larvae attacked and captured intact tadpoles faster (15 sec) than other motionless and frozen tadpoles (120 sec), indicating that prey movement was an important factor in stimulating feeding behavior in larvae. Prey density does not have an effect on larval cannibalism. In cases in which preys are present at lower densities than that of larvae, a group of beetle larvae frequently fed on single prey. This feeding behavior, therefore, provides direct evidence of self-other recognition at the species level. Using two traps in one aquarium that allows the larvae to detect only prey smell, one containing tadpoles and another empty, the beetle larvae were attracted to the trap with tadpoles at high frequency, but not to the empty trap. In another experiment, the beetle larvae were not attracted to the trap containing a beetle larva. These results suggest that the larvae of D. sharpi sharpi are capable of recognizing prey scent, which enables the promotion of foraging behavior and the prevention of cannibalism.

  19. Carrion beetles succession in three different habitats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali

    2017-02-01

    A main objective of the study is the establishment of a forensic entomological database for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Decomposition processes and beetle succession were analysed on rabbit carcasses in three different habitats (agricultural, desert and urban) in the period from May to July 2014. Due to the effects of the high temperature at the study sites, carrion reached the dry stage within 12 days in the agricultural habitat, and 6 days in the desert and urban habitats. A total of 125 beetles belonging to eight species and five families were collected during the decaying process, with their abundances increasing from the fresh to decay stages. The prevailing species belonged to the families of Dermestidae and Histeridae. It was not possible to confirm any definitive relationship between the occurrence of a single species and a particular stage of decomposition. The beetle communities were also not distinctively different between desert and urban habitats, but a distinct community was evident in the agriculture habitat. In addition, there were distinct beetle communities between the decay stage and the other stages. The dry stage recorded the lowest number of beetles. This study indicated that, the habitat type had an effect on the decay process and the abundance rate of the beetles.

  20. Specialized proteinine rove beetles shed light on insect-fungal associations in the Cretaceous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenyang; Newton, Alfred F; Thayer, Margaret K; Leschen, Richard A B; Huang, Diying

    2016-12-28

    Insects and fungi have a long history of association in shared habitats. Fungus-feeding, or mycophagy, is remarkably widespread in beetles (Coleoptera) and appears to be a primitive feeding habit that preceded feeding on plant tissues. Numerous Mesozoic beetles belonging to extant fungus-associated families are known, but direct fossil evidence elucidating mycophagy in insects has remained elusive. Here, we report a remarkable genus and species, Vetuproteinus cretaceus gen. et sp. nov., belonging to a new tribe (Vetuproteinini trib. nov.) of the extant rove beetle subfamily Proteininae (Staphylinidae) in Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. The mouthparts of this beetle have a markedly enlarged protruding galea bearing an apparent spore brush, a specialized structure we infer was used to scrape spores off surfaces and direct them into the mouth, as in multiple modern spore-feeding beetles. Considering the long evolutionary history of Fungi, the Mid-Cretaceous beetles likely fed on ancient Basidiomycota and/or Ascomycota fungi or spore-producing organisms such as slime moulds (Myxomycetes). The discovery of the first Mesozoic proteinine illustrates the antiquity of the subfamily, and suggests that ancestral Proteininae were already diverse and widespread in Pangaea before the supercontinent broke up.

  1. Linking functional group richness and ecosystem functions of dung beetles: an experimental quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotić, Tanja; Quidé, Stijn; Van Loo, Thomas; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Dung beetles form an insect group that fulfils important functions in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the world. These include nutrient cycling through dung removal, soil bioturbation, plant growth, secondary seed dispersal and parasite control. We conducted field experiments at two sites in the northern hemisphere temperate region in which dung removal and secondary seed dispersal were assessed. Dung beetles were classified in three functional groups, depending on their size and dung manipulation method: dwellers, large and small tunnelers. Other soil inhabiting fauna were included as a fourth functional group. Dung removal and seed dispersal by each individual functional group and combinations thereof were estimated in exclusion experiments using different dung types. Dwellers were the most diverse and abundant group, but tunnelers were dominant in terms of biomass. All dung beetle functional groups had a clear preference for fresh dung. The ecosystem services in dung removal and secondary seed dispersal provided by dung beetles were significant and differed between functional groups. Although in absolute numbers more dwellers were found, large tunnelers were disproportionally important for dung burial and seed removal. In the absence of dung beetles, other soil inhabiting fauna, such as earthworms, partly took over the dung decomposing role of dung beetles while most dung was processed when all native functional groups were present. Our results, therefore, emphasize the need to conserve functionally complete dung ecosystems to maintain full ecosystem functioning.

  2. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a phytophagous ladybird beetle, Henosepilachna pusillanima (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, G T; Firake, D M; Tay, W T; Azad Thakur, N S; Ngachan, S V

    2016-01-01

    Ladybird beetles are generally considered as agriculturally beneficial insects, but the ladybird beetles in the coleopteran subfamily Epilachninae are phytophagous and major plant feeding pest species which causes severe economic losses to cucurbitaceous and solanaceous crops. Henosepilachna pusillanima (Mulsant) is one of the important pest species of ladybird beetle. In this report, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of H. pusillanima. For sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome, we used the Ion Torrent sequencing platform. The complete circular mitochondrial genome of the H. pusillanima was determined to be 16,216 bp long. There were totally 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA, 2 ribosomal RNA and a control (A + T-rich) region estimated to be 1690 bp. The gene arrangement and orientations of assembled mitogenome were identical to the reported predatory ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. This is the first completely sequenced coleopteran mitochondrial genome from the beetle subfamily Epilachninae from India. Data generated in this study will benefit future comparative genomics studies for understanding the evolutionary relationships between predatory and phytophagous coccinellid beetles.

  4. Two genera of Aulacoscelinae beetles reflexively bleed azoxyglycosides found in their host cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Alberto; Ledezma, Julieta; Cubilla-Rios, Luis; Bede, Jacqueline C; Windsor, Donald M

    2011-07-01

    Aulacoscelinae beetles have an ancient relationship with cycads (Cycadophyta: Zamiaceae), which contain highly toxic azoxyglycoside (AZG) compounds. How these "primitive" leaf beetles deal with such host-derived compounds remains largely unknown. Collections were made of adult Aulacoscelis appendiculata from Zamia cf. elegantissima in Panama, A. vogti from Dioon edule in Mexico, and Janbechynea paradoxa from Zamia boliviana in Bolivia. Total AZG levels were quantified in both cycad leaves and adult beetles by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). On average, cycad leaves contained between 0.5-0.8% AZG (frozen weight, FW), while adult beetles feeding on the same leaves contained even higher levels of the compounds (average 0.9-1.5% FW). High AZG levels were isolated from reflex bleeding secreted at the leg joints when beetles were disturbed. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy identified two AZGs, cycasin and macrozamin, in the reflex bleeding; this is the first account of potentially plant-derived compounds in secretions of the Aulacoscelinae. These data as well as the basal phylogenetic position of the Aulacoscelinae suggest that sequestration of plant secondary metabolites appeared early in leaf beetle evolution.

  5. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

  6. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  7. The pheromone frontalin and its dual function in the invasive bark beetle Dendroctonus valens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhudong; Xu, Bingbing; Miao, Zhenwang; Sun, Jianghua

    2013-07-01

    The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is one of the most destructive invasive forest pests in China, having killed more than 6 million pines since its first outbreak in 1999. Little is known about D. valens pheromone biology and no aggregation pheromone has yet been identified. Analysis by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer of volatiles collected from live beetles in China showed that female beetles produce frontalin and males do not. Olfactory assays in the laboratory showed that males were attracted to frontalin at a wide range of concentrations, whereas females were attracted to it at a narrow range of concentrations. In field trials, 3-carene, a monoterpene kairomone from a pine tree selected to host the beetles attracted both sexes, and when frontalin was added, the total number of beetles captured increased by almost 200%. However, increasing concentrations of frontalin significantly decreased the percentage of female beetles trapped. These results suggest a new role of frontalin as an aggregation pheromone in addition to a female-produced sex pheromone, which was previously shown in a North American population. The dual functions of the pheromone frontalin produced by D. valens females, as well as its ecological significance for overcoming host resistance, are discussed.

  8. Intraspecific and interspecific attraction of three Tomicus beetle species during the shoot-feeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Kong, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S

    2015-04-01

    The shoot beetles Tomicus minor, Tomicus yunnanensis, and Tomicus brevipilosus have been decimating Pinus yunnanensis trees for more than 30 years in Southwestern China. To understand the chemical ecological relationship between pines and Tomicus, and among the three beetle species, we compared the attraction of these beetles to damaged shoots, extracts from damaged shoots, and volatiles from damaged shoots collected by the dynamic headspace sampling method. Experiments were performed using a modified open-arena olfactometer. The male T. minor and both sexes of T. brevipilosus were more strongly attracted to damaged shoots than to undamaged shoots and they showed attraction to shoots damaged by the same species. Female T. minor and both sexes of T. yunnanensis were attracted to shoots damaged by female T. brevipilosus. The three beetle species were attracted to shoot extracts and dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by the same species and sex. Female T. minor and male T. yunnanensis were also attracted to dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by both sexes of T. brevipilosus. The results suggested that specific semiochemicals that are induced or produced by T. brevipilosus also attract T. minor and T. yunnanensis. The semiochemicals in damaged shoots affect the attraction of the three beetle species and play an important chemical communication role in weakening the host trees during the beetles' shoot-feeding phase.

  9. A comparison of dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attraction to native and exotic mammal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Sean D; Hoback, W Wyatt

    2012-04-01

    Although the preference of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) for specific types and conditions of dung has been given substantial attention, little has been done to investigate the potential effects of exotic mammal introduction for game farms or rewilding projects. We used pitfall traps baited with various native and exotic herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore dung to evaluate dung beetle preference in the Great Plains of North America. Additionally, we analyzed of the nutrient quality of each dung type. In total, 9,089 dung beetles from 15 species were captured in 2 yr of sampling. We found significant differences (P < 0.05) in mean dung beetle capture among omnivore, herbivore, and carnivore dung, as well as differences in individual species preference for dung type. Omnivore dung was the most attractive with chimpanzee and human dung having the highest mean capture (291.1 ± 27.6 and 287.5 ± 28.5 respectively). Carrion also was highly attractive with a mean of 231.9 ± 20.6 beetles per trap (N = 8). Our results suggest definitive local preference of carrion in Phanaeus vindex Macleay and Onthophagus hecate (Panzer), while the congener, O. pennsylvanicus (Harold), was rarely captured in carrion and highly preferred omnivore dung. Preference for a specific bait type does not appear to be correlated with dung quality, mammalian diet, or origin of mammal. Results suggest niche segregation by dung type among dung beetle species.

  10. Cross-attraction between an exotic and a native pine bark beetle: a novel invasion mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aside from the ecological impacts, invasive species fascinate ecologists because of the unique opportunities that invasives offer in the study of community ecology. Some hypotheses have been proposed to illustrate the mechanisms that allow exotics to become invasive. However, positive interactions between exotic and native insects are rarely utilized to explain invasiveness of pests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present information on a recently formed association between a native and an exotic bark beetle on their shared host, Pinus tabuliformis, in China. In field examinations, we found that 35-40% of P. tabuliformis attacked by an exotic bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, were also attacked by a native pine bark beetle, Hylastes parallelus. In the laboratory, we found that the antennal and walking responses of H. parallelus to host- and beetle-produced compounds were similar to those of the exotic D. valens in China. In addition, D. valens was attracted to volatiles produced by the native H. parallelus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report, for the first time, facilitation between an exotic and a native bark beetle seems to involve overlap in the use of host attractants and pheromones, which is cross-attraction. The concept of this interspecific facilitation could be explored as a novel invasive mechanism which helps explain invasiveness of not only exotic bark beetles but also other introduced pests in principle. The results reported here also have particularly important implications for risk assessments and management strategies for invasive species.

  11. Trends in detoxification enzymes and heavy metal accumulation in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) inhabiting a gradient of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David; Jepson, Paul; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2002-05-01

    Non-specfic carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in the ground beetle, Pterosthicus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), from five sites along a gradient of heavy metal pollution. A previous study determined that beetles from the two most polluted sites (site codes OLK2 and OLK3) were more susceptible to additional stressors compared with beetles from the reference site (Stone et al., Environ. Pollut. 113, 239-244 2001), suggesting the possibility of physiological impairment. Metal body burdens in ground beetles from five sites along the gradient ranged from 79 to 201 microg/g Zn, 0.174 to 8.66 microg/g Pb and 1.14 to 10.8 microg/g Cd, whereas Cu seemed to be efficiently regulated regardless of metal levels in the soil. Beetle mid- and hindguts were homogenized and the soluble fraction containing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CaE) was assayed using kinetic analyses. Significantly higher levels of GST were found only in female beetles from the most polluted sites (OLK2 and OLK3; P=0.049, P<0.001, respectively) compared with the reference site (OLK7). In addition, OLK3 females had significantly higher levels of CaE compared with the reference beetles (P=0.01). Male beetles did not differ in enzyme activity along the metal gradient. Overall, obvious trends in detoxification enzymes were not detected in ground beetles in association with metal body burdens.

  12. Mountain pine beetle impacts on vegetation and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Stitt, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In the Southern Rocky Mountains, an epidemic outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) has caused levels of tree mortality unprecedented in recorded history. The impacts of this mortality on vegetation composition, forest structure, and carbon stocks have only recently received attention, although the impacts of other disturbances such as fires and land-use/land-cover change are much better known. This study, initiated in 2010, aims to increase our understanding of MPB outbreaks and their impacts. We have integrated field-collected data with vegetation simulation models to assess and quantify how long-term patterns of vegetation and carbon stocks have and may change in response to MPB outbreaks and other disturbances.

  13. Mimicking unfolding motion of a beetle hind wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Azhar; PARK Hoon C; HWANG Do Y; BYUN Doyoung; GOO Nam S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research aiming to realize an artificial hind wing that can mimic the wing unfolding motion of Allomyrina dichotoma, an insect in coleopteran order. Based on the understanding of working principles of beetle wing folding/unfolding mechanisms, the hind wing unfolding motion is mimicked by a combination of creative ideas and state-of-art artificial muscle actuator. In this work, we devise two types of artificial wings and the successfully demonstrate that they can be unfolded by actuation of shape memory alloy wires to provide actuation force at the wing base and along the leading edge vein. The folding/unfolding mechanisms may provide an insight for portable nano/micro air vehicles with morphing wings.

  14. [Antioxidant system in the darkling beetle (Tenebrio molitor) in ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevskiĭ, A K; Grishchenkova, E A; Relina, L I

    2006-01-01

    The level of antioxidant protection and lipid peroxidation (LP) intensity in the darkling beetle Tenebrio molitor on different developmental stages were assessed. Each stage was shown to be characterized by its own peculiarities of prooxidant-antioxidant balance. Thus, maximal intensity of oxidative processes estimated by LP intermediate product (diene conjugates and ketodiens) accumulation is attributable to pupae, and minimal intensity--to the 3rd-5th instar larvae. Superoxide dismutase activity increases gradually during the life cycle. A decline in catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities occurred on the stage of pupae. CAT activity in imago was equal to the larva values, and GR activity in imago even exceeded the larva values. At the same time GR activity in T. molitor was detected only at 37 degrees C under our experimental conditions. No statistically significant changes in glutathione reduced content were observed in the insects during the life cycle.

  15. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Koch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster, will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated.

  16. Structural color change in longhorn beetles Tmesisternus isabellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Dong, B Q; Liu, X H; Zheng, Y M; Zi, J

    2009-08-31

    The elytra of longhorn beetles Tmesisternus isabellae show iridescent golden coloration which stems from long and flat scales imbricated densely on the elytral surface. The scales are able to change coloration from golden in the dry state to red in the wet state with water absorption. Structural characterizations revealed that the iridescent coloration of scales originates from a multilayer in the scale interior. Measurements on both water contact angle and chemical composition indicated that scales are hydrophilic. The change in scale coloration to red in the wet state is due to both the swelling of the multilayer period and water infiltration. The unraveled structural color change and its strategy may not only help us get insight into the biological functionality of structural coloration but also inspire the designs of artificial photonic devices.

  17. Elastocapilllarity in insect adhesion: the case of beetle adhesive hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernay, Sophie; Gilet, Tristan; Lambert, Pierre; Federle, Walter

    2014-11-01

    The feet of many insects are covered with dense arrays of hair-like structures called setae. Liquid capillary bridges at the tip of these micrometric structures are responsible for the controlled adhesion of the insect on a large variety of substrates. The resulting adhesion force can exceed several times the body weight of the insect. The high aspect-ratio of setae suggests that flexibility is a key ingredient in this capillary-based adhesion mechanism. There is indeed a strong coupling between their elastic deformation and the shape of the liquid meniscus. In this experimental work, we observe and quantify the local deflection of dock beetle seta tips under perpendicular loading using interference microscopy. Our results are then interpreted in the light of an analytic model of elastocapillarity. This research has been funded by the FRIA/FNRS and the Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST) initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office.

  18. Fungal farming in a non-social beetle.

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    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available Culturing of microbes for food production, called cultivation mutualism, has been well-documented from eusocial and subsocial insects such as ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, but poorly described from solitary, non-social insects. Here we report a fungal farming in a non-social lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae, which entails development of a special female structure for fungal storage/inoculation, so-called mycangium, and also obligate dependence of the insect on the fungal associate. Adult females of D. bucculenta bore a hole on a recently-dead bamboo culm with their specialized mandibles, lay an egg into the internode cavity, and plug the hole with bamboo fibres. We found that the inner wall of the bamboo internode harboring a larva is always covered with a white fungal layer. A specific Saccharomycetes yeast, Wickerhamomyces anomalus ( = Pichia anomala, was consistently isolated from the inner wall of the bamboo internodes and also from the body surface of the larvae. Histological examination of the ovipositor of adult females revealed an exoskeletal pocket on the eighth abdominal segment. The putative mycangium contained yeast cells, and W. anomalus was repeatedly detected from the symbiotic organ. When first instar larvae were placed on culture media inoculated with W. anomalus, they grew and developed normally to adulthood. By contrast, first instar larvae placed on either sterile culture media or autoclaved strips of bamboo inner wall exhibited arrested growth at the second instar, and addition of W. anomalus to the media resumed growth and development of the larvae. These results strongly suggest a mutualistic nature of the D. bucculenta-W. anomalus association with morphological specialization and physiological dependence. Based on these results, we compare the fungal farming of D. bucculenta with those of social and subsocial insects, and discuss ecological factors relevant to the

  19. First evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in lady beetles.

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    Bérénice Fassotte

    Full Text Available To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited "calling behavior", which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analyses revealed that (--β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%, with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle.

  20. Bergamot versus beetle: evidence for intraspecific chemical specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefover-Ring, Ken

    2015-11-16

    A large proportion of phytophagous insects show host plant specificity (monophagy or oligophagy), often determined by host secondary chemistry. Yet, even specialists can be negatively affected by host chemistry at high levels or with novel compounds, which may manifest itself if their host species is chemically variable. This study tested for reciprocal effects of a specialist tortoise beetle (Physonota unipunctata) feeding on a host plant (Monarda fistulosa) with two monoterpene chemotypes [thymol (T) and carvacrol (C)] using a controlled field experiment where larvae fed on caged plants of both chemotypes, haphazardly collected natural plants with and without beetle damage, and growth chamber experiments where larvae that hatched and briefly fed on one chemotype were reared on either chemotype. In the field experiment, plant chemotype did not affect larval weight or length, but did influence larval survival with almost 8.3 % more surviving on T plants. Herbivores reduced seed head area (86.5 % decrease), stem mass (41.2 %) and stem height (21.1 %) of caged plants, but this was independent of host chemotype. Natural plants experienced similar reductions in these variables (74.0, 41.4 and 8.7 %) and T chemotypes were more frequently damaged. In the growth chamber, larval relative growth rate (RGR) differed for both feeding history and year. Larvae from T natal plants reared on T hosts grew at almost twice the rate of those from C and reared on T. Larvae from either T or C natal plants reared on C plants showed intermediate growth rates. Additional analyses revealed natal plant chemotype as the most important factor, with the RGR of larvae from T natal plants almost one-third higher than that of those from C natal plants. These cumulative results demonstrate intraspecific variation in plant resistance that may lead to herbivore specialization on distinct host chemistry, which has implications for the evolutionary trajectory of both the insect and plant species.

  1. Dung Beetles Associated with Agroecosystems of Southern Brazil: Relationship with Soil Properties

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    Patrícia Menegaz de Farias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the biodiversity of dung beetles in agricultural and livestock environments is the basis for understanding the contribution that these organisms make in nutrient cycling and ecosystem functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of copronecrophagous dung beetle communities inhabiting the main agroecosystems in southern Brazil and correlate the presence of these organisms with soil properties. From December 2012 to April 2013, samples of dung beetles were taken in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil (28° 28’ S; 48° 56’ W in corn, bean, and sugarcane crops, and in cattle pastures. Beetles were captured in 16 sampling sites, four from each agroecosystem, following a standardized methodology: 10 baited pitfall traps (feces and rotting meat at a spacing of 50 m with exposure for 48 h. The beetles were identified, weighed, and measured. Soil analyses were performed in order to correlate data on organic matter, texture, macro and micronutrients, and pH with data on the abundance of beetle species using canonical correspondence analysis. A total of 110 individuals belonging to 10 species of dung beetles was found. Twenty-four individuals from seven species (with total biomass of 2.4 g were found in the corn crop; five individuals from three species (1.8 g were found in the bean crop; 81 individuals from nine species (30.3 g were found in cattle pasture areas; and lastly, there were no dung beetles recorded in the sugarcane crop. In areas of cattle grazing, the tunnelers Dichotomius nisus and Trichillum externepunctatum correlated positively with organic matter content, whereas the roller species Canthon chalybaeus correlated positively with soil texture, preferring sandier soils. In corn crop areas, D. nisus was again correlated with organic matter content. Paracoprid dung beetle species were correlated with organic matter content in the soil, and species belonging to the roller

  2. The impact of bark beetle infestation on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in Western North America

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    A. R. Berg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in Western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the Western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect. We use 14 yr of beetle mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene concentration data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM to investigate the impact of beetle mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in Western North America.

    Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (following a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response. Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia and 2008 (US. Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in SOA concentrations when following a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in Western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and

  3. The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Berg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect. We use 14 yr of beetle-induced tree mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene emission data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM to investigate the impact of beetle-induced tree mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in western North America. Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (in a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response. Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia and 2008 (US. Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in summertime SOA concentrations in a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however, these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and wilderness

  4. Tree diversity mediates the distribution of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in a changing tropical landscape (southern Yunnan, SW China.

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    Ling-Zeng Meng

    Full Text Available LONGHORN BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: Cerambycidae have been used to identify sites of high biological diversity and conservation value in cultivated landscapes, but were rarely studied in changing landscapes of humid tropics. This study was conducted in a region of southern Yunnan, China, which was dominated by natural rainforest until 30 years ago, but is successively transformed into commercial rubber monoculture plantations since that time. The objectives were to investigate longhorn beetle species diversity and distribution in the major land use types of this landscape and to estimate the effects of an expected expansion of rubber plantations on the longhorn beetle assemblages. The results showed that tree species diversity (181 species in total and longhorn beetle diversity (220 species in total were closely related with no significant differences between the tree and longhorn beetles assemblages shown by similarity distance analysis. There was a highly positive relationship between the estimated species richness of longhorn beetles and the number of tree species. Individual numbers of longhorn beetles and trees were also highly positive related at the sampling sites. Non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed that the degree of canopy coverage, succession age and tree diversity explained 78.5% of the total variation in longhorn beetle assemblage composition. Natural forest sites had significantly higher numbers of species and individuals than any other type of habitat. Although young rubber plantations bear the highest longhorn beetle diversity outside forests (half of the total number of longhorn beetle species recorded in total, they can not provide permanent habitats for most of these species, because they develop into closed canopy plantations with less suitable habitat conditions. Therefore, along with an expected expansion of rubber cultivation which largely proceeds at the expense of forest areas, the habitat conditions for longhorn

  5. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran."nMethods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key "nResults: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorarius"nThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. "nConclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles

  6. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  7. Flight Period of Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in its Recently Expanded Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, K P; Van Hezewijk, B H

    2016-12-01

    The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting. The best model accounted for 89% of the variation in the data. Mountain pine beetle's flight tended to start later and be more contracted at higher latitudes. The synchrony of mountain pine beetle's flight period in the expanded range appears to be comparable to the limited reports from the historic range, although it may start earlier. This suggests that conditions in the new range are suitable for a coordinated dispersal flight, which is critical for the beetle's strategy of overwhelming tree defenses by attacking en masse. Forest managers can use the model to support operational decisions, e.g., when to impose hauling restrictions to reduce the risk of spread through the transport of infested material, or the time frame for control programs. Understanding the flight period may also improve our ability to assess the response of mountain pine beetle to novel and changing climates in the future.

  8. Concept of an Active Amplification Mechanism in the Infrared Organ of Pyrophilous Melanophila Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erik S.; Schmitz, Anke; Schmitz, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Jewel beetles of the genus Melanophila possess a pair of metathoracic infrared (IR) organs. These organs are used for forest fire detection because Melanophila larvae can only develop in fire killed trees. Several reports in the literature and a modeling of a historic oil tank fire suggest that beetles may be able to detect large fires by means of their IR organs from distances of more than 100 km. In contrast, the highest sensitivity of the IR organs, so far determined by behavioral and physiological experiments, allows a detection of large fires from distances up to 12 km only. Sensitivity thresholds, however, have always been determined in non-flying beetles. Therefore, the complete micromechanical environment of the IR organs in flying beetles has not been taken into consideration. Because the so-called photomechanic sensilla housed in the IR organs respond bimodally to mechanical as well as to IR stimuli, it is proposed that flying beetles make use of muscular energy coupled out of the flight motor to considerably increase the sensitivity of their IR sensilla during intermittent search flight sequences. In a search flight the beetle performs signal scanning with wing beat frequency while the inputs of the IR organs on both body sides are compared. By this procedure the detection of weak IR signals could be possible even if the signals are hidden in the thermal noise. If this proposed mechanism really exists in Melanophila beetles, their IR organs could even compete with cooled IR quantum detectors. The theoretical concept of an active amplification mechanism in a photon receptor innervated by highly sensitive mechanoreceptors is presented in this article. PMID:26733883

  9. Unintended effects of the herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba on lady beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, Laurène; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2016-08-01

    Weed resistance to glyphosate and development of new GM crops tolerant to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and dicamba is expected to lead to increased use of these herbicides in cropland. The lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata is an important beneficial insect in cropland that is commonly used as an indicator species in safety evaluations of pesticides. Here, we examined the lethal and non-lethal effects of 2,4-D and dicamba active ingredients and commercial formulations to this lady beetle species, and tested for synergistic effects of the herbicides. Second instars of lady beetles were exposed to an experimental treatment, and their mortality, development, weight, sex ratio, fecundity, and mobility was evaluated. Using similar methods, a dose-response study was conducted on 2,4-D with and without dicamba. The commercial formulation of 2,4-D was highly lethal to lady beetle larvae; the LC90 of this herbicide was 13 % of the label rate. In this case, the "inactive" ingredients were a key driver of the toxicity. Dicamba active ingredient significantly increased lady beetle mortality and reduced their body weight. The commercial formulations of both herbicides reduced the proportion of males in the lady beetle population. The herbicides when used together did not act synergistically in their toxicity toward lady beetles versus when the chemistries were used independently. Our work shows that herbicide formulations can cause both lethal and sublethal effects on non-target, beneficial insects, and these effects are sometimes driven by the "inactive" ingredients. The field-level implications of shifts in weed management practices on insect management programs should receive further attention.

  10. Use of a Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measuring the Material Properties of Beetle Wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tailie Jin; Nam Seo Goo; Sung-Choong Woo; Hoon Cheol Park

    2009-01-01

    Beetle wings are very specialized flight organs consisting of the veins and membranes. Therefore it is necessary from a bionic view to investigate the material properties of a beetle wing experimentally. In the present study, we have used a Digital lmage Correlation (DIC) technique to measure the elastic modulus of a beetle wing membrane. Specimens were prepared by carefully cutting a beetle hind wing into 3.0 mm by 7.0 mm segments (the gage length was 5 mm). We used a scanning electron microscope for a precise measurement of the thickness of the beetle wing membrane. The specimen was attached to a designed fixture to induce a uniform displacement by means of a micromanipulator. We used an ARAMISTM system based on the digital image correlation technique to measure the corresponding displacement of a specimen. The thickness of the beetle wing varied at different points of the membrane. The elastic modulus differed in relation to the membrane arrangement showing a structural anisotropy; the elastic modulus in the chordwise direction is approximately 2.65 GPa, which is three times larger than the elastic modulus in the spanwise direction of 0.84 GPa. As a result, the digital image correlation-based ARAMIS system was suc-cessfully used to measure the elastic modulus of a beetle wing. In addition to membrane's elastic modulus, we considered the Poisson's ratio of the membrane and measured the elastic modulus of a vein using an Instron universal tensile machine. The result reveals the Poisson's ratio is nearly zero and the elastic modulus of a vein is about 11 GPa.

  11. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung.

  13. Climate variability and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks in south-central and southwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Rosemary L; Berg, Edward E; Miller, Amy E

    2011-07-01

    We used tree ring data (AD 1601-2007) to examine the occurrence of and climatic influences on spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks in south-central and southwest Alaska and found evidence of regional-scale outbreaks dating from the mid-1700s, related to climate variability at multiple temporal scales. Over interannual time scales (approximately 1-3 years), El Niño years, combined with severe late-summer drought, appeared to contribute significantly to spruce beetle outbreaks in the study area. Over multidecadal time scales (up to approximately 40 years), cool-phase Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) conditions tended to precede beetle outbreaks, regardless of the phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). All sites showed low-severity disturbances attributed to spruce beetle damage, most notably during the 1810s. During other major periods of disturbance (i.e., 1870s, 1910s, 1970s), the effects of spruce beetle outbreaks were of moderate or higher severity. The highly synchronized timing of spruce beetle outbreaks at interannual to multidecadal scales, and particularly the association between cool-phase PDO conditions and beetle disturbance, suggests that climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation) is a primary driver of outbreaks in the study area. Our disturbance chronologies (mid-1700s to present) suggest that recent irruptions (1990s to present) in south-central and southwest Alaska are within the historical geographic range, but that outbreaks since the 1990s show greater spatiotemporal synchrony (i.e., more sites record high-severity infestations) than at any other time in the past approximatly 250 years.

  14. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran.Methods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key Results: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorariusThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. Conclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles

  15. Concept of an active amplification mechanism in the infrared organ of pyrophilous Melanophila beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik S Schneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jewel beetles of the genus Melanophila possess a pair of metathoracic infrared (IR organs. These organs are used for forest fire detection because Melanophila larvae can only develop in fire killed trees. Several reports in the literature and a modeling of a historic oil tank fire suggest that beetles may be able to detect large fires by means of their IR organs from distances of more than 100 km. In contrast, the highest sensitivity of the IR organs, so far determined by behavioral and physiological experiments, allows a detection of large fires from distances up to 12 km only. Sensitivity thresholds, however, have always been determined in non-flying beetles. Therefore, the complete micromechanical environment of the IR organs in flying beetles has not been taken into consideration. Because the so-called photomechanic sensilla housed in the IR organs respond bimodally to mechanical as well as to IR stimuli, it is proposed that flying beetles make use of muscular energy coupled out of the flight motor to considerably increase the sensitivity of their IR sensilla during intermittent search flight sequences. In a search flight the beetle performs signal scanning with wing beat frequency while the inputs of the IR organs on both body sides are compared. By this procedure the detection of weak IR signals could be possible even if the signals are hidden in the thermal noise. If this proposed mechanism really exists in Melanophila beetles, their IR organs could even compete with cooled IR quantum detectors. The theoretical concept of an active amplification mechanism in a photon receptor innervated by highly sensitive mechanoreceptors is presented in this article.

  16. Evidence for a Phe-Gly-Leu-amide-like allatostatin in the beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Karen L; Chan, Kuen Kuen; Stay, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    The allatostatins (ASTs) with Phe-Gly-Leu-amide C-terminal sequence are multifunctional neuropeptides discovered as inhibitors of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis by corpora allata (CA) of cockroaches. Although these ASTs inhibit JH synthesis only in cockroaches, crickets, termites and locusts, isolation of peptides or of cDNA/genomic DNA or analysis of genomes indicates their occurrence in many orders of insects with the exception of coleopterans. The gene for these ASTs has not been found in the genome of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Family Tenebrionidae). Yet, in view of widespread occurrence of these peptides in insects, crustaceans and nematodes, they would be expected to occur in beetles. This study provides evidence for the presence of FGLa-like ASTs in the tenebrionid beetle, Tenebrio molitor, and scarabid beetle, Popillia japonica. Extract of brain from both beetles inhibited JH synthesis by cockroach CA dose dependently and reversibly. 20 brain equivalents of T. molitor and P. japonica extracts inhibited JH synthesis 64+/-5 and 65+/-0.6% respectively. Antibody against cockroach allatostatin (Diploptera punctata AST-7) used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reacted with brain extract of these beetles. Antibody against D. punctata AST-5 localized FGLa-like ASTs in the brain and subesophageal ganglion of T. molitor and P. japonica. In addition, pretreatment of T. molitor brain extract with anti-D. punctata AST-5 reduced the inhibition of JH synthesis and pretreatment of anti-D. punctata AST-5 with D. punctata AST-5 diminished the immunoreactivity of the antibody. Thus we predict that FGLa-like allatostatins will be found in beetles.

  17. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000. Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005. These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high.

  18. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  19. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P Keville

    Full Text Available Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP (Pinus albicaulis ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺ concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  20. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  1. Monitoring the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera:Nitidulidae), with baited flight traps: effect of distance from bee hives and shade on the numbers of beetles captured

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small hive beetle is a native of Africa where it is considered a minor pest of honey bees, and until recently it was thought to be limited to that continent. However, it was detected in Florida in 1998, and by 2004, it had spread to 30 states. It now poses a major threat to the beekeeping indu...

  2. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Philip G. Cannon; Steve Oak; Scott Horn; Jaesoon Hwang; Paul E. Kendra

    2013-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern U.S.A.Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont could be transported to the western U....

  3. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as potential hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff) is a non-native invasive forest pest and vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States (U.S.). Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont cou...

  4. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay Ambrosia beetle and granulate Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert E. Mayfield; James L. Hanula

    2012-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps...

  5. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  6. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  7. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  8. An observational and modeling study of impacts of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on surface energy and hydrological cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Chen; Guo Zhang; Michael Barlage; Ying Zhang; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Arjan Meddens; Guangsheng Zhou; William J. Massman; John Frank

    2015-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks have killed billions of trees and affected millions of hectares of forest during recent decades. The objective of this study was to quantify responses of surface energy and hydrologic fluxes 2-3 yr following a spruce beetle outbreak using measurements and modeling. The authors used observations at the Rocky Mountains Glacier Lakes Ecosystem...

  9. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) is associated with the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Hong, Ray L; Kienle, Simone; Minasaki, Ryuji; Sommer, Ralf J

    2007-09-01

    Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary developmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies in western Europe and eastern North America we found 11 Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P. pacificus was not commonly found in association with scarab beetles in these studies. Here, we describe the results of a similar survey of scarab beetles in Japan. Pristionchus pacificus was the most common Pristionchus species on scarab beetles in Japan, with 40 out of 43 (93%) isolates. The other Pristionchus isolates represent three novel species, which we refer to as Pristionchus sp. 11, Pristionchus sp. 14, and Pristionchus sp. 15. Thirty-seven of the established P. pacificus strains were found on the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis. Laboratory studies with the sex pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one of the oriental beetle revealed that P. pacificus shows strong olfactory attraction to the beetle's sex pheromone, which provides a potential mechanism for the recognition and interaction of P. pacificus and E. orientalis. Together, this study identifies P. pacificus as the most common Pristionchus nematode in field studies in Japan, identifies E. orientalis as an important host species, and provides the basis for the ecology of P. pacificus.

  10. Description and phylogeny of a new microsporidium from the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1766 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host ...

  11. The impacts of feeding in a resistant tree on the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and its gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB; Anoplophora glabripennis) is an invasive, wood-boring beetle capable of thriving in the heartwood of a broad range of angiospermous trees. Here, it faces a number of nutritional and digestive challenges, including the presence of highly recalcitrant lignocellulose a...

  12. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  13. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  14. The complex symbiotic relationships of bark beetles with microorganisms: a potential practical approach for biological control in forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Valentin; Déziel, Eric; Lavallée, Robert; Bauce, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2012-07-01

    Bark beetles, especially Dendroctonus species, are considered to be serious pests of the coniferous forests in North America. Bark beetle forest pests undergo population eruptions, causing region wide economic losses. In order to save forests, finding new and innovative environmentally friendly approaches in wood-boring insect pest management is more important than ever. Several biological control methods have been attempted over time to limit the damage and spreading of bark beetle epidemics. The use of entomopathogenic microorganisms against bark beetle populations is an attractive alternative tool for many biological control programmes in forestry. However, the effectiveness of these biological control agents is strongly affected by environmental factors, as well as by the susceptibility of the insect host. Bark beetle susceptibility to entomopathogens varies greatly between species. According to recent literature, bark beetles are engaged in symbiotic relationships with fungi and bacteria. These types of relationship are very complex and apparently involved in bark beetle defensive mechanisms against pathogens. The latest scientific discoveries in multipartite symbiosis have unravelled unexpected opportunities in bark beetle pest management, which are discussed in this article.

  15. Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Harrington; Hye Young Yun; Sheng-Shan Lu; Hideaki Goto; Dilzara N. Aghayeva; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2011-01-01

    The laurel wilt pathogen Raffaelea lauricola was hypothesized to have been introduced to the southeastern USA in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia. To test this hypothesis adult X. glabratus were trapped in Taiwan and on Kyushu Island, Japan, in 2009, and dead beetles were sent to USA for isolation of fungal...

  16. Leptographium tereforme, sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda, in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kim; T.C. Harrington; J. C. Lee; S. J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    The redhaired pine bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) is native to Europe but was discovered in Los Angeles, California, in 2003. This root- and stump-feeding beetle is a common vector of Ophiostomatales, which are potential tree pathogens or causes of blue stain of conifer sapwood. In this study Ophiostomatales were isolated on a...

  17. Effects of symbiotic bacteria and tree chemistry on the growth and reproduction of bark beetle fungal symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.S. Adams; C.R. Currie; Y. Cardoza; K.D. Klepzig; K.F. Raffa

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are associated with diverse assemblages of microorganisms, many of which affect their interactions with host plants and natural enemies. We tested how bacterial associates of three bark beetles with various types of host relationships affect growth and reproduction of their symbiotic fungi. Fungi were exposed to volatiles...

  18. Invasive Asian Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cultivate Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) species in their galleries as a source of food. Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung...

  19. Fusarium euwallaceae, a novel species cultivated by a Euwallacea ambrosia beetle that threatens avocado production in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado production in Israel and California, USA is facing a serious threat due to damage caused by an invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetle and a novel Fusarium that it cultivates as a source of food. Adult female beetles possess mandibular mycangia within which they carry the Fusarium symbiont. At l...

  20. Predatory behaviour of some Central European pselaphine beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) with descriptions of relevant morphological features of their heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria; Afflerbach, Kerstin; Betz, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The Pselaphinae is a large subfamily of staphylinid beetles with a characteristic habitus and small body size. Detailed morphological and behavioural studies on these beetles are scarce. In this study, specimens of Bryaxis puncticollis (Denny, 1825), Bryaxis bulbifer (Reichenbach, 1816), Bythinus...

  1. Effects of starvation and mating status on the activity of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Vermeer, K.M.C.A.; Verbaarschot, P.; Jong, de P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Flea beetles are characterized by their tendency to jump. They can also fly. First, the effects of starvation on flight activity in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were determined. After starving P. nemorum for five days a greater number of individuals of both sex

  2. Pleiotropic effects associated with an allele enabling the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum to use Barbarea vulgaris as a host plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuker, C.J.; Jong, de P.W.; Victoir, K.; Vrieling, K.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Danish region of Kværkeby, a mutation in an, as yet, unknown single autosomal gene has resulted in a dominant resistance (R-) allele in the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae). It enables the beetle to overcome the defences of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcua

  3. The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Hannah M; Bardgett, Richard D; Louzada, Julio; Barlow, Jos

    2016-12-14

    Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species. Second, we established mesocosm experiments in which dung beetle communities buried Myrciaria dubia seeds to examine plant emergence and survival. Contrary to expectations, we found that beetle diversity and biomass negatively influenced seedling emergence, but positively affected the survival of seedlings that emerged. Finally, we conducted germination trials to establish the optimum burial depth of experimental seeds, revealing a negative relationship between burial depth and seedling emergence success. Our results provide novel evidence that seed burial by dung beetles may be detrimental for the emergence of some seed species. However, we also detected positive impacts of beetle activity on seedling recruitment, which are probably because of their influence on soil properties. Overall, this study provides new evidence that anthropogenic impacts on dung beetle communities could influence the structure of tropical forests; in particular, their capacity to regenerate and continue to provide valuable functions and services.

  4. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  5. Performance of a Beetle 1.2 chip reading out a Micron PR03 R measuring sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Buytaert, J; Eckstein, D; Palacios, J P

    2004-01-01

    The performance of a Beetle 1.2 chip bonded to a Micron PR03 measuring prototype VELO sensor has been studied using test beam data collected by the VELO group. Results concerning the peak signal, signal to noise ratio, signal remainder 25 ns after peaking time, and a scan of the undershoot region for different bias settings of the Beetle are presented.

  6. Checklist of tortoise beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Colombia with new data and description of a new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Lech; Świętojańska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new tortoise beetle species, Cyrtonota abrili, is described from the Antioquia and Caldas departments in Colombia. New faunistic data are provided for 87 species, including 16 new additions to the country’s fauna. A checklist of the known 238 species of tortoise beetles recorded from Colombia is given. PMID:26448702

  7. Sex Determination in the Chinese Rose Beetle, Adoretus sinicus, and overview of Adoretus species of biosecurity concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Adoretini), is a broadly polyphagous scarab beetle that is economically important and causes damage to a wide variety of host plants including agricultural crops and ornamentals in Southeast Asia, China, the ...

  8. Evaluation of funnel traps for estimating tree mortality and associated population phase of spruce beetle in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; Barbara J. Bentz; A. Steven Munson; James C. Vandygriff; David L. Turner

    2006-01-01

    Although funnel traps are routinely used to manage bark beetles, little is known regarding the relationship between trap captures of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) and mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) within a 10 ha block of the trap. Using recursive partitioning tree analyses, rules...

  9. Fuel and fire behavior in high-elevation five-needle pines affected by mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2011-01-01

    Bark beetle-caused tree mortality in conifer forests affects the quantity and quality of forest fuels and has long been assumed to increase fire hazard and potential fire behavior. In reality, bark beetles and their effects on fuel accumulation and subsequent fire hazard have only recently been described. We have extensively sampled fuels in three conifer forest types...

  10. Effects of bark beetle attack on canopy fuel flammability and crown fire potential in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Martin E. Alexander; Michael J. Jenkins

    2015-01-01

    Large wildland fires in conifer forests typically involve some degree of crowning, with their initiation and propagation dependent upon several characteristics of the canopy fuels. Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia E ngelm.) forests and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus...

  11. Mountain pine beetles use volatile cues to locate host limber pine and avoid non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis A. Gray; Justin B. Runyon; Michael J. Jenkins; Andrew D. Giunta

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not...

  12. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We...

  13. Predicting live and dead tree basal area of bark beetle affected forests from discrete-return lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; Andrew T. Hudak; Robert McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks have killed large numbers of trees across North America in recent years. Lidar remote sensing can be used to effectively estimate forest biomass, but prediction of both live and dead standing biomass in beetle-affected forests using lidar alone has not been demonstrated. We developed Random Forest (RF) models predicting total, live, dead, and...

  14. Effects of silvicultural operations in a Mississippi River bottomland hardwood forest on ground beetles in the genus Brachinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne C. Thompson; Brian Roy Lockhart

    2006-01-01

    Little information is available on how insects are affected by anthropogenic influences in the bottomland forests of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. This study investigates one genus of ground beetles that lives in managed forested landscapes to discover which species are positively and negatively influenced by human disturbances. Ground beetles (Carabidae) were collected...

  15. Trap deployments in black walnut tree canopies help inform monitoring strategies for bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousand cankers disease is caused by plant pathogenic Geosmithia morbida Kolarík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat; a fungus vectored primarily by the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis (Blackman). The role of other bark and ambrosia beetle species in persistence and spread of this disease r...

  16. Walking to survive. Searching, feeding and egg production of the carabid beetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. (= Poecilus versicolor Sturm).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, P.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study concerns the prey-searching and feeding behaviour of the polyphagous groundbeetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. ( = Poecilus versicolor Sturm), a common species on sandy soils. This ground beetle rarely flies, thus preysearching behaviour involves walking. The beetle is diurnal. As object

  17. Climate and weather influences on spatial temporal patterns of mountain pine beetle populations in Washington and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Alan A. Ager; Jane L. Hayes

    2012-01-01

    Widespread outbreaks of mountain pine beetle in North America have drawn the attention of scientists, forest managers, and the public. There is strong evidence that climate change has contributed to the extent and severity of recent outbreaks. Scientists are interested in quantifying relationships between bark beetle population dynamics and trends in climate. Process...

  18. 甲壳虫是怎么得到颜色的%How Beetle Got Her Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Long ago in the Amazon rain forest Beetle was just plain brown.In this same forest there lived a rat that used to tease other small animals and insects that lived there.Best of all she liked to torment the beetle.Rat had a gang of other small animals who followed her,and laughed at her mean jokes.

  19. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  20. Meteorological and landscape influences on pollen beetle immigration into oilseed rape crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skellern, Matthew P; Welham, Sue J; Watts, Nigel P; Cook, Samantha M

    2017-04-01

    Heavy reliance on pesticide inputs to maintain crop yields has been an important aspect of agricultural intensification. Insecticide use has had detrimental impacts on pollinators and natural pest control agents, contributing to a decline in associated ecosystem services, and has also led to resistance development in pest populations. Throughout Europe, in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops, prophylactic use of insecticides against pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus F. also known as Brassicogethes aeneus) has led to such issues, and there is an urgent need to develop more sustainable pest management practices for the crop. Although advice is available to oilseed rape growers regarding control thresholds, it may not be adhered to due to the expense of pollen beetle monitoring relative to the inexpensive cost of pyrethroid insecticides. Thus, the key to reducing prophylactic insecticide applications may lie with improved, less labour intensive methods of pollen beetle monitoring. For these to be realized, a better understanding is needed of the effects of agri-landscape features and meteorological conditions on pollen beetle immigration into the crop. In this study, based on data from four years of pollen beetle monitoring on a total of 41 field sites, we model the effects of meteorological (wind speed and direction, rainfall and accumulated temperature) and landscape (areas of woodland, residential gardens, the current and previous seasons' oilseed rape crops, and lengths of hedgerows and treelines) variables on directional sticky trap catches, at both the single trap and field scales. Meteorological variables, particularly accumulated temperature and wind speed were more important than landscape variables in predicting the abundance of pollen beetles immigrating into OSR fields. Sticky traps that were facing downwind caught more beetles than those that were facing across-wind or upwind; this is the first study to show at a landscape-scale, direct evidence for

  1. Frequent, Low-Intensity Fire Increases Tree Defense To Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, S.; Sala, A.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire and bark beetles are the two largest disturbance agents in North American conifer forests and have interacted for millennia to drive forest composition, structure, and ecological processes. Recent widespread mortality in western coniferous forests due to bark beetle outbreaks have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures and drought associated with global climate change. In fire-dependent forests, fire exclusion has also led to uncharacteristically dense forests which are also thought to be more susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks due to increased drought stress in individual trees. These mortality events have spurred strong interest in the interaction of fire and bark beetles in driving forest dynamics under a changing climate. However, a fact that has not received adequate attention is whether fire exclusion in fire-dependent forests decreases allocation to tree defense, thereby making contemporary forests more prone to bark beetle outbreaks, regardless of climate and stand structure. Fire is known to increase constitutive resin production in many tree species, yet the impact of frequent fire on expression of better defended tree phenotypes has never been examined. We hypothesized that frequent, low-intensity fire increases tree resistance to bark beetle attack through systemic induced resistance. Using a combination of sampling in natural stands for which we had long-term fire history data and an experimental block design of four thinning and burning treatments, we examined the influence of fire and water stress on tree defense to determine if frequent fire increases tree defense and the degree to which water stress modulates this response. We used axial resin ducts as the measure of defense, as this is where resin is both stored and manufactured in Pinaceae. Resin duct production and density has also been shown to be a better indicator of mortality from bark beetle attacks than tree growth. Resin duct density increased after fire at all

  2. Behavior of Paussus favieri (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Paussini: A Myrmecophilous Beetle Associated with Pheidole pallidula (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Emanuela Maurizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several specimens of the myrmecophilous beetle Paussus favieri were reared in ant nests of Pheidole pallidula. Their interactions were recorded and all behaviors observed are described. Duration and frequency of five behaviors of P. favieri were analyzed with ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests; these comprised rewarding, antennal shaking, antennation, escape, and “no contact”. Significant differences both in duration and in frequency among behaviors were detected. The main result is that the rewarding behavior, during which the beetle provides attractive substances to the host, is performed significantly more frequently than all others. This result strongly supports the hypothesis that the chemicals provided by the beetles and licked by the ants are of great importance for the acceptance and the full integration of P. favieri in the ant society. This result also suggests that, contrary to previous findings and interpretations, the myrmecophilous strategy of P. favieri is very similar to the symphilous strategy described for P. turcicus. The occasional interactions of some beetle specimens with the P. pallidula queen were recorded, illustrated, and discussed, indicating the possibility of a more complex strategy of P. favieri involving a chemical mimicry with the queen. In addition, the courtship performed by the beetle is described for the first time, together with a peculiar “cleaning” behavior, which we hypothesize functions to spread antennal chemicals over the body surfaces.

  3. Competition for Aphid Prey between Different Lady Beetle Species in a Laboratory Arena

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    Christy Leppanen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct competition for aphid prey (Hemiptera: Aphididae was evaluated between and among several lady beetle species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. The behavior of three native (Coccinella trifasciata, Coleomegilla maculata, and Hippodamia convergens and four nonnative (Coccinella septempunctata, Harmonia axyridis, Hippodamia variegata, and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata lady beetles was observed in laboratory arenas. The beetles were kept alone, paired with conspecifics or paired with heterospecifics, and presented with potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Harmonia axyridis was the most successful aphid predator in our study, being able to find aphids more quickly and consume more of them compared to most other lady beetle species. It was also by far the most aggressive of the tested species. Coccinella septempunctata, C. trifasciata, and C. maculata generally followed H. axyridis in aphid consumption. Prey discovery, consumption, and aggressive behaviors were dependent on which species were present in the arena. Except for the generally superior H. axyridis, there was no obvious dominance hierarchy among the other tested species and no dichotomy between the native and non-native species. Asymmetric interactions between lady beetle species may affect their abilities to coexist in the same habitat.

  4. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

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    Renata Calixto Campos

    Full Text Available Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h, a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  5. Contrasting diversity dynamics of phoretic mites and beetles associated with vertebrate carrion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Weaver, Haylee J; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-05-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We examined and compared the changes in abundance, species richness and composition of mite and beetle assemblages sampled at kangaroo carcasses in a grassy eucalypt woodland at four different times over a 6-month period. We found that the majority of mites were phoretic, with the mesostigmatid genera Uroseius (Uropodidae), Macrocheles (Macrochelidae) and Parasitus (Parasitidae) the most abundant taxa (excluding astigmatid mites). Abundance and richness patterns of mites and beetles were very different, with mites reaching peak abundance and richness at weeks 6 and 12, and beetles at weeks 1 and 6. Both mites and beetles showed clear successional patterns via changes in species presence and relative abundance. Our study shows that mesostigmatid mite assemblages have a delay in peak abundance and richness relative to beetle assemblages. This suggests that differences in dispersal and reproductive traits of arthropods may contribute to the contrasting diversity dynamics of carrion arthropod communities, and further highlights the role of carrion as a driver of diversity and heterogeneity in ecosystems.

  6. Behavioural changes in the flour beetle Tribolium confusum infected with the spirurid nematode Protospirura muricola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutgens, M; Cook, B; Gilbert, F; Behnke, J M

    2015-01-01

    We examined changes to the behaviour of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum, infected with the rodent stomach worm, the spirurid Protospirura muricola, in the context of the 'Behavioural Manipulation Hypothesis'. Trobolium confusum infected with the third-stage infective larvae of P. muricola showed consistently altered patterns of behaviour. Relative to uninfected beetles, over a measured time period, beetles infected with P. muricola were likely to move over a shorter distance, when moving their speed of movement was slower, they were more likely to stay in the illuminated area of their environment, more likely to emerge from darkened areas into the illuminated areas, and their longevity was significantly shortened. The changes in behaviour, as reflected in effects on speed of movement, were only evident among beetles that actually harboured infective cysts and not among those carrying younger infections when the larvae within their haemocoels would have been at an earlier stage of development and not yet capable of infecting the definitive murine hosts. We discuss whether these changes would have made the beetles more susceptible to predation by rodents, and specifically by the omnivorous eastern spiny mouse, Acomys dimidiatus, the natural definitive host of this parasite in Egypt, from where the P. muricola isolate originated, and whether they support the Behavioural Manipulation Hypothesis or reflect parasite-induced pathology.

  7. Recalibrated tree of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae indicates independent diversification of angiosperms and their insect herbivores.

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    Jesús Gómez-Zurita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The great diversity of the "Phytophaga" (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion. METHODOLOGY: A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73-79 Mya (confidence interval 63-86 Mya, and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous angiosperm lineage. CONCLUSIONS: Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations.

  8. Seasonal Flight Activity of the Sugarcane Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in North Carolina Using Black Light Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeisen, T L; Brandenburg, R L

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal flight activity, adult beetle sex count, and egg production were examined in sugarcane beetles Euetheola rugiceps (LeConte) caught in light traps in North Carolina from the fall of 2009 through the summer of 2014. A regression model using variable environmental conditions as predictive parameters was developed to examine the impact of these conditions on flight activity. Depending on flight trap location and sampling years, beetles exhibited an inconsistent flight pattern, with the majority of adults flying in the spring (April-June) and intermittently in the fall (September-October). Our model indicated that larger numbers of adults collected from traps coincided with an increase in average soil temperature. Sugarcane beetles also exhibit a synchronous emergence during both periods of flight activity. Eggs were detected in females collected from light traps every week throughout the entire sampling period. The majority of females produced 7-12 eggs, with most egg production occurring between 15 May and 1 August. The findings of this research provide adult sugarcane beetle emergence and flight behavior information necessary to determine optimal pesticide application timing.

  9. Susceptibility of brassicaceous plants to feeding by flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana; Grenkow, Larry

    2013-12-01

    Crucifer-feeding flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp., are chronic insect pests in Canadian prairie canola production. Multiple laboratory and field feeding bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of a wide range of crucifer species, cultivars, and accessions to feeding by flea beetles with the goal of discovering sources of resistant germplasm. In 62 bioassays of 218 entries, no consistent decreased feeding by flea beetles was seen on any entries of Brassica carinata A. Braun, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., or Brassica rapa L. There was reduced feeding on condiment mustard Sinapis alba L. lines but not on canola-quality lines with reduced amounts of glucosinolates, which were fed on at levels equal to B. napus. Analyses of glucosinolate content found decreased quantities of hydroxybenzyl and butyl glucosinolates in preferred canola-quality S. alba lines and increased levels of hydroxybutenyl glucosinolates compared with levels in condiment S. alba lines. Eruca sativa Mill. was an excellent flea beetle host; Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz lines experienced little feeding. Lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries and Crambe hispanica L. had reduced feeding levels compared with Brassica entries, but Crambe glabrata DC did not. The results indicate possible sources of resistance to Phyllotreta flea beetles, while highlighting the complicated roles that glucosinolates may play in Phyllotreta host preference.

  10. Associations of Conifer-Infesting Bark Beetles and Fungi in Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Niemelä, Pekka; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) have a widespread association with fungi, especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota) that cause blue staining of wood, and in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia. The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be moved along with them. PMID:26467956

  11. Novel antennal lobe substructures revealed in the small hive beetle Aethina tumida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Martin; Rupenthal, Anna Lena; Neumann, Peter; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an emerging pest of social bee colonies. A. tumida shows a specialized life style for which olfaction seems to play a crucial role. To better understand the olfactory system of the beetle, we used immunohistochemistry and 3-D reconstruction to analyze brain structures, especially the paired antennal lobes (AL), which represent the first integration centers for odor information in the insect brain. The basic neuroarchitecture of the A. tumida brain compares well to the typical beetle and insect brain. In comparison to other insects, the AL are relatively large in relationship to other brain areas, suggesting that olfaction is of major importance for the beetle. The AL of both sexes contain about 70 olfactory glomeruli with no obvious size differences of the glomeruli between sexes. Similar to all other insects including beetles, immunostaining with an antiserum against serotonin revealed a large cell that projects from one AL to the contralateral AL to densely innervate all glomeruli. Immunostaining with an antiserum against tachykinin-related peptides (TKRP) revealed hitherto unknown structures in the AL. Small TKRP-immunoreactive spherical substructures are in both sexes evenly distributed within all glomeruli. The source for these immunoreactive islets is very likely a group of about 80 local AL interneurons. We offer two hypotheses on the function of such structures.

  12. CLINICAL STUDY OF 100 CASES OF BEETLE DERMATITIS IN RURAL POPULATION OF GURGAON

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    Vinita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paederus dermatitis (blister beetle dermatitis (BBD is a geographic seasonal vesiculobullous disorder caused when beetles of the genus Paederus are crushed on the skin, releasing the vesicant pederin. Though blister beetle dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis, at times it becomes difficult to identify it. AIM: To study the clinical profile and factors associated with Paederus Dermatitis/ blister beetle dermatitis (BBD in patients attending the out-patient department of dermatology of SGT Hospital, Budhera, Gurgaon. METHODS: 100 clinically diagnosed cases of beetle dermatitis were included in the study. The patients were evaluated by means of a standard pro forma which included detailed history and thorough clinical examination. RESULTS: A total of 100 cases were examined of which 67% were males and 33% females. Maximum cases reported in the month of April (25%. 32% patients had more than one lesion with involvement of multiple sites. Face (34.5% was found to be most commonly involved site. Most of the patients presented with vesicles and bullae on erythematous background arranged in linear fashion. Constitutional symptoms were rarely seen in only 7% of the patients. No mucosal or systemic involvement was found. CONCLUSION: Despite its frequency, the disease is rarely described in medical literature, probably because the correct diagnosis is not made. It is important for the rural population in particular to be aware of this condition and to take adequate measures for its prevention especially during harvesting and rainy season

  13. Bark Beetles as Significant Forest Disturbances: Estimating Susceptibility Based On Stand Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, J. A.; Jenkins, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    In the western United States, bark beetle outbreaks affect millions of hectares of forests. These disturbances have multiple effects on ecosystems, including modifications to biogeochemical cycles, interactions with fire, and changes in land cover type and species composition. In recent years, extensive outbreaks have occurred in multiple forest ecosystems in the West, thought to be caused by climate variability and stand structure. In this study, we focus on epidemics of mountain pine beetle. We used USDA Forest Service inventories and a model to estimate lodgepole pine susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack in the West. The model considers stand age, stem density, and percentage of large lodgepole pine to estimate stand susceptibility. Over 150,000 trees in 4454 plots across the western United States were used to compute susceptibility at the plot scale as well as map susceptibility at the county scale. We found that regional susceptibility was high (estimated potential of losses of 34% of stand basal area) for 2.8 Mha, or 46%, of lodgepole pine forests. The highest susceptibility occurred in the Rocky Mountains, with lower susceptibility in coastal states. This study reveals that a substantial fraction of lodgepole pine forest could be subjected to bark beetle outbreaks under current climate conditions. Because climate and weather affect beetle populations, projected future warming will influence outbreak regimes. Thus, forest ecosystems in the West may experience more frequent, extensive, and/or severe disturbances than in recent decades due to current stand structure, and these disturbances may be intensified under climate change.

  14. Parapatric genetic introgression and phenotypic assimilation: testing conditions for introgression between Hercules beetles (Dynastes, Dynastinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Pan

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and consequences of genetic introgression between species have been intensively debated. I used Hercules beetles as examples to test for conditions that may be associated with the occurrence of introgression. RADseq data were used to reconstruct the species tree and history of introgression between Hercules beetles. Image data from museum specimens were used to investigate the phenotypic similarity of two adaptive traits between species from two distinct climatic realms (Nearctic vs. Neotropical). Genetic introgression was identified between Hercules beetles living in geographic proximity (parapatric). Phylogenetic relatedness and phenotypic similarity did not predict nor preclude genetic introgression between species. Phenotypic assimilation in body coloration was evident between distantly related Hercules beetles codistributed in Central America, where directional introgression was also statistically supported from the putative donor to receiver lineages. The number of introgressed loci was significantly higher between species with than without phenotypic similarity. I discuss the implications of recent studies on adaptive genetic introgression by providing supporting evidence from the Hercules beetle system.

  15. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects.

  16. Keratin decomposition by trogid beetles: evidence from a feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The decomposition of vertebrate carcasses is an important ecosystem function. Soft tissues of dead vertebrates are rapidly decomposed by diverse animals. However, decomposition of hard tissues such as hairs and feathers is much slower because only a few animals can digest keratin, a protein that is concentrated in hairs and feathers. Although beetles of the family Trogidae are considered keratin feeders, their ecological function has rarely been explored. Here, we investigated the keratin-decomposition function of trogid beetles in heron-breeding colonies where keratin was frequently supplied as feathers. Three trogid species were collected from the colonies and observed feeding on heron feathers under laboratory conditions. We also measured the nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope ratios of two trogid species that were maintained on a constant diet (feathers from one heron individual) during 70 days under laboratory conditions. We compared the isotopic signatures of the trogids with the feathers to investigate isotopic shifts from the feathers to the consumers for δ15N and δ13C. We used mixing models (MixSIR and SIAR) to estimate the main diets of individual field-collected trogid beetles. The analysis indicated that heron feathers were more important as food for trogid beetles than were soft tissues under field conditions. Together, the feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis provided strong evidence of keratin decomposition by trogid beetles.

  17. Carcass Fungistasis of the Burying Beetle Nicrophorus nepalensis Hope (Coleoptera: Silphidae

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    Wenbe Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigated the fungistatic effects of the anal secretions of Nicrophorus nepalensis Hope on mouse carcasses. The diversity of fungi on carcasses was investigated in five different experimental conditions that corresponded to stages of the burial process. The inhibition of fungal growth on carcasses that were treated by mature beetles before burial was lost when identically treated carcasses were washed with distilled water. Compared with control carcasses, carcasses that were prepared, buried, and subsequently guarded by mature breeding pairs of beetles exhibited the greatest inhibition of fungal growth. No significant difference in fungistasis was observed between the 3.5 g and the 18 to 22 g guarded carcasses. We used the growth of the predominant species of fungi on the control carcasses, Trichoderma sp., as a biological indicator to examine differences in the fungistatic efficiency of anal secretions between sexually mature and immature adults and between genders. The anal secretions of sexually mature beetles inhibited the growth of Trichoderma sp., whereas the secretions of immature beetles did not. The secretions of sexually mature females displayed significantly greater inhibition of the growth of Trichoderma sp. than those of sexually mature males, possibly reflecting a division of labor in burying beetle reproduction.

  18. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided.

  19. Surveying the endomicrobiome and ectomicrobiome of bark beetles: The case of Dendroctonus simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Audrey-Anne; Bergeron, Amélie; Constant, Philippe; Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Déziel, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2015-11-26

    Many bark beetles belonging to the Dendroctonus genus carry bacterial and fungal microbiota, forming a symbiotic complex that helps the insect to colonize the subcortical environment of the host tree. However, the biodiversity of those bacteria at the surface of the cuticle or inside the body parts of bark beetles is not well established. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome associated with the eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The ecto- and endomicrobiome and the subcortical galleries were investigated. Several bacterial genera were identified, among which Pseudomonas, Serratia and Yersinia are associated with the surface of the beetle cuticle, and genera belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Gammaproteobacteria with the interior of the insect body. The index of dissimilarity indicates that the bacterial microbiome associated with each environment constitutes exclusive groups. These results suggest the presence of distinct bacterial microbiota on the surface of the cuticle and the interior of D. simplex body. Additionally, the bacterial diversity identified in the galleries is substantially different from the ectomicrobiome, which could indicate a selection by the insect. This study reports for the first time the identification of the eastern larch beetle microbiome.

  20. Summer and winter drought drive the initiation and spread of spruce beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Schneider, Dominik; Molotch, Noah P

    2017-07-28

    This study used Landsat-based detection of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak over the years 2000-2014 across the Southern Rocky Mountain Ecoregion to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of outbreak and assess the influence of temperature, drought, forest characteristics and previous spruce beetle activity on outbreak development. During the 1999-2013 period, time series of spruce beetle activity were highly spatially correlated (r >0.5) at distances r = 0.08) at distances >400 km. Furthermore, cluster analysis on time series of outbreak activity revealed the outbreak developed at multiple incipient locations and spread to unaffected forest, highlighting the importance of both local-scale dispersal and regional-scale drivers in synchronizing spruce beetle outbreak. Spatial overlay analysis and Random Forest modeling of outbreak development show that outbreaks initiate in areas characterized by summer, winter, and multi-year drought and that outbreak spread is strongly linked to the proximity and extent of nearby outbreak, but remains associated with drought. Notably, we find that spruce beetle outbreak is associated with low peak snow water equivalent, not just summer drought. As such, future alterations to both winter and summer precipitation regimes are likely to drive important changes in subalpine forests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent bark beetle outbreaks have little impact on streamflow in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, Kimberly M.; Hogue, Terri S.; Porter, Aaron T.; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-01

    In the Western United States (US), the current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected more than five million hectares since its start in 1996, including headwater catchments that supply water to much of the Western US. There is widespread concern that the hydrologic consequences of the extensive pine tree die-off will impact water supply across the Western US. While forest disturbance studies have shown that streamflow increases in response to tree harvest, the actual effect of bark beetle infestations on water supply remains widely debated. The current study evaluates watershed-level response following bark beetle outbreak for 33 watersheds in seven western states. Streamflow records were investigated to assess whether the timing and amount of stream discharge during bark beetle outbreak and early recovery periods were significantly different to pre-outbreak conditions. Results show no significant modification in peak flows or average daily streamflow following bark beetle infestation, and that climate variability may be a stronger driver of streamflow patterns and snowmelt timing than chronic forest disturbance.

  2. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  3. Copro-necrophagous beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) diversity in an agroecosystem in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Novelo, Enrique; Delfín-González, Hugo; Angel Morón, Miguel

    2007-03-01

    Scarabaeinae are sensitive to structural habitat changes caused by disturbance. We compared copronecrophagous beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in three differently managed zones within an agroeco-system of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We placed dung and carrion traps once a month from June 2004 through May 2005. The beetle community included 17 species from the genera Canthon, Canthidium, Deltochilum, Pseudocanthon, Malagoniella, Onthophagus, Phanaeus, Copris, Uroxys, Sisyphus and Ateuchus. The secondary vegetation had a higher beetle diversity than the other two zones. Species richness was highest in the Brosimum alicastrum plantation. The pasture had the lowest species diversity and richness, but exhibited the highest abundance of Scarabaeinae in the dry season. The two zones with extensive tree cover were the most diverse. Roller beetles were dominant over burrower species and small-sized species outnumbered large species. Our data show two important issues: beetle species in the pasture extended their activity to the beginning of the dry season, while abundances dropped in the other, unirrigated zones; and the possibility that the Scarabaeinae living in neotropical forests are opportunistic saprophages and have specialized habits for resources other than dung. The B. alicastrum plantation is beneficial to the entire ranch production system because it functions as a dispersion and development area for stenotopic species limited to tree cover.

  4. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-07-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  5. A System for Harvesting Eggs from the Pink-Spotted Lady Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink-spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. Adult beetles placed in square, transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on the materials provided. We harvested eggs from these substrates in quantities sufficient for either destructive sampling or synchronous development of larvae. We evaluated effects of crowding inside cages; effects of a chemical attractant on oviposition behavior; egg cannibalism. Females preferred a textured surface rather than a smooth, waxy one for laying eggs. Crowding inhibited oviposition of beetles. Presence of a chemical attractant (methyl salicylate did not significantly improve oviposition. This paper describes an inexpensive system for harvesting eggs from C. maculata. Refinement of this system should improve oviposition and reduce cannibalism.

  6. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  7. Efficacy of Different Insecticides in Controlling Pollen Beetle (Meligethes aeneus F. in Rapeseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Milovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since pollen beetle, M. aeneus, is usually controlled by insecticides, the efficacy of several compounds with different modes of action against adult beetles was studied in a threeyear field study. The selected insecticides were: three pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin, alpha-cypermethrin and bifenthrin, an oganophosphate (pirimiphos-methyl, a combination of an organophosphate and a pyrethroid (chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin and a neonicotinoid (thiacloprid. The insecticides were applied at label rates to winter rapeseed crops at the moment of visible but still closed flower buds (BBCH 55-57. In all experiments, the efficacy of pyrethroids and the organophosphate ranged from 90-100%, while the efficacy of the neonicotinoid was 85-95%. Therefore, they can be recommended for control of pollen beetle in Serbia.

  8. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, Ainsley E; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D

    2009-04-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as 'living jewels', in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles.

  9. Influence of ambient humidity on the attachment ability of ladybird beetles (Coccinella septempunctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Heepe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many insects possess adhesive foot pads, which enable them to scale smooth vertical surfaces. The function of these organs may be highly affected by environmental conditions. Ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae possess dense tarsal soles of tenent setae, supplemented with an adhesive fluid. We studied the attachment ability of the seven-spotted ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata at different humidities by horizontal traction experiments. We found that both low (15% and high (99% relative humidities lead to a decrease of attachment ability. The significantly highest attachment forces were revealed at 60% humidity. This relationship was found both in female and male beetles, despite of a deviating structure of adhesive setae and a significant difference in forces between sexes. These findings demonstrate that not only dry adhesive setae are affected by ambient humidity, but also setae that stick due to the capillarity of an oily secretion.

  10. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  11. Efficacy of imidacloprid for control of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D

    2000-02-01

    The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle.

  12. Variations in energy content of some carabid beetles in eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, J.C. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington); Randolph, P.A.; Barlow, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Five species of adult carabid beetles were collected weekly from meadow and deciduous forest habitats in eastern Canada during the snow-free part of the year and analyzed for relative abundance, weight, and caloric equivalent. Although the same species were collected in both habitats, the deciduous forest had a greater relative abundance. Within a species the individual dry weights of male and female beetles without ova are not different, but with increasing numbers of ova some reproductive females are twice as heavy as males. Significant differences in caloric equivalents (cal/ash-free g dry wt) were found between species and between gravid females and males or non-gravid females within a species. Abundances, weights of individuals, and caloric equivalents all contribute to variations in energy content. However, comparisons of several estimates of total beetle energy content using data with varying levels of resolution suggest that detailed calorific analysis may not be necessary for population level studies.

  13. Restudies on Body Surface of Dung Beetle and Application of Its Bionics Flexible Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiurong Sun; Jianqiao Li; Hong Cheng; Zhendong Dai; Luquan Ren

    2004-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the structures of the setae on the surface of a dung beetle Copris ochus, Motschulsky. There are lots of setae on the body surface, especially on the ventral part surface and lateral to the legs which are different in size, arrangement and shape. These setae have different lengths and many thorns on the whole seta. The top ends of these setae stand up without furcations which direct uprightly towards the surface of the touched soil. By the method of removing these setae, getting the insect weight before and after digging into the dung we affirm farther that the setae on the beetle body surface form the anti-stick and non-adherent gentle interface. The soil machines and components made by imitating the gentle body surface of beetles have favorable non-adherent results.

  14. On the laboratory rearing of green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagmar Voigt; Naoe Hosoda; Jan Schuppert; Stanislav Gorb

    2011-01-01

    Leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula have attracted recently increased research interest from various points of view, since they are: (i) pest insects in rhubarb crops; (ii) potential biocontrol agents of dock plants Rumex spp. in grasslands; and (iii) a model species in ecological studies on insect population dynamics, biochemistry, behavior, biomechanics and biomimetics. The continuous rearing of beetles at standardized conditions may help to unify the fitness state of different individuals, allowing a better comparison of experimental results. The present communication suggests a modular space- and time-saving rearing method of G. viridula in stackable faunariums under laboratory conditions, which has been successfully established and continuously used over the last 5 years. Several developmental stages were kept in separate boxes, and multiple generations were kept simultaneously, depending on the required number of beetles.

  15. Preferential host switching and codivergence shaped radiation of bark beetle symbionts, nematodes of Micoletzkya (Nematoda: Diplogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susoy, V; Herrmann, M

    2014-05-01

    Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the group along with a high level of host specificity. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest that evolution of the nematodes was largely influenced by the evolutionary history of beetles. The diversification of the symbionts, however, could not be attributed to parallel divergence alone; our results indicate that adaptive radiation of the nematodes was shaped by preferential host shifts among closely related beetles along with codivergence. Whereas ecological and geographic isolation have played a major role in the diversification of Micoletzkya at shallow phylogenetic depths, adaptations towards related hosts have played a role in shaping cophylogenetic structure at a larger evolutionary scale.

  16. Development of red-shifted mutants derived from luciferase of Brazilian click beetle Pyrearinus termitilluminans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Yamada, Toshimichi; Nasu, Yusuke; Ito, Mashiho; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2015-10-01

    Luciferase, a bioluminescent protein, has been used as an analytical tool to visualize intracellular phenomena. Luciferase with red light emission is particularly useful for bioluminescence imaging because of its high transmittance in mammalian tissues. However, the luminescence intensity of existing luciferases with their emission over 600 nm is insufficient for imaging studies because of their weak intensities. We developed mutants of Emerald luciferase (Eluc) from Brazilian click beetle (Pyrearinus termitilluminans), which emits the strongest bioluminescence among beetle luciferases. We successively introduced four amino acid mutations into the luciferase based on a predicted structure of Eluc using homology modeling. Results showed that quadruple mutations R214K/H241K/S246H/H347A into the beetle luciferase emit luminescence with emission maximum at 626 nm, 88-nm red-shift from the wild-type luciferase. This mutant luciferase is anticipated for application in in vivo multicolor imaging in living samples.

  17. BIOACTIVITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Liška

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored products. The aim of this study was to assess the potential fumigant effects of 1,8-cineole, essential oil component, on the T. castaneum pupae. The compound was tested in 6 doses; in two treatments (fumigation without grain and with wheat grain, exposed for 48 h, in 4 repetitions, for each gender. The compound 1,8-cineole had lethal effect on the treated pupae at both genders and in the both treatments. Total proportion of the normally developed beetles was decreased. In addition, 1,8-cineole had also a growth regulator effect, producing adultoids and deformed units, with males more susceptible. In the treatment with the grain there were significant lower dead pupae, normally developed live male beetles and also deformed female units in the stage 2. In general, compound 1,8-cineole has multiple effect against T. castaneum in pupal stage.

  18. Previous encapsulation response enhances within individual protection against fungal parasite in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Daukste, Janina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-12-01

    Immune defenses of insects show either broad reactions or specificity and durability of induced protection against attacking parasites and pathogens. In this study, we tested whether encapsulation response against nylon monofilament increases between two attempts of activation of immune system in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor, and whether previous exposure to nylon monofilament may also increase protection against an entomopathogenic fungus. We found that survival of beetles subjected to immune activation by nylon implant and subsequent fungal exposure a week later was significantly higher than survival of beetles which had been subjected to fungal infection only. This result suggests that previous immune activation by the nylon implant may be considered as broad spectrum "immune priming" which helps to fight not only the same intruder but also other parasites.

  19. Nutrient richness of wood mould in tree hollows with the Scarabaeid beetle Osmoderma eremita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jönsson, N.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Trunk hollows with wood mould habour a rich invertebrate fauna with many threatened species, and it has been suggested that the beetle Osmoderma eremita (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea is a keystone species in this community. We estimated the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in wood mould and compared the coarse fraction which constitutes frass of O. eremita with the finer fraction of wood mould, and found that the nutrient richness was higher in frass. O. eremita larvae have a fermentation chamber that harbours nitrogen fixing bacteria. As the levels of absorbable nitrogen are a limiting factor in insect growth, an increase in nutrient richness is one of several possible explanations why the species richness of saproxylic beetles is higher in hollow oaks where O. eremita is present in relation to similar trees where the beetle is absent

  20. Friction force reduction triggers feet grooming behaviour in beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Naoe; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-06-01

    In insects, cleaning (grooming) of tarsal attachment devices is essential for maintaining their adhesive ability, necessary for walking on a complex terrain of plant surfaces. How insects obtain information on the degree of contamination of their feet has remained, until recently, unclear. We carried out friction force measurements on walking beetles Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and counted grooming occurrence on stiff polymer substrata with different degrees of nanoroughness (root mean square: 28-288 nm). Since nanoscopically, rough surfaces strongly reduced friction and adhesion without contaminating feet, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that friction force between tarsal attachment pads and the substrate provides an insect with information on the degree of contamination of its attachment structures. We have shown that foot grooming occurrence correlates not only with the degree of contamination but also with the decrease of friction force. This result indicates that insects obtain information about the degree of contamination, not statically but rather dynamically and, presumably, use mechanoreceptors monitoring either tensile/compressive forces in the cuticle or tensile forces between leg segments.

  1. Mating behavior and sexual selection in a polygamous beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen LU, Qiao WANG, Mingyi TIAN, Jin XU, Jian LV, Aizhi QIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle, Glenea cantor (F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, were investigated. Upon encounter, a male approached a female, mounted her, grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi, and attempted to mate. Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h. Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success, the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait, the bursa copulatrix length, and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length. Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate, suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition. Under a female-biased sex ratio, more than 20% of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers, suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice. Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating. During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert, and as a result, males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success [Current Zoology 59 (2 : 257-264, 2013]. 

  2. Genome size correlates with reproductive fitness in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnqvist, Göran; Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Hotzy, Cosima; Rankin, Daniel; Tuda, Midori; Hjelmen, Carl E; Johnston, J Spencer

    2015-09-22

    The ultimate cause of genome size (GS) evolution in eukaryotes remains a major and unresolved puzzle in evolutionary biology. Large-scale comparative studies have failed to find consistent correlations between GS and organismal properties, resulting in the 'C-value paradox'. Current hypotheses for the evolution of GS are based either on the balance between mutational events and drift or on natural selection acting upon standing genetic variation in GS. It is, however, currently very difficult to evaluate the role of selection because within-species studies that relate variation in life-history traits to variation in GS are very rare. Here, we report phylogenetic comparative analyses of GS evolution in seed beetles at two distinct taxonomic scales, which combines replicated estimation of GS with experimental assays of life-history traits and reproductive fitness. GS showed rapid and bidirectional evolution across species, but did not show correlated evolution with any of several indices of the relative importance of genetic drift. Within a single species, GS varied by 4-5% across populations and showed positive correlated evolution with independent estimates of male and female reproductive fitness. Collectively, the phylogenetic pattern of GS diversification across and within species in conjunction with the pattern of correlated evolution between GS and fitness provide novel support for the tenet that natural selection plays a key role in shaping GS evolution.

  3. Detection of seed DNA in regurgitates of granivorous carabid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinger, C; Sint, D; Baier, F; Schmid, C; Mayer, R; Traugott, M

    2015-12-01

    Granivory can play a pivotal role in influencing regeneration, colonization as well as abundance and distribution of plants. Due to their high abundance, nutrient content and longevity, seeds are an important food source for many animals. Among insects, carabid beetles consume substantial numbers of seeds and are thought to be responsible for a significant amount of seed loss. However, the processes that govern which seeds are eaten and are therefore prevented from entering the seedbank are poorly understood. Here, we assess if DNA-based diet analysis allows tracking the consumption of seeds by carabids. Adult individuals of Harpalus rufipes were fed with seeds of Taraxacum officinale and Lolium perenne allowing them to digest for up to 3 days. Regurgitates were tested for the DNA of ingested seeds at eight different time points post-feeding using general and species-specific plant primers. The detection of seed DNA decreased with digestion time for both seed species, albeit in a species-specific manner. Significant differences in overall DNA detection rates were found with the general plant primers but not with the species-specific primers. This can have implications for the interpretation of trophic data derived from next-generation sequencing, which is based on the application of general primers. Our findings demonstrate that seed predation by carabids can be tracked, molecularly, on a species-specific level, providing a new way to unravel the mechanisms underlying in-field diet choice in granivores.

  4. Changes in the phenology of the ground beetle Pterostichus madidus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabor Pozsgai; Nick A. Littlewood

    2011-01-01

    A growing body ofevidence shows that climate change can alter the phenology of plants and animals.In this study long-term data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) were analyzed to investigate whether there has been a change in the phenology of the ground beetle Pterostichus madidus (Fabricius,1775).Pitfall trap data were available from 12 ECN sites across the United Kingdom,most of which have been in operation for more than 15 years.Weather and vegetation datasets were also utilized.Pitfall trap lines were categorized to eight vegetation types.Trend analysis over time was carried out first using all the available dates of capture events,then the datasets grouped by vegetation type and site.Shifts in high-activity periods were also analyzed.P.madidus appearance dates advanced significantly at seven sites and in five vegetation types.Peak activity advanced at two sites.At one site the timing of activity became significantly later.The last day of activity did not change significantly,supporting the theory that the cessation of the activity period is more likely to be controlled by photoperiod than temperature.The relationships between phenological variables and climatic factors were also investigated.However,no significant correlations were detected.These results demonstrate that between 1992 and 2008,phenology ofP madidus at seven sites from the eight analyzed has changed.Global warming may be driving these changes and future work will investigate underlying processes.

  5. The Beetle Reference Manual chip version 1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, D; Schmelling, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the electrical specifications, operating conditions and port definitions of the readout chip Beetle 1.2. The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and fulfils the requirements of the silicon vertex detector (VELO, VETO), the silicon tracker and the RICH detector in case of multi-anode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers and shapers. The pulse shape can be chosen such that it complies with LHCb specifications: a peaking time of 25 ns with a remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns of less than 30%. A comparator per channel with configurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought off chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analog pipeline. This ring buffer has a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervals and an integrated derandomising buffer of 16 stages. For analog readout d...

  6. Genome size correlates with reproductive fitness in seed beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnqvist, Göran; Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Hotzy, Cosima; Rankin, Daniel; Tuda, Midori; Hjelmen, Carl E.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate cause of genome size (GS) evolution in eukaryotes remains a major and unresolved puzzle in evolutionary biology. Large-scale comparative studies have failed to find consistent correlations between GS and organismal properties, resulting in the ‘C-value paradox’. Current hypotheses for the evolution of GS are based either on the balance between mutational events and drift or on natural selection acting upon standing genetic variation in GS. It is, however, currently very difficult to evaluate the role of selection because within-species studies that relate variation in life-history traits to variation in GS are very rare. Here, we report phylogenetic comparative analyses of GS evolution in seed beetles at two distinct taxonomic scales, which combines replicated estimation of GS with experimental assays of life-history traits and reproductive fitness. GS showed rapid and bidirectional evolution across species, but did not show correlated evolution with any of several indices of the relative importance of genetic drift. Within a single species, GS varied by 4–5% across populations and showed positive correlated evolution with independent estimates of male and female reproductive fitness. Collectively, the phylogenetic pattern of GS diversification across and within species in conjunction with the pattern of correlated evolution between GS and fitness provide novel support for the tenet that natural selection plays a key role in shaping GS evolution. PMID:26354938

  7. Bacterial Infection Increases Reproductive Investment in Burying Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavey, Catherine E.; Silva, Farley W. S.; Cotter, Sheena C.

    2015-01-01

    The Nicrophorus genus lives and breeds in a microbe rich environment. As such, it would be expected that strategies should be in place to counter potentially negative effects of the microbes common to this environment. In this study, we show the response of Nicrophorus vespilloides to the common soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Phenoloxidase (PO) levels are not upregulated in response to the challenge and the bacteria are observed to multiply within the haemolymph of the host. Despite the growth of B. subtilis, survival is not affected, either in virgin or in breeding beetles. Some limit on bacterial growth in the haemolymph does seem to be occurring, suggesting mechanisms of resistance, in addition to tolerance mechanisms. Despite limited detrimental effects on the individual, the challenge by Bacillus subtilis appears to act as a cue to increase reproductive investment. The challenge may indicate a suite of negative environmental conditions that could compromise future breeding opportunities. This could act as a cue to increase parental investment in the current bout. PMID:26529021

  8. Mating behavior and sexual selection in a polygamous beetle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen LU; Qiao WANG; Mingyi TIAN; Jin XU; Jian LV; Aizhi QIN

    2013-01-01

    Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle,Glenea cantor (F.)(Coleoptera:Cerambycidae),were investigated.Upon encounter,a male approached a female,mounted her,grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi,and attempted to mate.Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h.Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success,the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait,the bursa copulatrix length,and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length.Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate,suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition.Under a female-biased sex ratio,more than 20% of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers,suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice.Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating.During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert,and as a result,males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success.

  9. Oenocyte development in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin A; Gutzwiller, Lisa M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Gebelein, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Oenocytes are a specialized cell type required for lipid processing, pheromone secretion, and developmental signaling. Their development has been well characterized in Drosophila melanogaster, but it remains unknown whether the developmental program is conserved in other insect species. In this study, we compare and contrast the specification and development of larval oenocytes between Drosophila and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. First, we identify several useful reagents to label larval oenocytes, including both a Tribolium GFP enhancer trap line and a simple flurophore-conjugated streptavidin staining method that recognizes oenocytes across insect species. Second, we use these tools to describe oenocyte development in Tribolium embryos, and our findings provide evidence for conserved roles of MAP kinase signaling as well as the Spalt, Engrailed, hepatocyte nuclear factor-4, and ventral veins lacking factors in producing abdominal-specific oenocyte cells. However, Tribolium embryos produce four times as many oenocytes per abdominal segment as Drosophila, and unlike in Drosophila, these cells rapidly downregulate the expression of the Spalt transcription factor. Thus, these results provide new insight into the molecular pathways regulating oenocyte specification across insect species.

  10. Phylogeny of the Gondwanan beetle family Ulodidae (Tenebrionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschen, Richard A B; Escalona, Hermes E; Elgueta, Mario

    2016-07-18

    Ulodidae is a small family of saproxylic and fungus feeding beetles restricted to New Zealand, Australia, Chile and New Caledonia. The phylogeny of this family is presented for the first time, based on a cladistic analysis of 53 adult characters from 16 ulodid genera, rooted with Parahelops Waterhouse (Promecheilidae). The topology shows Arthopus Sharp at the base of the tree and confirms the placement of Meryx Latreille as a member of Ulodidae and closely related to the Chilean genus Trachyderas Philippi & Philippi. The extinct New Zealand genus Waitomophylax Leschen & Rhode was placed among a clade consisting of Brouniphylax Strand, Exohadrus Broun, and Pteroderes Germain. Two new genera and two new species are described: Ulobostrichus gen. n. (type species: Ulobostrichus monteithi sp. n.) and Ulocyphaleus gen. n. (type species: Cyphaleus valdivianus Philippi & Philippi, 1864, now U. valdivianus (Philippi & Philippi) n. comb.; U. laetus sp. n.). Dipsaconia pyritosa Pascoe is designated as the type species of Dipsaconia Pascoe and a lectotype was designated for C. valdivianus. A fully illustrated key to the genera and a checklist of the 16 genera and 42 species is included. Based on the phylogeny, the following characters are derived in the family: tuberculate body surface and the presence of scales and /or encrustations. The presence of pore-fields in the abdominal cuticle has evolved at least three times in Meryx Latreille (Australia), Syrphetodes Pascoe (New Zealand) and Trachyderastes Kaszab (New Caledonia).

  11. A Beetle Flight Muscle Displays Leg Muscle Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Sato, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-09-20

    In contrast to major flight muscles in the Mecynorrhina torquata beetle, the third axillary (3Ax) muscle is a minor flight muscle that uniquely displays a powerful mechanical function despite its considerably small volume, ∼1/50 that of a major flight muscle. The 3Ax muscle contracts relatively slowly, and in flight strongly pulls the beating wing to attenuate the stroke amplitude. This attenuation leads to left-right turning in flight or wing folding to cease flying. What enables this small muscle to be so powerful? To explore this question, we examined the microstructure of the 3Ax muscle using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the 3Ax muscle has long (∼5 μm) myofilaments and that the ratio of thick (myosin) filaments to thin (actin) filaments is 1:5 or 1:6. These characteristics are not observed in the major flight muscles, which have shorter myofilaments (∼3.5 μm) with a smaller ratio (1:3), and instead are more typical of a leg muscle. Furthermore, the flight-muscle-specific troponin isoform, TnH, is not expressed in the 3Ax muscle. Since such a microstructure is suitable for generating large tension, the 3Ax muscle is appropriately designed to pull the wing strongly despite its small volume.

  12. Elemental concentration in mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor L.) during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Baranyai, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2013-07-01

    Mealworm beetles have been used in numerous experiments as bioindicators. The aim of our experiment was to study the elemental composition in three larvae, pupae and first and second generation adult stages during their life cycle. We selected 180 larvae from a genetically similar population and put them in three groups, in two boxes (60 larvae in each box). Larvae were fed with mashed potato made of the same quality and quantity of potato powder. Then, we selected 10 individuals from each stage to the elemental analysis, using the ICP-OES method. The following elements were analysed in the studied stages: Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr and Zn. The results of principal component analysis demonstrated that based on elemental composition, different stages were separated with each other, but in the cases of the three larvae stages, high overlap was found. The results of the GLM ANOVA showed significant differences between the different stages of metamorphosis-based elemental composition. Our results show that the calcium and magnesium were found in a relatively high concentration, while the iron and zinc may be essential elements during the metamorphosis. Our results also show that in insect, the concentration of sodium was higher than in the pupa which may cause by hemolymph. We also demonstrated that the metamorphosis has an effect on the concentration of elements. Our study shows that in the different stages of insects, there are significant changes in the elemental composition of different stages of insects during their metamorphosis.

  13. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth E; Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-06-01

    Wood-boring beetles in the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) play important roles in many forest ecosystems. However, increasing numbers of invasive cerambycid species are transported to new countries by global commerce and threaten forest health in the United States and worldwide. Our goal was to identify effective detection tools for a broad array of cerambycid species by testing some known cerambycid attractants and a pheromone in different trap designs placed across a range of habitats. We compared numbers and species richness of cerambycid beetles captured with cross-vane panel traps and 12-unit Lindgren multiple-funnel traps, placed either at ground level (1.5 m high) or canopy level (approximately 3-10 m high), at eight sites classified as either residential, industrial, deciduous forest, or conifer forest. We captured 3,723 beetles representing 72 cerambycid species from 10 June to 15 July 2010. Species richness was highest for the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae, which accounted for 33 and 46% of all species captured, respectively. Overall, the cross-vane panel traps captured approximately 1.5 times more beetles than funnel traps. Twenty-one species were captured exclusively in traps at one height, either in the canopy or at ground level. More species were captured in hardwood sites (59 species) where a greater diversity of host material was available than in conifer (34 species), residential (41 species), or industrial (49) sites. Low numbers of beetles (n < 5) were recorded for 28 of the beetle species. The number of species captured per week ranged from 49 species on 21 June to 37 species on 12 July. Cross-vane panel traps installed across a vertical gradient should maximize the number of cerambycid species captured.

  14. Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of Amazonian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology.

  15. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

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    Renata C. Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung or carcasses (carrion and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the diversity of dung beetle communities inhabiting fragments of the Atlantic Forest, with the purpose of describing the ecology of the species in southern Brazil. This study was conducted in the region of Campos Novos, in Santa Catarina, where twenty sites of Atlantic forest fragments were sampled. Samplings of dung beetles were conducted using 200 pitfall traps, of which 100 were baited with human feces and another 100 with carrion. Size and environmental complexity were also measured for each forest fragment. A total of 1,502 dung beetles, belonging to six tribes, 12 genera and 33 species, were collected. Results of the Levin's index of niche breadth indicated that 11 species were categorized as being coprophagous, ten as generalists, and two as necrophagous. Most species are tunnelers (19, nine of rollers and four of dwellers. The great diversity of Scarabaeinae in the region of Campos Novos, including several rare species, adds important data to the Scarabaeinae fauna in the central-western region of Santa Catarina. It may also help choosing priority areas for conservation in the region, where human impact, with large areas of monoculture, increasingly threatens the fragments of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest.

  16. Electrophysiological and behavioral activity of secondary metabolites in the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, F; Ryne, C; Olsson, P O C; Arnaud, L; Lognay, G; Högberg, H E; Persson, D; Haubruge, E; Löfstedt, C

    2007-03-01

    Several previous studies have addressed pheromone communication in various flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), including the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (du Val). Different stereoisomers of 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD) were reported as the only components of an aggregation pheromone, but the behavioral activity of DMD is low. In the present study, additional previously reported secondary metabolites (benzoquinones and hydrocarbons) were tested for electrophysiological activity (EAG) with both sexes of T. confusum. Two benzoquinones and three monoenic hydrocarbons elicited significant EAG activity from both male and female antennae. There was an elevated male EAG response (vs. the females) to two out of the three hydrocarbons and for both quinones. The EAG-active compounds were subsequently investigated for behavioral activity in a walking bioassay. Benzoquinones are considered toxic and have been assigned a function as alarm substances in flour beetles, but we found that methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone in intermediate concentrations was attractive to both male and female beetles and could therefore act as an aggregation pheromone component. Males were also attracted to ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone. The corresponding hydroquinones, presumed precursors of the benzoquinones, did not elicit any electrophysiological response and were not tested for behavioral activity. The unsaturated hydrocarbons (1-tetradecene, 1-pentadecene, and 1-hexadecene) elicited significant EAG responses from both male and female antennae and were also attractive in the behavioral assay. Our results show that several beetle-produced compounds, in addition to 4,8-dimethyldecanal, may be part of a complex pheromone system in flour beetles and play a role in mediating aggregation in T. confusum.

  17. Effects of Bark Beetle Infestation on Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff Hartz, K. E.; Amin, H.; Dodson, C.; Atkins, P. T.; Hallar, G.

    2009-12-01

    Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosytems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. Other insects, such as the weevil (Strophosoma melanogrammum) attacks on spruce trees in Denmark, have a significant local effect on monoterpene emissions. In fact, a single weevil induced a three-fold increase in monoterpene emission, and the response lasted for several weeks. Mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have infested the forests in the vicinity of Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Emissions were sampled from the headspace of bark at the trunk and from the tree branches in the canopy from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees. The emissions were collected onto scent traps, containing 110 mg of Porapak Q sorbent, using PAS-500 micro air samplers set to a 0.4 mL/min flow rate for two hours. After collection, the scent traps were spiked with a recovery standard, perdeutrated decane, and extracted with 1.5 mL hexanes (in three portions). The analytes in the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The analytes were identified and quantified using calibration curves from authentic standards, and when authentic standards were not available, the NIST mass spectra library and Adams retention time indices were used. The samples from lodgepole pine trees suggest an enhancement in the 3-carene, beta-phellandrene, and estragole (methyl chavicol) emissions upon bark beetle infestation. The samples from the Engelmann spruce trees suggest an enhancement in the 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, and beta-phellandrene emissions upon bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions due to bark beetle infestation may lead increases in SOA from these forests, since potent SOA precursors are produced.

  18. The comparative effectiveness of rodents and dung beetles as local seed dispersers in Mediterranean oak forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Pérez-Ramos

    Full Text Available The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%, and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus, despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have

  19. Flight behavior of the rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus during electrical nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Park, Hoon Cheol; Kim, Min Jun

    2012-09-01

    Neuronal stimulation is an intricate part of understanding insect flight behavior and control insect itself. In this study, we investigated the effects of electrical pulses applied to the brain and basalar muscle of the rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus). To understand specific neuronal stimulation mechanisms, responses and flight behavior of the beetle, four electrodes were implanted into the two optic lobes, the brain's central complex and the ventral nerve cord in the posterior pronotum. We demonstrated flight initiation, turning and cessation by stimulating the brain. The change undergone by the wing flapping in response to the electrical signal was analyzed from a sequence of images captured by a high-speed camera. Here, we provide evidence to distinguish the important differences between neuronal and muscular flight stimulations in beetles. We found that in the neural potential stimulation, both the hind wing and the elytron were suppressed. Interestingly, the beetle stopped flying whenever a stimulus potential was applied between the pronotum and one side of the optic lobe, or between the ventral nerve cord in the posterior pronotum and the central complex. In-depth experimentation demonstrated the effective of neural stimulation over muscle stimulation for flight control. During electrical stimulation of the optic lobes, the beetle performed unstable flight, resulting in alternating left and right turns. By applying the electrical signal into both the optic lobes and the central complex of the brain, we could precisely control the direction of the beetle flight. This work provides an insight into insect flight behavior for future development of insect-micro air vehicle.

  20. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scaraebidae) at several different ecosystem functions in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Abdullah Muhaimin Mohammad; Yaakop, Salmah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    Dung beetles has known for its bioindicator characteristic. Sensitive towards forest disturbance, dung beetles population and diversity will be less in disturbed and modified area. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diversity and distribution of dung beetles in different type of ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen baited pitfall traps aligned in three transects were used in this study. Samples were collected after 24 h and repeated three time collections and identified afterwards. Two ecosystem types were selected, which are forested and agricultural ecosystem (livestock and plantation). A total of 4249 individuals, 47 species, in 11 genera was successfully collected from all localities. The H' index for Fraser Hill, Langkawi, Bangi Reserve Forest, Selangor (HSB), Sungkai Reserve Forest, Perak (SRF), Chini Lake, Bera Lake, chicken farm, goat farm, Longan plantation, and palm oil plantation were 1.58, 1.74, 2.17, 2.63, 1.80, 1.52, 1.63, 0.46, 0.00 and 1.98 respectively.Forest ecosystem, SRF shows the highest abundance (1486 individuals) and diversity, while for agricultural ecosystem,palm oil plantation shows the highest with 273 individuals and 16 species. Based onDetrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) shows two groups that separate forest ecosystem with the agricultural ecosystem, with palm oil is the nearest to the forest. Palm oil ecosystem can sustain a dung beetles population due to the area can provide the requirements for the dung beetles to survive, such as food which comes from local domestic cows, shade from sunlight provide by the palm oil trees, and ground cover from small plants and shrubs.Even though modified ecosystem should have lower diversity of dung beetles, but some factors must be measured as well in order to have a better point of view.

  1. An endangered longhorn beetle associated with old oaks and its possible role as an ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, J; Ranius, T; Assmann, T

    2008-04-01

    For more than 10 years, ecologists have been discussing the concept of ecosystem engineering (i.e., nontrophic interactions of an organism that alters the physical state of its environment and affects other species). In conservation biology, the functional role of species is of interest because persistence of some species may be necessary for maintaining an entire assemblage with many threatened species. The great capricorn (Cerambyx cerdo), an endangered beetle listed in the European Union's Habitats Directive, has suffered a dramatic decline in the number of populations and in population sizes in Central Europe over the last century. The damage caused by C. cerdo larvae on sound oak trees has considerable effects on the physiological characteristics of these trees. We investigated the impacts of these effects on the species richness and heterogeneity of the saproxylic beetle assemblage on oaks. We compared the catches made with flight interception traps on 10 oaks colonized and 10 oaks uncolonized by C. cerdo in a study area in Lower Saxony (Germany). Our results revealed a significantly more species-rich assemblage on the trees colonized by C. cerdo. Colonized trees also harbored more red-listed beetle species. Our results suggest that an endangered beetle species can alter its own habitat to create favorable habitat conditions for other threatened beetle species. Efforts to preserve C. cerdo therefore have a positive effect on an entire assemblage of insects, including other highly endangered species. On the basis of the impact C. cerdo seems to have on the saproxylic beetle assemblage, reintroductions might be considered in regions where the species has become extinct.

  2. How do beetle assemblages respond to cyclonic disturbance of a fragmented tropical rainforest landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbacher, Peter S; Stork, Nigel E

    2009-09-01

    There are surprisingly few studies documenting effects of tropical cyclones (including hurricanes and typhoons) on rainforest animals, and especially insects, considering that many tropical forests are frequently affected by cyclonic disturbance. Consequently, we sampled a beetle assemblage inhabiting 18 upland rainforest sites in a fragmented landscape in north-eastern Queensland, Australia, using a standardised sampling protocol in 2002 and again 12 months after the passage of Severe Tropical Cyclone Larry (March 2006). The spatial configuration of sites allowed us to test if the effects of a cyclone and those from fragmentation interact. From all insect samples we extracted 12,568 beetles of 382 species from ten families. Beetle species composition was significantly different pre-and post-cyclone although the magnitude of faunal change was not large with 205 species, representing 96% of all individuals, present in both sampling events. Sites with the greatest changes to structure had the greatest changes in species composition. At the site level, increases in woody debris and wood-feeding beetle (Scolytinae) counts were significantly correlated but changes in the percent of ground vegetation were not mirrored by changes in the abundance of foliage-feeding beetles (Chrysomelidae). The overall direction of beetle assemblage change was consistent with increasing aridity, presumably caused by the loss of canopy cover. Sites with the greatest canopy loss had the strongest changes in the proportion of species previously identified in the pre-cyclone study as preferring arid or moist rainforest environments. The magnitude of fragmentation effects was virtually unaltered by the passage of Cyclone Larry. We postulate that in the short-term the effects of cyclonic disturbance and forest fragmentation both reduce the extent of moist, interior habitat.

  3. Quantifying beetle-mediated effects on gas fluxes from dung pats.

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    Atte Penttilä

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the largest contributors of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs responsible for global warming. Measurements of gas fluxes from dung pats suggest that dung is a source of GHGs, but whether these emissions are modified by arthropods has not been studied. A closed chamber system was used to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from dung pats with and without dung beetles on a grass sward. The presence of dung beetles significantly affected the fluxes of GHGs from dung pats. Most importantly, fresh dung pats emitted higher amounts of CO2 and lower amounts of CH4 per day in the presence than absence of beetles. Emissions of N2O showed a distinct peak three weeks after the start of the experiment--a pattern detected only in the presence of beetles. When summed over the main grazing season (June-July, total emissions of CH4 proved significantly lower, and total emissions of N2O significantly higher in the presence than absence of beetles. While clearly conditional on the experimental conditions, the patterns observed here reveal a potential impact of dung beetles on gas fluxes realized at a small spatial scale, and thereby suggest that arthropods may have an overall effect on gas fluxes from agriculture. Dissecting the exact mechanisms behind these effects, mapping out the range of conditions under which they occur, and quantifying effect sizes under variable environmental conditions emerge as key priorities for further research.

  4. Quantifying Beetle-Mediated Effects on Gas Fluxes from Dung Pats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Atte; Slade, Eleanor M.; Simojoki, Asko; Riutta, Terhi; Minkkinen, Kari; Roslin, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest contributors of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) responsible for global warming. Measurements of gas fluxes from dung pats suggest that dung is a source of GHGs, but whether these emissions are modified by arthropods has not been studied. A closed chamber system was used to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from dung pats with and without dung beetles on a grass sward. The presence of dung beetles significantly affected the fluxes of GHGs from dung pats. Most importantly, fresh dung pats emitted higher amounts of CO2 and lower amounts of CH4 per day in the presence than absence of beetles. Emissions of N2O showed a distinct peak three weeks after the start of the experiment – a pattern detected only in the presence of beetles. When summed over the main grazing season (June–July), total emissions of CH4 proved significantly lower, and total emissions of N2O significantly higher in the presence than absence of beetles. While clearly conditional on the experimental conditions, the patterns observed here reveal a potential impact of dung beetles on gas fluxes realized at a small spatial scale, and thereby suggest that arthropods may have an overall effect on gas fluxes from agriculture. Dissecting the exact mechanisms behind these effects, mapping out the range of conditions under which they occur, and quantifying effect sizes under variable environmental conditions emerge as key priorities for further research. PMID:23940758

  5. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  6. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

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    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  7. The comparative effectiveness of rodents and dung beetles as local seed dispersers in Mediterranean oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Verdú, José R; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications

  8. Monoterpene Variation Mediated Attack Preference Evolution of the Bark Beetle Dendroctonus valens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhudong Liu; Bo Wang; Bingbing Xu; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that some bark beetle like to attack large trees. The invasive red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, one of the most destructive forest pests in China, is known to exhibit this behavior. Our previous study demonstrated that RTBs preferred to attack large-diameter trees (diameter at breast height, DBH ≥30 cm) over small-diameter trees (DBH ≤10 cm) in the field. In the current study, we studied the attacking behavior and the underlying mechanisms in t...

  9. Sequencing and characterizing odorant receptors of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Robert F.; Hughes, David T.; Luetje, Charles W.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Soriano-Agatón, Flor; Hanks, Lawrence M.; Robertson, Hugh M.

    2012-01-01

    Odorant receptors (Ors) are a unique family of ligand-gated ion channels and the primary mechanism by which insects detect volatile chemicals. Here, we describe 57 putative Ors sequenced from an antennal transcriptome of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae (Gahan). The male beetles produce a pheromone blend of nine components, and we functionally characterized Ors tuned to three of these chemicals: receptor McOr3 is sensitive to (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol; McOr20 is sensitive to (2S,3R)-2,3-...

  10. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  11. Synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the Colorado potato beetle from its degradation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacławczyk-Biedroń, Weronika; Frąckowiak-Wojtasek, Bożena; Strub, Daniel; Rzechak, Magdalena; Wojtasek, Hubert

    2015-09-01

    Incubation of the Colorado potato beetle aggregation pheromone, (S)-1,3-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-2-one, with antennal or leg extracts from this beetle gave 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one as the major product. This ketone was used as a substrate in a stereoselective synthesis of the pheromone. It was attached to the butanediacetal of glycolic acid with good stereoselectivity and the desired isomer was further enriched by purification of the product of this reaction on silica gel.

  12. Influence of ambient humidity on the attachment ability of ladybird beetles (Coccinella septempunctata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heepe, L.; Wolff, J. O.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2016-01-01

    Many insects possess adhesive foot pads, which enable them to scale smooth vertical surfaces. The function of these organs may be highly affected by environmental conditions. Ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) possess dense tarsal soles of tenent setae, supplemented with an adhesive fluid. We studied...... at 60% humidity. This relationship was found both in female and male beetles, despite of a deviating structure of adhesive setae and a significant difference in forces between sexes. These findings demonstrate that not only dry adhesive setae are affected by ambient humidity, but also setae that stick...

  13. Irritant bullous contact dermatitis caused by a rove beetle: an illustrated clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lindsay; Piliouras, Peter; Robertson, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    A 26-year-old Australian female traveller in Sierra Leone presented with an irritant bullous contact dermatitis consistent with paederus dermatitis. The lesions were treated with a potent topical corticosteroid with good effect. The affected area resolved in 6 weeks and hyperpigmention persisted for months until complete resolution. This dermatitis occurs when beetles of the genus Paederus (rove beetles) are crushed on the skin, releasing pederin. The same dermatitis ensues with Australian Paederus species. Serial clinical photographs are presented which will aid Australian dermatologists in the diagnosis of this dermatitis, which presents in regional Australian patients and returned overseas travellers.

  14. Ancient hastisetae of Cretaceous carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in Myanmar amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George; Poinar, Roberta

    2016-11-01

    Hastisetae are extremely elaborate and intricate insect setae that occur solely on dermestid larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The present work characterizes hastisetae found in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar and compares them to hastisetae found on extant dermestid larvae. The presence of hastisetae in Myanmar amber shows that lineages of dermestid beetles had already developed hastisetae by the mid-Cretaceous and their presence allows us to follow the evolutionary development of this particular arthropod structure over the past 100 million years. Hastisetae attached to a parasitic wasp in the same piece of amber indicates that ancient dermestid beetles used their hastisetae for defense, similar to their function today.

  15. Noise considerations of the Beetle amplifier used with long silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Köstner, S

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to predict the thermal noise and the shot noise for silicon strip detectors connected to the Beetle preamplifier from basic electronic noise principles. The calibration pulse shapes are used to determine the frequency dependant gain function of the Beetle. The calculated noise values are compared with measurements on the prototype ladders. In addition the signal propagation in the very long ladders is studied using a spice simulation. From this the effect of the thermal noise originating from the ohmic resistors of the detector readout strips is estimated.

  16. Evaluating Alpha and Beta Taxonomy in Ant-Nest Beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Paussini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fattorini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated completeness, accuracy, and historical trend of the taxonomic knowledge on the myrmecophilous ground beetle tribe Paussini (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Paussinae. Accumulation curves for valid names and synonyms of species, subgenera, and genera were modelled using logistic functions. Analyses of trends in synonymies suggest that few currently accepted taxa will be recognized to be synonymous in the future. This may indicate that Paussini are a taxonomically relatively stable tribe of carabid beetles. However, this result might also be due to the lack of recent taxonomic work in some biogeographical regions.

  17. [Comparative histology of mushroom bodies in carnivorous beetles of the suborder polyphaga (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom bodies in beetles of the families Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Cantharidae, Trogossitidae, Peltidae, Cleridae, Malachiidae, and Coccinellidae are shown to be rather poorly developed. The calyx region of the mushroom bodies in these beetles never forms two separate cups, and the peduncular apparatus includes a unified shaft almost over its entire length. Only the pedunculus contains two separate shafts in a few cases. Two proliferative centers consisting of one to three neuroblasts are often found in each Kenyon cell group. The shift from carnivorous to feeding on pollen or leaves, which has taken place in some taxa, does not visibly affect the degree of mushroom body development.

  18. Pollination by flies, bees, and beetles of Nuphar ozarkana and N. advena (Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippok, B; Gardine, A A; Williamson, P S; Renner, S S

    2000-06-01

    Nuphar comprises 13 species of aquatic perennials distributed in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The European species N. lutea and N. pumila in Norway, the Netherlands, and Germany are pollinated by bees and flies, including apparent Nuphar specialists. This contrasts with reports of predominant beetle pollination in American N. advena and N. polysepala. We studied pollination in N. ozarkana in Missouri and N. advena in Texas to assess whether (1) there is evidence of pollinator shifts associated with floral-morphological differences between Old World and New World species as hypothesized by Padgett, Les, and Crow (American Journal of Botany 86: 1316-1324. 1999) and (2) whether beetle pollination characterizes American species of Nuphar. Ninety-seven and 67% of flower visits in the two species were by sweat bees, especially Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) nelumbonis. Syrphid fly species visiting both species were Paragus sp., Chalcosyrphus metallicus, and Toxomerus geminatus. The long-horned leaf beetle Donacia piscatrix was common on leaves and stems of N. ozarkana but rarely visited flowers. Fifteen percent of visits to N. advena flowers were by D. piscatrix and D. texana. The beetles' role as pollinators was investigated experimentally by placing floating mesh cages that excluded flies and bees over N. advena buds about to open and adding beetles. Beetles visited 40% of the flowers in cages, and flowers that received visits had 69% seed set, likely due to beetle-mediated geitonogamy of 1st-d flowers. Experimentally outcrossed 1st-d flowers had 62% seed set, and open-pollinated flowers 76%; 2nd-d selfed or outcrossed flowers had low seed sets (9 and 12%, respectively). Flowers are strongly protogynous and do not self spontaneously. Flowers shielded from pollinators set no seeds. A comparison of pollinator spectra in the two Old World and three New World Nuphar species studied so far suggests that the relative contribution of flies, bees, and beetles to pollen transfer

  19. MCH pheromone for preventing Douglas-fir beetle infestation in windthrown trees

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, M. D.; Furniss, M. M.; Oaks, R. D.; Gibson, K.E.; Meyer, H E

    1984-01-01

    A granular controlled-release formulation (98 percent inert, 2 percent 3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) was applied May 11-13, 1982, at 4.48 kg/ha to 76.9 ha of uninfested windthrown Douglas-fir by helicopter with a modified aerial spreader of 1.13 m³ capacity. Granules measured on treated plots averaged 2.04-2.69 kg/ha, sufficient to reduce Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) infestation 96.4 percent by late June. The same MCH treatment reduced spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) ...

  20. A Red List of Italian Saproxylic Beetles: taxonomic overview, ecological features and conservation issues (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maria Carpaneto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this review are: 1 the compilation and updating of a reference database for Italian saproxylic beetles, useful to assess the trend of their populations and communities in the next decades; 2 the identification of the major threats involving the known Italian species of saproxylic beetles; 3 the evaluation of the extinction risk for all known Italian species of saproxylic beetles; 4 the or- ganization of an expert network for studying and continuous updating of all known species of saproxylic beetle species in Italy; 5 the creation of a baseline for future evaluations of the trends in biodiversity conservation in Italy; 6 the assignment of ecological categories to all the Italian saproxylic beetles, useful for the aims of future researches on their communities and on forest environments. The assess- ments of extinction risk are based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria and the most updated guidelines. The assessments have been carried out by experts covering different regions of Italy, and have been evaluated according to the IUCN standards. All the beetles whose larval biology is sufficiently well known as to be considered saproxylic have been included in the Red List, either the autochtho- nous species (native or possibly native to Italy or a few allochthonous species recently introduced or probably introduced to Italy in his- toric times. The entire national range of each saproxylic beetle species was evaluated, including large and small islands; for most species, the main parameters considered for evaluation were the extent of their geographical occurrence in Italy, and the number of known sites of presence. 2049 saproxylic beetle species (belonging to 66 families have been listed, assigned to a trophic category (Table 3 and 97% of them have been assessed. On the whole, threatened species (VU + EN + CR are 421 (Fig. 6, corresponding to 21 % of the 1988 as- sessed species; only two species are formally